Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.507
Filtrar
1.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 69-77, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321377

RESUMEN

Zoonotic taeniasis caused by the adult stage of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica are considered neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization. The life cycle of these 3 metazoan species is very similar and includes an intermediate host: pigs in the case of T. solium and T. asiatica, and cattle in the case of T. saginata. By eating meat (pork/T. solium, T. asiatica; beef/T. saginata) containing live cysticerci, humans develop taeniasis, which is practically asymptomatic but is the main risk factor for intermediate hosts to become infected. T. saginata causes bovine cysticercosis, while T. solium and T. asiatica cause swine cysticercosis, of veterinary and economic importance. T. solium cysticerci cause neurological disease in humans: neurocysticercosis. Cysticerci develop after ingesting microscopic eggs released from a human tapeworm carrier. Here we describe the life stages of the parasites, diagnosis, pathogenesis, symptomatology of neurocysticercosis, and prevention and control measures. Highlighting the need to validate diagnostic tools, treatments and vaccination in endemic areas, with the challenge of addressing the most vulnerable populations that lack resources. If people understand the transmission route, avoid eating uncooked or insufficiently cooked meat and have adequate hygienic habits, the life cycle of the 3 zoonotic Taenia species may be interrupted. In addition, we describe the growing field of immune response and immunomodulation elicited by the parasites, which may provide essential tools for diagnosis, treatment, control of taeniasis/cysticercosis, as well as for identification of parasite-derived immunomodulators that could aid in the treatment of emerging inflammatory diseases worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Neurocisticercosis , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia , Zoonosis/parasitología , Animales , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Neurocisticercosis/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Zoonosis/diagnóstico
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244227, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A zoonotic association has been suggested for several PCR ribotypes (RTs) of Clostridioides difficile. In central parts of Sweden, RT046 was found dominant in neonatal pigs at the same time as a RT046 hospital C. difficile infection (CDI) outbreak occurred in the southern parts of the country. OBJECTIVE: To detect possible transmission of RT046 between pig farms and human CDI cases in Sweden and investigate the diversity of RT046 in the pig population using whole genome sequencing (WGS). METHODS: WGS was performed on 47 C. difficile isolates from pigs (n = 22), the farm environment (n = 7) and human cases of CDI (n = 18). Two different core genome multilocus sequencing typing (cgMLST) schemes were used together with a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysis and the results were related to time and location of isolation of the isolates. RESULTS: The pig isolates were closely related (≤6 cgMLST alleles differing in both cgMLST schemes) and conserved over time and were clearly separated from isolates from the human hospital outbreak (≥76 and ≥90 cgMLST alleles differing in the two cgMLST schemes). However, two human isolates were closely related to the pig isolates, suggesting possible transmission. The SNP analysis was not more discriminate than cgMLST. CONCLUSION: No general pattern suggesting zoonotic transmission was apparent between pigs and humans, although contrasting results from two isolates still make transmission possible. Our results support the need for high resolution WGS typing when investigating hospital and environmental transmission of C. difficile.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Infecciones por Clostridium/transmisión , Genoma Bacteriano , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , /patogenicidad , Infecciones por Clostridium/microbiología , Infecciones por Clostridium/veterinaria , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244055, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338060

RESUMEN

Porcine cysticercosis and associated human infections are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Poor agricultural practices, sanitary practices, and lack of knowledge increase the burden of the diseases in susceptible populations. This study investigates the seroprevalence of Taenia spp. in township pigs in Gauteng, South Africa and describes knowledge and farming practices of pig farmers regarding T. solium infections. Blood samples were collected from 126 pigs in three Gauteng township areas, and analyzed for active Taenia spp. infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Farmer questionnaire surveys were conducted in four township areas to investigate the level of knowledge and practices associated with porcine cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between predictor variables and the outcome variable, knowledge of porcine cysticercosis or knowledge of neurocysticercosis. Overall, 7% of the pigs were seropositive for active Taenia spp. infection. 46% of farmers practiced a free-ranging system, while 25% practiced a semi-intensive system. Latrines were absent on all farms; however, 95% of farmers indicated that they have access to latrines at home. Most farmers had no knowledge of porcine cysticercosis (55%) or neurocysticercosis (79%), and this was not associated with any of the factors investigated. The prevalence of active Taenia spp. infection was reasonably low in this study, yet the knowledge level was also low, thus calling for further educational and training programmes to prevent Taenia spp. transmission in these communities.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Agricultores/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Animales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/psicología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Prevalencia , Pruebas Serológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudáfrica , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia solium/clasificación , Taenia solium/patogenicidad , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375071

RESUMEN

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Porcinos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Quirópteros/virología , Virus ADN/clasificación , Virus ADN/genética , Ecosistema , Filogenia , Virus ARN/clasificación , Virus ARN/genética , Virus Reordenados/genética , Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Virosis/veterinaria
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2278-2288, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003988

RESUMEN

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic consequences. The susceptibility of different animal species to SARS-CoV-2 is of concern due to the potential for interspecies transmission, and the requirement for pre-clinical animal models to develop effective countermeasures. In the current study, we determined the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to (i) replicate in porcine cell lines, (ii) establish infection in domestic pigs via experimental oral/intranasal/intratracheal inoculation, and (iii) transmit to co-housed naïve sentinel pigs. SARS-CoV-2 was able to replicate in two different porcine cell lines with cytopathic effects. Interestingly, none of the SARS-CoV-2-inoculated pigs showed evidence of clinical signs, viral replication or SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses. Moreover, none of the sentinel pigs displayed markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data indicate that although different porcine cell lines are permissive to SARS-CoV-2, five-week old pigs are not susceptible to infection via oral/intranasal/intratracheal challenge. Pigs are therefore unlikely to be significant carriers of SARS-CoV-2 and are not a suitable pre-clinical animal model to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis or efficacy of respective vaccines or therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Pandemias/veterinaria , Neumonía Viral/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Línea Celular , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Femenino , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , ARN Viral/sangre , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/patología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Cultivo de Virus , Replicación Viral , Secuenciación del Exoma Completo
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2471-2478, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772174

RESUMEN

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a fatal epizootic swine coronavirus that presents a financial threat to the global swine industry. Since the discovery of the low-pathogenic genotype 1b (G1b) in 2014, it has been responsible for sporadic outbreaks in South Korea. In this study, we identified novel G1b variants arising from the natural recombination of a major pandemic-like G2b virus and a minor G1b virus currently circulating in the domestic field. The whole-genome sequences of two 2018-19 G1b recombinants, KNU-1808 and KNU-1909, were determined. A genomic comparison showed that these two viruses share the highest nucleotide sequence similarity with the 2017 G1b strain but share less similarity with the 2014 G1b emergent strain KNU-1406. However, the putative recombination breakpoints spanning the first 1,170 nucleotides of the spike (S) gene were almost identical among the emergent and contemporary G1b strains. Recombination detection indicated that the inter-subgroup G1b recombinant first emerged in 2017 by introducing the N-terminal domain of S from KNU-1406 into the backbone of KNU-1703, possibly leading to antigenic shift. It then evolved into KNU-1808 and KNU-1909 through genetic drift, moving toward a more G2b-like genotype. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 2018-2019 G1b recombinants belong to a cluster containing other G1b strains but form a new branch. This study provides an important advance warning in regard to the emergence and prevalence of new genotypes or variants that can result from genetic recombination between two different PEDV genotypes circulating in endemic areas and continuous non-lethal mutations essential for viral fitness in the host environment.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades , Genoma Viral , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Evolución Molecular , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Filogenia , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/clasificación , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/patogenicidad , Recombinación Genética , República de Corea/epidemiología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2323-2333, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715325

RESUMEN

To investigate the epidemic characteristics of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), 135 clinical samples (including intestinal tissues and feces) were collected from diseased piglets during outbreaks of diarrhea from 2015 to 2019 on farms in Henan and Shanxi provinces of China where swine had been immunized with attenuated PEDV (CV777). A total of 86 clinical samples (86/135, 63.7%) were positive for PEDV by RT-PCR, and subsequently, the complete spike (S) and ORF3 genes of 32 PEDV samples were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 32 PEDV strains obtained in this study belonged to group 2 (pandemic variant strains) and had a close relationship to 17 Chinese strains after 2010, two South Korean strains (KNU-1305 and KNU-1807), three American strains (PC22A-P140.BI, USA/Colorado/2013, and USA/OK10240-6/2017) and a Mexican strain (PEDV/MEX/QRO/02/2017), but differed genetically from a South Korean strain (SM98), a European strain (Br1/87), a Chinese strain (LZC), and a vaccine strain (CV777). G2-a subgroup strains were the dominant pandemic variant strains circulating in Henan and Shanxi provinces of China. Furthermore, a cross-recombination event was identified in the S region of the SX/TY2/2017 strain, and the putative parental strains were the epidemic strains CH/GDGZ/2012 and CH/YZ1/2015, identified in China in 2012 and 2015, respectively. These results provide further information about PEDV evolution, which could improve our understanding of the circulation of PEDV in Henan and Shanxi provinces. This information will also be helpful for developing new strategies for prevention and control of variant strains.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Diarrea/veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades , Genoma Viral , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Proteínas Virales/genética , Animales , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/virología , Granjas , Heces/virología , Variación Genética , Intestinos/virología , Filogenia , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/clasificación , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/aislamiento & purificación , Recombinación Genética , Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230257, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658910

RESUMEN

Hepatitis E virus is a zoonotic pathogen for which pigs are recognized as the major reservoir in industrialised countries. A multiscale model was developed to assess the HEV transmission and persistence pattern in the pig production sector through an integrative approach taking into account within-farm dynamics and animal movements based on actual data. Within-farm dynamics included both demographic and epidemiological processes. Direct contact and environmental transmission routes were considered along with the possible co-infection with immunomodulating viruses (IMVs) known to modify HEV infection dynamics. Movements were limited to 3,017 herds forming the largest community on the swine commercial network in France and data from the national pig movement database were used to build the contact matrix. Between-herd transmission was modelled by coupling within-herd and network dynamics using the SimInf package. Different introduction scenarios were tested as well as a decrease in the prevalence of IMV-infected farms. After introduction of a single infected gilt, the model showed that the transmission pathway as well as the prevalence of HEV-infected pigs at slaughter age were affected by the type of the index farm, the health status of the population and the type of the infected farms. These outcomes could help design HEV control strategies at a territorial scale based on the assessment of the farms' and network's risk.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis E/patología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/patología , Animales , Cruzamiento , Bases de Datos Factuales , Francia/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Hepatitis E/epidemiología , Hepatitis E/transmisión , Modelos Logísticos , Dinámica Poblacional , Prevalencia , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 401-405, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taeniasis, caused by two major Taenia species, T. solium and T. saginata, is a worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. T. solium is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked pork, while T. saginata is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked beef. Cattle rearing and beef consumption is an important socio-cultural feature in the Kashmir valley, India. This study's objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of foodborne taeniasis in Kashmir and explore the various risk factors for its transmission. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detailed survey of the population in selected rural and semi-urban sites of Kashmir valley was carried out based on previous information. A total of 12,404 subjects (males=6364; females=6040) ranging from one to 85 years of age (mean age: 28.96±17.68) were included in this study. The parasite diagnosis was made through stool analysis (egg morphology) and anatomical characteristics of gravid proglottids obtained from infected cases. The data obtained were compiled for the parameters studied and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The observations as estimated coprologically and based on gravid proglottids' anatomy revealed the presence of T. saginata infection. The prevalence was 2.74% with males significantly (p<0.01) more infected (3.40%) than females (2.05%). Similarly, the age group of >60 years showed greater prevalence (7.21% among males and 2.68% among females) at a significance value of p<0.05. Rural populatios were slightly more infected (2.84%) than semi-urban populations (2.36%) with a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Kashmiri population who consume raw or undercooked beef, harbor T. saginata infection; its prevalence was influenced by food eating habits, age, sex, and living conditions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia saginata/fisiología , Teniasis/transmisión , Teniasis/veterinaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Bovinos , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/parasitología , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235660, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667952

RESUMEN

Transmission network modelling to infer 'who infected whom' in infectious disease outbreaks is a highly active area of research. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease have been a key focus of transmission network models that integrate genomic and epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to extend Lau's systematic Bayesian inference framework to incorporate additional parameters representing predominant species and numbers of animals held on a farm. Lau's Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm was reformulated, verified and pseudo-validated on 100 simulated outbreaks populated with demographic data Japan and Australia. The modified model was then implemented on genomic and epidemiological data from the 2010 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Japan, and outputs compared to those from the SCOTTI model implemented in BEAST2. The modified model achieved improvements in overall accuracy when tested on the simulated outbreaks. When implemented on the actual outbreak data from Japan, infected farms that held predominantly pigs were estimated to have five times the transmissibility of infected cattle farms and be 49% less susceptible. The farm-level incubation period was 1 day shorter than the latent period, the timing of the seeding of the outbreak in Japan was inferred, as were key linkages between clusters and features of farms involved in widespread dissemination of this outbreak. To improve accessibility the modified model has been implemented as the R package 'BORIS' for use in future outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Fiebre Aftosa/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Australia/epidemiología , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Granjas , Fiebre Aftosa/epidemiología , Fiebre Aftosa/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/clasificación , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/aislamiento & purificación , Japón/epidemiología , Cadenas de Markov , Método de Montecarlo , Filogenia , Cuarentena/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología
11.
Virus Res ; 286: 198045, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502552

RESUMEN

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea and/or vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in neonatal piglets. Two different genogroups of PEDV, S INDEL [PEDV variant containing multiple deletions and insertions in the S1 subunit of the spike (S) protein, G1b] and non-S INDEL (G2b) strains were detected during the diarrheal disease outbreak in US swine in 2013-2014. Similar viruses are also circulating globally. Continuous improvement and update of biosecurity and vaccine strains and protocols are still needed to control and prevent PEDV infections worldwide. Although the non-S INDEL PEDV was highly virulent and the S INDEL PEDV caused milder disease, the latter has the capacity to cause illness in a high number of piglets on farms with low biosecurity and herd immunity. The main PEDV transmission route is fecal-oral, but airborne transmission via the fecal-nasal route may play a role in pig-to-pig and farm-to-farm spread. PEDV infection of neonatal pigs causes fecal virus shedding (alongside frequent detection of PEDV RNA in the nasal cavity), acute viremia, severe atrophic enteritis (mainly jejunum and ileum), and increased pro-inflammatory and innate immune responses. PEDV-specific IgA effector and memory B cells in orally primed sows play a critical role in sow lactogenic immunity and passive protection of piglets. This review focuses on the etiology, transmission, pathogenesis, and prevention and control of PEDV infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Mucosa Intestinal/virología , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/patogenicidad , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Aerosoles , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Inmunidad Humoral/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/patología , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/inmunología , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/patología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Tropismo Viral/fisiología , Viremia/sangre
12.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e34, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A nationwide outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused massive economic losses in 2010. Since then, the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) has enhanced disinfection systems regarding livestock to prevent horizontal transmission of FMD and Avian influenza (AI). Although the amount of disinfectant used continues to increase, cases of FMD and AI have been occurring annually in Korea, except 2012 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: This study measured the concentration of the disinfectant to determine why it failed to remove the horizontal transmission despite increased disinfectant use. METHODS: Surveys were conducted from February to May 2017, collecting 348 samples from disinfection systems. The samples were analyzed using the Standards of Animal Health Products analysis methods from QIA. RESULTS: Twenty-three facilities used inappropriate or non-approved disinfectants. Nearly all sampled livestock farms and facilities-93.9%-did not properly adjust the disinfectant concentration. The percentage using low concentrations, or where no effective substance was detected, was 46.9%. Furthermore, 13 samples from the official disinfection station did not use effective disinfectant, and-among 72 samples from the disinfection station-88.89% were considered inappropriate concentration, according to the foot-and-mouth disease virus guidelines; considering the AIV guideline, 73.61% were inappropriate concentrations. Inappropriate concentration samples on automatic (90.00%) and semi-automatic (90.90%) disinfection systems showed no significant difference from manual methods (88.24%). Despite this study being conducted during the crisis level, most disinfectants were used inappropriately. CONCLUSIONS: This may partially explain why horizontal transmission of FMD and AI cannot be effectively prevented despite extensive disinfectant use.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Fiebre Aftosa , Gripe Aviar , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Pollos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Patos , Fiebre Aftosa/epidemiología , Fiebre Aftosa/prevención & control , Fiebre Aftosa/transmisión , Fiebre Aftosa/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/efectos de los fármacos , Virus de la Influenza A/efectos de los fármacos , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/prevención & control , Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Gripe Aviar/virología , Ganado , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología
13.
Virus Res ; 285: 198024, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482591

RESUMEN

Discovered in 2017, swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV), also known as swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) or porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV), is the fifth porcine CoV identified in diarrheal piglets. The presumed name "SADS-CoV" may not be appropriate since current studies have not provided strong evidence for high pathogenicity of the virus. SeACoV was the most recently recognized CoV of potential bat origin prior to the novel human severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), associated with the pandemic CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although SeACoV is recognized as a regional epizootic virus currently, it possesses the most extensive cell species tropism in vitro among known CoVs. This review summarizes the emergence of SeACoV and updates the research progress made from 2017 to early 2020, mainly focusing on the etiology, epidemiology, evolutionary perspective, potential for interspecies transmission, pathogenesis and diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Alphacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Alphacoronavirus/ultraestructura , Animales , Línea Celular , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Epidemiología Molecular , Especificidad de la Especie , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Tropismo Viral
14.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(7): 575-578, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376114

RESUMEN

Changes in the incidence of porcine cysticercosis is used commonly in the assessment of efforts to control the transmission of Taenia solium, the cause of human neurocysticercosis. Although cysticerci may occasionally occur in tissues other than the striated muscles, particularly the brain, infection in pigs can be diagnosed reliably by assessment of muscle tissue alone.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Músculo Esquelético/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Taenia solium , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Neurocisticercosis/prevención & control , Neurocisticercosis/transmisión , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(13)2020 06 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358001

RESUMEN

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type (ST) 398 (LA-MRSA ST398) is a genetic lineage for which pigs are regarded as the main reservoir. An increasing prevalence of LA-MRSA ST398 has been reported in areas with high livestock density throughout Europe. In this study, we investigated the drivers contributing to the introduction and spread of LA-MRSA ST398 through the pig farming system in southern Italy. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of LA-MRSA ST398 isolates collected in 2018 from pigs (n = 53) and employees (n = 14) from 10 farms in the Calabria region of Italy were comparatively analyzed with previously published WGS data from Italian ST398 isolates (n = 45), an international ST398 reference collection (n = 89), and isolates from Danish pig farms (n = 283), which are the main suppliers of pigs imported to Italy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were used to infer isolate relatedness, and these data were used together with data from animal trading to identify factors contributing to LA-MRSA ST398 dissemination. The analyses support the existence of two concurrent pathways for the spread of LA-MRSA ST398 in southern Italy: (i) multiple introductions of LA-MRSA ST398 through the import of colonized pigs from other European countries, including Denmark and France, and (ii) the spread of distinct clones dependent on local trading of pigs between farms. Phylogenetically related Italian and Danish LA-MRSA ST398 isolates shared extensive similarities, including carriage of antimicrobial resistance genes. Our findings highlight the potential risk of transboundary transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial clones with a high zoonotic potential during import of pigs from countries with high LA-MRSA prevalence.IMPORTANCE Over the past decade, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398 (LA-MRSA ST398) has spread among pig holdings throughout Europe, in parallel with the increased incidence of infections among humans, especially in intensive pig farming regions. Despite the growing prevalence of LA-MRSA ST398 in Italian pig farms, the transmission dynamics of this clone in Italy remains unclear. This work provides genome-based evidence to suggest transboundary LA-MRSA ST398 transmission through trading of colonized pigs between European countries and Italy, as well as between farms in the same Italian region. Our findings show that both international trading and local trading of colonized pigs are important factors contributing to the global spread of LA-MRSA ST398 and underscore the need for control measures on and off the farm to reduce the dissemination of this zoonotic pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/economía , Animales , Italia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/fisiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/transmisión , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología
16.
APMIS ; 128(6): 451-462, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358920

RESUMEN

Bacteria and viruses were analysed in the upper respiratory tract of symptomatic pig farmers and their domestic pigs. Eighty six human nasal and 495 (50 pools) porcine snout swabs were collected in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (62.8%, 54/86), human rhino- and coronaviruses (HRV, 29.1%, 25/86; HCoV, 16.3%, 14/86) were frequently detected in humans, while Haemophilus parasuis (90.0%, 45/50), Mycoplasma hyorhinis (78.6%, 11/14), Enterovirus G (EV-G, 56.0%, 28/50) and S. aureus (36.0%, 18/50), respectively, were highly prevalent in pigs. The detection of S. aureus in human follow-up samples indicates a carrier status. The methicillin-resistant phenotype (MRSA) was identified in 33.3% (18/54) of nasal swabs and in one of 18 (5.6%) pooled snout swabs that were tested positive for S. aureus. Strains were indicative of the livestock-associated clonal complex CC398, with t011 being the most common staphylococcal protein A type. Enterobacterales and non-fermenters were frequently isolated from swabs. Their detection in follow-up samples suggests a carrier status. All were classified as being non-multiresistant. There was no example for cross-species transmission of viruses. In contrast, transmission of S. aureus through occupational contact to pigs seems possible. The study contributes to the 'One Health' approach.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria , Sus scrofa/microbiología , Sus scrofa/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Portador Sano , Humanos , Ganado , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/genética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mucosa Nasal/microbiología , Mucosa Nasal/virología , Enfermedades Profesionales/microbiología , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/transmisión , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/transmisión , Virosis/veterinaria
17.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(9): 2641-2654, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407507

RESUMEN

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown once again that coronavirus (CoV) in animals are potential sources for epidemics in humans. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogen of swine with a worldwide distribution. Here, we implemented and described an approach to analyze the epidemiology of PDCoV following its emergence in the pig population. We performed an integrated analysis of full genome sequence data from 21 newly sequenced viruses, along with comprehensive epidemiological surveillance data collected globally over the last 15 years. We found four distinct phylogenetic lineages of PDCoV, which differ in their geographic circulation patterns. Interestingly, we identified more frequent intra- and interlineage recombination and higher virus genetic diversity in the Chinese lineages compared with the USA lineage where pigs are raised in different farming systems and ecological environments. Most recombination breakpoints are located in the ORF1ab gene rather than in genes encoding structural proteins. We also identified five amino acids under positive selection in the spike protein suggesting a role for adaptive evolution. According to structural mapping, three positively selected sites are located in the N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit, which is the most likely involved in binding to a carbohydrate receptor, whereas the other two are located in or near the fusion peptide of the S2 subunit and thus might affect membrane fusion. Finally, our phylogeographic investigations highlighted notable South-North transmission as well as frequent long-distance dispersal events in China that could implicate human-mediated transmission. Our findings provide new insights into the evolution and dispersal of PDCoV that contribute to our understanding of the critical factors involved in CoVs emergence.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Coronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Proteínas Virales/genética , Animales , Evolución Biológica , China/epidemiología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Variación Genética , Genómica , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Epidemiología Molecular , Sistemas de Lectura Abierta , Filogenia , Filogeografía , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Recombinación Genética , Selección Genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232489, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453749

RESUMEN

The foot-and-mouth disease is an ever-present hazard to the livestock industry due to the huge economic consequences following an outbreak that necessitates culling of possibly infected animals in vast numbers. The disease is highly contagious and previous epizootics have shown that it spreads by many routes. One such route is airborne transmission, which has been investigated in this study by means of a detailed multilevel model that includes all scales of an outbreak. Local spread within an infected farm is described by a stochastic compartment model while the spread between farms is quantified by atmospheric dispersion simulations using a network representation of the set of farms. The model was applied to the Swedish livestock industry and the risk for an epizootic outbreak in Sweden was estimated using the basic reproduction number of each individual livestock-holding farm as the endpoint metric. The study was based on comprehensive official data sets for both the current livestock holdings and regional meteorological conditions. Three species of farm animals are susceptible to the disease and are present in large numbers: cattle, pigs and sheep. These species are all included in this study using their individual responses and consequences to the disease. It was concluded that some parts of southern Sweden are indeed preconditioned to harbor an airborne epizootic, while the sparse farm population of the north renders such events unlikely to occur there. The distribution of the basic reproduction number spans over several orders of magnitudes with low risk of disease spread from the majority of the farms while some farms may act as very strong disease transmitters. The results may serve as basic data in the planning of the national preparedness for this type of events.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Aftosa/transmisión , Modelos Biológicos , Microbiología del Aire , Movimientos del Aire , Animales , Número Básico de Reproducción , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Simulación por Computador , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Espiración , Granjas , Fiebre Aftosa/epidemiología , Fiebre Aftosa/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/patogenicidad , Ganado , Análisis Multinivel , Estaciones del Año , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/transmisión , Sus scrofa , Suecia/epidemiología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión
19.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 42, 2020 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169091

RESUMEN

The mechanisms of transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs during the pre-weaning period are not fully elucidated. Since viable IAV and PRRSV can be found on the udder skin of lactating sows and the use of nurse sows is a common management practice, we developed a novel nurse sow model to evaluate the transmission of IAV and PRRSV from lactating sows to their adopted piglets. In two studies, we infected pigs with either IAV or PRRSV who then contaminated the udder skin of lactating dams with their nasal and oral secretions while suckling. Once the skin was confirmed virus positive for IAV and PRRSV, the sows were moved to separate empty clean rooms to adopt IAV and PRRSV negative suckling piglets. After adoption, 1 out of eight (12.5%) piglets tested IAV positive 1-day post-adoption (dpa) and the entire litter (8 out of 8) became positive by 4 dpa. In the case of PRRSV, 3 out of 11 (27.3%) pigs tested rRT-PCR positive 2 dpa and there were 7 out of 11 (63.6%) pigs positive at the termination of the study at 7 dpa. This study documented the transmission of IAV and PRRSV between litters of piglets by nurse sows and highlights the importance of the nurse sow-piglet as a unit that contributes to the maintenance of endemic infections in breeding herds. The use of nurse sows in pig farms, though beneficial for minimizing pre-weaning mortality and maximizing farm productivity, is seemingly detrimental as this practice may facilitate the transmission of IAV and PRRSV to piglets prior to weaning.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/transmisión , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/transmisión , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual , Porcinos
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108606, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122609

RESUMEN

Senecavirus A (SVA), previously called Seneca Valley virus, can cause vesicular lesions in sows and a sharp decline in neonatal piglet production. In this study, a SVA strain was isolated from a pig herd in Shandong Province in China and identified as SVV-CH-SD. The full genome was 7286 nucleotides (nt) in length and contained a single open reading frame (ORF) of 6546 nt, encoding a 2182 amino acid (aa). A phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate shares highest sequence homology (98.52 %) with SVA strain USA-GBI26-2015. A genetic comparison of virulent and weakly virulent SVA strains showed that some amino acid residues may be associated with virulence. Animal challenge experiments showed that 90-100-day-old pigs inoculated with SVV-CH-SD intraorally and intranasally, intranasally, or intramuscularly developed low fever, blisters, and lameness. They had similar levels of neutralizing antibodies against SVA and viral loads in the serum and organs at 28 days post-CHallenge. However, 30-35- and 55-65-day-old pigs challenged with SVV-CH-SD showed no clinical signs, although anti-SVA neutralizing antibodies were detected. Our findings provide useful data for studying the pathogenesis and transmission of SVA in pigs.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Viral , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/veterinaria , Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/patogenicidad , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Porcinos/virología , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , China , Femenino , Masculino , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/transmisión , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Carga Viral , Virulencia , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...