Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 574
Filtrar
3.
Eur Neurol ; 83(5): 550-553, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017831

RESUMEN

The sheer magnitude of Jean-Martin Charcot's contributions to neurology, pathology, psychiatry, and internal medicine has allowed for the common usage of eponyms bearing the master's name in recognition of his work. However, these are so numerous that confusion has naturally arisen concerning the exact nature of each eponym, allowing for different specialists to refer to completely different ailments or symptoms, while using the very same expression. Previous compilations of his eponyms were often incomplete. Therefore, the authors aimed to bring some clarification into the nature and origin of each known eponym with Charcot's name.


Asunto(s)
Epónimos , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Neurología/historia , Francia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos
4.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(3): 373-376, 2020.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643627
8.
Neuropathology ; 40(1): 3-13, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802544

RESUMEN

Pitié and La Salpêtrière, both founded in the17th century, were for long two distinct hospitals until they merged in 1964. The name La Salpêtrière is inherited from the initial purpose of the buildings designed to produce saltpeter for gun powder. But the place was soon transformed into an asylum to shelter the poor and the insane. From the care of this underprivileged population, alienists such as Pinel have paved the way for modern medicine for the mentally ill at the time of the French Revolution. In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot and his students laid the foundations of modern neurology from the observation of the large population hosted in La Salpêtrière, mostly women with severe chronic diseases. Charcot led clinicopathological studies in almost all the fields of nervous system disorders. His successors (including Raymond, Dejerine, Pierre Marie) maintained the same close relationship between clinical neurology and neuropathology. In parallel with the development of neurosurgery at Pitié hospital, neuropathology first spread through small laboratories attached to clinical departments. The merger of the two hospitals in the early '60s coincided with the creation of a large university hospital in which the care and study of diseases of the nervous system were preponderant. An independent laboratory of neuropathology was created, led by Raymond Escourolle. This period was on the eve of important developments in neuroscience around the world. Today, the Pitié-Salpêtrière neuropathology laboratory still plays a central role between neurology and neurosurgery clinics and major research institutes such as the Brain Institute, callled Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle (ICM), and the Institute of Myology.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Universitarios/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Neurología/historia , Neuropatología/historia , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
10.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 705-711, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664346

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) is one of the pillars of Brazilian Medicine and, in Neurology, has always shown prominence, with notable professors such as Antônio Austregésilo and Deolindo Couto. Historically, practitioners of the UFRJ Medical School have discovered neurological signs that, although used in medical and academic practice, have never been published. Our aim was to bring these signs to the forefront so that they become properly recognized and studied. METHODS: We conducted our search by questioning 49 professors and physicians by e-mail about neurological signs that they remembered having had contact with at UFRJ. RESULTS: We report on the unpublished pillow sign in progressive supranuclear palsy; the Brazilian sandal sign in functional or malingering patients; the dermographism sign in acute meningitis; the reverse forearm rolling sign in functional palsies; the cycling maneuver in parkinsonian syndromes and the Sá Cavalcanti sign, a Babinski equivalent. We have also recollected the following published signs for their historical relevance: the Austregésilo sign (Antônio Austregésilo), another Babinski equivalent; the digiti quinti rolling sign in subtle palsies (Péricles Maranhão) and the digiti quinti sign in hemiplegic migraine (Maurice Vincent). These signs are easily reproduced and have potential clinical applicability, deserving to be more thoroughly studied. CONCLUSIONS: Through a qualitative methodology, we have identified six original unpublished neurological signs known by the academic community, establishing the contribution of these individuals to the expansion of neurological semiology.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Neurología/historia , Universidades/historia , Brasil , Docentes Médicos/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neurólogos/historia , Neurología/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/tendencias
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 705-711, Oct. 2019. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038730

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) is one of the pillars of Brazilian Medicine and, in Neurology, has always shown prominence, with notable professors such as Antônio Austregésilo and Deolindo Couto. Historically, practitioners of the UFRJ Medical School have discovered neurological signs that, although used in medical and academic practice, have never been published. Objective Our aim was to bring these signs to the forefront so that they become properly recognized and studied. Methods We conducted our search by questioning 49 professors and physicians by e-mail about neurological signs that they remembered having had contact with at UFRJ. Results We report on the unpublished pillow sign in progressive supranuclear palsy; the Brazilian sandal sign in functional or malingering patients; the dermographism sign in acute meningitis; the reverse forearm rolling sign in functional palsies; the cycling maneuver in parkinsonian syndromes and the Sá Cavalcanti sign, a Babinski equivalent. We have also recollected the following published signs for their historical relevance: the Austregésilo sign (Antônio Austregésilo), another Babinski equivalent; the digiti quinti rolling sign in subtle palsies (Péricles Maranhão) and the digiti quinti sign in hemiplegic migraine (Maurice Vincent). These signs are easily reproduced and have potential clinical applicability, deserving to be more thoroughly studied. Conclusions Through a qualitative methodology, we have identified six original unpublished neurological signs known by the academic community, establishing the contribution of these individuals to the expansion of neurological semiology.


RESUMO A Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro é um dos pilares da Medicina brasileira. Na Neurologia sempre se destacou com notáveis professores, como Antônio Austregésilo e Deolindo Couto. Historicamente, professores da Faculdade de Medicina da UFRJ descreveram sinais neurológicos que, embora utilizados na prática médica e acadêmica, nunca foram publicados. Objetivo Fazer ressurgir sinais clínicos neurológicos nunca antes publicados, para que possam ser devidamente reconhecidos e estudados. Métodos Quarenta e nove professores e médicos foram contactados por e-mail. Dez responderam questionário semi-estruturado acerca de sinais neurológicos conhecidos pelos profissionais, porém nunca publicados. Resultados Foram relatados: 1- Sinal do Travesseiro - na Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva; 2- Sinal da sandália- nos pacientes funcionais ou simuladores; 3- Sinal do dermografismo- nas meningites agudas da infância; 4- Sinal do rolamento reverso do antebraço- nas paralisias funcionais; 5- Manobra do pedalar- nas síndromes parkinsonianas; 6- Sinal de Sá Cavalcanti- um sucedâneo de Babinski. Revisamos também os seguintes sinais publicados, por sua relevância histórica: o sinal Austregésilo, outro sucedâneo de Babinski; sinal do rolamento do quinto dedo- nas paralisias sutis e o sinal do quinto dedo- na enxaqueca hemiplégia. Conclusão Por meio de metodologia qualitativa, identificamos seis sinais neurológicos inéditos originais. Esses sinais são de fácil reprodutibilidade e têm aplicabilidade clínica potencial, merecendo estudos adicionais.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Universidades/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Neurología/historia , Universidades/tendencias , Brasil , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Docentes Médicos/historia , Neurólogos/historia , Neurología/tendencias
12.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(5-6): 150-152, 2019 May 30.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241257

RESUMEN

Mátyás Papp died on 4th of April, 2019, at the age of 92, following a long disease. He was working for nearly 60 years in the Department of Neurology, Semmelweis University. He was known about his works on the inclusion bodies in multiple system atrophy (Papp-Lantos bodies). He was a honorary member of the International Society of Neuropathology.


Asunto(s)
Atrofia de Múltiples Sistemas/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Neurología/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
13.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(2): 36-40, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010062

RESUMEN

Hermann Oppenheim (1858-1919) was a leading fgure of the modern German neurology. In spite of the antisemitic ofcial policy, besides his complex personality, he had achieved widespread recognition of his professional qualifcation that attracted neurologists from all around the world to his private clinic. However, he did not held prominent positions at University milieu, in spite of being the main assistant to Karl Westphal (1833­1890) at the Charité-Hospital, in Berlin. Oppenheim was the author of an encyclopedic book of neurology titled "Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten für Ärzte und Studierende" ("Textbook of Nervous Diseases for Doctors and Students"), frst ed., 1894. He also published signifcant works on several disorders, including "traumatic neurosis" (1889) that was criticized by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825­1893), among others. He was clinically responsible for the frst successful removal of brain tumors, including pineal tumor. He coined the term "dystonia musculorum deformans", and he led to several other achievements such as amyotonia congenita ("Oppenheim's disease"), besides Oppenheim's reflex.


Hermann Oppenheim (1858-1919) foi uma fgura importante da moderna neurologia alemã. Apesar da política ofcial anti-semita, além de sua personalidade complexa, ele alcançou amplo reconhecimento de sua qualifcação profssional que atraiu neurologistas de todo o mundo para sua clínica particular. No entanto, ele não ocupou posições de destaque no meio universitário, apesar de ser o principal assistente de Karl Westphal (1833-1890) no Charité-Hospital, em Berlim. Oppenheim foi o autor de um livro enciclopédico de neurologia intitulado "Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten für Ärzte und Studierende" ("Livro Didático de Doenças Nervosas para Médicos e Alunos"), editado em 1894. Ele também publicou trabalhos signifcativos sobre vários distúrbios, incluindo "neurose traumática" ( 1889) que foi criticado por Jean-Martin Charcot (1825­1893), entre outros. Ele foi clinicamente responsável pela primeira remoção bem sucedida de tumores cerebrais, incluindo o tumor pineal. Ele cunhou o termo "distonia musculorumdeformans" e levou a outras várias conquistas como a amiotonia congênita ("doença de Oppenheim"), além do reflexo de Oppenheim.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Síndromes Paraneoplásicos/historia , Trastornos de Combate , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Neurología/historia , Enfermedades Neuromusculares/historia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Neuropsiquiatría , Alemania
14.
J Hist Neurosci ; 28(2): 226-261, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136252

RESUMEN

Surface thermometers were developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. In 1877, Broca, already famous for his contributions to the cerebral localization of nonfluent aphasia, presented his first clinical observations on cranial surface temperatures: In two cases, cranial surface temperatures were decreased over a middle cerebral artery infarction, and increased in surrounding areas, which Broca attributed to "compensatory hyperaemia." As Broca made apparent in a later report in 1879, he had used a "thermometric crown," an apparatus consisting of six to eight large-reservoir mercury thermometers strapped against the head. Following Broca's report, American neurologists reported cases in which cranial surface temperatures were increased either locally over a superficial brain tumor or globally with a cerebral abscess. Despite promising anecdotal reports, contemporaries recognized that significant technical and practical problems limited its accuracy, reliability, and clinical utility. Advocates never demonstrated that this technology provided significant marginal benefit to the medical history and physical examination. The technique fell out of fashion before 1900, though some early advocates promoted it into the early twentieth century. It was ultimately replaced by more effective technologies for cerebral localization and neurological diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatías/historia , Encefalopatías/terapia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/terapia , Termometría/historia , Termometría/instrumentación , Termometría/métodos , Adulto , Encefalopatías/diagnóstico , Encefalopatías/fisiopatología , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/fisiopatología , Neurólogos/historia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
15.
J Hist Neurosci ; 28(2): 195-225, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136262

RESUMEN

Surface thermometers were developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. From the 1850s through the 1880s, collaborations between physicians, research scientists, and instrument makers produced clear improvements in the technology to measure cranial surface temperatures, with development of self-registering mercury surface thermometers resistant to pressure and little influenced by ambient temperature, apparatus for recording cranial surface temperatures from multiple stations simultaneously, and development of thermoelectric apparatus. Physiologic studies of cranial surface thermometry were conducted over a quarter century from 1861 to 1886. Beginning in the 1860s Albers in Bonn, Germany, and Lombard at Harvard and later in England systematically investigated surface temperatures on the head using surface thermometers and thermoelectric apparatus; they demonstrated that head temperatures were variable over time and across individuals and were not clearly influenced by thinking or muscular contraction but were influenced by ambient air temperature. In 1880 Amidon in the United States claimed that cranial surface thermometry during exertion produced localized increases in surface temperature on the contralateral scalp in a specific pattern ("external motive areas") indicating underlying brain areas responsible for each movement. Amidon's results were not reproduced by experienced physiologists in England or France. Contemporaries recognized that significant technical and practical problems limited the accuracy and reliability of cranial surface thermometry. Physiological studies of cranial surface thermometry ended in the mid 1880s, although some clinicians who were early advocates promoted its use in clinical contexts into the early twentieth century.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatías/diagnóstico , Encefalopatías/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Termometría/historia , Termometría/instrumentación , Termometría/métodos , Adulto , Encefalopatías/fisiopatología , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/fisiopatología , Neurólogos/historia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
16.
J Hist Neurosci ; 28(2): 122-146, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116643

RESUMEN

The metallick Tractors were patented by Elisha Perkins, a Connecticut physician, in 1796, for the treatment of various ailments, particularly those associated with pain. They were subsequently rapidly and widely disseminated on the basis of testimonials and aggressive marketing tactics. Dissemination was facilitated by endorsements from prominent physicians, politicians, and clergy, by quasi-theoretical explanations of efficacy based on then-current experiments of Galvani and others, and by the apparent simplicity and safety of the procedure. Abandonment of this ineffective therapy was later prompted by the application of blinded placebo-controlled trials using sham devices.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/terapia , Manejo del Dolor/historia , Manejo del Dolor/instrumentación , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Médicos/historia , Adulto , Connecticut , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
J Hist Neurosci ; 28(2): 147-175, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116663

RESUMEN

From 1799 to 1801, with the instigation of John Haygarth, physicians in England evaluated the claims of Elisha and Benjamin Perkins that their patented "metallic tractors" could cure a wide variety of disorders. Previous therapies were typically judged based on experience and authority, whereas Perkinism was evaluated using a series of clinical trials of varying methodological sophistication, most employing sham instruments (all but those involving infants or horses), with a variety of trial designs, inconsistent use of contemporary controls, and different approaches to blinding subjects to the treatment administered. Haygarth and his colleagues collectively demonstrated that tractors and sham instruments produced equivalent effects in adults, and, by inference, that the tractors had no special therapeutic properties. Other trials using only genuine tractors demonstrated no effects in infants and horses, subjects who could not reasonably be influenced by suggestion and the imagination. These collective results provided strong support for the rival hypothesis that the observed effects were due to suggestion and the imagination of the subjects. Despite fallacy-laden counterattacks and counterarguments from Benjamin Perkins and his supporters, the trials eroded support for this therapy and led to abandonment of the "Metallic Practice" as a treatment in Britain and elsewhere.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/terapia , Manejo del Dolor/historia , Manejo del Dolor/instrumentación , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Médicos/historia , Adulto , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Connecticut , Inglaterra , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
Neuroscientist ; 25(5): 388-393, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873900

RESUMEN

This retrospective review focuses on some illustrious personalities of history, who have suffered from neurological illnesses. Neurological diseases represent about 10% of all illnesses, and therefore do not spare anyone, much less, famous people. In this review, we discuss the neurological disorders that have struck some celebrities throughout history. We briefly examine the lives of emperors, writers, poets, and musicians that have suffered from neurological diseases such as epilepsy, stroke, tumors, and other illnesses, and which caused death or disability. From a historical point of view, recollection of the lives of famous people afflicted by neurological disorders holds important lessons for future generations.


Asunto(s)
Personajes , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Neurología/historia , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Humanos
19.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(2): 192-215, 2019 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888402

RESUMEN

This paper takes as its subject Comparative Neuropathology (1962), arguing that the volume illustrates the interlocking cultures of veterinary medicine, human medicine, and laboratory-based biological sciences after the Second World War. The project amassed cases of domestic, experimental, and wild animals, identified species-specific conditions, and evaluated the vulnerabilities of the nervous system to disease and trauma. The collection of ill ruminants, poisoned cats, and injured dogs built on earlier traditions of comparative medicine, but also reflected the turn to biological principles to explain medical conditions, increased industry and military funding for the biomedical sciences, and changes in veterinary practice. Using Comparative Neuropathology as a lens, this paper probes the actors, affiliations, and frameworks that wrestled with new species of neurological patients, newly exposed vulnerabilities of the nervous system, and the emergence of new neurological sciences, casting new light on the heterogenous landscape of the emergent neurosciences and mid-twentieth-century efforts to entwine human and veterinary medicine.


Asunto(s)
Neuropatología/historia , Obras Médicas de Referencia , Animales , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/historia , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Perros , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/terapia , Rumiantes , Medicina Veterinaria/historia
20.
Encephale ; 45(5): 454-455, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885443

RESUMEN

Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893) was one of the most important storytellers of all times. We analysed some unpublished handwritten letters of Maupassant and provide, from a neuro-psychiatrical point of view, a new medical hypothesis.


Asunto(s)
Correspondencia como Asunto/historia , Personajes , Literatura Moderna/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/historia , Francia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...