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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 612, 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725061

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Over the past two decades, Tanzania's burden of non-communicable diseases has grown disproportionately, but limited resources are still prioritized. A trained human resource for health is urgently needed to combat these diseases. However, continuous medical education for NCDs is scarce. This paper reports on the mid-level healthcare workers knowledge on NCDs. We assessed the knowledge to measure the effectiveness of the training conducted during the initiation of a Package for Essential Management of Severe NCDs (PEN Plus) in rural district hospitals in Tanzania. METHODS: The training was given to 48 healthcare employees from Dodoma Region's Kondoa Town Council District Hospital. For a total of five (5) days, a fundamental course on NCDs featured in-depth interactive lectures and practical workshops. Physicians from Tanzania's higher education institutions, tertiary university hospitals, research institutes, and medical organizations served as trainers. Before and after the training, a knowledge assessment comprising 28 questions was administered. Descriptive data analysis to describe the characteristics of the specific knowledge on physiology, diagnosis and therapy of diabetes mellitus, rheumatic fever, heart disease, and sickle cell disease was done using Stata version 17 (STATA Corp Inc., TX, USA). RESULTS: Complete assessment data for 42 out of the 48 participants was available. Six participants did not complete the training and the assessment. The mean age of participants was 36.9 years, and slightly above half (52%) were above 35 years. Two-thirds (61.9%) were female, and about half (45%) were nurses. The majority had the experience of working for more than 5 years, and the average was 9.4 years (+/- 8.4 years). Overall, the trainees' average scores improved after the training (12.79 vs. 16.05, p < 0.0001) out of 28 possible scores. Specifically, trainees' average scores were better in treatment than in diagnosis, except for sickle cell disease (1.26 vs. 1.83). Most were not able to diagnose rheumatic heart disease (47.6% able) compared to diabetes mellitus (54.8% able) or sickle cell disease (64.3% able) at baseline. The proportion of trainees with adequate knowledge of the treatment of sickle cell disease and diabetes mellitus was 35% and 38.1%, respectively, and there was a non-statistical difference after training. Those working for less than 5 years had a higher proportion of adequate knowledge (30.8%) compared to their more experienced colleagues (6.9%). After the training, participants' knowledge of NCDs increased by three times (i.e., aPR 3, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.5, and 6.0). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: PEN Plus training improved the knowledge of healthcare workers at Kondoa Town Council District Hospital. Training is especially needed among nurses and those with a longer duration of work. Continuing education for human resources for health on the management of NCDs is highly recommended in this setting.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Tanzanía , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Personal de Salud/educación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Persona de Mediana Edad , Educación Médica Continua , Competencia Clínica/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1280, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730455

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The increasing ageing of the population with growth in NCD burden in India has put unprecedented pressure on India's health care systems. Shortage of skilled human resources in health, particularly of specialists equipped to treat NCDs, is one of the major challenges faced in India. Keeping in view the shortage of healthcare professionals and the guidelines in NEP 2020, there is an urgent need for more health professionals who have received training in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of NCDs. This paper conducts a scoping review and aims to collate the existing evidence on the use of digital education of health professionals within NCD topics. METHODS: We searched four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO Education Research Complete, and PsycINFO) using a three-element search string with terms related to digital education, health professions, and terms related to NCD. The inclusion criteria covered the studies to be empirical and NCD-related with the target population as health professionals rather than patients. Data was extracted from 28 included studies that reported on empirical research into digital education related to non-communicable diseases in health professionals in India. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: The target groups were mostly in-service health professionals, but a considerable number of studies also included pre-service students of medicine (n = 6) and nursing (n = 6). The majority of the studies included imparted online learning as self-study, while some imparted blended learning and online learning with the instructor. While a majority of the studies included were experimental or observational, randomized control trials and evaluations were also part of our study. DISCUSSION: Digital HPE related to NCDs has proven to be beneficial for learners, and simultaneously, offers an effective way to bypass geographical barriers. Despite these positive attributes, digital HPE faces many challenges for its successful implementation in the Indian context. Owing to the multi-lingual and diverse health professional ecosystem in India, there is a need for strong evidence and guidelines based on prior research in the Indian context.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , India , Personal de Salud/educación , Educación a Distancia
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e080510, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692717

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute approximately 74% of global mortality, with 77% of these deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. Tanzania exemplifies this situation, as the percentage of total disability-adjusted life years attributed to NCDs has doubled over the past 30 years, from 18% to 36%. To mitigate the escalating burden of severe NCDs, the Tanzanian government, in collaboration with local and international partners, seeks to extend the integrated package of essential interventions for severe NCDs (PEN-Plus) to district-level facilities, thereby improving accessibility. This study aims to estimate the cost of initiating PEN-Plus for rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and type 1 diabetes at Kondoa district hospital in Tanzania. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will employ time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the capacity cost rates (CCR), and capital and recurrent costs associated with the implementation of PEN-Plus. Data on resource consumption will be collected through direct observations and interviews with nurses, the medical officer in charge and the heads of laboratory and pharmacy units/departments. Data on contact times for targeted NCDs will be collected by observing a sample of patients as they move through the care delivery pathway. Data cleaning and analysis will be done using Microsoft Excel. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval to conduct the study has been waived by the Norwegian Regional Ethics Committee and was granted by the Tanzanian National Health Research Ethics Committee NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol.IX/4475. A written informed consent will be provided to the study participants. This protocol has been disseminated in the Bergen Centre for Ethics and Priority Setting International Symposium, Norway and the 11th Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences Scientific Conference, Tanzania in 2023. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals for use by the academic community, researchers and health practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales de Distrito , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Tanzanía , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/economía , Hospitales de Distrito/economía , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Anemia de Células Falciformes/terapia , Anemia de Células Falciformes/economía , Proyectos de Investigación
4.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e079826, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719294

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Climate change is a major global issue with significant consequences, including effects on air quality and human well-being. This review investigated the projection of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) attributable to air pollution under different climate change scenarios. DESIGN: This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 flow checklist. A population-exposure-outcome framework was established. Population referred to the general global population of all ages, the exposure of interest was air pollution and its projection, and the outcome was the occurrence of NCDs attributable to air pollution and burden of disease (BoD) based on the health indices of mortality, morbidity, disability-adjusted life years, years of life lost and years lived with disability. DATA SOURCES: The Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCOhost databases were searched for articles published from 2005 to 2023. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: The eligible articles were evaluated using the modified scale of a checklist for assessing the quality of ecological studies. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers searched, screened and selected the included studies independently using standardised methods. The risk of bias was assessed using the modified scale of a checklist for ecological studies. The results were summarised based on the projection of the BoD of NCDs attributable to air pollution. RESULTS: This review included 11 studies from various countries. Most studies specifically investigated various air pollutants, specifically particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen oxides and ozone. The studies used coupled-air quality and climate modelling approaches, and mainly projected health effects using the concentration-response function model. The NCDs attributable to air pollution included cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, coronary heart disease and lower respiratory infections. Notably, the BoD of NCDs attributable to air pollution was projected to decrease in a scenario that promotes reduced air pollution, carbon emissions and land use and sustainable socioeconomics. Contrastingly, the BoD of NCDs was projected to increase in a scenario involving increasing population numbers, social deprivation and an ageing population. CONCLUSION: The included studies widely reported increased premature mortality, CVD and respiratory disease attributable to PM2.5. Future NCD projection studies should consider emission and population changes in projecting the BoD of NCDs attributable to air pollution in the climate change era. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023435288.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Cambio Climático , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Años de Vida Ajustados por Discapacidad
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078957, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719303

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted frontline health workers. However, a neglected dimension of this discourse was the extent to which the pandemic impacted frontline healthcare workers providing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) care. This study aims to understand the experiences of healthcare workers with no prior exposure to pandemics who provided care to people living with NCDs (PLWNCDs). METHODS: A qualitative study design was employed, using a face-to-face in-depth interviews. Interviews were conducted in primary healthcare facilities in three administrative regions of Ghana, representing the Northern, Southern and Middle Belts. Only frontline health workers with roles in providing care for PLWNCDs were included. Purposive snowballing and convenience sampling methods were employed to select frontline health workers. An open-ended interview guide was used to facilitate data collection, and thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: A total of 47 frontline health workers were interviewed. Overall, these workers experienced diverse patient-driven and organisational challenges. Patient-level challenges included a decline in healthcare utilisation, non-adherence to treatment, a lack of continuity, fear and stigma. At the organisational levels, there was a lack of medical logistics, increased infection of workers and absenteeism, increased workload and burnout, limited motivational packages and inadequate guidelines and protocols. Workers coped and responded to the pandemic by postponing reviews and consultations, reducing inpatient and outpatient visits, changing their prescription practices, using teleconsultation and moving to long-shift systems. CONCLUSION: This study has brought to the fore the experiences that adversely affected frontline health workers and, in many ways, affected the care provided to PLWNCDs. Policymakers and health managers should take these experiences into account in plans to mitigate the impact of future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Personal de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Investigación Cualitativa , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ghana/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2 , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Entrevistas como Asunto
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 22(1): 58, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745326

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A key role of public health policy-makers and practitioners is to ensure beneficial interventions are implemented effectively enough to yield improvements in public health. The use of evidence to guide public health decision-making to achieve this is recommended. However, few studies have examined the relative value, as reported by policy-makers and practitioners, of different broad research outcomes (that is, measures of cost, acceptability, and effectiveness). To guide the conduct of research and better inform public health policy and practice, this study aimed at describing the research outcomes that Australian policy-makers and practitioners consider important for their decision-making when selecting: (a) public health interventions; (b) strategies to support their implementation; and (c) to assess the differences in research outcome preferences between policy-makers and practitioners. METHOD: An online value-weighting survey was conducted with Australian public health policy-makers and practitioners working in the field of non-communicable disease prevention. Participants were presented with a list of research outcomes and were asked to select up to five they considered most critical to their decision-making. They then allocated 100 points across these - allocating more points to outcomes perceived as more important. Outcome lists were derived from a review and consolidation of evaluation and outcome frameworks in the fields of public health knowledge translation and implementation. We used descriptive statistics to report relative preferences overall and for policy-makers and practitioners separately. RESULTS: Of the 186 participants; 90 primarily identified as policy-makers and 96 as public health prevention practitioners. Overall, research outcomes of effectiveness, equity, feasibility, and sustainability were identified as the four most important outcomes when considering either interventions or strategies to implement them. Scores were similar for most outcomes between policy-makers and practitioners. CONCLUSION: For Australian policy-makers and practitioners working in the field of non-communicable disease prevention, outcomes related to effectiveness, equity, feasibility, and sustainability appear particularly important to their decisions about the interventions they select and the strategies they employ to implement them. The findings suggest researchers should seek to meet these information needs and prioritize the inclusion of such outcomes in their research and dissemination activities. The extent to which these outcomes are critical to informing the decision of policy-makers and practitioners working in other jurisdictions or contexts warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Personal Administrativo , Política de Salud , Formulación de Políticas , Salud Pública , Humanos , Australia , Estudios Transversales , Toma de Decisiones , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Masculino , Femenino
7.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04065, 2024 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695258

RESUMEN

Background: Clinical research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has often focussed on communicable diseases. However, with the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), there is a need for Africa-specific NCD research. Methods: GSK established the Africa NCD Open Lab in 2014. Three calls for proposals were advertised through various media channels. An external independent scientific advisory board, predominantly representing African scientists and NCD experts, reviewed and selected projects to receive funding. An additional programme in the Africa NCD Open Lab was designed to build statistical capability by supporting training initiatives. We assessed the impact of the Africa NCD Open Lab in three ways: scientific quality with impact; research training and professional development; and research environments. We captured metrics through regular reports/interactions with researchers; via a final report; and through exit interviews with principal investigators. Results: Twenty projects in 11 African countries were funded; reports from 18 completed projects are available (data capture is ongoing). Overall, 139 articles have been published in peer-reviewed journals and other data have been presented at conferences and other forums. Most completed projects led to positive outcomes, such as further research, informing policy, or positively impacting clinical care, including three projects that saw changes to regional or national practice guidelines: the CREOLE study in Nigeria; the African Severe Asthma Program in Uganda; and the African Prospective Study on the Early Detection and Identification of Cardiovascular Disease and Hypertension in South Africa. Participation in the Africa NCD Open Lab led to the award of 34 grants related to or influenced by increased research capacity or experience. Significant professional development related to the projects also occurred with higher-level degrees being awarded, including 30 MScs, 30 PhDs, and nine postdoctoral fellowships. Through these projects, research capacity was strengthened across the region by equipping core research facilities, training research staff, strengthening research support services, and supporting the expansion of investigator networks. Conclusions: The completed Africa NCD Open Lab projects demonstrate high-quality research outcomes addressing important health challenges with potential benefits to African populations. Based on the success of the Africa NCD Open Lab, additional funding has been secured to extend the Open Lab initiative.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , África del Sur del Sahara
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10979, 2024 05 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744929

RESUMEN

COVID-19 comorbid with noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCDs) complicates the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, and increases the mortality rate. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a restricted diet on clinical/laboratory inflammation and metabolic profile, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and body composition in patients with COVID-19 comorbid with NCDs. We conducted a 6-week open, pilot prospective controlled clinical trial. The study included 70 adult patients with COVID-19 comorbid with type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). INTERVENTIONS: a restricted diet including calorie restriction, hot water drinking, walking, and sexual self-restraint. PRIMARY ENDPOINTS: COVID-19 diagnosis by detecting SARS-CoV-2 genome by RT-PCR; weight loss in Main group; body temperature; C-reactive protein. Secondary endpoints: the number of white blood cells; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; adverse effects during treatment; fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP); blood lipids; ALT/AST, chest CT-scan. In Main group, patients with overweight lost weight from baseline (- 12.4%; P < 0.0001); 2.9% in Main group and 7.2% in Controls were positive for COVID-19 (RR: 0.41, CI: 0.04-4.31; P = 0.22) on the 14th day of treatment. Body temperature and C-reactive protein decreased significantly in Main group compared to Controls on day 14th of treatment (P < 0.025). Systolic/diastolic BP normalized (P < 0.025), glucose/lipids metabolism (P < 0.025); ALT/AST normalized (P < 0.025), platelets increased from baseline (P < 0.025), chest CT (P < 0.025) in Main group at 14 day of treatment. The previous antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and other symptomatic medications were adequately decreased to completely stop during the weight loss treatment. Thus, the fast weight loss treatment may be beneficial for the COVID-19 patients with comorbid T2D, hypertension, and NASH over traditional medical treatment because, it improved clinical and laboratory/instrumental data on inflammation; glucose/lipid metabolism, systolic/diastolic BPs, and NASH biochemical outcomes, reactive oxygen species; and allowed patients to stop taking medications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05635539 (02/12/2022): https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05635539?term=NCT05635539&draw=2&rank=1 .


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Masculino , Femenino , Proyectos Piloto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Pérdida de Peso , Anciano , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Hipertensión , Restricción Calórica , Adulto , Comorbilidad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0298340, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718057

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for nearly 75% of all deaths in Tamil Nadu. The government of Tamil Nadu has initiated several strategies to control NCDs under the Tamil Nadu Health Systems Reform Program (TNHSRP). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NCD risk factors and determine the predictors of diabetes and hypertension, which will be helpful for planning and serve as a baseline for evaluating the impact of interventions. METHODS: A state-wide representative cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-69-year-old adults in Tamil Nadu in 2020. The study used a multi-stage sampling method to select the calculated sample size of 5780. We adapted the study tools based on WHO's STEPS surveillance methodology. We collected information about sociodemographic factors, NCD risk factors and measured blood pressure and fasting capillary blood glucose. The predictors of diabetes and hypertension were calculated using generalised linear models with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, we could cover 68% (n = 3800) of the intended sample size. Among the eligible individuals surveyed (n = 4128), we had a response rate of 92%. The mean age of the study participants was 42.8 years, and 51% were women. Current tobacco use was prevalent in 40% (95% CI: 33.7-40.0) of men and 7.9% (95% CI: 6.4-9.8) of women. Current consumption of alcohol was prevalent among 39.1% (95% CI: 36.4-42.0) of men. Nearly 28.5% (95% CI: 26.7-30.4) of the study participants were overweight, and 11.4% (95% CI: 10.1-12.7) were obese. The prevalence of hypertension was 33.9% (95% CI: 32.0-35.8), and that of diabetes was 17.6% (95% CI: 16.1-19.2). Older age, men, and obesity were independently associated with diabetes and hypertension. CONCLUSION: The burden of NCD risk factors like tobacco use, and alcohol use were high among men in the state of Tamil Nadu. The prevalence of other risk factors like physical inactivity, raised blood pressure and raised blood glucose were also high in the state. The state should further emphasise measures that reduce the burden of NCD risk factors. Policy-based and health system-based interventions to control NCDs must be a high priority for the state.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Femenino , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Anciano , Hipertensión/epidemiología , India/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 82, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737222

RESUMEN

Health policy frameworks for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases have largely been developed for application in high-income countries. Limited attention has been given to the policy exigencies in lower- and middle-income countries where the impacts of these conditions have been most severe, and further clarification of the policy requirements for effective prevention is needed. This paper presents a policy approach to prevention that, although relevant to high-income countries, recognizes the peculiar situation of low-and middle-income countries. Rather than a narrow emphasis on the implementation of piecemeal interventions, this paper encourages policymakers to utilize a framework of four embedded policy levels, namely health services, risk factors, environmental, and global policies. For a better understanding of the non-communicable disease challenge from a policy standpoint, it is proposed that a policy framework that recognizes responsible health services, addresses key risk factors, tackles underlying health determinants, and implements global non-communicable disease conventions, offers the best leverage for prevention.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Política de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Epidemias/prevención & control , Salud Global , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Formulación de Políticas
11.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-49597

RESUMEN

Este mapa de evidências apresenta estratégias para o cuidado de pessoas com as seguintes Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis (DCNT): Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2, Hipertensão Arterial sistêmica e Obesidade. A partir de uma ampla busca bibliográfica realizada para o desenvolvimento de 7 revisões rápidas, 93 estudos de revisão foram incluídos no mapa (62 revisões sistemáticas, 31 revisões sistemáticas com meta-análise). Com base na ferramenta AMSTAR2, foi avaliado o nível de confiabilidade para a evidência reportada nestes estudos, resultando em 2 revisões de nível alto, 5 revisões de nível moderado, 10 revisões de nível baixo e 76 revisões de nível criticamente baixo. Todos os estudos foram avaliados, caracterizados, categorizados por uma equipe multiprofissional organizada em pares, composta por pesquisadores que atuam nas áreas de Saúde Coletiva e Políticas Informadas por Evidências. Principais Achados: ● As revisões avaliaram o efeito de 26 intervenções distribuídas em 5 grupos: Teleconsulta/eHealth, Tratamento farmacológico, Automonitoramento/autogerenciamento, Educação, e Serviço de saúde; ● As intervenções foram associadas a 22 desfechos relacionados às DCNT distribuídos em 3 grupos: resultados clínicos, resultados não clínicos e segurança; ● No total foram encontradas 196 associações entre intervenções, desfechos e efeitos nos estudos selecionados. A maior parte das associações foi com intervenções de cuidado assistencial (32 associações) e intervenções combinadas (24 associações); ● Os desfechos que receberam maior número de associações foram: Pressão Arterial (36 associações), Peso corporal (34 associações), Adesão ao tratamento farmacológico (29 associações) e Satisfação do paciente (21 associações).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Promoción de la Salud , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidad , Hipertensión
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080611, 2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688673

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine associations between educational level, serving as an indicator of socioeconomic position, and prevalence of WHO-established leading behavioural and biological risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in middle-aged to older women and men. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: All inhabitants of the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, aged ≥40 years, were invited to the seventh survey (2015-2016) of the Tromsø Study; an ongoing population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 32 591 invited; 65% attended, and a total of 21 069 women (53%) and men aged 40-99 years were included in our study. OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed associations between educational level and NCD behavioural and biological risk factors: daily smoking, physical inactivity (sedentary in leisure time), insufficient fruit/vegetable intake (<5 units/day), harmful alcohol use (>10 g/day in women, >20 g/day in men), hypertension, obesity, intermediate hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. These were expressed as odds ratios (OR) per unit decrease in educational level, with 95% CIs, in women and men. RESULTS: In women (results were not significantly different in men), we observed statistically significant associations between lower educational levels and higher odds of daily smoking (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.60 to 1.78), physical inactivity (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.46), insufficient fruit/vegetable intake (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.66), hypertension (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.30), obesity (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.29), intermediate hyperglycaemia (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.19), and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12), and lower odds of harmful alcohol use (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.78). CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant educational gradients in women and men for all WHO-established leading NCD risk factors within a Nordic middle-aged to older general population. The prevalence of all risk factors increased at lower educational levels, except for harmful alcohol use, which increased at higher educational levels.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Conducta Sedentaria , Fumar , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Anciano , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto , Prevalencia , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fumar/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Hiperglucemia/epidemiología
13.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59400

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To describe the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 cases in Jamaica and to explore the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 from 9 March to 31 December 2020. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of national surveillance data was conducted using confirmed COVID-19 cases in Jamaica. Definitions of a confirmed case, disease severity, and death were based on World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to determine association with outcomes. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of severe COVID-19. Results. This analysis included 12 169 cases of COVID-19 (median age, 36 years; 6 744 females [ 55.4%]) of which 512 cases (4.2%) presented with severe disease, and of those, 318 patients (62.1%) died (median age at death, 71.5 years). Severe disease was associated with being male (OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) and 40 years or older (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 5.1-8.2). COVID-19 death was also associated with being male (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), age 40 years or older (OR, 17.9; 95% CI, 11.6-27.7), and in the Western versus South East Health Region (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3). Conclusions. The findings of this cross-sectional analysis indicate that confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Jamaica were more likely to be female and younger individuals, whereas COVID-19 deaths occurred more frequently in males and older individuals. There is increased risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes beginning at age 40, with males disproportionately affected. COVID-19 death also varied by geographic region. This evidence could be useful to other countries with similar settings and to policymakers charged with managing outbreaks and health.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Describir las características y los resultados de los casos de COVID-19 en Jamaica y explorar los factores de riesgo asociados a la COVID-19 grave desde el 9 de marzo hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2020. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis transversal de datos nacionales de vigilancia a partir de los casos confirma- dos de COVID-19 en Jamaica. Las definiciones de caso confirmado, gravedad de la enfermedad y muerte se basaron en las directrices de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Para determinar la asociación con los criterios de valoración se utilizó la prueba de χ2 y la prueba exacta de Fisher. Se usaron modelos de regresión logística para determinar los factores predictivos de la COVID-19 grave. Resultados. Se incluyeron en el análisis 12 169 casos de COVID-19 (mediana de edad, 36 años; 6 744 mujeres [55,4%]), de los que 512 (4,2%) fueron de enfermedad grave. De estos pacientes, 318 (62,1%) fall- ecieron (mediana de edad al morir, 71,5 años). Se observó una asociación de la enfermedad grave con el sexo masculino (OR de 1,4; IC del 95 %, 1,2-1,7) y con la edad igual o superior a 40 años (OR de 6,5; IC del 95 %, 5,1-8,2). La muerte por COVID-19 también mostró una asociación con el sexo masculino (OR de 1,4; IC del 95%, 1,1-1,7), con la edad igual o superior a 40 años (OR de 17,9; IC del 95%, 11,6-27,7) y con la Región de Atención de Salud Occidental en comparación con la Sudoriental (OR de 1,7; IC del 95%, 1,2-2,3). Conclusiones. Los resultados de este análisis transversal indican que los casos confirmados de COVID-19 en Jamaica correspondieron una mayor probabilidad a mujeres y personas más jóvenes, mientras que las muertes por COVID-19 fueron más frecuentes en varones y personas de mayor edad. Hay un mayor riesgo de evolución desfavorable de la COVID-19 a partir de los 40 años, que afecta de manera desproporcionada a los varones. Las muertes por COVID-19 también variaron según la región geográfica. Esta evidencia podría ser de utilidad para otros países con entornos similares y para los responsables de la formulación de políticas en materia de gestión de brotes y salud.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Descrever as características e os desfechos dos casos de COVID-19 na Jamaica e explorar os fatores de risco associados à COVID-19 grave de 9 de março a 31 de dezembro de 2020. Métodos. Análise transversal de dados de vigilância nacional usando casos confirmados de COVID-19 na Jamaica. As definições de caso confirmado, gravidade da doença e morte foram baseadas nas recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram usados testes de qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher para determinar a associação com os desfechos. Modelos de regressão logística foram usados para deter- minar os preditores de COVID-19 grave. Resultados. Esta análise incluiu 12.169 casos de COVID-19 (idade mediana: 36 anos; 6 744 do sexo feminino [55,4%]), dos quais 512 casos (4,2%) apresentaram doença grave; desses, 318 pacientes (62,1%) morreram (idade mediana ao morrer: 71,5 anos). A doença grave estava associada a ser do sexo masculino (razão de chances [RC]: 1,4; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,2–1,7) e ter 40 anos ou mais de idade (RC: 6,5; IC 95%: 5,1–8,2). A morte por COVID-19 também estava associada a ser sexo masculino (RC: 1,4; IC 95%: 1,1–1,7), ter 40 anos ou mais (RC: 17,9; IC 95%: 11,6–27,7) e estar na Região Sanitária Oeste em comparação com a Região Sanitária Sudeste (RC: 1,7; IC 95%: 1,2–2,3). Conclusões. Os achados desta análise transversal indicam que a probabilidade de casos confirmados de COVID-19 na Jamaica era maior em indivíduos do sexo feminino e mais jovens, ao passo que as mortes por COVID-19 ocorreram com mais frequência em indivíduos do sexo masculino e mais velhos. Há um risco maior de resultados desfavoráveis em relação à COVID-19 a partir dos 40 anos, e indivíduos do sexo masculino são desproporcionalmente mais afetados. A morte por COVID-19 também variou de acordo com a região geográ- fica. Essas evidências podem ser úteis para outros países com cenários semelhantes e para os formuladores de políticas encarregados de manejar surtos e gerenciar a saúde.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Diagnóstico de la Situación de Salud , Región del Caribe , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Diagnóstico de la Situación de Salud , Región del Caribe , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Diagnóstico de la Situación de Salud , Región del Caribe
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297165, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635822

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: 31.4 million people in low- and middle-income countries die from chronic diseases annually, particularly in Africa. To address this, strategies such as task-shifting from doctors to nurses have been proposed and have been endorsed by the World Health Organization as a potential solution; however, no comprehensive review exists describing the extent of nurse-led chronic disease management in Africa. AIMS: This study aimed to provide a thorough description of the current roles of nurses in managing chronic diseases in Africa, identify their levels of knowledge, the challenges, and gaps they encounter in this endeavor. METHODS: We performed a scoping review following the key points of the Cochrane Handbook, and two researchers independently realized each step. Searches were conducted using five databases: MEDLINE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase, between October 2021 and April 2023. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted, and the quality of the studies was assessed using the Downs and Black Scale. RESULTS: Our scoping review included 111 studies from 20 African countries, with South Africa, Nigeria, and Ghana being the most represented. Findings from the included studies revealed varying levels of knowledge. Nurses were found to be actively involved in managing common chronic diseases from diagnosis to treatment. Facilitating factors included comprehensive training, close supervision by physicians, utilization of decision trees, and mentorship. However, several barriers were identified, such as a shortage of nurses, lack of essential materials, and inadequate initial training. CONCLUSION: There is significant potential for nurses to enhance the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic diseases in Africa. Achieving this requires a combination of rigorous training and effective supervision, supported by robust policies. To address varying levels of knowledge, tailored training programs should be devised. Further research is warranted to establish the effectiveness of nurse-led interventions on population health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Ghana , Enfermedad Crónica , Nigeria , Sudáfrica
15.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 87, 2024 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616261

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Overweight is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Europe, affecting almost 60% of all adults. Tackling obesity is therefore a key long-term health challenge and is vital to reduce premature mortality from NCDs. Methodological challenges remain however, to provide actionable evidence on the potential health benefits of population weight reduction interventions. This study aims to use a g-computation approach to assess the impact of hypothetical weight reduction scenarios on NCDs in Belgium in a multi-exposure context. METHODS: Belgian health interview survey data (2008/2013/2018, n = 27 536) were linked to environmental data at the residential address. A g-computation approach was used to evaluate the potential impact fraction (PIF) of population weight reduction scenarios on four NCDs: diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and musculoskeletal (MSK) disease. Four scenarios were considered: 1) a distribution shift where, for each individual with overweight, a counterfactual weight was drawn from the distribution of individuals with a "normal" BMI 2) a one-unit reduction of the BMI of individuals with overweight, 3) a modification of the BMI of individuals with overweight based on a weight loss of 10%, 4) a reduction of the waist circumference (WC) to half of the height among all people with a WC:height ratio greater than 0.5. Regression models were adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. RESULTS: The first scenario resulted in preventing a proportion of cases ranging from 32.3% for diabetes to 6% for MSK diseases. The second scenario prevented a proportion of cases ranging from 4.5% for diabetes to 0.8% for MSK diseases. The third scenario prevented a proportion of cases, ranging from 13.6% for diabetes to 2.4% for MSK diseases and the fourth scenario prevented a proportion of cases ranging from 36.4% for diabetes to 7.1% for MSK diseases. CONCLUSION: Implementing weight reduction scenarios among individuals with excess weight could lead to a substantial and statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases in Belgium. The g-computation approach to assess PIF of interventions represents a straightforward approach for drawing causal inferences from observational data while providing useful information for policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Adulto , Humanos , Bélgica/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/prevención & control
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301414, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578773

RESUMEN

The prioritization of research topics in the health domain is a critical step toward channelling efforts and resources into areas that have received less attention. The objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of research priorities determined at the national level within Iran for the period spanning five years between 2009 and 2013. We extracted the required data from the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) website. Then we conducted a matching process between the titles of trials registered in the IRCT until December 3rd, 2013, and the list of national health research priorities in the domains of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The latter was compiled and regulated by the Research and Technology Deputy of the Ministry of Health since 2008. Out of the total 5,049 clinical trials registered in IRCT, 92.3% were carried out within the domain of non-communicable diseases, while 6.1% pertained to the field of communicable diseases and the remaining 1.3% in other fields. 56.4% of the clinical trials conducted in the field of communicable diseases and 32.8% of those conducted in the field of non-communicable diseases were consistent with the research priorities determined in these two fields. During the five-year period of the prioritization goal, there was no significant improvement in adherence to the list of priorities compared to the previous five-year period. Furthermore, certain priorities were neglected within both areas during these periods. It is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of research prioritization using the data obtained from the registration centers of clinical trials. Our study has revealed that the list of priorities has not garnered adequate attention from the research community within the country. Hence, remedial measures are imperative to ensure the priorities are given more attention after publication.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Irán , Objetivos , Datos de Salud Recolectados Rutinariamente , Sistema de Registros
17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 22(1): 46, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605301

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mexico and other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) present a growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with gender-differentiated risk factors and access to prevention, diagnosis and care. However, the political agenda in LMICs as it relates to health and gender is primarily focused on sexual and reproductive health rights and preventing violence against women. This research article analyses public policies related to gender and NCDs, identifying political challenges in the current response to women's health needs, and opportunities to promote interventions that recognize the role of gender in NCDs and NCD care in Mexico. METHODS: We carried out a political mapping and stakeholder analysis during July-October of 2022, based on structured desk research and interviews with eighteen key stakeholders related to healthcare, gender and NCDs in Mexico. We used the PolicyMaker V5 software to identify obstacles and opportunities to promote interventions that recognize the role of gender in NCDs and NCD care, from the perspective of the political stakeholders interviewed. RESULTS: We found as a political obstacle that policies and stakeholders addressing NCDs do not take a gender perspective, while policies and stakeholders addressing gender equality do not adequately consider NCDs. The gendered social and economic aspects of the NCD burden are not widely understood, and the multi-sectoral approach needed to address these aspects is lacking. Economic obstacles show that budget cuts exacerbated by the pandemic are a significant obstacle to social protection mechanisms to support those caring for people living with NCDs. CONCLUSIONS: Moving towards an effective, equity-promoting health and social protection system requires the government to adopt an intersectoral, gender-based approach to the prevention and control of NCDs and the burden of NCD care. Despite significant resource constraints, policy innovation may be possible given the willingness among some stakeholders to collaborate, particularly in the labour and legal sectors. However, care will be needed to ensure the implementation of new policies has a positive impact on both gender equity and health outcomes. Research on successful approaches in other contexts can help to identify relevant learnings for Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos , Femenino , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , México , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Derechos Humanos
18.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília; 16 abr. 2024. 20 p.
No convencional en Portugués | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, PIE | ID: biblio-1553912

RESUMEN

DESTAQUES ● Este mapa de evidências tem como objetivo apresentar estratégias que podem ser efetivas para o cuidado de pessoas com diabetes, hipertensão ou obesidade. ● Foram incluídas 93 revisões sistemáticas, cujos estudos primários foram realizados em sua maioria (65,1%) na América do Norte, Ásia e Europa. ● As intervenções foram classificadas em 5 categorias e 26 subcategorias. Observouse maior frequência da categoria "Teleconsulta/eHealth" e da subcategoria "cuidado assistencial". ● Os desfechos analisados foram classificados em clínicos e não clínicos. Desfechos clínicos foram relatados em 53 revisões sistemáticas, com destaque para a pressão arterial. Desfechos não clínicos foram relatados em 51 revisões sistemáticas, com destaque para a adesão ao tratamento farmacológico. ● As cinco categorias de intervenções - Teleconsulta/eHealth, Educação, Automonitoramento/autogerenciamento, Tratamento farmacológico, Serviço de saúde - apresentaram efeito positivo ou potencialmente positivo acima de 50% para os desfechos avaliados.


HIGHLIGHTS ● This evidence map aims to present strategies that may be effective for the care of people with diabetes, hypertension or obesity. ● 93 systematic reviews were included, the majority of whose primary studies were carried out (65.1%) in North America, Asia and Europe. ● Interventions were classified into 5 categories and 26 subcategories. There was a greater frequency of the "Teleconsultation/eHealth" category and the "assistance care" subcategory. ● The analyzed outcomes were classified as clinical and non-clinical. Clinical outcomes were reported in 53 systematic reviews, with emphasis on blood pressure. Non-clinical outcomes were reported in 51 systematic reviews, with emphasis on adherence to pharmacological treatment. ● The five categories of interventions - Teleconsultation/eHealth, Education, Self-monitoring/self-management, Pharmacological treatment, Health service - showed a positive or potentially positive effect above 50% for the evaluated outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Revisión , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensión , Obesidad
19.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.; 2024-04-05. (WHO/EURO:2024-9543-49315-73713).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-376408
20.
Cult. cuid ; 28(68): 75-90, Abr 10, 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-232314

RESUMEN

Introducción: Las enfermedades crónicas no transmisiblesvan en aumento, ocasionando discapacidad y dependenciaen quien la padece, así como la necesidad de un cuidador.La cronicidad es un concepto que se ha analizado desde lamirada de la persona que la padece, dejando un vacío en lacomprensión del significado para el cuidador.Objetivo: Comprender el significado de la cronicidad paralas personas con Enfermedades crónicas no transmisiblesy sus cuidadores informales.Materiales y métodos: Investigación cualitativa fenomenológica-hermenéutica según la propuesta de Van Manen, muestreocasual orientado por criterio, participaron 10 personasenfermas y 9 cuidadores. Los criterios de rigor de credibilidad yconfirmabilidad, confiabilidad y la transferibilidad, garantizaronla calidad del estudio.Resultados: emergieron los siguientes temas: brindar y recibircuidado como un acto de amor; unión de la familia; enfrentarsea la dureza; recibir, brindar y buscar apoyo; estar pendiente;cambio de vida; proceso de aprendizaje; una compañía paratoda la vida; imponer restricciones, limitaciones y pérdidas.Conclusiones: el significado de la cronicidad para loscuidadores y las personas enfermas es complejo, dinámicoy multidimensional; por lo tanto, es necesario realizarintervenciones que ayuden a mitigar el impacto que estaproduce en la vida de este binomio.(AU)


Introduction: Noncommunicable chronic diseasesare rising, causing disability and dependence in theones who suffer from them, as well as the necessityof a caregiver. Chronicity is a concept which has beenanalyzed from the perspective of the ill, leaving a voidin the comprehension of the meaning for the caregiver.Aim: To understand the meaning of chronicity forpeople with non transmissible chronic diseases andtheir informal caregivers.Materials and methods: Qualitative phenomenological-hermeneutic investigation according to the Van Manenproposal, casual sampling orientated by criteria withthe participation of 10 sick people and 9 caregivers.The rigor criteria of credibility and confirmability,reliability, and transferability guaranteed the qualityof the study.Results: The next topics emerged: to offer and receivecare as a love act, family union, facing the hardness,receiving, giving, and looking support, being aware,change of life, learning process, a company for wholelife, imposing restrictions, limitations, and loss.Conclusions: The meaning of chronicity for caregivers andsick people is complex, dynamic, and multidimensionalwhich is why it is important to realize interventionsthat help mitigate the impact in the life of the binomial.(AU)


Introdução: As doenças crônicas não transmissíveisestão aumentando, causando incapacidade e dependênciaem quem as sofre, bem como a necessidade de umcuidador. A cronicidade é um conceito que vem sendoanalisado na perspetiva da pessoa que a sofre, deixandouma lacuna na compreensão de seu significado parao cuidador.Objetivo: compreender o significado da cronicidadepara pessoas com doenças crônicas não transmissíveise seus cuidadores informais.Materiais e métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa fenomenológico-hermenêutica segundo a proposta de Van Manen,amostragem casual orientada por critérios, participaram10 doentes e 9 cuidadores. Os rigorosos critérios decredibilidade e confirmabilidade, confiabilidade etransferibilidade garantiram a qualidade do estudo.Resultados: emergiram os seguintes temas: dar ereceber cuidado como ato de amor; união familiar;enfrentar aspereza; receber, fornecer e buscar apoio;estar pendente; mudança de vida; processo deaprendizagem; uma empresa para a vida; imponharestrições, limitações e perdas.Conclusões: o significado da cronicidade paracuidadores e pessoas doentes é complexo, dinâmicoe multidimensional; portanto, é necessário realizarintervenções que ajudem a mitigar o impacto queisso produz na vida desse binômio.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Cuidadores , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Hermenéutica , Investigación Cualitativa
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