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2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1045, 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600531

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To analyse the changes in curative care expenditure (CCE) associated with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) before and after the Beijing healthcare reform, thus providing a reference for the healthcare system. METHODS: A total of 60 medical institutions were selected using multistage stratified cluster random sampling in Beijing, China. The records of approximately 100 million outpatients with NCDs in 2016-2018 were extracted. System of Health Accounts 2011 (SHA2011) was used to estimate the CCE. The segmented regression model was established to observe both the instant change and the slope change of intervention in interrupted time series analysis (ITSA). The study was conducted from December 2019 to May 2020 in Beijing, China. RESULTS: From SHA2011, we found that the CCE for outpatients with NCDs in Beijing were 58.59, 61.46 and 71.96 billion RMB in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. The CCE continued to rise at all hospital levels, namely, tertiary, secondary, and community-level hospitals. However, the proportion of CCE in tertiary hospitals decreased. From ITSA, we can also conclude that the CCE showed a significant increasing trend change at the three hospital levels after the intervention. The drug proportion showed a significant decreasing trend change in secondary and tertiary hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Beijing healthcare reform does have an impact on the CCE of NCDs.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Beijing/epidemiología , Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Centros de Atención Terciaria
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 222, 2021 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627271

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social mobilisation is potentially a key tool in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in fragile settings. This formative study addressed existing and potential social mobilisation mechanisms seeking behaviour to tackle NCDs in El Salvador, with an emphasis on the implications in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted 19 semi-structured interviews with health workers, government officials, NGO leaders, and community members. Interviews addressed mechanisms for social mobilisation which existed prior to COVID-19, the ways in which these mechanisms tackled NCDs, the impact of COVID-19 on social mobilisation activities and new, emerging mechanisms for social mobilisation in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Findings indicate a growing awareness of NCDs within communities, with social mobilisation activities seen as valuable in tackling NCDs. However, major barriers to NCD prevention and treatment provision remain, with COVID-19 constraining many possible social mobilisation activities, leaving NCD patients with less support. Factors linked with effective social mobilisation of communities for NCD prevention included strong engagement of community health teams within community structures and the delivery of NCD prevention and management messages through community meetings with trusted health professionals or community members. There are gender differences in the experience of NCDs and women were generally more engaged with social mobilisation activities than men. In the context of COVID-19, traditional forms of social mobilisation were challenged, and new, virtual forms emerged. However, these new forms of engagement did not benefit all, especially those in hard-to-reach rural areas. In these contexts, specific traditional forms of mobilisation such as through radio (where possible) and trusted community leaders - became increasingly important. CONCLUSIONS: New mechanisms of fostering social mobilisation include virtual connectors such as mobile phones, which enable mobilisation through platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter. However, traditional forms of social mobilisation hold value for those without access to such technology. Therefore, a combination of new and traditional mechanisms for social mobilisation hold potential for the future development of social mobilisation strategies in El Salvador and, as appropriate, in other fragile health contexts.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , El Salvador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047296, 2021 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610931

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic, lifestyle-related diseases is increasing among adults and children from low-income and middle-income countries. Despite the effectiveness of community-based interventions to address this situation, the benefits thereof may disappear in the long term, due to a lack of maintenance, especially among disadvantaged and high-risk populations. The KaziBantu randomised controlled trial conducted in 2019 consisted of two school-based health interventions, KaziKidz and KaziHealth. This study will evaluate the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of these interventions in promoting positive lifestyle changes among children and educators in disadvantaged schools in Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study has an observational, longitudinal, mixed-methods design. It will follow up educators and children from the KaziBantu study. All 160 educators enrolled in KaziHealth will be invited to participate, while the study will focus on 361 KaziKidz children (aged 10-16 years) identified as having an increased risk for non-communicable diseases. Data collection will take place 1.5 and 2 years postintervention and includes quantitative and qualitative methods, such as anthropometric measurements, clinical assessments, questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses will encompass: prevalence of health parameters; descriptive frequencies of self-reported health behaviours and quality of life; the longitudinal association of these; extent of implementation; personal experiences with the programmes and an impact analysis based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance framework. DISCUSSION: In settings where resources are scarce, sustainable and effective prevention programmes are needed. The purpose of this protocol is to outline the design of a study to evaluate KaziKidz and KaziHealth under real-world conditions in terms of effectiveness, being long-lasting and becoming institutionalised. We hypothesise that a mixed-methods approach will increase understanding of the interventions' capacity to lead to sustainable favourable health outcomes amid challenging environments, thereby generating evidence for policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15648510.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituciones Académicas
5.
Bridgetown; PAHO; 2021-10-19. (PAHO/ECC/21-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55054

RESUMEN

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the countries for the period, implementing the Multi-Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the countries, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Prioridades en Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Política de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Gestión de Riesgos , Administración Financiera , Salud Mental , Factores Socioeconómicos , Región del Caribe , Barbados
6.
Cuidad de México; OPS; 2021-10-15. (OPS/MEX/21-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55000

RESUMEN

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Prioridades en Salud , Políticas, Planificación y Administración en Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Sistemas de Salud , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura de los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Salud Mental , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Administración en Salud Pública , América del Norte , México
7.
Kingston 7; PAHO; 2021-10-14. (PAHO/JAM/21-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54996

RESUMEN

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the country for the period, implementing the Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the country, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Prioridades en Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Política de Salud , Acceso Universal a los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Salud Mental , Servicios de Salud , Administración Financiera , Administración en Salud , Región del Caribe , Jamaica
8.
Port-of-Spain; PAHO; 2021-10-04. (PAHO/TTO/21-0002).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54949

RESUMEN

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the country for the period, implementing the Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the country, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Prioridades en Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Acceso Universal a los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Salud Mental , Administración Financiera , Región del Caribe , Trinidad y Tobago
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-19.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55057

RESUMEN

This publication explores the subject of front-of-package labeling (FOPL) for food products as a means to help combat the trend toward unhealthy eating. It analyzes the methods, tools, and procedures of research into FOPL with a view to enhancing its role in regulations governing food products in the Region of the Americas. The publication makes recommendations relating to FOPL research – how it should be conducted, how results should be communicated, how FOPL schemes should be selected, and what the priorities should be. It also contains useful annexes that include, for example, a focus group discussion guide, a questionnaire, and a protocol for FOPL research. The Americas is the region of the world with the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in the world. In 2016, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were responsible for 78% of all deaths in the Region. Thirty-four percent of these NCD-related deaths occurred prematurely in people between the ages of 30 and 69 years. This implies that NCDs have a huge economic impact on societies. Unhealthy eating is the main modifiable factor that is driving this situation. In particular, consumption of ultra-processed products and of processed products that are nutrient poor and energy-dense and contain excessive levels of nutrients associated with NCDs has been identified as a main contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. From a public health perspective, the efficacy and effectiveness of FOPL labeling will mainly depend on its ability to encourage consumers to make healthier food choices and to reduce the purchase and consumption of products that impair diets and health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Embalaje de Alimentos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Aditivos Alimentarios , Conservantes de Alimentos , Contaminación de Alimentos , Calidad de los Alimentos
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-19. (PAHO/NMH/RF/21-0014).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55055

RESUMEN

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) expects this publication to help its Member States identify, prevent, and manage potential conflicts of interest in potential engagement with non-State actors in their nutrition programs. The publication sets out a roadmap for introducing and implementing in the Region of the Americas the Draft Approach for the Prevention and Management of Conflicts of Interest in the Policy Development and Implementation of Nutrition Programmes at Country Level, published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in December 2017. This roadmap describes how relevant teams within Member States’ Ministries of Health can be introduced to and gain familiarity with the WHO approach and the use of associated WHO and triage tools, with support and guidance from staff of PAHO. This roadmap aims to: introduce decisionmakers in relevant government agencies to the principles underlying the WHO approach; adapt and develop complementary formats of the WHO approach to fit with existing decision-making processes at a national level; and supplement the full WHO tool with a shorter triage tool to increase accessibility and to enable more effective engagement and use in real-life decision-making regarding potential engagements with non-State actors. The publication explains how these aims can be addressed through a three-stage approach. It also contains annexes that cover case studies, workshop agendas, and a triage tool for evaluating potential engagement with non-state actors.


Asunto(s)
Triaje , Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Programas de Nutrición , Toma de Decisiones , Conflicto de Intereses , Sistemas de Salud , Planes y Programas de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Américas
11.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54977

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Alcanzar la equidad en salud y abordar los determinantes sociales de la salud son aspectos fundamentales para alcanzar las metas en materia de salud y relacionadas con la salud de la Agenda para el Desarrollo Sostenible 2030 y sus Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Los marcos de referencia para la salud, como la Agenda de Salud Sostenible para las Américas 2018-2030, hacen hincapié en la reducción de las desigualdades en salud y en “no dejar a nadie atrás” en el desarrollo sostenible a nivel nacional. La equidad en salud incluye la promoción de la salud universal y el enfoque de atención primaria de salud, con un acceso equitativo de todas las personas a servicios de salud oportunos, de calidad, integrales y centrados en las personas y la comunidad que no ocasionen empobrecimiento. La rendición de cuentas por esos avances es igualmente importante, y un signo distintivo de una gobernanza adecuada. Los gobiernos tienen la responsabilidad primordial de reducir las desigualdades en salud y deben rendir cuentas de sus políticas y su desempeño. La sociedad civil es una parte interesada fundamental para promover un desarrollo nacional sostenible y equitativo, y debe formar parte de los mecanismos eficaces de rendición de cuentas. La Coalición Caribe Saludable —la única alianza regional del Caribe de organizaciones de la sociedad civil dedicada a prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles, una prioridad de sanitaria importante acrecentada por las desigualdades— ha desempeñado un papel importante en hacer que los gobiernos rindan cuentas de la promoción de la equidad en salud. En este estudio se examinan los factores que han contribuido al éxito de la Coalición Caribe Saludable, con énfasis en la labor realizada en el marco de sus cinco pilares estratégicos —rendición de cuentas, promoción de la causa, desarrollo de capacidad, comunicación y sostenibilidad— así como los retos, las enseñanzas extraídas y otras consideraciones para lograr una mayor eficacia.


[ABSTRACT]. Achieving health equity and addressing the social determinants of health are critical to attaining the health and health-related targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals. Frameworks for health, including the Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas 2018 – 2030, emphasize reduction of health inequities and “leaving no one behind” in national sustainable development. Health equity includes advancing universal health and the primary health care approach, with equitable access for all people to timely, quality, comprehensive, people- and community-centered services that do not cause impoverishment. Equally important, and a hallmark of good governance, is accountability for such advances. Governments have primary responsibility for reducing health inequities and must be held accountable for their policies and performance. Civil society has been recognized as a key partner in advancing sustainable and equitable national development. Effective accountability mechanisms should include civic engagement. The Healthy Caribbean Coalition (HCC), the only Caribbean regional alliance of civil society organizations working to prevent and control noncommunicable diseases—a major health priority fueled by inequities—has played a significant role in holding governments accountable for advancing health equity. This case study examines factors contributing to the success of the HCC, highlighting work under its five strategic pillars— accountability, advocacy, capacity development, communication, and sustainability—as well as challenges, lessons learned, and considerations for greater effectiveness.


[RESUMO]. Conquistar a equidade em saúde e abordar os determinantes sociais da saúde são essenciais para atingir as metas de saúde e as relacionadas à saúde da Agenda 2030 para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e seus Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável. As estruturas para a saúde, incluindo a Agenda de Saúde Sustentável para as Américas 2018-2030, enfatizam a redução das iniquidades em saúde “sem deixar ninguém para trás”, quando se trata do desenvolvimento sustentável nacional. A equidade em saúde inclui impul-sionar a saúde universal e a abordagem da atenção primária à saúde, habilitando o acesso equitativo por todas as pessoas a serviços oportunos, de qualidade, integrais, centrados no atendimento às pessoas e às comunidades de maneira a não causar o empobrecimento. A questão da responsabilidade por tais avanços é igualmente importante, e é um selo de distinção de boa gestão. Os governos são os principais responsáveis pela redução das iniquidades em saúde e precisam ser responsabilizados por suas políticas e por seu desempenho. Reconheceu-se que a sociedade civil desempenha um papel essencial na promoção do desenvolvimento nacional sustentável e equitativo. Para que sejam eficazes, os mecanismos de responsabilização devem incluir a participação cívica. A Coalizão do Caribe Saudável (HCC), a única aliança de organizações da sociedade civil que trabalha na prevenção e no controle de doenças não transmissíveis na região do Caribe — uma grande prioridade de saúde movida pelas iniquidades — tem desempenhado uma função significativa na responsabilização dos governos pelo avanço da equidade em saúde. Este estudo examina os fatores que contribuem para o sucesso da HCC e destaca o trabalho da perspectiva dos cinco pilares estratégicos — responsabilidade, promoção de causa, desenvolvimento das capacidades, comunicação e sustentabilidade —, bem como os desafios, as lições aprendidas e as considerações para que se torne ainda mais eficaz.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Sociedad Civil , Gobernanza , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Región del Caribe , Equidad en Salud , Sociedad Civil , Gobernanza , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Región del Caribe , Equidad en Salud , Sociedad Civil , Gobernanza , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Región del Caribe
12.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-08.
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54972

RESUMEN

Las Herramientas del mhGAP para usar en la comunidad forman parte del Programa de Acción para Superar las Brechas en Salud Mental de la OMS (conocido como mhGAP), que tiene como propósito que las personas con trastornos de salud mental reciban servicios de salud mental de alta calidad y basados en la evidencia, con vistas a alcanzar la cobertura universal de salud. La finalidad de estas herramientas es promover la ampliación de los servicios de salud mental más allá del entorno de la atención primaria de salud. La parte 1 contiene un marco útil para comprender las necesidades de una comunidad y las brechas existentes en los servicios, realizar un ejercicio de elaboración de un mapa de los servicios y obtener orientación sobre la forma de desarrollar una colaboración intersectorial y realizar la capacitación y la supervisión de los prestadores de servicios a la comunidad. La parte 2 proporciona consejos prácticos para llevar a cabo las actividades y las intervenciones de salud mental en la comunidad.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Salud Mental , Servicios de Salud Mental , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-08. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0007).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54970

RESUMEN

Protecting health workers’ mental health is an essential and permanent component in the management of health systems and services, something that has been forcefully demonstrated by the pandemic of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This publication contains a series of general considerations, cross-cutting actions, and measures for protecting the health workers' well-being and mental health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Salud Mental , Sistemas de Salud , Personal de Salud , Atención a la Salud , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Sustancias de Abuso por Vía Oral
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-04. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0022).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54950

RESUMEN

This one-page fact sheet provides a concise explanation of the impacts of alcohol consumption on people’s sleep. Alcohol consumption can affect the quality and duration of sleep, suppress REM sleep, and worsen the symptoms of sleep apnea and insomnia. In particular, the fact sheet highlights the vicious circle of alcohol use disorders and disturbed sleep, stresses the link between sleeping well and overall health, and urges people to seek help if their drinking is interfering with their sleep. Last, it offers five simple tips to help people improve their sleep.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Salud Mental , Sustancias de Abuso por Vía Oral , Factores de Riesgo , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Sueño , Sueño REM , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño
15.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-01. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0020).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54948

RESUMEN

This fact sheet briefly describes hepatitis C and the risks related to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), principally liver cirrhosis. It then summarizes the negative impacts of alcohol consumption on HCV and liver cirrhosis. It goes on to suggest what drinkers with hepatitis C can do, and concludes with some recommendations for healthcare professionals and policymakers. The fact sheet also provides a list of references.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis C , Hepatopatías , Hepatitis Alcohólica , Virus de Hepatitis , Hígado Graso Alcohólico , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Hepatitis Viral Humana , Hepatitis C Crónica , Hepatitis Crónica , Formulación de Políticas , Salud Pública , Sistemas de Salud , Sistemas Públicos de Salud , Planes de Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2019, there are more than 290 million people who have ever migrated from rural to urban areas in China. These rural-to-urban internal migrants account for more than one-fifth of China's population and is the largest internal migrant group globally. We present the first systematic review that examines whether internal migrants are more likely to exhibit non-communicable diseases (NCDs) risk factors and have worse NCD management outcomes than non-migrant counterparts in China. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted via medical, public health, and economic databases including Scopus, MEDLINE, JSTOR, WHO Library Database and World Bank e-Library from 2000 to 2020. Study quality was assessed using the National Institute of Health Quality Assessment tool. We conducted a narrative review and synthesised differences for all studies included, stratified by different types of outcomes. We also conducted random-effects meta-analysis where we had a minimum of two studies with 95% CIs reported. The study protocol has been registered with PROSPERO: CRD42019139407. RESULTS: For most NCD risk factors and care cascade management, comparisons between internal migrants and other populations were either statistically insignificant or inconclusive. While most studies found migrants have a higher prevalence of tobacco use than urban residents, these differences were not statistically significant in the meta-analysis. Although three out four studies suggested that migrants may have worse access to NCD treatment and both studies suggested migrants have lower blood pressure control rates than non-migrants, these findings were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Findings from this systematic review demonstrate that there is currently insufficient evidence on migrant and non-migrant differences in NCD risk factors and management in China. Further research is expected to investigate access to healthcare among internal and its effect on both their NCD outcomes and long-term healthcare costs in China.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Migrantes , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 462-468, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620356

RESUMEN

BACKGROUNDS & AIMS: Literature shows that the most studied concurrent risk factors for mortality in elderly individuals are smoking, inadequate diet, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. The combination of such habits can increase from 3 to 11 times the chance of death. To measure the association between concurrence of behavioral risk factors (BRF) for non-communicable diseases (NCD's) and mortality up to three years among the elderly. METHODS: Cohort study started in 2014 named "COMO VAI?" with community-dwelling aged ≥60 years in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We investigated the deaths from all causes occurred until April 2017. The exposure was defined by the presence of physical inactivity, low-quality diet, alcohol consumption and smoking that composed a score ranging from 0 (none) to 4 (all). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to evaluate the association between BRF concurrence and mortality. RESULTS: In 2014, 1451 elderly people were interviewed, 145 deaths were identified (10%) by April 2017. Higher risk of death was observed for the combinations of physical inactivity + smoking and low-quality diet + physical inactivity. The simultaneous presence of three or more BRF was associated with a nearly six-fold higher risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Higher mortality during a 3-year period was observed among those with at least three BRF for NCD's.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar
18.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48435

RESUMEN

O Ministério da Saúde, por meio da Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde (SVS), deu início à Semana das Doenças Crônicas não Transmissíveis. O evento, que ocorre até amanhã (16), tem apresentado o atual cenário das doenças e agravos não transmissíveis no país


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Brasil , Enfermedad Crónica/prevención & control , Atención a la Salud/métodos
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 143, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527159

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted health systems worldwide, gravely threatening continuity of care for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly in low-resource settings. We describe our efforts to maintain the continuity of care for patients with NCDs in rural western Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic, using a five-component approach: 1) Protect: protect staff and patients; 2) Preserve: ensure medication availability and clinical services; 3) Promote: conduct health education and screenings for NCDs and COVID-19; 4) Process: collect process indicators and implement iterative quality improvement; and 5) Plan: plan for the future and ensure financial risk protection in the face of a potentially overwhelming health and economic catastrophe. As the pandemic continues to evolve, we must continue to pursue new avenues for improvement and expansion. We anticipate continuing to learn from the evolving local context and our global partners as we proceed with our efforts.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Humanos , Kenia , Servicios de Salud Rural/organización & administración
20.
J Public Health Policy ; 42(3): 422-438, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497378

RESUMEN

This study is an evaluation of the first cohort of patients enrolled in an outpatient non-communicable disease clinic in Kono, Sierra Leone. In the first year, the clinic enrolled 916 patients. Eight months after the enrollment of the last patient, 53% were still active in care, 43% had been lost to follow-up (LTFU) and 4% had defaulted. Of the LTFU patients, 47% only came for the initial enrollment visit and never returned. Treatment outcomes of three patient groups [HTN only (n = 720), DM only (n = 51), and HTN/DM (n = 96)] were analyzed through a retrospective chart review. On average, all groups experienced reductions in blood pressure and/or blood glucose of approximately 10% and 20%, respectively. The proportions of patients with their condition controlled also increased. As NCDs remain underfunded and under-prioritized in low-income countries, the integrated program in Kono demonstrates the possibility of improving outpatient NCD care in Sierra Leone and similar settings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Presión Sanguínea , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Población Rural , Sierra Leona/epidemiología
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