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1.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 38(2): [100235], Apr.-Jun. 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-231861

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives The Economic Activity Restriction (EAR) due to health conditions is being utilized as a foundational measure for the European indicator Healthy Life Years (HLY). The EAR group is experiencing limitations not only in economic activities but also in overall activities, and it is a population with a high likelihood of transitioning to mental illness due to health condition. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between EAR and mental illness. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the association between EAR due to health conditions and mental illness for those aged 45 and older in South Korea. Methods We obtained data from the 2006–2020 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. EAR was assessed using self-reported questionnaires based on the Global Activity Limitation Indicator. mental illness was assessed based on the diagnosis data for participants who had been diagnosed. After excluding missing values, the data of 9,574 participants were analyzed using the chi-square test, log-rank tests, and time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the association between EAR and mental illness. Results Out of the 9,574 participants gathered at baseline, the mental illness rate was 4.8 %. The hazard ratio (HR) of mental illness in those in the “very probable” of EAR was 2.351 times higher (p-value <0.0001) compared with “not at all” of EAR. In model 1 which includes under 64 years, HR of mental illness in “very probable” of EAR was 3.679 times higher (p-value: 0.000) and in “probable” of EAR was 2.535 time higher (p-value: 0.001) compared with “not at all” of EAR. Conclusion If we provide opportunities to participate in community activities or provide the mental health promotion programs for middle-aged population who are experiencing EAR due to health condition... (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermos Mentales/psicología , Ausencia por Enfermedad , /psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 50(1): 14-21, Ene.-Mar. 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229293

RESUMEN

Introducción el suicidio sigue siendo una de las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. Debido a la relación entre la conducta suicida y el trastorno mental, nuestro objetivo es determinar el número de personas que recibían atención por la Red de Salud Mental entre el total de suicidios consumados entre 2017 y 2022 en Gran Canaria, así como las características de dicha población y de la atención recibida. Material y métodos estudio longitudinal observacional retrospectivo en el que la población de estudio fue extraída del total de suicidios de la base de datos del Instituto de Medicina Legal de Gran Canaria. Posteriormente, los datos fueron cotejados por las bases de datos de la Red de Salud Mental. Por último, se realizó un análisis estadístico univariante y los resultados fueron comparados en función del sexo y la atención en la Unidad de Salud Mental Comunitaria. Resultados solo un 39,4% había recibido atención por parte de la unidad de salud mental, siendo la mayoría mujeres (55,3% vs. 34,6%), con una media de edad de 50,9 años para ambos sexos. Los antecedentes de intentos previos fueron mucho más frecuentes en la población que recibía atención (45,4% vs. 7%), así como la atención en urgencias (42% vs. 5,7%) y los ingresos hospitalarios (25,3% vs. 0,7%). Conclusión menos de la mitad de las personas fallecidas tuvieron contacto con una unidad de salud mental comunitaria. Además, la atención por esta es mayor entre aquellas personas con intentos previos y entre el sexo femenino, siendo el diagnóstico más frecuente el de los trastornos afectivos monopolares. (AU)


Introduction Suicide remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Due to the relationship between suicidal behavior and mental disorder, our aim is to determine the number of people who received care by the Mental Health Network among the total number of suicides consummated between 2017 and 2022 in Gran Canaria, as well as the characteristics of that population and the care received. Material and methods Longitudinal observational retrospective study in which the study population was extracted from the total number of suicides in the database of the Legal Medicine Institute. Subsequently, the data were cross-checked by the Mental Health Network databases. Finally, a univariate statistical analysis was carried out and the results were compared according to sex and care in the Community Mental Health Unit. Results Only 39.4% had received care at the Mental Health Unit, the majority being women (55.3% vs. 34.6%), with a mean age of 50.9 years for both sexes. History of previous attempts was much more frequent in the population receiving care (45.4% vs. 7%), as well as emergency care (42% vs. 5.7%) and hospital admissions (25.3% vs. 0.7%). Conclusion Less than half of the deceased persons had contact with a Community Mental Health Unit. In addition, care by this unit was higher among those with previous attempts and among the female sex, with the most frequent diagnosis being monopolar affective disorders. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Suicidio , Enfermos Mentales , Trastornos Mentales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , España/epidemiología
3.
Br J Nurs ; 33(5): 273-274, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446516

RESUMEN

Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, considers the notion of residual liberty and the need for further authorisation when a detained patient is given treatment for a physical disorder under restraint.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Enfermos Mentales , Humanos , Pacientes , Restricción Física , Universidades
4.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 96, 2024 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519880

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients dealing with severe mental illnesses (SMI) often face suboptimal clinical outcomes and higher mortality rates due to a range of factors, including undetected physical health conditions. The provision of care for individuals with SMI is frequently disjointed, as they engage with diverse healthcare providers. Despite this fragmentation, primary care, particularly general practitioners (GPs), assumes a pivotal role in the care of SMI patients. Our study aimed to delve into the first-hand experiences of GPs in delivering somatic care to SMI patients, concentrating on the challenges they encounter and the strategies they employ to navigate these difficulties. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with fifteen GPs, utilizing a semi-structured interview guide, supplemented by ethnographic observations during clinical consultations in general practice. Through inductive coding, interview transcripts and observational field notes were systematically analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings were then deliberated upon within the author group. RESULTS: GPs revealed that managing the chronic somatic care of SMI patients posed significant challenges. These challenges encompassed the multifaceted needs of patients, their behavior tied to symptoms, a lack of care continuity, and overarching time constraints. To tackle these challenges, the GPs had devised various strategies. However, all participants underscored the critical importance of having adequate time to properly prepare for, conduct, and follow up on consultations. CONCLUSION: The GPs' interactions with SMI patients brought numerous challenges, although treating these patients were concurrently acknowledged as vital and fulfilling. The findings suggest that increased allocated time in general practice consultations for patients with SMI is important to support the somatic treatment requirements of this patient group.


Asunto(s)
Medicina General , Médicos Generales , Trastornos Mentales , Enfermos Mentales , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Investigación Cualitativa
5.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 30(1): 23-31, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227724

RESUMEN

Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide and remains a critical public health challenge. The burden of disease caused by smoking is disproportionately borne by persons living with mental illness. Public health efforts to address smoking have not historically translated to a significant reduction in smoking prevalence among patients with mental illness. Smoking is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality among psychiatric patients who smoke at 1.7 to 3.3 times the rate of the general population. Among those with serious mental illness, tobacco-related illness accounts for half of all deaths. Nicotine dependence also interferes with treatment and worsens many psychiatric symptoms. Interventions are underutilized due to persistent misunderstandings regarding tobacco cessation for patients who are mentally ill. Addressing these misunderstandings is crucial in targeting the disparate rates of smoking in this population. Therefore, it is incumbent on psychiatrists to address the outsized effect that smoking has on patients with mental illness.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Enfermos Mentales , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaquismo , Humanos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/terapia , Tabaquismo/psicología , Prevalencia , Pacientes
6.
Nervenarzt ; 95(3): 247-253, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medical interaction and exploration techniques are the most important tools that medical students have to acquire in the subject of psychiatry and psychotherapy. The new digital technologies currently available, such as virtual reality (VR), as important supplements can contribute to a significant improvement in the teaching of psychiatric-psychopathological learning content as well as, in particular, the technique of ascertaining the psychiatric history and diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the Bochum Avatar Exploration Project (AVEX) as part of the curricular course in medical studies at the Ruhr University Bochum for its possibilities to convey learning content and techniques of anamnesis and diagnosis in the subject of psychiatry and psychotherapy. METHODS: In AVEX, a total of 87 medical students in the clinical study section have so far been able to enter into a dialogue with "mentally ill" avatars and gain experience with VR technology as a learning and teaching method in the subject of psychiatry and psychotherapy. RESULTS: Despite the limited possibilities for interaction with the digital avatars, it is possible to achieve a substantial transfer of learning content in psychiatry; however, the students must be well supported by the lecturers. CONCLUSION: The AVEX project already shows promising possibilities for supplementing the teaching of medical students, even if the fit of questions and replies in dialogue with the virtual avatars still needs to be improved. As advances in the linguistic communication of emotions and the visual effects of the avatar representation can be predicted, the significance of this technology will continue to increase.


Asunto(s)
Enfermos Mentales , Estudiantes de Medicina , Realidad Virtual , Humanos , Aprendizaje
8.
Australas Psychiatry ; 32(2): 143-146, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37649160

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To provide a brief biography of Dr Richard Greenup and to explore the legacy he has left to one of Australia's longest operating psychiatric services. METHODS: This history was obtained by consulting staff working within Cumberland Hospital, New South Wales and by examining primary and secondary sources. RESULTS: Greenup was the second surgeon superintendent of 'The Parramatta Lunatic Asylum' from 1852 until 1866 when he was fatally stabbed with a pair of scissors by a patient. Greenup was involved in establishing The University of Sydney and advocated for expanded and improved services for people diagnosed with mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Greenup recognised the needs of the mentally ill and sought to address similar social and demographic determinants of health to those that we face today. The challenges he faced, and his tragic end remind us of the importance of delivering patient-centred care whilst being mindful of associated risks.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Servicios de Salud Mental , Enfermos Mentales , Masculino , Humanos , Australia , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Nueva Gales del Sur , Hospitales Psiquiátricos
10.
Community Ment Health J ; 60(2): 208-214, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37787887

RESUMEN

Mental health ethics has been classically focused on ethical concepts and problems in clinical mental health spaces. Psychiatric and psychotherapeutic ethics are main threads of analysis in this subfield of bioethics. However, ethical issues emerge around mental health and illness both within and beyond clinical settings. In particular, ethical quandaries arise in employment, education, family caregiving, and incarceration of people with mental health conditions outside of the clinical setting. Likewise, ethics are an important consideration within alternative care systems where mentally ill people seek support beyond biomedicine, psychotherapy, and case management. In this article, we argue that our understanding of "mental health ethics" should expand to be more inclusive of value questions and conflicts that arise in all areas of the lives of people with mental health conditions, rather than focusing more narrowly on how clinical practitioners and researchers should best respond to ethical quandaries in the delivery of mental healthcare. Community mental health is an ideal space in which to think about such ethical issues, as scholars and practitioners in the field strive to meet not only medical needs but the broader social needs of people with mental health conditions. We begin by providing an overview of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic ethics, and then describe broader applications of ethics in the lives of people experiencing mental illness. We encourage community mental health practitioners and researchers to reconceptualize disciplinary boundaries to consider the vast scope of ethical issues related to mental health in and out of the clinic.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Enfermos Mentales , Humanos , Salud Mental , Trastornos Mentales/terapia
11.
Nervenarzt ; 95(1): 18-27, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110535

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Germany different offers of social support are available for families that are provided by different sectors, e.g., the youth welfare and the healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: Documentation of the utilized help, child-related factors that are associated with the utilization and the parental desires for support. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 160 parents undergoing (partial) inpatient treatment in psychiatric hospitals via an oral interview using standardized and semi-standardized instruments. RESULTS: The results show that nonprofessional help by family and friends as well as support offers provided by the healthcare system are used most frequently. Families that perceived their children as more burdened receive more help than families with children judged as being less burdened. There are regional differences especially in the utilization of high-threshold help by the healthcare system. DISCUSSION: Support offers seem to reach families with mental illnesses, especially those that are particularly burdened; however, there are regional differences regarding the utilization of support as well as the wishes for specific support offers.


Asunto(s)
Hijo de Padres Discapacitados , Trastornos Mentales , Enfermos Mentales , Adolescente , Humanos , Enfermos Mentales/psicología , Padres/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Familia , Hijo de Padres Discapacitados/psicología
12.
Psychiatr Pol ; 57(3): 577-589, 2023 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043074

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to present the authors´ comments on the analysis of the conditions for admitting a person to a psychiatric hospital against their will on the basis of a judgment issued by a guardianship court as part of proceedings initiated at the request of an authorized entity, and the assumptions contained therein are based on applicable normative acts. METHODS: The method of analyzing the current provisions of medical law was used, and of the social security law were also referred to. The judicature of the courts, in particular the Supreme Court, was collected, presented and considered, which constitute a practical guide in assessing whether or not the conditions for admitting a patient to a psychiatric hospital without their consent have been met. RESULTS: Placing a mentally ill person in a psychiatric hospital without their consent, in a situation where the person does not pose a direct threat to their health and life, or to the health and life of third parties, and does not pose a threat to public safety, is quite a specific restriction of the human right to freedom, sanctioned by the state. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of Article 29 (1) of the Mental Health Act is a special provision, it should be interpreted strictly, without referring to the principles of broad interpretation or analogy, and the supreme directive of the courts' actions should be the requirement that the ruling should be purposeful from the point of view of the good and interest of the person concerned.


Asunto(s)
Enfermos Mentales , Humanos , Hospitales Psiquiátricos , Hospitalización , Salud Mental , Consentimiento Informado
16.
Coimbra; s.n; set. 2023. 92 p. tab., ilus..
Tesis en Portugués | BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1531725

RESUMEN

O presente Relatório apresenta-se como trabalho final de Mestrado em Enfermagem de Saúde Mental e Psiquiátrica, na Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra. É composto por duas partes principais: (1) Relatório de Estágio, que apresenta uma reflexão crítica de como foram adquiridas as competências de enfermeiro especialista, nomeadamente em saúde mental e psiquiátrica; e (2) Relatório de Investigação, que incide sobre o tema "Avaliação de Risco Clínico e Ocorrência de Incidentes em Pacientes Psiquiátricos". O objetivo do Relatório de Estágio é refletir sobre as práticas baseadas em evidência e a aquisição de competências especializadas. Pretende-se, ainda, o desenvolvimento de competências de investigação, através da realização de uma revisão de evidência de eficácia, cujo objetivo é avaliar o impacto da avaliação de risco clínico na ocorrência de incidentes com utentes do foro psiquiátrico. Recorre-se a uma prática descritiva e reflexiva no primeiro capítulo, no que concerne aos locais de estágio. Posteriormente, com base no trabalho de campo realizado nos estágios, procedeu-se a uma pesquisa e síntese de literatura para o projeto de estudo, a fim de dar resposta à questão de investigação: ?Qual o impacto da avaliação do risco clínico na ocorrência de episódios de violência em doentes psiquiátricos??. Considera-se que o presente Relatório evidencia a transladação dos conhecimentos adquiridos em contexto académico para a prática, contribuindo para a melhoria contínua dos cuidados de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental e Psiquiátrica, prestados com base em evidência científica.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería Psiquiátrica , Competencia Clínica , Medición de Riesgo , Enfermos Mentales , Enfermeras Especialistas
17.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 32(6): 1773-1778, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37612892

RESUMEN

The use of physical restraint had caused a series of unexpected impacts on patients, particularly psychological trauma. This qualitative study aimed to identify perspectives on physical restraint among patients with mental health conditions and to seek effective interventions targeting the psychological trauma which is caused by physical restraint. A semi-structured interview was conducted in a public psychiatric hospital in China to explore perspectives on physical restraint among 26 patients who had undergone or witnessed physical restraint. The interview was conducted by experienced and qualified interviewers with mental health service backgrounds. The interviews were recorded and transcribed into words, and then preliminary themes were extracted and coded, finally thematic analysis was used to identify focused themes. Five themes were extracted: these were as follows: (1) The negative effects of physical restraint on patients; (2) The impairment of the relationship between nurse and patient due to physical restraint; (3) The decrease in patients' treatment adherence caused by physical restraint; (4) The positive outcomes of physical restraint; (5) The expectations of patients for improving the quality of nursing care. Conclusively, the use of physical restraint had critical impacts on patients, including psychological trauma, destruction of the nurse-patient relationship, and decreased adherence of treatment. These negative effects could impede clinical work.


Asunto(s)
Enfermos Mentales , Restricción Física , Humanos , Restricción Física/psicología , Hospitales Psiquiátricos , Investigación Cualitativa , Pacientes
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1425: 1-11, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37581776

RESUMEN

Mentally ill offenders constitute a vulnerable population group with unique characteristics, and have endured multiple public stigmatizations, which has not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of this study was to capture attitudes of the public toward mentally ill offenders in relation to their perceptions of mental illness in general, as well as their degree of familiarity with it. Our sample of 2059 people can be overall described as a men preponderance, married, with mean value age of 26 years, higher educational level, and medium or higher socio-economic status. Participants completed the ATMIO, CAMI, and Familiarity scales online. The total familiarity index value with mental illness was found to be 4.88, which counts as moderate to low. It was also concluded that women and those with a high educational level sustained more positive attitudes toward mentally ill offenders. However, negative stereotypes (with a mean value of 26.20), stigmatizing attitudes related to risk in the community (mean 16.10), and reduced responsibility for actions (mean 9.45) were recorded, while some (mean 16.50) showed compassion and emphasized on the mentally ill need of rehabilitation. The youngest people were the ones who recorded the most absolute and harsh attitudes. These findings validate the need of raising awareness and informing, especially, the young public about issues of mental health, including the need to oppose prejudices with everyday measures, which can be accessible to the new generation. Besides, we should extend research to various professional groups that come in contact with mentally ill offenders in order to collect data, which could contribute for intervening policies and formulating different sets of strategies for those people.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Trastornos Mentales , Enfermos Mentales , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Grecia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Estereotipo
19.
Australas Psychiatry ; 31(6): 782-785, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37625817

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Mental health (MH) patients seen in the emergency department (ED) setting are often viewed in isolation, outside of the context of their loved ones, the next of kin (NOK). This is especially problematic when a patient is detained under the mental health act. This project aimed to improve this engagement. METHODS: A sense of urgency was created from a guiding coalition of the local MH and ED executive of a rural hospital. The vision was communicated to the team for action. This was then institutionally incorporated as best practice during a 3 month trial. RESULTS: NOK were engaged more frequently as a result of this quality improvement strategy, rising to 90.8% (2021) from 63.2% (2020) compared to the previous year χ2 (1, N=166) =18.75, p = .000015. Admissions for all MH patients from the emergency department fell to 28.3% (2021) from 39% (2020) χ2 (1, N=652) =8.32, p = .0039. CONCLUSIONS: Working with NOK is a best practice strategy that was embraced by clinicians when highlighted. This resulted in less restrictive practice and more community treatment. Creating a frame for the patient that is standardised, provides containment and co-designs future health care is beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Enfermos Mentales , Alta del Paciente , Humanos , Salud Mental , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Hospitalización , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital
20.
GMS J Med Educ ; 40(4): Doc46, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37560049

RESUMEN

Aim: Stigmatization by healthcare workers poses a challenge to providing care to the mentally ill. Bedside teaching during undergraduate medical education offers students an opportunity to directly interact with patients with a range of psychiatric disorders and thereby gather reflective experience. The present study investigates if this supervised contact with mentally ill patients during a one-week clinical course on psychosomatic medicine leads to stigma reduction in medical students. The factors influencing stigmatization were also investigated. Method: This was a prospective, non-randomized, controlled interventional study done in the 2019/20 winter semester involving fourth-year medical students who attended a week-long practical block on psychosomatic medicine (intervention group). This group was compared to students who had attended a week-long practical block with a somatic focus during the same time period (control group). Stigmatization was measured before and immediately upon completion of the week using the MICA-4 scale. Data on age, sex, experience with the mentally ill, interest in psychiatry/psychosomatics, and sense of self-worth were also gathered prior to starting the practical block. Analysis of the sample of 143 students with a complete basic data set was carried out using mixed ANOVA, multiple linear regression and moderator analysis. Results: In the context of clinical teaching with psychiatric patients, the stigmatization of the mentally ill among medical students decreased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the students in the control group who received instruction on somatic topics (p=.019, η2p=.04). In addition, being female, having previous experience with the mentally ill and general interest in the subjects of psychiatry or psychosomatics at T0 associated with lower stigma. In contrast, stigmatization was increased at the beginning of the study in males and those with low self-esteem. A moderating effect of the factors on stigma reduction was not seen. Conclusion: Undergraduate clinical instruction that enables direct contact and reflective experiences with the mentally ill leads to a reduction in the stigmatizing attitudes held by medical students toward the mentally ill. This underscores the need to have practical clinical instruction using patients.


Asunto(s)
Enfermos Mentales , Estudiantes de Medicina , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estereotipo , Enfermos Mentales/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente
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