Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 971
Filtrar
1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(6): 1600-1604, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011750

RESUMEN

The procedure involved an ab-externo scleral fixation technique using a double-armed 10-0 polypropylene suture with straight needles that require no scleral flaps. The IOLs are sutured to the sclera, the free suture ends are tied to the suture loops, and they are buried together under the sclera. Forty eyes of 37 patients were included. Postoperative complications are IOL capture in five eyes (12.5%), a significant IOL tilt in one eye (2.5%), recurrent UGH (uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema) syndrome in two eyes (5%), glaucoma in three eyes (7.5%), suture exposure in two eyes (5%) and IOL drop due to haptic breakage in one eye (2.5%). The technique can be effectively used for the refixation of dislocated hydrophobic acrylic IOLs by temporary haptic externalization through a corneal incision and for the treatment of aphakia with or without penetrating keratoplasty. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of UGH syndrome due to IOL capture, especially in young eyes.


Asunto(s)
Lentes Intraoculares , Esclerótica , Entierro , Humanos , Implantación de Lentes Intraoculares , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esclerótica/cirugía , Técnicas de Sutura , Suturas , Agudeza Visual
2.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 1(39): 9-15, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057153

RESUMEN

Dental radiographs, endodontic treatment and materials are a source of useful forensic data. The response of dental materials to death-related events are widely studied and provide forensic evidence for experts. This study aimed to analyze the radiographic images of endodontically treated teeth submitted to burial and drowning simulation, verifying its forensic feasibility, applicability and usefulness. MATERIAL AND METHOD: n=20 bovine incisor teeth were endodontically treated then divided into two groups: burial and drowning scenarios. Teeth were radiographed two times (before and after scenario) with an aluminium stepwedge, and optical density (OD) was assessed in each root third, in both radiographs, and then compared (ANOVA and Tukey test) for each scenario. RESULTS: Burial scenario did not significantly alter radiopacity. As for the drowning scenario, there was no difference in radiopacity between the root thirds before the test. After drowning, the apical third demonstrated lower OD (p<.05) than the other two thirds. Comparing the OD before and after drowning, medium third presented lower and cervical third demonstrated higher means (p<.05) after drowning. CONCLUSION: We concluded that drowning conditions could alter the radiopacity of endodontically treated teeth, more specifically in the medium and cervical thirds. There is no evidence that this also occurs in burial situations. This has the potential to be useful in forensic casework as an initial sign of the type of ambient in which the body was supposedly exposed or set.


Asunto(s)
Ahogamiento , Diente no Vital , Animales , Entierro , Bovinos , Ahogamiento/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Incisivo
3.
Nature ; 593(7857): 95-100, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953416

RESUMEN

The origin and evolution of hominin mortuary practices are topics of intense interest and debate1-3. Human burials dated to the Middle Stone Age (MSA) are exceedingly rare in Africa and unknown in East Africa1-6. Here we describe the partial skeleton of a roughly 2.5- to 3.0-year-old child dating to 78.3 ± 4.1 thousand years ago, which was recovered in the MSA layers of Panga ya Saidi (PYS), a cave site in the tropical upland coast of Kenya7,8. Recent excavations have revealed a pit feature containing a child in a flexed position. Geochemical, granulometric and micromorphological analyses of the burial pit content and encasing archaeological layers indicate that the pit was deliberately excavated. Taphonomical evidence, such as the strict articulation or good anatomical association of the skeletal elements and histological evidence of putrefaction, support the in-place decomposition of the fresh body. The presence of little or no displacement of the unstable joints during decomposition points to an interment in a filled space (grave earth), making the PYS finding the oldest known human burial in Africa. The morphological assessment of the partial skeleton is consistent with its assignment to Homo sapiens, although the preservation of some primitive features in the dentition supports increasing evidence for non-gradual assembly of modern traits during the emergence of our species. The PYS burial sheds light on how MSA populations interacted with the dead.


Asunto(s)
Entierro/historia , Fósiles , Esqueleto/anatomía & histología , Animales , Huesos/anatomía & histología , Preescolar , Evolución Cultural/historia , Dentición , Historia Antigua , Hominidae/anatomía & histología , Hominidae/clasificación , Humanos , Kenia
4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(1): 187-200, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615431

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The Late Pleistocene and early Holocene in eastern Africa are associated with complex evolutionary and demographic processes that contributed to the population variability observed in the region today. However, there are relatively few human skeletal remains from this time period. Here we describe six individuals from the Kisese II rockshelter in Tanzania that were excavated in 1956, present a radiocarbon date for one of the individuals, and compare craniodental morphological diversity among eastern African populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used standard biometric analyses to assess the age, sex, and stature of the Kisese II individuals. Eastern African craniodental morphological variation was assessed using measures of dental size and a subset of Howells' cranial measurements for the Kisese II individuals as well as early Holocene, early pastoralist, Pastoral Neolithic, and modern African individuals. RESULTS: Our results suggest a minimum of six individuals from the Kisese II collections with two adults and four juveniles. While the dating for most of the burials is uncertain, one individual is directly radiocarbon dated to ~7.1 ka indicating that at least one burial is early Holocene in age. Craniodental metric comparisons indicate that the Kisese II individuals extend the amount of human morphological diversity among Holocene eastern Africans. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that Late Pleistocene and early Holocene eastern Africans exhibited relatively high amounts of morphological diversity. However, the Kisese II individuals suggest morphological similarity at localized sites potentially supporting increased regionalization during the early Holocene.


Asunto(s)
Entierro/historia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropología Física , Huesos/anatomía & histología , Preescolar , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Masculino , Tanzanía , Adulto Joven
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 319: 110673, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387810

RESUMEN

Recovery, identification, and burial of casualties from World War I and II is still a topic of interest in many countries. In Slovakia, recent discoveries of such remains are usually accidental. Unfortunately, in many cases the remains are disrupted and without any material culture present, rendering the identification of the victim almost impossible. Majority of accidental skeletal remains are analyzed by legal medical doctors at forensic medicine departments spread across ten regional workplaces around the country. The aim of the paper is to point out the problems with recovery and identification of World War I and World War II remains in Slovakia.


Asunto(s)
Restos Mortales , Antropología Forense/organización & administración , Personal Militar , Arqueología , Entierro , Antropología Forense/legislación & jurisprudencia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Personal Militar/historia , Opinión Pública , Eslovaquia , Primera Guerra Mundial , Segunda Guerra Mundial
6.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(1): 101-113, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394313

RESUMEN

Modern technologies enable the exchange of information about the expansion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the continually increasing number of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases almost in real time. The gravity of a current epidemiological situation is represented by the mortality rates, which are scrupulously updated daily. Performing autopsies on patients with either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 is of high importance since these might not only improve clinical management but also reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection expansion. The following paper aimed to present the most crucial aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection from the point of view of forensic experts and pathologists, recommendations and safety precautions regarding autopsies, autopsy room requirements, possible techniques, examinations used for effective viral detection, recommendations regarding burials, and gross and microscopic pathological findings of the deceased who died due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autopsies remain the gold standard for determining the cause of death. Therefore, it would be beneficial to perform autopsies on patients with both suspected and confirmed COVID-19, especially those with coexisting comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia/normas , Patologia Forense/normas , Control de Infecciones/normas , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Filtros de Aire , Entierro , Cadáver , Vestuario , Cremación , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Embalsamiento , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/patología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Equipo de Protección Personal , Radiografía , /patogenicidad , Manejo de Especímenes , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(4): 859-869, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475153

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study tests, for the first time, the applicability of a new method of sex estimation utilizing enamel peptides on a sample of deciduous and permanent teeth at different stages of mineralization, from nonadults of unknown sex, including perinates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 43 teeth from 29 nonadult individuals aged from 40 gestational weeks to 19 years old were analyzed. The sample included pairs of fully mineralized and just developing teeth from the same individual. The individuals were from four archaeological sites in England: Piddington (1st-2nd centuries AD), Coach Lane, Victoria Gate, and Fewston (all 18th-19th centuries). A method that identifies sex chromosome-linked isoforms of the peptide amelogenin from human tooth enamel was applied. The method utilizes a minimally destructive acid etching procedure and subsequent nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: It was possible to determine the sex of 28 of the nonadult individuals sampled (males = 20, females = 8, undetermined = 1). Only one sample failed (CL9), due to insufficient mineralization of the sampled tooth enamel. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD021683. DISCUSSION: Sufficient peptide material to determine sex can be recovered even from the crowns of developing perinatal teeth that are not fully mineralized. The minimally destructive and inexpensive (compared to ancient DNA) nature of this procedure has significant implications for bioarchaeological studies of infancy and childhood.


Asunto(s)
Amelogenina/análisis , Análisis para Determinación del Sexo/métodos , Diente/química , Diente/crecimiento & desarrollo , Adolescente , Adulto , Amelogenina/química , Arqueología , Entierro/historia , Niño , Preescolar , Esmalte Dental/química , Esmalte Dental/crecimiento & desarrollo , Inglaterra , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas , Adulto Joven
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 319: 110648, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360244

RESUMEN

The first Geneva Conventions were signed in 1864 and this initial effort to put humanity in war has since developed into a network of international conventions and customary rules which include the dead as a group that must be protected during and following armed conflicts. During the First and Second World Wars, parties to the conflict were obliged to recover the dead from battlefields, document identifying marks including the collection of identification discs, and to bury the body in a marked grave. Those parties' signatory to the laws regulating war at the time, could not have predicted the millions of losses of civilians and combatants resulting in the thousands of casualties left unrecovered at the end of both world wars. The prolonged requirement to recover, identify and bury newly-found World War dead is managed differently by each country; albeit with no universal approach that acknowledges the need to integrate the moral imperative of dignified post-war care of the dead with rapidly changing technology and equally rapidly ageing of families of the missing. The International Committee of the Red Cross is a longtime actor in providing humanitarian service to soldiers and civilians in war. This includes expertise in the legal framework regulating armed conflict, in the provision of a central system to aid in tracing those who go missing during war, including those from the world wars, and in the growing field of humanitarian forensics. This paper will discuss the applicable international frameworks for the protection world war dead, while promoting the ICRC's role as resource and advocate.


Asunto(s)
Restos Mortales , Entierro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derecho Internacional , Personal Militar , Cruz Roja , Altruismo , Manejo de Datos , Historia del Siglo XX , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Personal Militar/historia , Primera Guerra Mundial , Segunda Guerra Mundial
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 319: 110657, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383386

RESUMEN

This paper will discuss the complexity of the investigation of mass graves in today's Serbia (part of ex Yugoslavia), belonging primarily to WWII with an exception of one mass grave from WWI, through the prism of historical events behind it. By interpreting historical and political circumstances, we will show why and on what occasions mass graves, as cultural-historical monuments and symbols of the sufferings of Serbs, Jews, Romani, and other nations or ethnic groups, remained outside the focus of expert teams. Also, through examples of explored sites related to WWII (Visnjica, Topola, Kragujevac, Ada Ciganlija), it will be shown the importance of engaging the forensic expert teams to locate sites, identifing victims and interpretation of historical events from their perspective.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Restos Mortales , Exhumación , Antropología Forense , Odontología Forense , Entierro , Campos de Concentración/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Personal Militar/historia , Serbia , Primera Guerra Mundial , Segunda Guerra Mundial
11.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 3-19, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935864

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Warfare is assumed to be one of the defining cultural characteristics of steppe nomads in Eastern Eurasia. For the first-centuries CE, a period of political turmoil in Northern China and Southern Siberia, relatively few data are, however, available about the degree and variability of violence in these communities. Here, we provide new data on violence among steppe nomads during the first-centuries CE by analyzing the type, anatomical distribution, and demographic distribution of perimortem trauma at Tunnug1 (Tuva, Southern Siberia-second to fourth c. CE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Perimortem traumas were assessed on 87 individuals representing both sexes and different age classes. The timing of the lesions was assessed based on morphological criteria, including the absence and presence of bone reactive processes and the relative plasticity of the bone at the moment of impact. The distribution by age, sex, and anatomical location of trauma was analyzed by means of logistic models, Fisher's exact tests, and 3D visualizations. RESULTS: A total of 130 perimortem traumas, including chop marks, slice marks, penetrating lesions, and blunt traumas were identified on 22 individuals. Chop marks were mostly at the level of the skull and vertebrae and were likely caused by bladed weapons. Slice marks were found on the cervical vertebrae and cranium and may be the result of throat slitting and scalping by means of smaller bladed implements. Traumas were more frequent in males, and their presence is not correlated with age. DISCUSSION: This study adds new data to the few available regarding violence among steppe nomadic cultures and provides new insights about the effects of political instability on the life of the people inhabiting Eastern Eurasia during the early centuries CE.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/historia , Violencia/historia , Heridas Penetrantes/historia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropología Física , Huesos/lesiones , Huesos/patología , Entierro/historia , Niño , Preescolar , Decapitación/historia , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Siberia , Migrantes , Guerra/historia , Adulto Joven
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 148, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193963

RESUMEN

Sub-Saharan African countries have been hit by the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) since March 2020. Besides the resulting health and economic disasters is the psycho-socio-cultural problem related with the management of corpses of people dead from the disease, which might hinder the implementation of the response strategy. In Cameroon for instance, the current corpse management policy is very disputed. In fact, although they were recently made more flexible, the restrictions applied to burials still ban any transfer of dead bodies between cities. In light of the African cultural considerations of dead persons, the disputes observed between the families and the health personnel, the legislation and the available scientific evidence, this article analyses the risks and benefits of allowing families to bury their relatives. It thereafter suggests solutions that reconcile dignity (by allowing families to bury their dead relatives in their homes) and safety (by ensuring a sealed handling and the surveillance by a judiciary police officer). Applying these solutions could improve the population's trust towards the health system, and positively contribute to COVID-19 case prevention, identification and management.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Betacoronavirus , Entierro , Cadáver , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ritos Fúnebres , Prácticas Mortuorias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Entierro/ética , Entierro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Camerún , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Cultura , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/legislación & jurisprudencia , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Familia , Humanos , Prácticas Mortuorias/ética , Prácticas Mortuorias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Personeidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Opinión Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Administración de la Seguridad/ética , Administración de la Seguridad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Administración de la Seguridad/métodos
13.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(4): 333-344, 2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990718

RESUMEN

This paper focuses on an unusual Pre-Hispanic burial, 11-12th century cal AD, from Fuerteventura Island. The pattern of injuries of the skeletal remains, together with the grave's features suggest exceptional circumstances of death and funerary treatment differing from those commonly observed elsewhere among the indigenous population of the Canary Archipelago. The study first uses forensic anthropology techniques to characterise the individual's injuries before turning to archaeological and ethno-historical records of the indigenous populations to identify the potential scenarios explaining the fatal injuries. The nature of the peri-mortem lesions, especially those to the head, is consistent with an intention to kill. This case provides an opportunity to analyze the mechanisms of violence in a society with strong environmental limitations and conditions of isolation, as well as to deepen the concept of justice in ancient times.


Asunto(s)
Pena de Muerte , Entierro , Humanos , España , Violencia
14.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101766, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919340

RESUMEN

This study analyses variable levels of body fragmentation among secondary mass grave sites with similar formation process history. The study is based on data from 10 commingled secondary mass grave sites and two primary sites related to the war in Bosnia in 1995. The aim was to investigate differences in level of body fragmentation between mass graves of similar origin and taphonomy. In order to quantify the degree of fragmentation (and level of commingling) within a grave, we introduced a fragmentation index (FI). FI represents the ratio between the number of complete bodies and number of body parts from the same context. Results show high discrepancies in body fragmentations between different sites. FI for secondary sites of similar formation history varied from 0.01 to 0.59 (max = 1), while two primary sites have values 0.92 and 0.90 respectively. Variable levels of fragmentation among similar secondary sites suggest a possibility of different peri mortem circumstances of buried, so we tested whether the "body fragmentation index" could assist in elucidating the manner of death. Unusually high levels of body fragmentation (FI value below 0.1) in some secondary sites may indicate that body disarticulation was most likely caused peri-mortem by explosives, land mines, mortars or tank fire, all suggesting a combat situation.


Asunto(s)
Restos Mortales/patología , Entierro , Exhumación , Antropología Forense/métodos , Balística Forense/métodos , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Guerra , Bosnia y Herzegovina , Humanos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238439, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866194

RESUMEN

Prone burials are among the most distinctive deviant burials during the Middle Ages and early modern period. Despite their worldwide distribution, the meaning of this burial practice is still a matter of debate. So far, a comprehensive analysis of prone burials is lacking for Central Europe. By compiling evidence from Germany, Switzerland and Austria, this study investigates how these findings fit into the scope of medieval funerary practices. 95 prone burials from 60 archaeological sites were analyzed regarding geographical distribution, dating, burial features, body position, age-at-death and sex. We applied descriptive statistics accompanied by multiple correspondence analysis in order to highlight possible multivariate patterns in the dataset. Prone burials occur in funerary and non-funerary contexts, with a predominance of single churchyard burials, followed by favored and exterior location and settlements. In terms of grave features, the majority of churchyard burials do not differ from regular graves. Multivariate patterns appear to reflect diachronic changes in normative burial practices. We found a significant correlation between burial location and dating, due to a higher frequency of high medieval males in favored locations. In these cases, prone position is interpreted as a sign of humility, while similar evidences from late and post-medieval times are seen as an expression of deviancy. Apparent lack of care during burial reveals disrespect and possible social exclusion, with inhumations outside consecrated ground being the ultimate punishment. In some regions, apotropaic practices suggest that corpses should be prevented from returning, as attested in contemporaneous sources and folk beliefs. We hypothesize that the increase of prone burials towards the late and post-medieval period is linked to such practices triggered by epidemic diseases. The multiplicity of meanings that prone position might have in different contexts demands for careful interpretations within the same regional and chronological frame.


Asunto(s)
Entierro/métodos , Miedo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Arqueología/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Cultura , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
16.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(3): 109-118, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192312

RESUMEN

El brote por el Coronavirus/COVID-19, declarado Emergencia de Salud Pública de Importancia Internacional el 30 de enero de 2020 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, ha sobrepasado en numerosos países la capacidad de respuesta del sistema sanitario por su alta contagiosidad, y la de gestión de las personas fallecidas por su elevado riesgo de letalidad. Se revisan las principales guías y protocolos promovidos por las instituciones y las principales sociedades científicas, orientados a la contención de la pandemia mediante la adopción de medidas de protección de los profesionales y a la adecuada gestión del alto número de cadáveres. Se analizan los centros especiales de recogida de cadáveres en situación de epidemias y las clasificaciones de los cadáveres en función del riesgo infecto-contagioso. Específicamente se resumen las resoluciones dictadas por las autoridades sanitarias y se describen los protocolos de actuación ante fallecidos durante la pandemia COVID-19, incluyendo las autopsias forenses


The Coronavirus/COVID-19 outbreak, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Importance on January 30, 2020 by the World Health Organization, has in many countries exceeded the capacity of health systems to respond, due to its high contagiousness and the capacity to manage the deceased, due to its high fatality risk. A review is necessary of the principal guidelines and protocols promoted by the institutions and the main scientific societies, aimed at containing the pandemic by adopting professional protection measures and appropriately managing the high number of cadavers. The temporary mortuaries in an epidemic crisis and the classification of bodies according to infectious risk are analysed. In particular the resolutions issued by the health authorities are summarised and the protocols for dealing with deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic are described, including forensic autopsies


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cadáver , Entierro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Virus del SRAS/aislamiento & purificación , Pandemias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Precauciones Universales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235386, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785221

RESUMEN

Renewed excavations at the Neolithic site of Beisamoun (Upper Jordan Valley, Israel) has resulted in the discovery of the earliest occurrence of an intentional cremation in the Near East directly dated to 7031-6700 cal BC (Pre-Pottery Neolithic C, also known as Final PPNB, which spans ca. 7100-6400 cal BC). The funerary treatment involved in situ cremation within a pyre-pit of a young adult individual who previously survived from a flint projectile injury. In this study we have used a multidisciplinary approach that integrates archaeothanatology, spatial analysis, bioanthropology, zooarchaeology, soil micromorphological analysis, and phytolith identification in order to reconstruct the different stages and techniques involved in this ritual: cremation pit construction, selection of fuel, possible initial position of the corpse, potential associated items and funerary containers, fire management, post-cremation gesture and structure abandonment. The origins and development of cremation practices in the region are explored as well as their significance in terms of Northern-Southern Levantine connections during the transition between the 8th and 7th millennia BC.


Asunto(s)
Entierro/historia , Cremación/historia , Historia Antigua , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237573, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797087

RESUMEN

The Late Mesolithic in Southern Europe is dated to the 7th and the first part of the 6th millennia BCE and is marked by profound changes which are mostly evident in the technical know-how and tool-kit of the last hunter-fisher-gatherer societies. The significance of this phase also relates to the fact that it precedes the Early Neolithic, another period of major transformations of human societies. Nonetheless, the Late Mesolithic still remains a poorly known age in this area. A burial discovered at Mondeval de Sora (Northern Italy) in 1987, represents a unique window into this period. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of more than 50 lithic and osseous artifacts associated with this burial. We highlight important contextual data regarding the techno-economic dimension and the notion of personal burial possessions. Based on the association and location of some items, we propose a new interpretation of the social status of this individual and the possible impact of technological innovation on the social organization and symbolic sphere of Late Mesolithic groups.


Asunto(s)
Huesos/química , Carbonato de Calcio/análisis , Litio/análisis , Magnesio/análisis , Arqueología , Huesos/anatomía & histología , Entierro , Fósiles/historia , Historia Antigua , Humanos
19.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(4): 313-331, 2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749444

RESUMEN

The Djehuty Project (Dra Abu el-Naga; Luxor, Egypt) contains a reused burial chamber, UE165. The human remains include 6 disarticulated, mummified human digits, of which five have very well-conserved prints. The most plausible dating is the Twenty-Second Dynasty (945-715 BCE). High resolution photographs were taken of these and studied in order to identify the main pattern, delta types and minutiae, ridge density and ridge breadth. First, however, a contemporary mummified body was studied in order to calculate the percentage of contraction that can occur in mummified digit tissue. The remains consisted of 4 fingers (a thumb, two index fingers and a middle finger) and a hallux toe, all from the right side, indicating that they came from at least two different people. As regards sex, all the fingers presented values typical of females. Estimated age ranged from 10.62 (middle finger) to 16.25 (thumb) years old, within the sub-adult category. The individual's height was estimated for all the fingers, obtaining values between 135.87 cm for the middle finger and 162.60 cm for the thumb. With regard to the possible ancestral origins of the remains, the type of delta o triradius identified presents high frequencies in contemporary Nigerian and Romanian populations. These results demonstrate that it is possible to work with fingerprints as much as 3,000 years old. It has been possible to identify the main patterns and the minutiae with a precision that exceeds the numeric standard -12 minutiae- currently applied in many countries for forensic identification.


Asunto(s)
Momias , Adolescente , Adulto , Entierro , Niño , Dermatoglifia , Egipto , Femenino , Dedos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Momias/diagnóstico por imagen
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237850, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853240

RESUMEN

Individual geographic mobility is a key social dynamic of early Viking-Age urbanization in Scandinavia. We present the first comprehensive geographic mobility study of Scandinavia's earliest emporium, Ribe, which emerged around AD 700 in the North Sea region of Denmark. This article presents the results of strontium isotope analyses of 21 individuals buried at Ribe, combined with an in-depth study of the varied cultural affinities reflected by the burial practices. In order to investigate geographic mobility in early life/childhood, we sampled multiple teeth and/or petrous bone of individuals, which yielded a total of 43 strontium isotope analyses. Most individuals yielded strontium isotope values that fell within a relatively narrow range, between 87Sr/86Sr = 0.709 to 0.711. Only two individuals yielded values >87Sr/86Sr = 0.711. This suggests that most of these individuals had local origins but some had cultural affinities beyond present-day Denmark. Our results raise new questions concerning our understanding of the social and cultural dynamics behind the urbanization of Scandinavia.


Asunto(s)
Entierro , Geografía , Marcaje Isotópico , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Alemania , Humanos , Países Escandinavos y Nórdicos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...