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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 9-19, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-201544

RESUMEN

Cognitive Credibility Assessment (CCA) is a verbal lie detection tool consisting of several interview techniques. These techniques have been examined separately but never together. Reflecting the dynamic nature of CCA we combined several of the techniques (free recall followed by a model statement, followed by a reverse order instruction, and followed by a sketch instruction). We examined the new information provided after each stage of the interview and also compared the information provided in the initial recall with the information provided after the entire interview. A total of 47 truth tellers and 47 lie tellers went on a mission. Truth tellers were asked to report their mission truthfully, whereas lie tellers were requested to lie about several aspects of the mission. We measured the total units of information (total details) provided in the interview and the number of complications reported. The results indicate that the pre-registered hypothesis (Hypothesis 1) was supported for complications. Truth tellers reported more complications than lie tellers in each stage of the interview and the difference was more pronounced after the entire interview than after the free recall. As a conclusion, CCA was an effective lie detection method when complications were taken into account


La evaluación cognitiva de la credibilidad (ECC) es una herramienta verbal de detección de mentiras que incluye varias técnicas de entrevista. Dichas técnicas se han examinado por separado pero nunca juntas. Para reflejar el carácter dinámico de la ECC combinamos varias de las técnicas (recuerdo libre seguido de una declaración tipo, seguido de una instrucción de recuerdo en orden inverso, y de una instrucción para que hagan un sketch -esquema- durante la narración del evento). Analizamos la información nueva proporcionada tras cada etapa de la entrevista y también comparamos la información procedente del recuerdo inicial con la aportada por toda la entrevista. Un total de 47 sujetos que decían la verdad y 47 que mentían fueron enviados a una misión. A los participantes de la condición de testimonio verdadero se les pidió que informaran de su misión de modo veraz, mientras que los de la condición de mentira se les solicitó que mintieran sobre distintos aspectos de la misión. Se midió el total de unidades de información (detalles totales) de la entrevista y el número de complicaciones de las que se informaba. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes de la condición de verdad informaban de más detalles y complicaciones (hipótesis 1) en cada fase de la entrevista siendo las mayores diferencias tras la entrevista global que tras el recuerdo libre. En conclusión, la categoría complicaciones de la ECC es eficaz en la detección de la mentira


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Revelación de la Verdad , Detección de Mentiras/psicología , Cognición/clasificación , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Recuerdo Mental/clasificación , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual
3.
Neurology ; 96(19): e2438-e2450, 2021 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785551

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Based on concerns about existing patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing quality of life (QoL) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), we describe the mixed methods development of a new QoL PROM for use in boys and men with DMD: the DMD-QoL. METHODS: The DMD-QoL was developed in 3 stages. First, draft items were generated from 18 semistructured qualitative interviews with boys and men with DMD, analyzed using framework analysis. Second, cognitive debriefing interviews with patients (n = 10), clinicians (n = 8), and patients' parents (n = 10) were undertaken, and a reduced item set was selected and refined. Third, psychometric data on the draft items from a cross-sectional online survey (n = 102) and stakeholder input from patients and patients' parents were used to produce the final questionnaire. Patient and public involvement and engagement was embedded throughout the process. RESULTS: From an initial draft of 47 items, a revised set of 27 items was produced at stage 2, and this set was further refined at stage 3 to generate the DMD-QoL, a 14-item QoL PROM. The DMD-QoL is designed for use from 7 years of age by proxy report and from 10 years of age by self-report or proxy report. The final measure showed good psychometric properties. CONCLUSION: The DMD-QoL is a new 14-item QoL PROM for boys and men with DMD, with demonstrable content and face validity.


Asunto(s)
Entrevista Psicológica/normas , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
4.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(5): jrm00189, 2021 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778896

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore perspectives, including social and psychological aspects, of patients seeking manual care for low back pain, in order to understand constructs of functioning that are important across different cultural contexts. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) emphasizes the importance of these aspects to describe health-related functioning. DESIGN: Focus group interviews. PATIENTS: Patients from Botswana, Canada and Norway seeking manual care for their low back pain. METHODS: Interviews were conducted in the 3 countries, transcribed verbatim, translated into English, and linked to the ICF according to established rules. RESULTS: Seven focus groups yielded 1,863 meaningful concepts that were linked to ICF categories. The largest proportion of responses linked to the Activities and Participation domain. The most frequently mentioned chapters related to pain and its mental aspects, suggesting that the psychological impact of living with low back pain is important to patients. CONCLUSION: Despite cultural differences, patients seeking manual care for low back pain in Botswana, Canada and Norway reported similar experiences of disability across ICF domains. The relatively high ranking of psychosocial factors highlights their importance for patients, in addition to factors of biological origin, and indicates that the contextual nature of the lived experience of low back pain may not be covered in standard examinations used in manual medicine.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Dev Psychopathol ; 33(2): 739-747, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436116

RESUMEN

Supportive forensic interviews conducted in accordance with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Revised Protocol (RP) help many alleged victims describe abusive experiences. When children remain reluctant to make allegations, the RP guides interviewers to (a) focus on rapport building and nonsuggestive support in a first interview, and (b) plan a second interview to allow continued rapport building before exploring for possible abuse. We explored the dynamics of such two-session RP interviews. Of 204 children who remained reluctant in an initial interview, we focused on 104 who made allegations when re-interviewed a few days later. A structural equation model revealed that interviewer support during the first session predicted children's cooperation during the rapport-building phase of the second session, which, in turn, predicted more spontaneous allegations, which were associated with the interviewers' enhanced use of open-ended questions. Together, these factors mediated the effects of support on children's free recall of forensically important information. This highlighted the importance of emphasizing rapport with reluctant children, confirming that some children may need more time to build rapport even with supportive interviewers.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Maltrato a los Niños , Niño , Emociones , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Entrevista Psicológica , Recuerdo Mental
7.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(2): 92-99, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502140

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Mental health clients with serious mental illness in urban settings experience multiple chronic stresses related to poverty, unemployment, discrimination, homelessness, incarceration, hospitalization, posttraumatic stress disorder, pain syndromes, traumatic brain injury, and other problems. Substance use disorder exacerbates these difficulties. This study examined the efficacy of algorithm-driven substance use disorder treatments for 305 inner-city mental health clients with multiple challenges. Researchers assessed substance use quarterly using a combination of standardized self-reports and case manager ratings. Of the 305 multiply impaired clients who began treatment, 200 (66%) completed 2 years of treatment. One fourth (n = 53) of the completers were responders who developed abstinence and improved community function; one half (n = 97) were partial responders, who reduced substance use but did not become abstinent; and one fourth (n = 50) were nonresponders. Evidence-based interventions for substance use disorder can be effective for multiply impaired, inner-city clients, but numerous complications may hinder recovery.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Algoritmos , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pacientes Desistentes del Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
8.
Nurs Res ; 70(3): 206-214, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416224

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Implementation of effective interventions into clinical practice is slow, in large part, because researchers do not sufficiently attend to the realities of nurses who implement interventions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to provide an exemplar of how cognitive interviewing-an important and underused method for developing nursing research-can be used to design survey items and assess multilevel implementation factors. METHODS: We utilized the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to create a survey to assess factors that influence how oncology nurses deliver physical activity interventions. Two rounds of cognitive interviews were conducted with five purposively selected oncology nurses to assess survey items' clarity and effectiveness at eliciting desired information. We used a cognitive interviewing coding scheme to code data and revise unclear items. Participants completed the revised survey online and underwent a second interview to provide additional feedback. RESULTS: Seven important changes were made to the survey: how to assess nurses' perceptions of other nurses' beliefs and practices; language to capture data relating to nursing leadership and administration; increased detail to assess factors related to nurses' workplaces; language related to capturing factors related to policy; language to capture data related to equity, disparities, and cultural tailoring; terms replacement with language used by nurses; and strategy to capture data about nurses' knowledge of national physical activity recommendations for cancer survivors. DISCUSSION: Cognitive interviewing can be applied to develop survey items that capture real-world experiences and perspectives of practicing nurses. This is an essential step in developing nursing interventions that are ready to be implemented and increasing the uptake of evidence-based nursing care. Cognitive interviewing can be used across nursing settings, populations, and interventions to develop understandings of attitudes, attributes, characteristics, and perceptions for a variety of nursing interventions.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Ejercicio Físico , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Rol de la Enfermera , Enfermería Oncológica/métodos , Supervivientes de Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermería Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente
9.
Pediatrics ; 147(2)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468600

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identity formation and exploration of interpersonal relationships are important tasks that occur during adolescence. Transgender, gender diverse, and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) individuals must face these developmental milestones in the context of their transgender identity. Our aim with this article is to describe adolescents' history and experiences with romantic partners. METHODS: We conducted phenomenological, qualitative semistructured interviews with transgender adolescents. Questions were focused on romantic experiences, thoughts, and perceptions. All interviews were coded by 2 members of the research team, with disagreements resolved by discussion and, if needed, with a third member of the research team. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data, as well as descriptive categorization. RESULTS: In total, 30 adolescents (18 transmasculine and 12 transfeminine) between the ages of 15 and 20 years were interviewed. Themes included (1) engagement in romantic relationships, (2) disclosure of gender identity and romantic relationships, (3) experience with abusive relationships, and (4) perceived impact of gender-affirming hormone care on romantic experiences. CONCLUSIONS: TGNC adolescents are engaged in romantic experiences before and during social and/or medical transitioning and are cultivating relationships through both proximal peers and online connections. There is perceived benefit of gender-affirming hormone care on romantic experiences. Risk of transphobia in romantic relationships impacts the approach that transgender adolescents take toward romance and influences decisions of identity disclosure. TGNC adolescents have experience with relationship abuse in different forms. Providers can incorporate these findings in their approach to counseling and screening when caring for TGNC youth.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Investigación Cualitativa , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
10.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(1): 77-86, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384013

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Certain copy number variants (CNVs) greatly increase the risk of autism. The authors conducted a genetics-first study to investigate whether heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of autism is underpinned by specific genotype-phenotype relationships. METHODS: This international study included 547 individuals (mean age, 12.3 years [SD=4.2], 54% male) who were ascertained on the basis of having a genetic diagnosis of a rare CNV associated with high risk of autism (82 16p11.2 deletion carriers, 50 16p11.2 duplication carriers, 370 22q11.2 deletion carriers, and 45 22q11.2 duplication carriers), as well as 2,027 individuals (mean age, 9.1 years [SD=4.9], 86% male) with autism of heterogeneous etiology. Assessments included the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and IQ testing. RESULTS: The four genetic variant groups differed in autism symptom severity, autism subdomain profile, and IQ profile. However, substantial variability was observed in phenotypic outcome in individual genetic variant groups (74%-97% of the variance, depending on the trait), whereas variability between groups was low (1%-21%, depending on the trait). CNV carriers who met autism criteria were compared with individuals with heterogeneous autism, and a range of profile differences were identified. When clinical cutoff scores were applied, 54% of individuals with one of the four CNVs who did not meet full autism diagnostic criteria had elevated levels of autistic traits. CONCLUSIONS: Many CNV carriers do not meet full diagnostic criteria for autism but nevertheless meet clinical cutoffs for autistic traits. Although profile differences between variants were observed, there is considerable variability in clinical symptoms in the same variant.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/genética , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Trastorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Trastorno Autístico/epidemiología , Niño , Eliminación de Gen , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 319: 110652, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360246

RESUMEN

Insanity assessment requires the evaluation of the psychopathological condition that underlies the mens rea. Psychopathological evaluation may be quite challenging due to (i) absence of biomarkers; (ii) low inter-rater reliability; (iii) presence of cognitive bias. This intrinsic low reliability of forensic psychiatric diagnosis does impact on insanity assessment, leading to arbitrary and unjust legal outcomes for the examinee. Thus, strategies to improve the reliability of insanity evaluation are strongly needed. A multidisciplinary approach has been proposed as a way to enrich clinical diagnosis with reliable and biologically founded data, thus minimizing subjectivity, reducing controversies and increasing inter-subject concordance in insanity assessment. By discussing a real case, here we show how the convergence of multiple indices can produce evidence that cannot be denied without introducing logical fallacies. Applying this approach, the forensic discussion will move from the presence/absence of psychopathology to the impact of psychopathology on insanity. This article illustrates how a multidisciplinary evaluation, which integrates neuroscientific methods with the classical insanity assessment, may lead to a more accurate approach in insanity evaluation. Critically, this approach will minimize the impact of cognitive bias on insanity opinion and thus result in an improvement of the whole criminal justice process.


Asunto(s)
Sesgo , Defensa por Insania , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Psicología Forense , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Inventario de Personalidad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(3): 196-202, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315796

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) represent management challenges, especially if associated with epilepsy. We aimed to evaluate patients with mixed epilepsy (true and PNES) and compare them with pure epilepsy to identify predictors of psychogenic seizures. This study included 40 patients with pure epilepsy and 40 patients with mixed epilepsy matched in age and sex. Patients underwent neurological assessment, semistructured psychiatric clinical interview, and video electroencephalogram monitoring. We found that unemployment, divorce, and seizure frequency were higher in mixed epilepsy, as well as history of family dysfunction, child adversity, and depressive and dissociative disorders. Both groups were similar regarding family history for seizures and personality dysfunction scores. Family dysfunction, child adversity, and depressive disorders were predictors of PNES. We recommend early evaluation for social instability, family dysfunction, child adversity, and depressive disorders in epileptic patients with higher seizure frequency to avoid misdiagnosis of false drug-resistant epilepsy and enhance proper management.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/diagnóstico , Convulsiones/etiología , Adulto , Trastornos Disociativos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Disociativos/fisiopatología , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Epilepsia/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Inventario de Personalidad , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/fisiopatología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/terapia , Convulsiones/diagnóstico , Convulsiones/fisiopatología
13.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 54(4): 244-248, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-200259

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: La fibromialgia es una enfermedad crónica caracterizada por la presencia de dolor musculoesquelético, usualmente asociada a otros síntomas como depresión, fatiga y trastornos del sueño, entre otros. Los conceptos y las percepciones sobre el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la fibromialgia, entre los médicos especialistas en medicina física y rehabilitación, no se conocen objetivamente. El propósito de este estudio es describir los conceptos y percepciones sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la fibromialgia entre un grupo de especialistas en medicina física y rehabilitación en Colombia. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. A través de un grupo focal en el que participaron 2 reumatólogos, un especialista en medicina física y rehabilitación y un experto en métodos de investigación cualitativa, se diseñó una encuesta para evaluar las percepciones y conceptos que los especialistas en medicina física y rehabilitación tienen sobre el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la fibromialgia. La encuesta se aplicó de forma autoadministrada y anónima durante las reuniones de la Asociación Colombiana de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación. RESULTADOS: Encuesta aplicada a 99 médicos especialistas en medicina física y rehabilitación. El 17,1% (n=17) de los médicos no cree que haya suficiente evidencia para considerar la fibromialgia como una enfermedad, el 86,8% (n=86) usa criterios ACR de 1990 para diagnosticar pacientes con fibromialgia y el 33,3% (n=33) manifestó emplear los criterios de clasificación de 2010. Los medicamentos más formulados para el manejo de la fibromialgia son los antidepresivos, prescritos por el 84,8% de los encuestados, seguidos de analgésicos (75,7%) y anticonvulsivantes (66,6%). En cuanto al manejo multidisciplinario, se encontró que el 50,6% de los médicos rehabilitadores remite estos pacientes a reumatología y el 40,7% a psiquiatría. El 77,2% de los médicos rehabilitadores considera que el paciente con fibromialgia debe ser manejado por su especialidad. CONCLUSIÓN: El presente estudio muestra información acerca de las percepciones sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la fibromialgia entre un grupo de médicos rehabilitadores colombianos, documentándose un frecuente uso de los criterios de clasificación ACR 1990. En cuanto al tratamiento, se observa un alto porcentaje de uso de medicamentos, en especial antidepresivos y analgésicos. La mayoría de los médicos rehabilitadores considera que debe ser el tratante del paciente con fibromialgia


INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterised by the presence of musculoskeletal pain, usually associated with other symptoms, including depression, fatigue, and sleep disorders. There is no objective information on the beliefs and perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia among rehabilitation and physical medicine specialists. The aim of this study was to describe these beliefs and perceptions among a group of physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists in Colombia. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study. A focus group was held with the participation of 2 rheumatologists, one physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist and an expert in qualitative research. The group designed a survey to assess the beliefs and perceptions of physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists of the diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia. The self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was completed during meetings of the Colombian Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 99 physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists. Of these, 17.1% (n=17) believed there was insufficient evidence to consider fibromyalgia a disease, 86.8% (n=86) used the ACR 1990 criteria to diagnose patients with fibromyalgia, and 33.3% (n=33) used the criteria of the 2010 classification. The most commonly used drugs for the management of fibromyalgia were antidepressants, prescribed by 84.8% of the surveyed physicians, followed by analgesics (75.7%) and anticonvulsants (66.6%). Concerning multidisciplinary management, 50.6% referred these patients to a rheumatologist and 40.7% to a psychiatrist. In all, 77.2% of rehabilitation specialists believed that patients with fibromyalgia should be managed by their specialty. CONCLUSION: This study provides information on perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia among a group of Colombian rehabilitation specialists and found frequent use of the ACR 1990 classification. Among these physicians, the use of drugs, especially antidepressants and analgesics, was high. Most believed that patients with fibromyalgia should be treated by rehabilitation specialists


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Fibromialgia/rehabilitación , Estado de Salud , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Terapia por Ejercicio/psicología , Fibromialgia/psicología , Impacto Psicosocial , Estudios Transversales , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Familiares , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244319, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347492

RESUMEN

Youth who self-harm report high levels of trait impulsivity and identify impulsive behaviour as a proximal factor directly preceding a self-harm act. Yet, impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and distinct impulsivity-related facets relate differentially to self-harm outcomes. Studies have yet to examine if and how a multidimensional account of impulsivity is meaningful to individual experiences and understandings of self-harm in youth. We explored the salience and context of multidimensional impulsivity within narratives of self-harm, and specifically in relation to the short-term build-up to a self-harm episode. Fifteen community-based adolescents (aged 16-22 years) attending Further Education (FE) colleges in the UK took part in individual face-to-face sessions (involving exploratory card-sort tasks and semi-structured interviews) which explored factors relating to self-harm, impulsivity and the broader emotional, developmental and cognitive context. Session data were analysed thematically. Two overarching themes, and associated subthemes, were identified: 'How I respond to strong negative emotions'; and 'Impulse versus deliberation- How much I think through what I'm doing before I do it'. Self-harm was typically a quick, impulsive act in the context of overwhelming emotion, underpinned by cognitive processing deficits. The dynamic tension between emotion-based impulsivity and controlled deliberation was articulated in the immediate moments before self-harm. However, impulsive responses were perceived as modifiable. Where self-harm patterns were established, these related to habitual behaviour and quick go-to responses. Young people identified with a multidimensional conception of impulsivity and described the impulsive context of a self-harm act as dynamic, contextual, and developmentally charged. Findings have implications for youth-focused work. Card-task frameworks are recommended to scaffold and facilitate discussion with young people, particularly where topics are sensitive, complex and multifactorial.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239708, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002042

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence against women is one of the most common forms of violence. Different research fields are trying to understand the cycle of violence, such as the psychological field, to understand how these women's relational patterns and intrapsychic conflict function in the cycle of violence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the operationalized psychodynamic diagnosis of women victims of domestic violence, exploring the severity and experience of violence, structural functions, dysfunctional interpersonal patterns, and intrapsychic conflicts. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative study using the OPD-2 Clinical Interviews, which were recorded and transcribed. The sample was composed by 56 women victims of domestic violence, mean age 30.07 (SD = ±9.65). Reliability was satisfactory for judges interviews(k>0,6). RESULTS: According to the OPD-2 evaluation, we found that the severity of the violence was associated with the intensity of women's subjective suffering. In the relational pattern, they stay in the relationship, leaving themselves vulnerable; perceive the partner as controlling, aggressive, offensive, and fear abandonment. As a defensive mechanism to relational discomfort and suffering victims anticipate the aggressor's desire, resulting in submissive behavior. The main psychic conflict was the "need for care versus self-sufficiency" (78.6%). And medium was the predominant structure level, in which they presented insecure internal objects, presenting difficulties in emotional regulation and perceiving reality in a distorted way. Hence, they do not recognize their limitations and needs. We found that 78.6% of the cases had some psychiatric disorder: MDD, PTSD. CONCLUSION: This study provides empirical evidence on clinical observations on the psychological functioning of this population and the issues that make up the maintenance of domestic violence against women. The understanding of internalized patterns, structural functions, and motivational tensions are fundamental for the prevention of re-victimization and improving coping mechanisms, as well as promoting greater adherence to treatment.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Entrevista Psicológica , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicoanálisis , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 62, 2020 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532332

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Death rattle is a frequently occurring symptom in the last phase of life. The experience of death rattle of relatives has been found to vary. It is unclear if treatment with medication is useful. The most fitting solution for this symptom is still under debate. AIM: This study aims to better understand the experience of relatives of their loved ones' death rattle. DESIGN: A qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews which were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen family members of 15 patients were interviewed. RESULTS: Most relatives had experienced death rattle as a distressing symptom. Concerns about how long the rattling would last resulted in more distress. Experience of death rattle was less fierce when other symptoms such as pain or dyspnea prevailed. Hearing the sound of death rattle sometimes reminded relatives of previously witnessed dying trajectories, which seemed to increase their current level of distress. The experience of death rattle is not always influenced by the amount and quality of information given about the symptom. CONCLUSION: Death rattle is a stressful symptom and the experience of relatives is influenced by more factors than the sound itself. Communication and information alone seem inefficient to address relatives' distress. The best approach for dealing with this symptom is unclear. Further research needs to show if prophylactically given drugs may be helpful in its prevention.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Familia , Ruidos Respiratorios , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Enfermo Terminal
18.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 48(3): 106-115, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193796

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las personas de edad avanzada presentan las tasas más altas de suicidio en todo el mundo. A su vez, tienen las menores tasas de intentos de suicidio. Muchos estudios coinciden en señalar que en este grupo de edad existe un mayor contacto sanitario previo a las conductas suicidas, especialmente con Atención Primaria. El contacto previo con otros niveles asistenciales es menos conocido. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del estudio es conocer las características del contacto con centros sanitarios, de todos los niveles asistenciales, previo a un intento de suicidio, en personas mayores de 65 años, en un área sanitaria bien delimitada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el periodo de enero de 2015 a diciembre de 2017, todas las personas mayores de 65 años del área sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela atendidas en el servicio de urgencias por intentos de suicidio fueron entrevistadas. La entrevista incluyó una evaluación psiquiátrica y la recogida de distintas variables clínicas y sociodemográficas, así como datos sobre el contacto previo con centros sanitarios. RESULTADOS: Se registraron 80 intentos de suicidio, lo que supone una incidencia de 35,3/100.000. La edad media de nuestra muestra fue de 74,85 ± 7 años, la proporción entre hombre: mujer fue de 2:3. En las cuatro semanas previas a la tentativa, el 61,3% visitó a su médico de Atención Primaria y el 72,5% visitó algún centro sanitario. El 41,3% no estaba a seguimiento en servicios de Salud Mental. CONCLUSIONES: El hecho quedo de cada tres personas mayores de 65 años que cometen un intento de suicidio en nuestra área visitaron a su médico de Atención Primaria durante el mes previo y el 90% hubieran visitado algún centro sanitario durante los tres meses previos, plantea la posibilidad de que las medidas preventivas del suicidio pudieran llevarse a cabo más allá del ámbito de la Atención Primaria


INTRODUCTION. Older people have the highest suicide rates in the world. In turn, they have the lowest rates of suicide attempts. Many studies have found greater health contact, especially with general practitioner, prior to suicidal behaviour in this age group. Less information is availbale about prior contact with other health services. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to know the characteristics of contact with all levels of health services, prior to a suicide attempt in people over 65 years of age in a defined population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Along the period January 2015 to December 2017, all persons over 65 years of age admitted by suicide attempt to emergency room in the health area of Santiago de Compostela were interviewed. The interview included a psychiatric evaluation and the collrection of relevant clinical and sociodemographic variables, in particular, data on prior contact with health services. RESULTS: 80 suicide attempts were recorded, which rep-resents an incidence of 35.3 / 100,000. The average age of our sample was 74.85 ± 7 years, the ratio between male: female was 2: 3. 61.3% had visited their general practitioner the month prior to the attempt, 72.5% had visited a health centre. On the other hand, 41.3% were not under the follow up of Mental Health services


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Servicios de Salud Mental , Escala del Estado Mental , Entrevista Psicológica , España/epidemiología , Incidencia , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(7): 2213-2230, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382783

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Witnesses and victims typically provide the central leads in police investigations, yet statistics from past research indicates in many instances these individuals are intoxicated. OBJECTIVES: To date, however, no research has looked at how best to interview such witnesses to maximise the amount of accurate information they recall. METHODS: In the present research, whilst on a night out, participants watched a videoed theft whilst either sober or moderately (MBAC = 0.05%) or severely (MBAC = 0.14%) intoxicated. A week later, in a different location, participants were interviewed using either the Enhanced Cognitive (ECI) or Structured Interview. RESULTS: The ECI was found to improve the recall accuracy and completeness of witness accounts across all three drinking conditions. However, no significant interaction was indicated between alcohol and interview condition. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings are discussed in terms of their real-world value in aiding police officers to elicit as complete and as accurate an account as possible from intoxicated witnesses.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Cognición/fisiología , Etanol/administración & dosificación , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Adulto , Intoxicación Alcohólica/diagnóstico , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuerdo Mental/efectos de los fármacos
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