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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 142256, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207491

RESUMEN

The present study used red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusas) as the model fish to compare the interactive effects between aged and virgin microplastics (MPs) with the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and the ß-blocker propranolol (PRP). To this end, the ultraviolet irradiation was used to simulate the MP aging in the environment. The accumulations of MPs and pharmaceuticals, and changes in enzyme activities and genes expressions in tilapia were also evaluated. Some physical properties of MPs changed during the aging process, reflected by 0.27- and 0.16-fold increases in the specific surface area and average pore volume, respectively. And more carbonyl formation was observed on the surface of aged MPs. Compared to the 14-d coexposure with virgin MPs, the MP aging increased the accumulation of PRP by 82.3% in the brain, whereas decreased the concentration of SMX by 46.1% in the gills. The stress on tilapia caused by the MPs and PRP was alleviated by the aging process, largely related to the lower neurotoxicity and reduced lipid peroxidation damages. However, the coexposure to aged MPs and SMX would result in higher inhibitions of cytochrome P450 enzymes activities. The results of the transcriptomics showed that the MP aging mainly influenced the expression of genes related to the metabolic process, immune system process, and the genetic information process in tilapia under the coexposure to MPs and pharmaceuticals. Collectively, our results suggest that the MP aging could induce complex changes in the interactive effects between MPs and pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Tilapia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Envejecimiento , Animales , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 83-96, jul.-dez. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1125733

RESUMEN

Este estudo descritivo exploratório investigou a prevalência de Prática de Atividades Prazerosas (PAP), bem-estar Subjetivo (BES), Depressão e Solidão em 59 idosos provenientes de grupos de convivência. Foram aplicados: Questionário Sociodemográfico, Escal a de Atividades Instrumentais da Vida Diária de Pfeffer, Escala de Afetos Negativos e Positivos, Escala de Satisfação com a Vida, Escala de Depressão Geriátrica - versão reduzida, Escala Brasileira de Solidão e OPPES-BR. Os idosos da amostra eram majoritar iamente mulheres, jovens idosos, viúvos, escolarizados, com bom estado funcional e que avaliavam sua saúde de forma positiva. A amostra apresentou médias altas para PAP e BES e médias baixas para solidão e depressão. Grupos de convivência favorecem a saúde mental de idosos e contribuem para o envelhecimento bem-sucedido, uma vez que esses espaços fornecem oportunidades de suporte social, engajamento em atividades prazerosas e experiência de sentimentos positivos.


This descriptive and exploratory study investigated the prevalence of Involvement in Pleasant Events, Subjective Well-Being, Depression, and Loneliness in 59 elderly from social groups without apparent cognitive impairment. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Pfeffer Index, the Negative and Positive Affect Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale - reduced version, the Brazilian Loneliness Scale, and OPPES-BR were applied. The elderly were mostly women, young, widowed, educated, with a good functional state, and with a positive health evaluation. Participants showed high levels of Involvement in Pleasant Events and Subjective Well Being, and low levels of loneliness and depression. Social groups provide opportunities for social support, engagement in pleasant events, positive emotions and may contribute to the elderly's mental health and successful aging.


Este estudio exploratorio descriptivo investigó la prevalencia de la práctica de actividad placentera (PAP), el bienestar subjetivo (BES), la depresión y la soledad en 59 personas mayores proveniente de grupos sociales. Se aplicaron el Cuestionario sociodemográfico, la Escala de actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria de Pfeffer, la Escala de afectos negativos y positivos, la Escala de satisfacción con la vida, la Escala de depresión geriátrica - versión reducida, la Escala de soledad brasileña y OPPES-BR. Los ancianos de la muestra eran en su mayoría mujeres, ancianos más jóvenes, viudos, escolarizados, con buen estado funcional y que evaluaron positivamente su salud. En general, los ancianos tenían altas tasas de PAP y BES y bajas tasas de soledad y depresión. Los grupos sociales favorecen la salud mental de las personas mayores y contribuyen al envejecimiento exitoso, ya que estos espacios traen oportunidades de apoyo social, participación en actividades placenteras y experiencia de sentimientos positivos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Satisfacción Personal , Apoyo Social , Evaluación en Salud , Envejecimiento , Indicadores de Salud , Viudez , Afecto , Depresión , Disfunción Cognitiva , Promoción de la Salud , Actividades Recreativas , Soledad
3.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180235, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1101982

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to disclose knowledge and practices related to active aging based on the educational and care-related dialogical proposal with professionals from the Family Health Strategy. Method: a convergent care research developed with professionals from the Family Health Strategy, in a municipality in the Central North area of Paraná-Brazil. Data was collected through interviews with 14 professionals with an average duration of 12 minutes followed by a Culture Circle with four professionals and a duration of 59 minutes, following the educational stages of the same, namely: investigation, thematization and disclosure. The premises of Freire's dialogicity were used as a theoretical framework. Results: the data show that professionals have different conceptions about aging, distinct ways of conceptualizing active aging, and scarcity of systematization for the care of the robust elderly. These findings were the basis for the dialogical educational design that allowed to transform and build new knowledge on the theme. Conclusion: the educational and care-related dialogical pathway allowed the collective definition of aging and the understanding of active aging, thus making it possible to advance towards the promotion of comprehensive care for the elderly. The convergent care research approach is shown to be effective for studies of an educational dialogic nature due to its insertion in the context of study and collective construction based on reality.


RESUMEN Objetivo: revelar saberes y prácticas sobre el envejecimiento activo a partir de la propuesta dialógica educativa/de atención con profesionales de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia. Método: investigación convergente asistencial desarrollada con profesionales de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia en un municipio del área centro-norte de Paraná-Brasil. Los datos se recolectaron por medio de entrevistas de 12 minutos de duración media con 14 profesionales, seguidas por un Círculo de Cultura de 59 minutos de duración con cuatro profesionales, para luego seguir con las etapas educativas del mismo, a saber: investigación, tematización y revelación. Como referencial teórico se utilizaron las premisas de la dialogicidad de Freire. Resultados: los datos demuestran que los profesionales tienen diversas concepciones sobre el envejecimiento, distintas formas de conceptualizar el envejecimiento activo y escasa capacidad de sistematización para cuidar al anciano robusto. Estos hallazgos fueron la base para el delineamiento educativo dialógico que permitió transformar y construir nuevos saberes sobre la temática. Conclusión: el itinerario dialógico educativo y relacionado con la atención permitió definir el envejecimiento en forma colectiva y comprender el envejecimiento activo, posibilitando así el avance en la promoción del cuidado integral a los ancianos. El enfoque de la investigación convergente asistencial se presenta como un medio eficaz para estudios de tinte educativo y dialógico con su inserción en el contexto del estudio y la construcción colectiva pautada en la realidad.


RESUMO Objetivo: desvelar saberes e práticas sobre envelhecimento ativo a partir da proposta educativo-cuidativo dialógica com profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Método: pesquisa convergente assistencial desenvolvida com profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família, em um município do Norte Central do Paraná-Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista com 14 profissionais com duração média de 12 minutos seguida de Círculo de Cultura com quatro profissionais e duração de 59 minutos, seguindo as etapas educativas do mesmo, a saber: investigação, tematização e desvelamento. As premissas da dialogicidade de Freire foram utilizadas como referencial teórico. Resultados: os dados demostram que os profissionais têm: concepções diversas sobre o envelhecer; distintas formas de conceituar o envelhecimento ativo e escassez de sistematização para o cuidado ao idoso robusto. Esses achados foram a base para o delineamento educativo dialógico que permitiu transformar e construir novos saberes sobre a temática. Conclusão: o percurso cuidativo-educativo dialógico permitiu a definição coletiva sobre envelhecimento e a compreensão sobre o envelhecer ativo, possibilitando assim, avançar para a promoção do cuidado integral ao idoso. A abordagem de pesquisa convergente assistencial apresenta-se como eficaz para estudos de cunho educativo dialógico pela inserção no contexto de estudo e construção coletiva pautada na realidade.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Envejecimiento , Salud de la Familia , Salud del Anciano , Educación Continua , Estrategia de Salud Familiar
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5661, 2020 11 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168829

RESUMEN

Sarcopenia is characterized by decreased skeletal muscle mass and function with age. Aged muscles have altered lipid compositions; however, the role and regulation of lipids are unknown. Here we report that FABP3 is upregulated in aged skeletal muscles, disrupting homeostasis via lipid remodeling. Lipidomic analyses reveal that FABP3 overexpression in young muscles alters the membrane lipid composition to that of aged muscle by decreasing polyunsaturated phospholipid acyl chains, while increasing sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine. FABP3-dependent membrane lipid remodeling causes ER stress via the PERK-eIF2α pathway and inhibits protein synthesis, limiting muscle recovery after immobilization. FABP3 knockdown induces a young-like lipid composition in aged muscles, reduces ER stress, and improves protein synthesis and muscle recovery. Further, FABP3 reduces membrane fluidity and knockdown increases fluidity in vitro, potentially causing ER stress. Therefore, FABP3 drives membrane lipid composition-mediated ER stress to regulate muscle homeostasis during aging and is a valuable target for sarcopenia.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Estrés del Retículo Endoplásmico/fisiología , Proteína 3 de Unión a Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Lípidos de la Membrana/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animales , Línea Celular , Factor 2 Eucariótico de Iniciación/metabolismo , Proteína 3 de Unión a Ácidos Grasos/genética , Femenino , Técnicas de Silenciamiento del Gen , Lipidómica , Fluidez de la Membrana , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Músculo Esquelético/patología , Mioblastos/patología , Mioblastos/fisiología , Fosfolípidos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas , Sarcopenia , Regulación hacia Arriba
6.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 47(9): 1281-1286, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130684

RESUMEN

Advances in sequencing technology have been reported to show cancer driver mutations with aging in a variety of normal tissues at very small clone sizes. In the normal esophagus, prior to carcinogenesis, clones that had acquired driver mutations in esophageal cancer, mainly NOTCH1 mutations, during early life appeared multi-centrically. With aging, the number of driver mutations increased and the clones expanded. In the elderly, most of the normal esophagus was replaced by clones with driver mutations. In contrast, in normal colorectal epithelium, about 1% of crypts contain driver mutations even in the 50s. In normal hepatocytes, age-related mutations are rarely detected. These results suggest that the frequency of detection of driver mutations in normal tissues varies greatly among tissues. The panorama of aging and cancer remains veiled.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Anciano , Envejecimiento/genética , Carcinogénesis , Humanos , Mutación
7.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 567-571, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156299

RESUMEN

Saliva is a very multifaceted fluid with many different functions and it plays an essential role in oral health. With an aging population, dental professionals will increasingly be confronted with patients with reduced saliva secretion (hyposalivation) or dry mouth (xerostomia). Clinical symptoms as a result of dry mouth vary from mild to severe damage to the hard and soft tissues. Therefore it is important to establish whether a patient is suffering from hyposalivation and if so, whether the patient is able to activate the saliva secretion. Based on saliva testing, hyposalivation and dry mouth can be diagnosed in the general dental practice and be taken into account in prevention and treatment plans.


Asunto(s)
Saliva , Xerostomía , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Humanos , Salud Bucal , Xerostomía/diagnóstico
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182413

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has impacted not only the health of citizens, but also the various factors that make up our society, living environments, and ecosystems. This pandemic has shown that future living will need to be agile and flexible to adapt to the various changes in needs of societal populations. Digital technology has played an integral role during COVID-19, assisting various sectors of the community, and demonstrating that smart cities can provide opportunities to respond to many future societal challenges. In the decades ahead, the rise in aging populations will be one of these challenges, and one in which the needs and requirements between demographic cohorts will vary greatly. Although we need to create future smart age-friendly ecosystems to meet these needs, technology still does not feature in the WHO eight domains of an age-friendly city. This paper extends upon Marston and van Hoof's 'Smart Age-friendly Ecosystem' (SAfE) framework, and explores how digital technology, design hacking, and research approaches can be used to understand a smart age-friendly ecosystem in a post-pandemic society. By exploring a series of case studies and using real-life scenarios from the standpoint of COVID-19, we propose the 'Concept of Age-friendly Smart Ecologies (CASE)' framework. We provide an insight into a myriad of contemporary multi-disciplinary research, which are capable to initiate discussions and bring various actors together with a positive impact on future planning and development of age-friendly ecosystems. The strengths and limitations of this framework are outlined, with advantages evident in the opportunity for towns, regions/counties, provinces, and states to take an agile approach and work together in adopting and implement improvements for the greater benefits of residents and citizens.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Planificación Ambiental , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Envejecimiento , Betacoronavirus , Ciudades , Humanos , Soledad , Aislamiento Social
11.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 157, 2020 10 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026533

RESUMEN

Dynamic skeletal deformation with ageing showed important signs of degenerative and osteoporotic diseases. We found that both femoral bowing and cortical thickness were correlated with ageing in a Chinese population. Further, femoral cortical index, an osteoporotic indicator, was negatively correlated with femoral bowing angle. Hence, more attention should be paid to these femoral morphological changes to avoid fragility fractures and failed internal fixation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether morphological parameters of the femoral shaft are in age-related deformation and identify correlations between parameters of femoral cortical thickness and femoral shaft bowing. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients (mean 50 years, range 18~104 years) who had received standard long-standing anteroposterior and femoral lateral radiographs from October 2016 to October 2019 were included in this retrospective study. The sagittal femoral bowing angle (sFBA), sagittal femoral cortical index (sFCI), coronal femoral bowing angle (cFBA), and coronal femoral cortical index (cFCI) were measured by two orthopaedists separately. All the participants' demographic data, including age, sex, body laterality, height, and weight, were collected. The Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, two-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the male and female participants was 46.95 ± 15.25 and 52.22 ± 15.61 years, respectively. Two-way ANOVA revealed that females had a significantly lower sFCI than males at the right side (P < 0.05). There were no significant interactions between sex or body laterality and the sFBA, cFBA, sFCI, and cFCI groups (P > 0.05). Pearson correlation revealed that sFCI was strongly correlated with sFBA (r = - 0.535, P < 0.05) and cFBA (r = - 0.535, P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that both age (ß = 0.304 and 0.308 respectively) and sFCI (ß = - 0.322 and - 0.414 respectively) were two independent predictors associated with sFBA and cFBA respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The femoral shaft bowing of the Chinese population was positively correlated with ageing, whereas the sagittal femoral cortical thickness negatively correlated with ageing. A high FBA occurred in femoral shafts with a low sFCI, which revealed that femoral shaft bowing was associated with femoral cortical thickness. During femur-related surgery in older patients, more attention should be paid to these femoral morphological changes.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Diáfisis/diagnóstico por imagen , Fémur/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiografía/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antropometría/métodos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Femenino , Fémur/anatomía & histología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040341, 2020 10 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051236

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Local activities that functioned to prevent frailty in the elderly have been suspended or reduced as a countermeasure against COVID-19. As a result, frailty rates are expected to increase, and frailty is expected to worsen as a secondary problem associated with COVID-19 countermeasures. Therefore, this study aims to determine the extent of frailty in the elderly associated with lifestyle changes implemented as COVID-19 countermeasures, to ascertain actual lifestyle changes and clarify the existence of Corona-Frailty. We will also conduct Corona-Frailty screening to verify the effect of support provided as feedback to supporters of the elderly. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The survey target area is Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phase I aims to verify the short-term effects of COVID-19. A questionnaire will be distributed to 465 community-dwelling elderly people, and responses will be obtained by post. Frailty will be evaluated using the Frailty Screening Index. Respondents who are frail and have had many changes in their lifestyle will be screened as high-risk people, and feedback will be provided to local supporters. The aim of Phase II will be to verify the long-term effects of COVID-19 and the effect of screening. A similar survey will be distributed twice after the first survey, once after 6 months and again after 1 year and the frailty rate will be tested. Furthermore, out of the subjects identified with frailty in Phase I, the progress of those who were screened and those who were not screened will be compared between groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Takasaki University of Health and Welfare (approval number: 2009). The results of this study will be reported to the policymaker, presented at academic conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000040335.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Vida Independiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 389-408, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034796

RESUMEN

Understanding older adults perceptions of health and adaptation processes to ageing can allow for more culturally aligned services and better targeted care. The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine older adults perceptions of physical, psychological and social health and further understand the processes of adaptation and self-management of these health perceptions. Semi-structured in depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with ethnically diverse older adults in Singapore, aged 60 and above. Participants were asked open ended questions about their physical health, psychological health and their current social health and relationships. They were also asked methods of adaptation to these age related changes. In total, forty participants were interviewed. A thematic analysis identified five main themes when exploring perceptions of physical, psychological and social health. These included; 1) Slowing down 2) Relationship harmony 3) Financial harmony 4) Social connectedness and 5) Eating together. Adaptation and self-management of these health perceptions included six additional themes; 1) Keep moving 2) Keep learning; where continued self-determination and resilience was a key method in adapting to negative thoughts about declining physical health 3) Adopting avoidant coping behaviours 4) 'It feels good to do good'; where finding meaning in life was to help others 5) 'Power of Prayer'; which highlighted how older adults relegated responsibilities to a higher spiritual power 6) Social participation; which included engaging in community and religious social activities that all contributed to self-management of older adults psychological health and social health. In conclusion, our study highlighted specific cultural nuances in older adults perceptions of health, particularly psychological and social health. These findings can help develop more targeted intervention programmes and better methods of measuring older adults health, which can assist with the global ageing phenomena.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Envejecimiento Saludable/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Singapur , Apoyo Social
14.
Arkh Patol ; 82(5): 73-78, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054036

RESUMEN

The literature data on changes in the content of iron and its metabolites in brain structures during aging and neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease - PD and Alzheimer's disease - AD) are analyzed. It was revealed that with aging, the iron content in nigrostriatal formations of brain changes: the level of non-heme iron and ferritin increases and neuromelanin also accumulates in neurons of black substance. The accumulation of neuromelanin in combination with increase in ferritin content can be considered as a morphochemical sign of neuroprotective effect of nervous tissue during aging. The iron level in PD and AD compared with that during physiological aging continues to increase, and the ability of chelating agents to bind iron decreases (ferritin in neuroglia cells and neuromelanin in neurons), which activates the mechanisms of cell destruction. As a result, in PD, the aggregation of α-synuclein is disrupted, which leads to the formation of Levi bodies, and in AD, the amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) undergoes proteolysis and this leads to the formation of amyloid plaques, which triggers subsequent neurodegenerative changes, including the death of neurons.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Envejecimiento , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Hierro
15.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 455-478, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064233

RESUMEN

Successful aging is a concept that has gained popularity and relevance internationally among gerontologists in recent decades. Examining lay older adults' perspectives on successful aging can enhance our understanding of what successful aging means. We conducted a systematic review of peer reviewed studies from multiple countries published in 2010-2020 that contained qualitative responses of lay older adults to open-ended questions such as "What does successful aging mean to you?" We identified 23 studies conducted in 13 countries across North America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Oceania. We identified no studies meeting our criteria in Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, North Asia, or Pacific Islands. Across all regions represented in our review, older adults most commonly referred to themes of social engagement and positive attitude in their own lay definitions of successful aging. Older adults also commonly identified themes of independence and physical health. Least mentioned were themes of cognitive health and spirituality. Lay definitions of successful aging varied by country and culture. Our findings suggest that gerontology professionals in fields including healthcare, health psychology, and public health may best serve older adults by providing services that align with older adults' priority of maintaining strong social engagement as they age. Lay perspectives on successful aging acknowledge the importance of positive attitude, independence, and spirituality, in addition to physical and cognitive functioning.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/etnología , Actitud Frente a la Salud/etnología , Comparación Transcultural , Envejecimiento Saludable/etnología , Adaptación Psicológica , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Asia , Cognición , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Geriatría , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Medio Oriente , América del Norte , Oceanía , Investigación Cualitativa , Apoyo Social , Espiritualidad
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 579401, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101211

RESUMEN

It's a frightening time due to COVID-19, but the great elderly/centenarians, apparently with more frailty, seem to have a better response to the pandemic. "The South Italy" lifestyle seems an "effective strategy" promoting the well-being embedded in a holistic solution: healthy diet, less exposure to PM10 pollution, protected environment, and moderate physical activity. The European FP7 Project RISTOMED results, since 2010, have shown that dietary intervention improved a heathy status in the elderly people. Based on the RISTOMED results, in addition to sociocultural and environmental factors, the authors suggest an integrated approach for resilience to COVID-19. Such an approach during the next months could make the difference for the success of any government progress policy to fight COVID-19, finalizing long-term well-being and successful aging.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Dieta Mediterránea , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Anciano , Concienciación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estrés Psicológico
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 583006, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101215

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its clinical manifestation (COVID-19; coronavirus disease 2019) have caused a worldwide health crisis. Disruption of epithelial and endothelial barriers is a key clinical turning point that differentiates patients who are likely to develop severe COVID-19 outcomes: it marks a significant escalation in respiratory symptoms, loss of viral containment and a progression toward multi-organ dysfunction. These barrier mechanisms are independently compromised by known COVID-19 risk factors, including diabetes, obesity and aging: thus, a synergism between these underlying conditions and SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms may explain why these risk factors correlate with more severe outcomes. This review examines the key cellular mechanisms that SARS-CoV-2 and its underlying risk factors utilize to disrupt barrier function. As an outlook, we propose that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) may be a therapeutic intervention that can slow COVID-19 progression and improve clinical outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection. GLP-1 signaling activates barrier-promoting processes that directly oppose the pro-inflammatory mechanisms commandeered by SARS-CoV-2 and its underlying risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/patología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatología , Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/metabolismo , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/virología
18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 576745, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117379

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already caused hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide in a few months. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and chronic lung disease have been identified as the main COVID-19 comorbidities. Moreover, despite similar infection rates between men and women, the most severe course of the disease is higher in elderly and co-morbid male patients. Therefore, the occurrence of specific comorbidities associated with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance mediated by the interaction between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and desintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17 (ADAM17), along with specific genetic factors mainly associated with type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) expression, could be decisive for the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Indeed, the exacerbated ADAM17-mediated ACE2, TNF-α, and IL-6R secretion emerges as a possible underlying mechanism for the acute inflammatory immune response and the activation of the coagulation cascade. Therefore, in this review, we focus on the main pathophysiological aspects of ACE2, ADAM17, and TMPRSS2 host proteins in COVID-19. Additionally, we discuss a possible mechanism to explain the deleterious effect of ADAM17 and TMPRSS2 over-activation in the COVID-19 outcome.


Asunto(s)
Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/patología , Serina Endopeptidasas/metabolismo , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Betacoronavirus , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Receptores de Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 573662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123152

RESUMEN

Bearing a strong resemblance to the phenotypic and functional remodeling of the immune system that occurs during aging (termed immunesenescence), the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by an expansion of inflammatory monocytes, functional exhaustion of lymphocytes, dysregulated myeloid responses and the presence of highly activated senescent T cells. Alongside advanced age, male gender and pre-existing co-morbidities [e.g., obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)] are emerging as significant risk factors for COVID-19. Interestingly, immunesenescence is more profound in males when compared to females, whilst accelerated aging of the immune system, termed premature immunesenescence, has been described in obese subjects and T2D patients. Thus, as three distinct demographic groups with an increased susceptibility to COVID-19 share a common immune profile, could immunesenescence be a generic contributory factor in the development of severe COVID-19? Here, by focussing on three key aspects of an immune response, namely pathogen recognition, elimination and resolution, we address this question by discussing how immunesenescence may weaken or exacerbate the immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We also highlight how aspects of immunesenescence could render potential COVID-19 treatments less effective in older adults and draw attention to certain therapeutic options, which by reversing or circumventing certain features of immunesenescence may prove to be beneficial for the treatment of groups at high risk of severe COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Senescencia Celular/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Envejecimiento/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Monocitos/inmunología , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Obesidad/inmunología , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Linfocitos T/inmunología
20.
Aging Cell ; 19(10): e13230, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006233

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that poses one of the greatest challenges to public health in recent years. SARS-CoV-2 is known to preferentially target older subjects and those with pre-existing conditions, but the reason for this age dependence is unclear. Here, we found that the case fatality rate for COVID-19 grows exponentially with age in all countries tested, with the doubling time approaching that of all-cause human mortality. In addition, men and those with multiple age-related diseases are characterized by increased mortality. Moreover, similar mortality patterns were found for all-cause pneumonia. We further report that the gene expression of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, grows in the lung with age, except for subjects on a ventilator. Together, our findings establish COVID-19 as an emergent disease of aging, and age and age-related diseases as its major risk factors. In turn, this suggests that COVID-19, and deadly respiratory diseases in general, may be targeted, in addition to antiviral approaches, by approaches that target the aging process.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Factores Sexuales
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