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1.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(1): 66-71, 2020 Jan 24.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008298

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the impact of change of ideal cardiovascular behavior and related factors on healthy vascular aging(HVA). Methods: This study was a multi-center cross-sectional survey. Six thousand three hundred and sixteen participants who underwent at least 2 healthy examinations from 2006 to 2015 at 11 hospitals, including Kailuan Hospital and so on, and examined brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) during 2010 and 2016, with available information about cardiovascular behavior and factors were included. The cardiovascular health score (CHS) was calculated. Basic CHS was collected from the first examination. The second CHS derived from the healthy examination in the same year of baPWV examination. Change of cardiovascular health score (ΔCHS) was calculated. Participants were defined into 5 groups according to ΔCHS, namely ΔCHS≤-2 (n=2 166), ΔCHS=-1 (n=1 284), ΔCHS=0 (n=1 187), ΔCHS=1 (n=860), and ΔCHS≥2 (n=819). Participants' characteristics, value of baPWV and proportion of HVA were compared among different groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between ΔCHS and HVA. The ΔCHS was recalculated and included in multiple logistic regression analysis model again after each component of the cardiovascular health metrics was removed separately in order to investigate effects of removal factors on HVA by observing changes in effect values. Results: The percentage of the participants with HVA in the group of ΔCHS≤-2, ΔCHS=-1, ΔCHS=0, ΔCHS=1 and ΔCHS≥2 were 23.3%(505/2 166), 27.8%(357/1 284), 28.7%(341/1 187),31.9%(274/860) and 33.9%(278/819), respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, income, education, alcohol consumption and the basic CHS, a significant positive association between ΔCHS and proportion of participants with HVA was observed (OR=1.50, 95%CI 1.44-1.56). Multiple regression analysis after removing each single cardiovascular behavior or factor showed that the OR value decreased as follow systolic blood pressure (OR=1.04, 95%CI 1.00-1.09), fasting blood glucose (OR=1.14, 95%CI 1.09-1.18), physical exercise (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.21), salt intake (OR=1.17, 95%CI 1.12-1.22), body mass index (OR=1.18, 95%CI 1.13-1.23), smoking(OR=1.18, 95%CI 1.13-1.23) and total cholesterol (OR=1.20, 95%CI 1.16-1.24). Conclusion: The improvement of every ideal cardiovascular behavior and factor is associated with the increase of the proportion of HVA population.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Índice Tobillo Braquial , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1216: 1-7, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894541

RESUMEN

Over the past decades, a progressive and exponential aging of the population has been observed. In particular, an absolute e relative increase of old and very old persons is also projected for the next 30 years. This demographic phenomenon is substantially responsible for the growing prevalence of frailty in our societies. Frailty is a clinical condition characterized by an excessive vulnerability of the individual to endogenous and exogenous stressors. This status generates a high risk of developing negative health-related events. Shifting to a construct as frailty to biologically define the perimeter of action for geriatric medicine will probably concur at modernizing the old way of practicing medicine. In this chapter the concept of frailty, its impact on the evolving healthcare systems, the controversies associated with its assessment and, ultimately, the role it plays in the management of older persons are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Anciano Frágil , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/fisiopatología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1216: 55-64, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894547

RESUMEN

Chronic inflammation, which is called "inflamm-aging" , is characterized by an increased level of inflammatory cytokines in response to physiological and environmental stressors, and causes the immune system to function consistently at a low level, even though it is not effective. Possible causes of inflammaging include genetic susceptibility, visceral obesity, changes in gut microbiota and permeability, chronic infections and cellular senescence. Inflammation has a role in the development of many age-related diseases, such as frailty. Low grade chronic inflammation can also increase the risk of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance which are the leading mechanisms in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As it is well known that the risk of CVD is higher in older people with frailty and the risk of frailty is higher in patients with CVD, there may be relationship between inflammation and the development of CVD and frailty. Therefore, this important issue will be discussed in this chapter.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Anciano Frágil , Fragilidad/complicaciones , Inflamación/complicaciones , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/inmunología , Envejecimiento/patología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/inmunología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/patología , Senescencia Celular , Citocinas/inmunología , Fragilidad/inmunología , Fragilidad/patología , Humanos , Inflamación/inmunología , Inflamación/patología
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1216: 79-86, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894549

RESUMEN

Frailty is a complex clinical syndrome, progressively described in the last thirty years, resulting from multiple impairments across many organs and systems and characterized by a reduction in physiological reserves and increased vulnerability to stressors, as well. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a common health problem in very old populations. Age-related changes occur throughout the body and in all organs, including the cardiovascular system. Cellular senescence links age-related CVDs and frailty by many mechanisms of particular interest in the aging biology and geriatric syndromes. Cellular senescence may represent the pivotal factor with its senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) leading to systemic inflammation. In this context, SASP may represent the key element in the association between aging, frailty and the development of age-related CVDs.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/patología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/patología , Senescencia Celular , Anciano Frágil , Fragilidad/complicaciones , Fragilidad/patología , Anciano , Humanos , Inflamación/complicaciones , Inflamación/patología
5.
Life Sci ; 242: 117242, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891723

RESUMEN

Age is closely related with the occurrence and development of tumors, and with treatment outcomes. To improve the accuracy and rigor of preclinical studies, and to enhance consistency between the preclinical research and the clinical reality, the age of experimental animals used in preclinical studies is important. The mouse genome is 99% identical to the human genome, and mice have similar patterns with respect to organs and systemic physiology. Thus, mice have been the most widely used animals in anti-tumor research. However, most mice used in such studies are 6 to 8 weeks old, ignoring the fact that different tumors may often occur in various periods, with a particular tendency to occur in later stages of life. The great difference in age limits the success rate of clinical transformation. Therefore, it is very important to choose mice of suitable age for preclinical studies and to correlate ages of human and mice. Only a few related studies have been reported and there is a lack of consistency in the findings. This review points out that age is one of the important factors in anti-tumor research, and establishes a new method for calculating the age correlation between humans and mice. The equations obtained from the method can help researchers conveniently determine suitable aged mouse for their research, which will improve the rigor of their experimental results. Furthermore, this method can be used beyond anti-tumor research, in studies on other diseases that use mouse as an animal model.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores de Edad , Animales , Investigación Biomédica , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Ratones
6.
Orv Hetil ; 161(5): 163-168, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984775

RESUMEN

There is an absolute and relative increase in the proportion of the elderly population especially in the European countries, but this tendency can be also observed universally. By the continuous increase of the proportion of the elderly population, the medical and social related financial burdens are also increasing because of the significant decrease in health condition among older adults. The process of aging includes not only the constant decline of the general health condition and daily functioning, but also includes the decrease of the mental and cognitive performance, which further impairs the everyday life of the older adults. These findings warrant the necessity of preventive interventions in the future. According to previous findings, physical activity can be used to improve cognitive functioning and prevent further decline. In this article we provide a brief review of the literature on physical activity effects on cognition in general and with referring to three different specific forms of physical exercise; moreover, briefly discuss the important future directions of research. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(5): 163-168.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Cognición , Terapia por Ejercicio , Ejercicio , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Trastornos del Conocimiento/prevención & control , Trastornos del Conocimiento/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18605, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895811

RESUMEN

To investigate the age-related nomograms and change trends of reproductive hormones, and prevalence of androgen deficiency (AD) in middle-aged and aging men from 2 studies.Two cross-sectional studies were conducted at 5-year intervals in Chinese community-dwelling men living in the same area. A total of 434 (Study 1, S1) and 944 (Study 2, S2) men aged 40 to 69 years were recruited as subjects and 59 (S1) and 98 (S2) men aged 20 to 39 years as controls to measure serum reproductive hormone levels.Serum total testosterone (TT) levels did not change significantly in S1, whereas TT levels increased in S2 with aging. Serum calculated free testosterone (cFT) levels gradually decreased with aging; however, only men aged 40 to 69 years showed this trend in S2. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels gradually increased, and serum testosterone secretion index (TSI) and free testosterone index (FTI) levels gradually decreased with male aging. The mean annual decrease values of serum cFT were 2.705 pmol/l in S1 and 1.060 pmol/l in S2. The cut-off values for AD in S1 and S2 were 9.13 nmol/l and 9.35 nmol/l for TT, and 169.00 pmol/l and 213.90 pmol/l for cFT. Using TT or cFT cut-off values, mean AD prevalence was 14.52% or 44.70% in S1, and 6.36% or 16.53% in S2. Based on cFT cut-off values, prevalence of AD increased gradually with male aging in a range of 25.30% to 61.63% in S1 and 1.20% to 23.03% in S2.The change patterns of serum LH, SHBG, TSI and FTI levels in middle-aged and aging males were consistent; however, there were differences in serum TT and cFT change patterns in S1 and S2 with male aging. cFT cut-off values were the optimal metric to evaluate AD, which can be present a ladder-like change in prevalence of different age groups.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/sangre , Enfermedades del Sistema Endocrino/epidemiología , Hormona Luteinizante/sangre , Globulina de Unión a Hormona Sexual/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nomogramas , Prevalencia , Testosterona/deficiencia , Adulto Joven
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 868-873, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926517

RESUMEN

Blue poison dart frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius azureus) are commonly maintained in zoological institutions and are becoming popular in the pet trade industry. Sedation or light anesthesia is required for safe and effective handling of this species. In this study, the sedative effects of subcutaneously administered alfaxalone-midazolam-dexmedetomidine (AMD) (20, 40, 5 mg/kg, respectively) and ketamine-midazolam-dexmedetomidine (KMD) (100, 40, 5 mg/kg, respectively) were compared in a prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover study in juvenile blue poison dart frogs (n = 10). Both protocols were partially reversed 45 min after administration of either protocol with subcutaneously administered flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) and atipamezole (50 mg/kg). Heart rate, pulmonic respiratory rate, various reflexes, and behavioral parameters were monitored after drug administration. Both protocols resulted in rapid loss of righting reflex [median (range): AMD, 5 min (5-5 min); KMD, 5 min (5-10 min)]. Time to complete recovery was similar with both protocols (mean ± SD: AMD, 97.5 ± 11.4 min; KMD, 96.5 ± 25.4 min). The AMD protocol resulted in pulmonic respiratory depression, whereas no significant difference in heart rate was found between the two protocols. All frogs were observed eating within 24 hr of chemical restraint. Gastric prolapses occurred in four frogs (AMD 3, KMD 1) that were easily reduced with a cotton-tip application. No other adverse reactions were observed. The results of this study provide two different subcutaneous chemical restraint protocols in juvenile blue poison dart frogs.


Asunto(s)
Dexmedetomidina/farmacología , Midazolam/farmacología , Pregnanodionas/farmacología , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administración & dosificación , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacología , Envejecimiento , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos/farmacología , Anestésicos/administración & dosificación , Anestésicos/farmacología , Animales , Antídotos/administración & dosificación , Antídotos/farmacología , Anuros , Sedación Consciente , Estudios Cruzados , Dexmedetomidina/administración & dosificación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Flumazenil/administración & dosificación , Flumazenil/farmacología , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/farmacología , Imidazoles/administración & dosificación , Imidazoles/farmacología , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Ketamina/farmacología , Midazolam/administración & dosificación , Pregnanodionas/administración & dosificación
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 927-936, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926525

RESUMEN

Seabirds have been widely used for monitoring the health of the oceans in diverse marine regions. Among low-cost survey strategies, systematic surveys of seabirds beached on coasts have been developed since the 20th century. However, these studies do not always address blood aspects. The assessment of the health status of birds based on the analysis of hematological and plasma chemistry is crucial to evaluate the overall health status profile of live organisms. Here, the authors study the variability of blood parameters by sex, age class, and year of beached Magellanic Penguin during the nonreproductive period in northern Argentina. Of 44 penguins, 77% were categorized as younger juveniles and the rest as older juveniles, and were captured and studied in coastal areas of Buenos Aires Province during the summers of 2017 and 2018. The mean body weight of beached penguins was affected by the age class of the individuals; most of the younger juveniles showed poor condition in terms of body mass (1,761 ± 235 g). No significant differences were observed in body weight between years and sex. Still, there were significant differences between years for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values. Twelve of the 20 blood parameters analyzed differ significantly with the age class of the beached penguins; younger juveniles were in a state of inanition. Our results may serve as a necessary first step in improving the conservation status of the Magellanic Penguin in nonbreeding grounds of Argentina, and call for a better knowledge of the health status of the species along its annual cycle.


Asunto(s)
Recuento de Eritrocitos/veterinaria , Hematócrito , Recuento de Leucocitos/veterinaria , Estaciones del Año , Spheniscidae/sangre , Envejecimiento , Fosfatasa Alcalina/sangre , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Anticuerpos Heterófilos , Argentina , Glucemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Colesterol/sangre , Creatina Quinasa/sangre , Femenino , Hemoglobinas , Recuento de Linfocitos/veterinaria , Masculino , Fósforo/sangre , Transaminasas/sangre , Urea/sangre , Ácido Úrico/sangre
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 937-946, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926526

RESUMEN

Listed as near-threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the southern hairy-nosed wombat (SHNW, Lasiorhinus latifrons) faces threats such as drought, habitat degradation and loss, disease, and persecution because of competition with agriculture. To assist with evaluation of wombat health, this study reports serum biochemical reference intervals (RIs) for wild-caught SHNW from South Australia established from 126 apparently healthy SHNW using a Beckman Coulter AU480® Automated Chemistry Analyzer using RefVal Advisor. Partitioning of RIs for male and female wombats and for the two methods of sampling was performed as appropriate, and additional significant differences (P < 0.05) in biochemical profiles were identified across age class and season examined. A number of differences were observed between male and female wombats, most notably higher creatinine, urea, and sodium in females. Subadult and juvenile wombats had significantly lower total protein, globulin, and ALT activity, and significantly higher ALP activity than adults. Wombats sampled in winter and spring had significantly higher total protein, albumin, potassium, bicarbonate, and enzyme activities (ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, GLDH, lipase), and significantly lower glucose and creatinine when compared to individuals sampled in summer and autumn. Differences in CK activity and anion gap observed between the two methods of sampling likely reflect delay and handling of animals between capture and blood collection. The serum biochemical RIs documented here are considered representative of a population of healthy SHNW, providing a tool for health assessment and monitoring of SHNW health in South Australia and elsewhere.


Asunto(s)
Marsupiales/sangre , Envejecimiento , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Australia , Análisis Químico de la Sangre/veterinaria , Femenino , Pruebas Hematológicas/veterinaria , Masculino , Valores de Referencia , Estaciones del Año
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 947-955, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926527

RESUMEN

Feces (n = 226; 2004-2015) from healthy captive and wild blue iguanas (Cyclura lewisi) from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, were examined for endoparasites. Parasites identified included Nyctotherus sp. and Entamoeba sp. cysts and trophozoites, trichomonad trophozoites, and oxyurid and trichostrongylid eggs. Endoparasites from postmortem examinations (n = 13) included adult and larval nematodes: Ozolaimus megatyphlon, Ozolaimus monhystera, Alaeuris travassosi, Atractis mega, and an unidentified species of Oswaldocruzia. Entamoeba spp. were more likely in captive juveniles of both sexes than captive or wild adults of either sex; Entamoeba spp. were more likely in captive adult females than captive adult males; trichomonad trophozoites were more likely in adult captive and wild iguanas of both sexes than in captive juveniles of either sex; and Nyctotherus spp. were more likely in juvenile captive males than captive adult males or females and more likely in adult wild males than captive juvenile males. Trichostrongylid eggs were more likely in adult wild females than adult captive females and more likely in captive and wild adults of both sexes than in captive juveniles of both sexes. Oxyurid eggs were more likely in adult captive and wild iguanas of both sexes than captive juveniles of either sex. Blue iguanas have a variety of endoparasites regardless of age, sex, or captive vs wild status, with no type found exclusively in either captive or wild populations. Ectoparasites from wild adults included adult ticks (Amblyomma torrei) and a single adult mite (Hirstiella trombidiformis). All are new host records for this species and Grand Cayman. Knowledge of parasite status of captive and wild populations is important to evaluate the relative risk of introduction of captive animals into wild populations.


Asunto(s)
Iguanas/parasitología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/parasitología , Envejecimiento , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/epidemiología , Indias Occidentales/epidemiología
12.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 223-243, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403570

RESUMEN

This qualitative study explores the social lives of older gay men. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 gay men over the age of 65 to elicit details about their relationships with other people. Findings paint a complex picture of older gay social life that is compounded by significant events affecting gay men from a particular socio-historical period. Three overarching themes emerged that capture the social lives of the participants: (1) coming of age as a gay man in the 20th century; (2) dealing with the aging body; and (3) enduring loss and the consequent impact on social life. The participants reported that being in a gay environment and closing the gay generational divide helped them adjust to their changing social lives in later life. This study adds to the ongoing discussion about the experiences of older gay men and makes suggestions for future research and practice considerations.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Anciano , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Condiciones Sociales
14.
Urology ; 135: 66-70, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541647

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To define age-specific normal Color Doppler Duplex Ultrasound (CDDU) parameters based on a large institutional database of men referred for vascular erectile testing, but found to have normal and sustained rigidity following penile injection of alprostadil. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent CDDU from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014 was conducted. The indications for CDDU assessments included complaint of erectile dysfunction refractory to PDE-5 inhibitors, new-onset penile curvature, or secondary consultation for erectile dysfunction. Pearson correlation test was used to evaluate the association between ordinal age groups with peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) measurements to determine the effect of age on erectile response. RESULTS: A total of 2043 patients underwent CDDU from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014. 259 patients (12.7%) with a mean age 53.7 and a mean BMI of 27.2 were noted to have normal erectile rigidity and normal Doppler parameters (PSV >35 cm/s, RI >0.90). Prolonged erection, defined by need to inject phenylephrine reversal agent at 1-2 hours, occurred in 93% of patients. When age was categorized by decade, a negative correlation coefficient was obtained for previsual sexual stimulation PSV (-0.09, P = .164) and postvisual sexual stimulation PSV (-0.23, P = .005). CONCLUSION: In men with normal vascular erections there appears to be a significant, age-related decline in postvisual sexual stimulation PSV without compromise to cavernous venous occlusion as measured by RI. We have used Doppler parameters in patients without vascular ED to define age-specific normalcy.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Disfunción Eréctil/diagnóstico , Erección Peniana/fisiología , Pene/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía Doppler en Color , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Disfunción Eréctil/tratamiento farmacológico , Disfunción Eréctil/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Erección Peniana/efectos de los fármacos , Pene/irrigación sanguínea , Pene/fisiología , Fenilefrina/administración & dosificación , Fenilefrina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa 5/farmacología , Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa 5/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
15.
Immunology ; 159(1): 39-51, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777064

RESUMEN

Immunity is shaped by commensal microbiota. From early life onwards, microbes colonize mucosal surfaces of the body and thereby trigger the establishment of immune homeostasis and defense mechanisms. Recent evidence reveals that the family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are mainly located in mucosal tissues, are essential in the maintenance of barrier functions as well as in the initiation of an appropriate immune response upon pathogenic infection. In this review, we summarize recent insights on the functional interaction of microbiota and ILCs at steady-state and throughout life. Furthermore, we will discuss the interplay of ILCs and the microbiota in mucosal infections focusing on intestinal immunity.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/inmunología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/inmunología , Inmunidad Innata , Inmunidad Mucosa , Mucosa Intestinal/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Linfocitos/inmunología , Linfocitos/microbiología , Factores de Edad , Envejecimiento/inmunología , Animales , Bacterias/metabolismo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Linfocitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/inmunología , Neoplasias/microbiología , Transducción de Señal
16.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(1-2): 31-52, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532022

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyse the experiences of older people with a diagnosed functional mental illness and their carers in relation to mental health service delivery and analyse the experiences of health and social care professionals who care for and treat older people who have a diagnosed functional mental illness. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of functional mental illness in older adults is notable but to date has received less research attention than dementia. Older adults with functional mental illness have life expectancy of up to 20 years less than the rest of the population. Therefore, the experiences of older adults with functional mental illness, their carers and healthcare professionals, in relation to mental health services, need further exploration. DESIGN: Integrative literature review. METHODS: A five-stage process was informed by Whittemore and Knafl. MeSH was used. Keyword searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, EMBASE and AMED were conducted between January 2000-October 2017. Titles were screened, and data were extracted manually and analysed using narrative synthesis. The PRISMA checklist was used. RESULTS: A total of 342 articles were deemed potentially relevant to this review. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 28 articles were included. The literature presented an overarching theme "determinants influencing older people with functional mental illness use of services." The overarching theme is supported by two main themes: inevitable consequences of ageing and variations of the availability of healthcare services for older people with functional mental illness. CONCLUSION: Several determinants influence use of services by older people with functional mental illness. Older people with functional mental illness often perceived they did not have a mental health need. Within the literature, there was little acknowledgement of the experiences of older people with functional mental illness regarding their support needs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This integrative review has highlighted that some older people with functional mental illness do not seek mental health support because they believe that functional mental illness is an inevitable consequence of ageing; this is mirrored at times by healthcare professionals and carers. In addition to this finding, different views prevail regarding the impact that ageless and age-defined mental health service delivery models have on the needs of older people with functional mental illness. Further research is required to understand these findings.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Femenino , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos/organización & administración , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/enfermería , Servicios de Salud Mental
17.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124650, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472347

RESUMEN

Arsenic (As) has become a major problem in maintaining the environment and human health due to its wide application in the production of agriculture and industry. Many studies indicate that As can affect spermatogenesis process and lower sperm quality. However, the undergoing molecular mechanism is unclear. For this, forty-eight 8-week old adult male mice were divided into four groups of twelve each, which were administrated to 0, 0.2, 2, 20 ppm As2O3 in their drinking water respectively for six months. The results showed that As treatment reduced sperm counts and increased the sperm malformation ratio of mice. Interestingly, both the amounts of round and elongated spermatids, and the ratios of spermatids elongation were decreased significantly by As exposure. Furthermore, the structure of Chromatoid Body (CB) which presents a typical nebulous shape in round spermatids after spermatogenesis arrested, and the mRNA expression levels of gene TDRD1, TDRD6 and TDRD7 related to CB were changed by arsenic. Again, the mRNA and protein expression levels of the markers DDX25 and CRM1 in haploid periods of spermatogenesis and the associated proteins HMG2, PGK2, and H4 with DDX25 regulation were declined significantly with As treatment. Taken together; it reveals that As interferes with spermatogenesis by disorganizing the elongation of spermatids. H4, HMG2 and PGK2 are regulated by DDX25 which interacts with CRM1 and may play a vital role in spermatogenesis disorder induced by As exposure, which maybe provides one of the underlying mechanisms for As-induced male reproductive toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/toxicidad , Espermátides/patología , Espermatogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Envejecimiento , Animales , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , ARN Helicasas DEAD-box/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Masculino , Ratones , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Espermátides/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 985-1012, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646542

RESUMEN

Calcium (Ca2+) ions are highly versatile intracellular signaling molecules and are universal second messenger for regulating a variety of cellular and physiological functions including synaptic plasticity. Ca2+ homeostasis in the central nervous system endures subtle dysregulation with advancing age. Research has provided abundant evidence that brain aging is associated with altered neuronal Ca2+ regulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. Much of the work has focused on the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory, which is particularly susceptible to dysfunction during aging. The current chapter takes a specific perspective, assessing various Ca2+ sources and the influence of aging on Ca2+ sources and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Integrating the knowledge of the complexity of age-related alterations in neuronal Ca2+ signaling and synaptic plasticity mechanisms will positively shape the development of highly effective therapeutics to treat brain disorders including cognitive impairment associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Encéfalo , Señalización del Calcio , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Plasticidad Neuronal , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Hipocampo/fisiopatología , Humanos , Plasticidad Neuronal/fisiología
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525458

RESUMEN

Cladocera are small freshwater crustaceans that have attracted considerable attention in recent years. They are commonly used for studying senescence. In this study, we used LC-MS/MS with eight-plex iTRAQ to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of senescence in Daphnia pulex. Of 3076 primordial proteins, 2325 were credible (the remaining were low-confidence proteins) and 247 significantly differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Of the latter, 87, 91, and 69 DEPs were identified in the Day 15 vs. Day 5, Day 20 vs. Day 5, and Day 25 vs. Day 5 groups, respectively. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that oxidative damage may be the main cause of senescence in D. pulex. Using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis, we found that the peroxisome pathway played an important role in aging. Our results suggest that D. pulex alleviates excessive oxidative damage by altering key enzymes involved in carbohydrate and protein metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Artrópodos/biosíntesis , Daphnia/metabolismo , Proteómica , Animales
20.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104583, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706109

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the aim was to investigate the biochemical, physiological and histological changes that occur in masticatory muscles of the masticatory system with aging. DESIGN: In this study, 14 BALB/c mice were used. Animals were divided into two equal groups of seven. Group I was organized as the group of young animals (n = 7) and Group II as the group of adult animals (n = 7). After routine histological follow-up was performed, the tissues were embedded in paraffin. 4-5 µm thick cross-sections were taken from paraffin-embedded tissues and they were stained with Haemotoxylin and Eosin Type I collagen and Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) immunohistochemically. RESULTS: It was observed that there was a decrease and shrinking in blood vessels due to aging. In young mice, Type I collagen and MMP-2 immunoreactivity in the masseter muscle tissue showed low staining, while Type I collagen and MMP-2 immunoreactivity in the temporal muscle tissue showed moderate staining. Type I collagen and MMP-2 immunoreactivity were significantly higher in the masseter and temporal muscles of elderly mice (p = 0.001). In the H-score evaluation, MMP-2 immune reactivity was significantly lower in young mice than in older mice (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: It was determined that severe pain complications and functional losses are likely to occur with the increase of degeneration due to aging of masticator muscles.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Músculos Masticadores/metabolismo , Metaloproteinasa 2 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Animales , Masticación , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C
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