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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(2): 62-68, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115479

RESUMEN

The EDRF discovered in 1986 by Furchgott was later identified as NO by Ignarro. NO was a widely noted gas with diverse functions, having arginine (L-Arg) as a substrate for the NO synthase (NOS). L-Arg and L-citrulline (L-Cit) have long been associated with the urea cycle. L-Cit was produced with NO by the reaction of L-Arg and oxygen. It was shown that administration of L-Arg in animals and humans caused vasodilation and anti-arteriosclerosis effects. Despite the arginine paradox ratio of intracellular arginine concentration to the Km value of NOS gaining widespread attention, advanced arteriosclerosis is known to reduce vascular reactivity towards L-Arg. In recent years, the anti-arteriosclerosis and anti-cell aging effects of the reactive substance citrulline (L-Cit) have been studied. L-Cit and L-Arg combination therapy are starting to be considered in various clinical applications as well.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Aterosclerosis/prevención & control , Óxido Nítrico/fisiología , Animales , Arginina/farmacología , Aterosclerosis/patología , Citrulina/farmacología , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa , Vasodilatación
2.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(1): 51-56, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150214

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived functional cross-sectional area (FCSA) and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) to define skeletal muscle quality is of fundamental importance in order to understand aging and inactivity-related loss of muscle mass. OBJECTIVES: This study examined factors associated with lower-extremity skeletal muscle quality in healthy, younger, and middle-aged adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-eight participants (53% female) were classified as younger (20-35 years, n=50) or middle-aged (50-65 years, n=48) as well as sedentary (≤1 day per week) or active (≥3 days per week) on self-reported concurrent exercise (aerobic and resistance). MEASUREMENTS: All participants wore an accelerometer for seven days, recorded a three-day food diary, and participated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lower limbs. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined by tracing the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors, while muscle quality was established through the determination of FCSA and IMAT via color thresholding. RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance and stepwise regression models were performed to predict FCSA and IMAT. KE-IMAT (cm2) was significantly higher among sedentary (3.74 ± 1.93) vs. active (1.85 ± 0.56) and middle-aged (3.14 ± 2.05) vs. younger (2.74 ± 1.25) (p < 0.05). Protein intake (g•kg•day-1) was significantly higher in active (1.63 ± 0.55) vs. sedentary (1.19 ± 0.40) (p < 0.05). Sex, age, concurrent exercise training status, and protein intake were significant predictors of KE FCSA (R2 = 0.71, p < 0.01), while concurrent exercise training status and light physical activity predicted 33% of the variance in KE IMAT (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Concurrent exercise training, dietary protein intake, and light physical activity are significant determinants of skeletal muscle health and require further investigation to mitigate aging and inactivity-related loss of muscle quality.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ejercicio/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
3.
Vnitr Lek ; 65(12): 770-774, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013519

RESUMEN

Age can be evaluated according to many criteria. Of course the objective measure is the calendar age which may differ from the biological age. The biological age more or less correlates with the vascular age. The concept of vascular age is based on the statement that “An individual is as old as his blood vessels”. The process of vascular aging already starts in childhood. Arterial aging may essentially be viewed from two standpoints. First, it involves stiffening of arteries and loss of their elasticity; second, degenerative changes and formation of atherosclerotic plaques occur, being the cause of ischemia, especially in case of the development of atherothrombosis. Both these processes can be monitored: The change of elasticity (arteriosclerosis) mainly by examination of pulse wave velocity (PWV), atherosclerosis then primarily with non-invasive methods, ultrasound or CT angiography examination. From the clinical point of view it is particularly important whether we can influence vascular age in some way. Evidence is available now that atherosclerosis can be affected by hypolipidemic treatment, arteriosclerosis then in particular by ACE inhibitors. The aforementioned possibility of influencing vascular age brings us to another problem, which is compliance of patients. With regard to that it is good that in a situation where we have two drugs affecting vascular age, we can use their fixed combination. It is available as a combination of atorvastatin and perindopril.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Aterosclerosis , Rigidez Vascular , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Niño , Elasticidad , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perindopril , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Adulto Joven
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18786, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011475

RESUMEN

Insomnia patients with different gender and age usually had different sleep experience. Primary insomnia (PI) has been considered to be a disorder of hyper-arousal in the physiologic, emotional, or cognitive network. Although the hyper-arousal brain regions can be shown by comparing the brain activity of PI patients with normal people at rest, whether the brain activity of PI patients varied according to age and gender and whether age and gender could affect the distribution of hyper-arousal brain regions are still worthy of further exploration. Hence, a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study (No. NCT02448602) was designed to observe the brain activity of thirty PI patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs). The brain activity in resting state was measured by calculating the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), which reflected the idiopathic activity level of neurons. Multiple regression was performed to investigate the age and gender-related differences of brain activity in PI patients (P < .001, Family Wise Error (FWE) correct P = .05, cluster size >50) with age and gender as covariates. The hyper-arousal brain regions were measured by comparing the fALFF of PI patients and HCs. Multiple regression (P < .001, FWE correct P = .05, cluster size >50) was also performed for PI patients and HCs with group, age, and gender as covariates.The results suggested that the gender-related difference of brain activity mainly existed in superior temporal gyrus, cerebellum posterior lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and the age-related difference mainly existed in cerebellum anterior lobe, superior temporal gyrus, brainstem, parahippocampa gyrus, anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus. In addition, the altered fALFF regions between PI and HCs mainly existed in superior temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the gender factor could not influence the distribution of the altered regions. While the age factor could affect the distribution of the altered regions.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Caracteres Sexuales , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Descanso , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
5.
Hum Genet ; 139(3): 371-380, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900586

RESUMEN

Dysfunction and dysregulation at multiple levels, from organismal to molecular, are associated with the biological process of aging. In a eukaryotic nucleus, multiple lines of evidence have shown that the fundamental structure of chromatin is affected by aging. Not only euchromatic and heterochromatic regions shift locations, global changes, such as reduced levels of histones, have been reported for certain aged cell types and tissues. The physiological effects caused by such broad chromatin changes are complex and the cell's responses to it can be profound and in turn influence the aging process. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the interplay between chromatin architecture and aging with an emphasis on the cellular response to chromatin stress and its antagonistic effects on aging.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Cromatina/fisiología , Estrés Fisiológico/fisiología , Animales , Núcleo Celular/fisiología , Histonas/fisiología , Humanos
6.
Hum Genet ; 139(3): 333-356, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677133

RESUMEN

Although aging is a conserved phenomenon across evolutionary distant species, aspects of the aging process have been found to differ between males and females of the same species. Indeed, observations across mammalian studies have revealed the existence of longevity and health disparities between sexes, including in humans (i.e. with a female or male advantage). However, the underlying mechanisms for these sex differences in health and lifespan remain poorly understood, and it is unclear which aspects of this dimorphism stem from hormonal differences (i.e. predominance of estrogens vs. androgens) or from karyotypic differences (i.e. XX vs. XY sex chromosome complement). In this review, we discuss the state of the knowledge in terms of sex dimorphism in various aspects of aging and in human age-related diseases. Where the interplay between sex differences and age-related differences has not been explored fully, we present the state of the field to highlight important future research directions. We also discuss various dietary, drug or genetic interventions that were shown to improve longevity in a sex-dimorphic fashion. Finally, emerging tools and models that can be leveraged to decipher the mechanisms underlying sex differences in aging are also briefly discussed.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Animales , Humanos , Longevidad/fisiología , Caracteres Sexuales
7.
Urology ; 135: 66-70, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541647

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To define age-specific normal Color Doppler Duplex Ultrasound (CDDU) parameters based on a large institutional database of men referred for vascular erectile testing, but found to have normal and sustained rigidity following penile injection of alprostadil. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent CDDU from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014 was conducted. The indications for CDDU assessments included complaint of erectile dysfunction refractory to PDE-5 inhibitors, new-onset penile curvature, or secondary consultation for erectile dysfunction. Pearson correlation test was used to evaluate the association between ordinal age groups with peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) measurements to determine the effect of age on erectile response. RESULTS: A total of 2043 patients underwent CDDU from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014. 259 patients (12.7%) with a mean age 53.7 and a mean BMI of 27.2 were noted to have normal erectile rigidity and normal Doppler parameters (PSV >35 cm/s, RI >0.90). Prolonged erection, defined by need to inject phenylephrine reversal agent at 1-2 hours, occurred in 93% of patients. When age was categorized by decade, a negative correlation coefficient was obtained for previsual sexual stimulation PSV (-0.09, P = .164) and postvisual sexual stimulation PSV (-0.23, P = .005). CONCLUSION: In men with normal vascular erections there appears to be a significant, age-related decline in postvisual sexual stimulation PSV without compromise to cavernous venous occlusion as measured by RI. We have used Doppler parameters in patients without vascular ED to define age-specific normalcy.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Disfunción Eréctil/diagnóstico , Erección Peniana/fisiología , Pene/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía Doppler en Color , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Disfunción Eréctil/tratamiento farmacológico , Disfunción Eréctil/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Erección Peniana/efectos de los fármacos , Pene/irrigación sanguínea , Pene/fisiología , Fenilefrina/administración & dosificación , Fenilefrina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa 5/farmacología , Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa 5/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
8.
Hum Genet ; 139(3): 309-331, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324975

RESUMEN

DNA damage is one of the most consistent cellular process proposed to contribute to aging. The maintenance of genomic and epigenomic integrity is critical for proper function of cells and tissues throughout life, and this homeostasis is under constant strain from both extrinsic and intrinsic insults. Considering the relationship between lifespan and genotoxic burden, it is plausible that the longest-lived cellular populations would face an accumulation of DNA damage over time. Tissue-specific stem cells are multipotent populations residing in localized niches and are responsible for maintaining all lineages of their resident tissue/system throughout life. However, many of these stem cells are impacted by genotoxic stress. Several factors may dictate the specific stem cell population response to DNA damage, including the niche location, life history, and fate decisions after damage accrual. This leads to differential handling of DNA damage in different stem cell compartments. Given the importance of adult stem cells in preserving normal tissue function during an individual's lifetime, DNA damage sensitivity and accumulation in these compartments could have crucial implications for aging. Despite this, more support for direct functional effects driven by accumulated DNA damage in adult stem cell compartments is needed. This review will present current evidence for the accumulation and potential influence of DNA damage in adult tissue-specific stem cells and propose inquiry directions that could benefit individual healthspan.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Daño del ADN/fisiología , Células Madre/fisiología , Animales , Homeostasis/fisiología , Humanos
9.
Hum Genet ; 139(3): 277-290, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144030

RESUMEN

Our understanding of the process of autophagy and its role in health and diseases has grown remarkably in the last two decades. Early work established autophagy as a general bulk recycling process which involves the sequestration and transport of intracellular material to the lysosome for degradation. Currently, autophagy is viewed as a nexus of metabolic and proteostatic signalling that can determine key physiological decisions from cell fate to organismal lifespan. Here, we review the latest literature on the role of autophagy and lysosomes in stress response and longevity. We highlight the connections between autophagy and metabolic processes, the network associated with its regulation, and the links between autophagic dysfunction, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Autofagia/fisiología , Longevidad/fisiología , Animales , Humanos , Lisosomas/fisiología , Transducción de Señal/fisiología
10.
J Orthop Res ; 38(1): 36-42, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286548

RESUMEN

In tendon, type-I collagen assembles together into fibrils, fibers, and fascicles that exhibit a wavy or crimped pattern that uncrimps with applied tensile loading. This structural property has been observed across multiple tendons throughout aging and may play an important role in tendon viscoelasticity, response to fatigue loading, healing, and development. Previous work has shown that crimp is permanently altered with the application of fatigue loading. This opens the possibility of evaluating tendon crimp as a clinical surrogate of tissue damage. The purpose of this study was to determine how fatigue loading in tendon affects crimp and mechanical properties throughout aging and between tendon types. Mouse patellar tendons (PT) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons were fatigue loaded while an integrated plane polariscope simultaneously assessed crimp properties at P150 and P570 days of age to model mature and aged tendon phenotypes (N = 10-11/group). Tendon type, fatigue loading, and aging were found to differentially affect tendon mechanical and crimp properties. FDL tendons had higher modulus and hysteresis, whereas the PT showed more laxity and toe region strain throughout aging. Crimp frequency was consistently higher in FDL compared with PT throughout fatigue loading, whereas the crimp amplitude was cycle dependent. This differential response based on tendon type and age further suggests that the FDL and the PT respond differently to fatigue loading and that this response is age-dependent. Together, our findings suggest that the mechanical and structural effects of fatigue loading are specific to tendon type and age in mice. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 38:36-42, 2020.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Ligamento Rotuliano/fisiología , Animales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Técnicas In Vitro , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Soporte de Peso
11.
Gait Posture ; 75: 34-39, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590068

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with declining balance, which may increase fall risk and reduce independence. There is a paucity of work examining functional tasks (e.g., standing from a chair, lifting) related to fall risk. Additionally, many past studies have considered older adults as one age group, rather than viewing aging as a continuum across older adulthood. RESEARCH QUESTION: How are age and balance measures related in healthy, independently-dwelling older adults during functional tasks? METHODS: Thirty-eight older (60-89 years old) and 21 younger (18-30 years old) independently-dwelling adults performed quiet standing, sit-stand-sit, sit-stand-gait initiation, and lifting, while ground reaction forces and whole-body motion were measured. Variability of the net center of pressure displacement (root-mean-square; antero-posterior and mediolateral), and minimum margin of stability (anterior, posterior, mediolateral, and/or medial and lateral) were extracted. Regression analyses were used to identify relationships with age for both the full participant sample and the older adult cohort, accounting for sex and task characteristics. RESULTS: Age was significantly related to balance measures for both participant samples; net center of pressure root-mean-square and minimum margin of stability tended to increase and decrease with age, respectively. For older adults, significant relationships were primarily in the antero-posterior and mediolateral directions for sit-stand-gait initiation and sit-stand-sit, respectively. Relationships did not appear to be simply a function of differences in task performance with age. SIGNIFICANCE: Some evidence of balance declines during functional tasks was observed across older adulthood, including declines that did not appear in the full participant sample. However, further work with a more diverse older adult cohort will be required to confirm these results. Findings may contribute to the development of strategies for improving balance control and reducing fall risk in older adults, by identifying the balance measures most likely to decline across older adulthood as potential target tasks for interventions.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Marcha/fisiología , Balance Postural/fisiología , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Adulto Joven
12.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 504-513, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372785

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of secular change on skeletal maturation and thus on the applicability of the Greulich and Pyle (G&P) and Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) methods. METHODS: BoneXpert was used to assess bone age from 392 hand trauma radiographs (206 males, 257 left). The paired sample t test was performed to assess the difference between mean bone age (BA) and mean chronological age (CA). ANOVA was used to assess the differences between groups based on socioeconomic status (taken from the Index of Multiple Deprivation). RESULTS: CA ranged from 2 to 15 years for females and 2.5 to 15 years for males. Numbers of children living in low, average and high socioeconomic areas were 216 (55%), 74 (19%) and 102 (26%) respectively. We found no statistically significant difference between BA and CA when using G&P. However, using TW3, CA was underestimated in females beyond the age of 3 years, with significant differences between BA and CA (- 0.43 years, SD 1.05, p = < 0.001) but not in males (0.01 years, SD 0.97, p = 0.76). Of the difference in females, 17.8% was accounted for by socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: No significant difference exists between BoneXpert-derived BA and CA when using the G&P atlas in our study population. There was a statistically significant underestimation of BoneXpert-derived BA compared with CA in females when using TW3, particularly in those from low and average socioeconomic backgrounds. Secular change has not led to significant advancement in skeletal maturation within our study population. KEY POINTS: • The Greulich and Pyle method can be applied to the present-day United Kingdom (UK) population. • The Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) method consistently underestimates the age of twenty-first century UK females by an average of 5 months. • Secular change has not advanced skeletal maturity of present-day UK children compared with those of the mid-twentieth century.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Edad por el Esqueleto/métodos , Adolescente , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Desarrollo Óseo/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Huesos de la Mano/diagnóstico por imagen , Huesos de la Mano/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Caracteres Sexuales , Clase Social , Programas Informáticos , Reino Unido
14.
Hum Mov Sci ; 68: 102540, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683084

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With increases in life expectancy, it is important to understand the influence of aging on gait, given that this activity is related to the independence of older adults and may help in the development of health strategies that encourage successful aging in all phases of this process. RESEARCH QUESTION: To compare gait parameters with usual and fast speeds for independent and autonomous older adults throughout the aging process (60 to 102 years old), and also to identify which of the gait variables are best for identifying differences across the different age groups. METHODS: Two hundred older adults aged between 60 and 102 years were evaluated. The sample was divided into 3 age groups: 60 to 79 years, 80 to 89 years and 90 years and over. The analyzed gait variables were: speed (meters/s), cadence (steps/min), stride time (seconds), step length (centimeters), double support (percentage of the gait cycle), swing (percentage of the gait cycle), step length variability (CoV%) and stride time variability (CoV%). RESULTS: Group comparison regarding usual gait and fast gait revealed a significant difference in all gait variables. In addition, it can be seen that variables such as gait speed and step length showed greater effect sizes in intergroup comparison (usual gait: 0.48 and 0.47; fast gait: 0.36 and 0.40; respectively), possibly showing that these variables can better detect the changes observed with increasing age. CONCLUSION: There are differences in the gait performance of older adults from different age groups for usual and fast gait speeds, which is more evident regarding gait speed and step length variables. We recommend the use of usual gait for the identification of the effects of aging because, besides showing a higher effect size values it is more comfortable and requires less effort from older subjects.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Marcha/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Velocidad al Caminar/fisiología
15.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(10): 1783-1790, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of regular Nordic walking (NW) and memory training on the quality of life and subjective age perception in older adults. Relationships between changes in quality of life and subjective age and changes in physical and perceptual fitness were also examined. METHODS: The study examined 61 women aged 64 to 93 years living in adult day care centers. Twenty people participated in a 3-month program combining Nordic walking and cognitive training (group NW+C), 20 people participated only in Nordic walking classes (group NW), and 21 people were a control group (group C). The Fullerton Functional Fitness Test, the Romberg balance test, WHOQOL-Bref Age questionnaire and the Attention and Perceptivity Test were used in the study. RESULTS: After three months of exercises, a decrease in subjective age and an improvement in perceived quality of life was observed in NW+C and NW groups, with no such changes found in group C. Positive correlations were also found for the index of decline in subjective age and quality of life with indices of physical fitness improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Regular physical and intellectual activity has a positive effect on perceived quality of life and subjective age of the residents of adult day care centers.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Memoria , Calidad de Vida , Caminata , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Cognición , Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aptitud Física
16.
Swiss Dent J ; 129(11): 929-936, 2019 Nov 11.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701730

RESUMEN

A balanced and wholesome diet provides the human organism with energy (macronutrients) and all necessary micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, proteinogenic amino acids, omega fatty acids) necessary for the maintenance of all metabolic processes. The necessary quantity and composition especially of energy-supplying macronutrients change with age due to physiological and pathological changes in the body. These age-related changes as well as corresponding recommendations for elderly patients will be summarized in the following article based on the current S3 guidelines of the German Society for Nutritional Medicine on «Clinical Nutrition in Geriatrics¼ as well as further literature and the recommendations of the German Nutrition Society. Nutrition at the terminal stage of life and special nutritional advices for persons suffering from diabetes mellitus are not discussed.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Ingestión de Energía , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas , Anciano , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Minerales
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(11): 117001, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691586

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although studies have provided estimates of premature mortality to either heat or cold in adult populations, and fetal exposure to ambient temperature may be associated with life expectancy, the effects of temperature on aging in early life have not yet been studied. Telomere length (TL) is a marker of biological aging, and a short TL at birth may predict lifespan and disease susceptibility later in life. OBJECTIVES: We studied to what extent prenatal ambient temperature exposure is associated with newborn TL. METHODS: In the ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing) birth cohort in Flanders, Belgium, we measured cord blood and placental TL in 1,103 mother-newborn pairs (singletons with ≥36wk of gestation) using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. We associated newborn TL with average weekly exposure to ambient temperature using distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs) while controlling for potential confounders. Double-threshold DLNMs were used to estimate cold and heat thresholds and the linear associations between temperature and TL below the cold threshold and above the heat threshold. RESULTS: Prenatal temperature exposure above the heat threshold (19.5°C) was associated with shorter cord blood TL. The association with a 1°C increase in temperature was strongest at week 36 of gestation and resulted in a 3.29% [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.67, -1.88] shorter cord blood TL. Consistently, prenatal temperature exposure below the cold threshold (5.0°C) was associated with longer cord blood TL. The association with a 1°C decrease in temperature was strongest at week 10 of gestation with 0.72% (95% CI: 0.46, 0.97) longer cord blood TL. DISCUSSION: Our study supports potential effects of prenatal temperature exposure on longevity and disease susceptibility later in life. Future climate scenarios might jeopardize the potential molecular longevity of future generations from birth onward. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5153.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Frío , Sangre Fetal/fisiología , Calor , Exposición Materna , Placenta/fisiología , Acortamiento del Telómero/fisiología , Adulto , Bélgica , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Longevidad , Masculino , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1570, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775684

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current study aims to compare correlations between a range of measures of physical performance and physical activity assessing the same underlying construct in different settings, that is, in a home versus a highly standardized setting of the research center or accelerometer recording. We also evaluated the selective attrition of participants related to these different settings and how selective attrition affects the associations between variables and indicators of health, functioning and overall activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses comprising population-based samples of people aged 75, 80, and 85 years living independently in Jyväskylä, Finland. The AGNES study protocol involved the following phases: 1) phone interview (n = 1886), 2) face-to-face at-home interview (n = 1018), 3) assessments in the research center (n = 910), and 4) accelerometry (n = 496). Phase 2 and 3 included walking and handgrip strength tests, and phase 4 a chest-worn and thigh-worn accelerometer estimating physical activity and assessing posture, respectively, for 3-10 days in free-living conditions. RESULTS: Older people with poorer health and functioning more likely refrained from subsequent study phases, each requiring more effort or commitment from participants. Paired measures of walking speed (R = 0.69), handgrip strength (R = 0.85), time in physical activity of at least moderate intensity (R = 0.42), and time in upright posture (R = 0.30) assessed in different settings correlated with each other, and they correlated with indicators of health, functioning and overall activity. Associations were robust regardless of limitations in health and functioning, and low overall activity. CONCLUSIONS: Correlational analyses did not clearly reveal one superior setting for assessing physical performance or physical activity. Inclusion of older people with early declines in health, functioning and overall activity in studies on physical performance and physical activity is feasible in terms of study outcomes, but challenging for recruitment.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Ejercicio , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Rendimiento Físico Funcional , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Finlandia , Visita Domiciliaria , Humanos , Masculino , Visita a Consultorio Médico , Proyectos de Investigación
19.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4882-4888, 2019 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752017

RESUMEN

Purpose: To describe the morphological features of posterior precortical vitreous pockets (PPVP) and Cloquet's Canal in patients with myopia using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS OCT). Methods: A total of 96 eyes of 51 volunteers (range, 5-18 years) were enrolled in this study, and all individuals underwent OCT (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) examinations. From the collected PPVPs images, the widths and heights of the PPVPs were measured, and connections between PPVPs and Cloquet's Canal were identified. The PPVPs widths and heights, width:height ratios and proportions of connections were compared among different age (5-8, 9-14, 15-18 years), axial length (AL; 21-23, 23-25, 25-29 mm) and myopia groups (hyperopia, low to moderate myopia, high myopia); the group data were analyzed to determine their relationship with myopia. Results: PPVPs were identified in 89 of 96 eyes; 6 eyes were excluded for poor image quality. The PPVPs width was positively correlated with age, especially in the low to moderate myopia group (F = 7.715, P = 0.001). There was a significant difference in the PPVPs height between the refractive error groups in the 9 to 14 years group (F = 4.905, P = 0.005). The PPVPs width:height ratio was different among the refractive error groups in the 9 to 14 years group (F = 3.335, P = 0.041) and among the different age groups in the low to moderate myopia group (F = 6.077, P = 0.004). A total of 22 eyes (22.4%) were identified as having a connection between the PPVP and Cloquet's Canal. The connections began to increase with AL at 5 to 8 years (χ2 = 7.363, P = 0.025). Conclusions: PPVPs existed in most myopia patients from 5 to 18 years old. PPVPs width was positively correlated with age, especially in the low to moderate myopia group. PPVPs height decreased in the 9 to 14 years group with myopia. An imbalance in the horizontal and vertical enlargement of PPVP was the main feature in the 9- to 14-year-old group with myopia. The connections between the PPVP and Cloquet's Canal were associated with AL extension in the 5- to 8-year-old group.


Asunto(s)
Oftalmopatías/diagnóstico , Miopía/diagnóstico , Cuerpo Vítreo/patología , Adolescente , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Oftalmopatías/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica/métodos , Cuerpo Vítreo/diagnóstico por imagen
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