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1.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 49-56, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705185

RESUMEN

Life span theories postulate that altruistic tendencies increase in adult development, but the mechanisms and moderators of age-related differences in altruism are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear to what extent age differences in altruism reflect age differences in altruistic motivation, in resources such as education and income, or in socially desirable responding. This meta-analysis combined 16 studies assessing altruism in younger and older adults (N = 1,581). As expected, results revealed an age-related difference in altruism (Mg = 0.61, p < .001), with older adults showing greater altruism than younger adults. Demographic moderators (income, education, sex distribution) did not significantly moderate this effect, nor did aspects of the study methodology that may drive socially desirable responding. However, the age effect was moderated by the average age of the older sample, such that studies with young-old samples showed a larger age effect than studies with old-old samples. These findings are consistent with the theoretical prediction of age-related increases in altruistic motivation, but they also suggest a role for resources (e.g., physical, cognitive, social) that may decline in advanced old age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Altruismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Adulto Joven
2.
Public Health ; 192: 61-67, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640798

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Ageing is related to physical, psychological and social conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a scale that comprehensively assesses these three dimensions to reflect the ageing state of the human body. STUDY DESIGN: The study design of this study is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: The items for the preliminary scale were selected from relevant high-quality literature. The preliminary scale was developed by experts through two rounds of the Delphi method. The analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the weights of the items. Cronbach's α, the test-retest reliability, the content validity index and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used to evaluate the validity and reliability of the scale. RESULTS: This study developed the Physiological-Psychological-Social Three-dimensional Human Ageing Scale (PPSHAS), which includes 3 dimensions, 10 components and 51 items. The Cronbach's α of the PPSHAS was 0.930, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.856 (P < 0.001). The scale-level content validity index/universal agreement was 0.82, and the scale-level content validity index/average was 0.98. The EFA yielded 10 components; the total variance explained by these components was 57.491%. CONCLUSIONS: This PPSHAS is an easy-to-use instrument for assessing the ageing process among elderly people and has adequate validity and reliability.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 24, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587208

RESUMEN

This paper argues that we can see our lives as a snapshot happening now or as a moving picture extending across time. These dual ways of seeing our lives inform how we conceive of the problem of age group justice. A snapshot view sees age group justice as an interpersonal problem between distinct age groups. A moving picture view sees age group justice as a first-person problem of prudential choice. This paper explores these different ways of thinking about age group justice and illustrates them using a principle of respect for human dignity, understood in terms of reasonable support for floor level central human capabilities at each stage of life. I argue that different frames are suitable for different kinds of decisions, and each provides a true, but partial, picture of aging and age group justice.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Autoimagen , Justicia Social/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Principios Morales
4.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 36(1): 43-67, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566251

RESUMEN

The population of the United States is aging and by 2045 it is projected that approximately 1 in every 6 Alaskans will be 65+. Delivering healthcare and meeting the needs of older Alaskans in their community is critical to supporting healthy aging and community sustainability. Alaska Native (AN) Elders are underserved with very few studies providing an emic perspective on their experience aging. This research opens the door and allows us a glimpse of the AN Elder experience of aging: the values, beliefs, and behaviors that allow them to age well. This study highlights the characteristics and activities of AN Elders in the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands to further develop the model of AN successful aging. There are many theories of aging and this study explores a cross-cultural understanding of gerotranscendence - the personal and interpersonal changes that result from successful aging or achieving Eldership. This study interviewed Elders in two communities of the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands region. Using 22 standardized questions based on the explanatory model, researchers facilitated discussion of what it means to be an Elder and age successfully. Employing thematic analysis, interview transcripts were analyzed for themes to organize the data. Themes were organized into 5 core elements of successful aging with specific emphasis on values, beliefs, and behaviors that were protective and helped them adapt to aging-related changes. Interview content, meaning, and themes support the four elements of the AN model of successful aging developed by Lewis (The Gerontologist, 51(4), 540-549, 2011): Mental and Emotional Wellbeing, Spirituality, Purposefulness and Engagement, and Physical Health. Elders' stories highlight the importance of reflection, personal growth, and psychosocial development. Elders who more strongly identified with their role in the community described how their perspective had changed and they shared stories that emphasized culture, connection to the land, and enjoyment of daily activities that resulted in increased life satisfaction. Elders provided clear evidence that they experienced aspects of gerotranscendence, which Tornstam (Journal of Aging Studies, 11(2), 143-154, 1997) categorized as the cosmic dimension, the self, and social and personal relationships. Elders adapting to aging-related changes and embracing their role as an Elder provided the greatest evidence of gerotranscendence - they developed new perspectives on life, took on new roles within the community, and experienced a shift in mindset that reinforced the importance of culture, tradition, and the Native Way of Life. This research allowed AN Elders to share their experiences, define successful aging, and expand the concept of Eldership to include changes in mindset, values, and relationships with themselves and others. The study is a framework to help us better understand the experiences of AN Elders aging successfully and the wisdom they wish to impart to others to help them learn to live healthy and meaningful lives.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Envejecimiento Saludable , Satisfacción Personal , Calidad de Vida , Espiritualidad , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alaska , Cultura , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Investigación Cualitativa , Religión y Psicología
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477293

RESUMEN

Objectives. We investigated the association between physical fitness and cognitive status. Further, we examined whether physical fitness mediates the association between cognitive functioning and aging. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Urban and rural Colombian older adults. Methods. 4416 participants from the SABE study were included in the current analysis. Physical fitness was assessed with the handgrip test and the usual gait speed test. Cognitive status was evaluated through the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination. A parallel mediation path was used to test the possible mediator role of physical fitness between aging and cognitive functioning. Results. Older adults with lower handgrip strength (HGS) were more likely to have mild-cognitive status than older adults with healthy HGS (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.15; 2.02). In addition, older adults with a slower gait speed were more likely to have mild cognitive impairment (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.54; 2.78). Age had an inverse relationship with cognitive function (ß = -0.110, 95% CI = -0.130; -0.100) and it was also inversely associated with HGS (ß = -0.003, 95% CI = -0.005; -0.002) and gait speed (ß = -0.010, 95% CI = -0.011; -0.009). The indirect effects, which indicate that the effect of age on cognitive function is transmitted through mediators, showed that both gait speed (ß = -0.028, 95% CI = -0.036; -0.020) and HGS (ß = -0.014, 95% CI = -0.024; -0.005) were independent mediators of the detrimental effect of aging on cognitive function. Conclusions. Physical fitness mediates the effects of aging on cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that physical activity can be a key factor to prevent cognitive deterioration during aging process.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Aptitud Física , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/psicología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Marcha/fisiología , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Neurosci Lett ; 746: 135668, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497717

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the age-related changes in cerebral cortex activation and functional connectivity (FC) during finger-to-thumb opposition movement based on video games (FTOMBVG). METHODS: A electronic fingercot was developed for FTOMBVG. The oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Delta [HbO]) signals, measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), were recorded from prefrontal cortex (PFC), motor cortex (MC) and occipital lobe (OL) of two groups of subjects (old and young). RESULTS: The cognitive region of the old group showed bilateral activation, while the young group only showed unilateral activation. Both groups showed a wide range of bilateral activation in the motor region. The FC between cognitive region and motor region of the old group was enhanced considerably. CONCLUSION: Changes in cerebral cortex activation and the FC of different brain regions in the old group help explain the decline in cognitive executive and motor control function in the old from the perspective of brain functional structure, and provide a theoretical reference for the prevention of neural diseases caused by aging.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/metabolismo , Envejecimiento/psicología , Corteza Cerebral/metabolismo , Dedos/fisiología , Pulgar/fisiología , Juegos de Video/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Electrodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Red Nerviosa/metabolismo , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos , Juegos de Video/tendencias , Adulto Joven
7.
Neurology ; 96(10): e1470-e1481, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408146

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether memory tasks with demonstrated sensitivity to hippocampal function can detect variance related to preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers, we examined associations between performance in 3 memory tasks and CSF ß-amyloid (Aß)42/Aß40 and phosopho-tau181 (p-tau181) in cognitively unimpaired older adults (CU). METHODS: CU enrolled in the Stanford Aging and Memory Study (n = 153; age 68.78 ± 5.81 years; 94 female) completed a lumbar puncture and memory assessments. CSF Aß42, Aß40, and p-tau181 were measured with the automated Lumipulse G system in a single-batch analysis. Episodic memory was assayed using a standardized delayed recall composite, paired associate (word-picture) cued recall, and a mnemonic discrimination task that involves discrimination between studied "target" objects, novel "foil" objects, and perceptually similar "lure" objects. Analyses examined cross-sectional relationships among memory performance, age, and CSF measures, controlling for sex and education. RESULTS: Age and lower Aß42/Aß40 were independently associated with elevated p-tau181. Age, Aß42/Aß40, and p-tau181 were each associated with (1) poorer associative memory and (2) diminished improvement in mnemonic discrimination performance across levels of decreased task difficulty (i.e., target-lure similarity). P-tau mediated the effect of Aß42/Aß40 on memory. Relationships between CSF proteins and delayed recall were similar but nonsignificant. CSF Aß42 was not significantly associated with p-tau181 or memory. CONCLUSIONS: Tests designed to tax hippocampal function are sensitive to subtle individual differences in memory among CU and correlate with early AD-associated biomarker changes in CSF. These tests may offer utility for identifying CU with preclinical AD pathology.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Hipocampo/fisiopatología , Trastornos de la Memoria/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Trastornos de la Memoria/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/psicología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/fisiopatología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Aprendizaje por Asociación , Estudios Transversales , Señales (Psicología) , Discriminación en Psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria , Trastornos de la Memoria/fisiopatología , Memoria Episódica , Recuerdo Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Fragmentos de Péptidos/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Desempeño Psicomotor , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquídeo
8.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 36(1): 91-104, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400080

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges neglected older adults experience and the strategies they employ to cope. A Phenomenological qualitative approach was adopted. Employing criterion purposive sampling, 12 older adults were recruited from a community in Winneba in Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide following focus group discussion was used to explore the challenges and the coping strategies of older adults. Thematic data analysis making use of descriptive coding was employed. The study revealed that neglected older adults experience financial challenges, health issues, and social isolations. They lacked decent accommodation, nutritional food and were prevented from determining the kind of food they want to eat. These neglected older adults survived by adopting internal and external coping strategies. This study offers a better understanding of the needs of neglected older adults and the nature of their coping strategies. It is recommended that financial and social care should be available for older adults.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Envejecimiento/psicología , Apoyo Social , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Ghana , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Aislamiento Social
9.
Maturitas ; 144: 93-101, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358215

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The modern Geriatric Giants have evolved to encompass four new syndromes, of frailty (linked to fatigue and physical inactivity), sarcopenia, anorexia of ageing, and cognitive impairment. In parallel, loneliness has been established as a risk factor for adverse mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. OBJECTIVE: To analyse loneliness as a predictor of the modern Geriatric Giants in European older adults, using a longitudinal design of nationally representative data. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SUBJECTS: Data from countries that participated in waves 5 and 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe project. The sizes of the subsamples analysed ranged from 17,742 for physical inactivity to 24,524 for anorexia of ageing. METHODS: Loneliness (measured from wave 5) was the independent variable of interest. The dependent variables were incidence of fatigue, physical inactivity, sarcopenia, anorexia of ageing, and cognitive impairment from wave 5 (baseline) to wave 6. Poisson regression models were used for multivariable analysis, obtaining Relative Risk (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The prevalence of loneliness ranged from 9.2%-12.4% at wave 5. The 2-year incidence of fatigue was 16 % (95 % CI: 15.5-16.5), physical inactivity 9.8 % (95 % CI: 9.4-10.3), sarcopenia 5.6 % (95 % CI: 5.3-5.9), anorexia of aging 5.4 % (95 % CI: 5.1-5.7), and cognitive impairment 10.3 % (95 % CI: 9.9-10.8). The multivariable analysis showed that loneliness was a predictive factor for fatigue (30 %, CI: 17-45 % higher risk), physical inactivity (24 %, CI: 7-43 % higher risk) and cognitive impairment (26 %, CI: 9-46 % higher risk), adjusted by age, sex, number of chronic diseases, education level, region and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is an independent risk factor for fatigue, physical inactivity, and cognitive impairment in older adults. The incidence of anorexia of ageing and sarcopenia was not associated with loneliness over the 2-year observation period.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Fatiga/epidemiología , Soledad , Conducta Sedentaria , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Anorexia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Jubilación , Factores de Riesgo , Sarcopenia/epidemiología
10.
Neurosci Lett ; 740: 135430, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075423

RESUMEN

Cognitive decline is evident in the elderly and it affects speech perception and foreign language learning. A listen-and-repeat training with a challenging speech sound contrast was earlier found to be effective in young monolingual adults and even in advanced L2 university students at the attentive and pre-attentive levels. This study investigates foreign language speech perception in the elderly with the same protocol used with the young adults. Training effects were measured with attentive behavioural measures (N = 9) and with electroencephalography measuring the pre-attentive mismatch negativity (MMN) response (N = 10). Training was effective in identification, but not in discrimination and there were no changes in the MMN. The most attention demanding perceptual functions which benefit from experience-based linguistic knowledge were facilitated through training, whereas pre-attentive processing was unaffected. The elderly would probably benefit from different training types compared to younger adults.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Fonética , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Anciano , Atención , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Discriminación en Psicología , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Multilingüismo , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción , Adulto Joven
11.
Neurosci Lett ; 740: 135461, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Elderly patients receive propofol at regular intervals for sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy. However, the link between cognition and intermittent propofol exposure remains unclear. Thus, we used aged rats to investigate the effect of propofol on cognition. METHODS: The study included two parts. In the first part, aged (18-20 months old) male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent intermittent intraperitoneal injection of propofol (200 mg/kg) or intralipid, every 9 days or once a day. In the second part, some aged rats received intraperitoneal injection of Bay 11-7082 (1 mg/kg), a specific inhibitor of NF-κB, 30 min before propofol injection. Memory tests were performed to evaluate cognition 24 h after the entire treatment. The hippocampal neuronal damage was assessed by TUNEL staining. The hippocampal levels of p-NF-κB p65, NLRP3, caspase-1 p20, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by western blotting. The hippocampal and serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α were evaluated using ELISA. RESULTS: There were no differences in the behavioral tests, hippocampal neuronal damage, and neuroinflammation between groups given intralipid and propofol treatment every 9 days. However, repeated propofol treatment once a day promoted activation of NF-κB and the NLRP3 inflammasome, inducing cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. Interestingly, pretreatment with Bay-11-7082 not only inhibited NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but also attenuated neuronal damage and cognitive dysfunction in aged rats exposed to daily propofol treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent propofol treatment every 9 days may be safe for aged rats. However, propofol treatment once a day could impair the cognition of aged rats, partly through the activation of the NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome, which may be a potential targets for the treatment of cognitive impairment in elderly patients.


Asunto(s)
Anestésicos Intravenosos/toxicidad , Trastornos del Conocimiento/inducido químicamente , Inflamasomas/efectos de los fármacos , FN-kappa B/efectos de los fármacos , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/patología , Propofol/toxicidad , Envejecimiento/psicología , Animales , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Condicionamiento Operante/efectos de los fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizaje por Laberinto/efectos de los fármacos , Memoria/efectos de los fármacos , FN-kappa B/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
12.
J Frailty Aging ; 10(1): 31-37, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331619

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the important association between cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline, and their significant implications on frailty status, the contribution of neurocognitive frailty measure helping with the assessment of patient outcomes is dearly needed. OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the prognostic value of the Neurocognitive Frailty Index (NFI) in the elderly with cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) dataset was used for prediction of 5-year cognitive changes. SETTING: Community and institutional sample. PARTICIPANTS: Canadians aged 65 and over [Mean age: 80.4 years (SD=6.9; Range of 66-100)]. MEASUREMENT: Neurocognitive Frailty Index (NFI) and Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) scores for cognitive functioning of all subjects at follow-up and mortality rate were measured. RESULTS: The NFI mean score was 9.63 (SD = 6.04) and ranged from 0 to 33. This study demonstrated that the NFI was significantly associated with cognitive changes for subjects with heart disease and this correlation was a stronger predictor than age. CONCLUSION: The clinical relevance of this study is that our result supports the prognostic utility of the NFI tool in treatment planning for those with modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors in the development of dementia.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Cognición/fisiología , Fragilidad/psicología , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Envejecimiento Cognitivo , Análisis de Datos , Anciano Frágil/psicología , Humanos , Tasa de Supervivencia
13.
Ann Pharmacother ; 55(1): 5-14, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between objectively measured nonadherence and health care utilization in multimorbid older people is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To measure medication adherence across multiple chronic conditions, identify adherence patterns, and estimate the association between adherence and self-reported health care utilization. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of multimorbid participants aged ≥70 years in the Irish LongituDinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Eligible participants had linked pharmacy claims data and completed TILDA wave 2 (2 years after wave 1). The RxRisk-V tool was used to identify multimorbidity. Average adherence (AA) across RxRisk-V conditions was estimated using the CMA7 function (AdhereR). Group-based trajectory models (GBTMs) identified adherence patterns in the 12 months following wave 1. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between adherence and the rate of subsequent self-reported general practitioner [GP] visits, emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalizations in the 12 months following adherence measurement (reported at wave 2). Adjusted Incident Rate Ratios (aIRR) and 95% CIs are presented. RESULTS: Higher AA (CMA7) was associated with a small significant decrease in GP visit rate (aIRR = 0.70; CI = 0.53-0.94) and outpatient visit rate (aIRR = 0.44; CI = 0.23-0.81). GBTM identified 6 adherence groups (n = 1050). Compared with high adherers, group 1 (rapid decline, modest increase) membership (aIRR = 1.72; CI = 1.09-2.73) and group 4 (high adherence, delayed decline) membership (aIRR = 1.92; CI = 1.19-3.05) significantly increased ED visit rate. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Suboptimal medication adherence in multimorbid older adults is associated with increased health care utilization. Identification of suboptimal adherence groups for medication management interventions may help decrease the health system burden and health care costs.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Multimorbilidad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/psicología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Femenino , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoinforme
15.
Maturitas ; 143: 10-16, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308614

RESUMEN

Nocebo effects, denoting unfavourable outcomes after a medical intervention because of negative expectations rather than a direct pharmacologic action, are an important cause of dropout from clinical trials and non-adherence to medication, and may be especially pertinent for older adults. Several characteristics of aging individuals and their medical care have a potential to augment nocebo susceptibility, such as depression and anxiety, neurodegenerative diseases and chronic pain states, adverse healthcare experiences, generic drug use, age-related stereotypes, and strained patient-physician communication. Nocebo-related research in older adults is hindered by under-representation in clinical trials, medical complexity of geriatric patients, and lack of validated tools to accurately assess susceptibility and efficacy of preventive efforts.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Efecto Nocebo , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Maturitas ; 143: 209-215, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308631

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with overall menopausal symptom burden in midlife women. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of women between the ages of 40 and 65 years who were seen for specialty consultation in the Menopause and Women's Sexual Health Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between May 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed the ACE questionnaire to assess childhood abuse and neglect, the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) to assess menopausal symptom burden, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) to assess anxiety, and provided information on current abuse (physical, sexual and verbal/emotional). RESULTS: Women meeting inclusion criteria (N = 1670) had a median age of 53.7 years (interquartile range: 49.1, 58.0). Of these women, 977 (58.5 %) reported any ACE and 288 (17.2 %) reported ≥4 ACEs. As menopausal symptoms increased in severity from the first to fourth quartile, the odds ratio of ACE 1-3 (vs. 0) increased from 1 to 2.50 (trend p < 0.01), and the odds ratio of ACE ≥ 4 (vs. 0) increased from 1 to 9.61 (trend p < 0.01), a pattern that was consistent across all menopausal symptom domains. The association between severe menopausal symptoms and higher childhood adversity (ACE score 1-3 or ≥4 vs. ACE = 0) remained significant after adjusting for age, partner status, education, employment, depression, anxiety, and hormone therapy use (OR 1.84 and 4.51, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this large cross-sectional study, there was a significant association between childhood adversity and self-reported menopausal symptoms that persisted even after adjustment for multiple confounders. These associations highlight the importance of screening women with bothersome menopausal symptoms for childhood adversity, and of offering appropriate management and counseling for the adverse experiences, when indicated.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Envejecimiento , Menopausia , Adulto , Anciano , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Menopausia/fisiología , Menopausia/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sexualidad
17.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(11): 811-818, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361688

RESUMEN

Objectives Although previous studies have discussed the "voluntary" withdrawal of older drivers' driving license to prevent traffic accidents, there is less evidence about the experience of giving up driving. The present study investigated the decision-making process in the "voluntary" withdrawal of the driver's license and the conceptual meaning of "voluntary" among individuals who have experienced or shortly plan the event, as well as the transitions in their social relationships, social interactions, and body image perceptions.Methods Qualitative research was undertaken to examine the explanatory research question in City A, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. A semi-structured interview was conducted with eight male participants. They were asked related questions, for example, the meaning of driving, lifestyle changes, and so on. Data were recorded and transcribed into transcripts to be analyzed using the grounded theory approach.Results The qualitative data revealed that when participants perceived their "body" as alienated from their "self" during driving or daily living, they became confused because they needed to be conscious of the aroused existence of the "self" that operates their "body," which was previously integrated with their "self." This awareness led the individuals to the process of "voluntary" withdrawal from driving in coping with their reflected "self" while they gradually distrusted their "self" regarding their deteriorating "body." Some participants lost their "self" and felt that they were forced to stop driving "voluntarily" when their "self" was determined as belonging to a risky "body," whereas others could decide "voluntary" driving cessation and realize their "self" through social interactions when they "re-evaluated" their "self" in light of their life stories. Both types of participants had "difficulties" after driving cessation; however, the latter effectively emphasized the re-construction of the "self" and "self"-based decision-making process due to aging.Conclusion The decision-making process in the withdrawal of a driver's license due to aging resembled the process of coping with disabilities. Previous relationships between "self," "body," and society might be affected by age- or illness-triggered events. Encouraging the re-construction of "self" and its relationships might alleviate the psychological impact on elderly people facing "voluntary" retirement from driving.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Adaptación Psicológica , Envejecimiento/psicología , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Imagen Corporal , Toma de Decisiones , Relaciones Interpersonales , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375219

RESUMEN

Objectives: We examined the effect of loneliness and the role of two mediating factors, depressive symptoms and malnutrition on subjective age among older adults during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, and explored how the pandemic is affecting subjective age. Design: A convenience sample of 201 older adults aged 65 and over was interviewed. Using bootstrapping, we tested the strength and significance of the indirect effect of depressive symptoms and malnutrition (mediators) on the relationship between feelings of loneliness and subjective age. Results: The relationship between feelings of loneliness and subjective age during the COVID-19 pandemic was mediated by malnutrition, but not by depressive symptoms. In addition, the participants felt older during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the preceding period. Conclusions: An association was found among feelings of loneliness, malnutrition, and subjective age. To overcome these feelings in times of crisis like the pandemic, it is essential to develop new communication methods (technologies for managing and addressing the needs of the older population; technologies to encourage social engagement, and technologies for managing and providing remote medical services) for and with older adults that are effective in reducing loneliness, and to promote good nutrition. Possible practical solutions include new social network technologies for reducing loneliness combined with continued reliance on phone communication as an intervention of psychological support to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent malnutrition.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Soledad , Desnutrición , Pandemias , Anciano , Envejecimiento/psicología , Humanos , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Autoimagen
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375631

RESUMEN

Individual attitudes toward aging have been regarded as a modifiable risk for physical disability. However, longitudinal cohort studies have not been carried out in countries in Asia. In the present study, we aimed to explore the association between individual attitudes toward aging and subsequent physical disabilities using a nationwide representative cohort, the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA), over a 4-year follow-up period. In 2003, a baseline survey for 10-item attitudes toward aging scale consisting of widely different domains across financial relationships with children, grandparenting, living arrangements, and remarriage was conducted. Later, physical disabilities, including mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, were evaluated in 2007. A total of 1635 participants aged 57 and over were analyzed. Older age, self-rated poor health, and those suffering from pain were found to be more likely to have higher risk of physical disabilities. The older adults who expressed a willingness to receive financial support from their adult children were reported to have a lower risk of mobility limitations (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.90), while those who did not want to assist with child care as grandparents had a higher risk of ADL difficulties (aOR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.31-4.60). Our work shed light on the importance of individual attitudes toward aging in predicting long-term physical disabilities and illuminated the intimate role of grandparents, both financial and participatory, in Chinese families. In the future, culturally adapted attitudes toward aging scale should be developed to identify older Chinese adults at risk of physical disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Envejecimiento/patología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Limitación de la Movilidad , Anciano , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Taiwán
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