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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(686): 548-551, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186801

RESUMEN

Sexuality in an important aspect of human life at all ages and expressing it is an essential human need regardless of age. Society is ageing and people are living longer life. As the sexuality continues during the entire life many factors affect the sexuality in older population. The aging process and remodeling of the life style play an important role in the alteration of sexual needs and sexual behavior in advanced age. Sexuality expression is considered as a fundamental mental health need of all individuals, regardless of gender and age. The majority of healthcare professionals do not proactively discuss sexuality issues with old age patients, and this requires further attention.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Disfunción Cognitiva , Geriatría , Sexualidad , Anciano , Humanos , Conducta Sexual
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3099-3111, 2020 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067456

RESUMEN

Sesamol, a lignan in sesame, possesses several bioactivities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and neuroprotective capability. In this study, the effects of sesamol on aging-caused cognitive defects are investigated. Twelve-month-old mice were treated with sesamol (0.1%, w/w) as dietary supplementation for 12 weeks. Behavioral tests revealed that sesamol improved aging-associated cognitive impairments. Sesamol decreased aging-induced oxidative stress via suppression of malondialdehyde production and increased antioxidant enzymes. Histological staining showed that sesamol treatment improved aging-induced neuronal damage and synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus. Furthermore, sesamol significantly reduced aging-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting the microglial overactivation and inflammatory cytokine expressions. Meanwhile, the accumulation of Aß1-42 was reduced by sesamol treatment. Moreover, sesamol protected the gut barrier integrity and reduced LPS release, which was highly associated with its beneficial effects on behavioral and inflammatory changes. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the use of sesamol is feasible in the treatment of aging-related diseases.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/efectos de los fármacos , Benzodioxoles/administración & dosificación , Disfunción Cognitiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/administración & dosificación , Fenoles/administración & dosificación , Envejecimiento/inmunología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/inmunología , Animales , Disfunción Cognitiva/inmunología , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Hipocampo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipocampo/inmunología , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdehído/inmunología , Ratones , Microglía/efectos de los fármacos , Microglía/inmunología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos
3.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 52(1): 38-46, ene. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185982

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Aportar evidencias de la eficacia de una intervención comunitaria en salud, que incluye un programa de estimulación cognitiva, para prevenir el deterioro de las capacidades cognitivas en nuestra población de personas mayores con cognición normal que viven en la comunidad. Diseño: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado (normas grupo CONSORT). Emplazamiento: Centro de salud San José Norte-Centro y Fundación La Caridad (Zaragoza). Participantes: Doscientas una personas de 65 años o más, con puntuación MEC de 28 puntos o más, 101 aleatorizados en el grupo intervención y 100 en el grupo control. Intervenciones: La intervención se realizó en 10 sesiones de 45 min, una por semana, con material propio, los cuadernos de colores de activación mental. Estos cuadernos trabajan las áreas de memoria, orientación, lenguaje, praxis, gnosis, cálculo, percepción, razonamiento lógico, atención-concentración y programación. Mediciones principales: Las variables de resultado fueron MEC, Set-test, Barthel y Lawton-Brody. Resultados: Analizando los incrementos sobre el nivel basal, para la variable MEC el grupo intervención obtiene, en media, 1,58 puntos más que el grupo control en la evaluación realizada inmediatamente después de la intervención. A los 6meses la mejora es de 1,51 puntos y al año de 2,04 puntos. Todos estos incrementos son estadísticamente significativos al nivel usual del 5%. No se observan diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo intervención y control en las variaciones sobre el nivel basal de las variables en Set-test, Barthel y Lawton-Brody. Conclusiones: La estimulación cognitiva con nuestro programa es eficaz para mantener el rendimiento cognitivo, medido con la variable MEC, en nuestra población de personas mayores con cognición normal que viven en la comunidad. No hay evidencia de que esa mejora se transfiera a las actividades de la vida diaria medidas con Barthel y Lawton-Brody


Objective: To provide evidence of the effectiveness of a community health intervention, that includes a cognitive stimulation program, to prevent the deterioration of cognitive abilities in our population of elderly people with normal cognition that are living in the community. Design: Randomized clinical trial (CONSORT group norms). Location: San José Norte-Centro Health Center and La Caridad Foundation (Zaragoza, Spain). Participants: 201 people aged 65 or older, with a MEC score of at least 28 points, which were randomized between the Intervention group (101) and the Control group (100). Intervention: The intervention was applied in 10 sessions of 45minutes, one per week. It used materials designed by one of the authors, which addressed the following areas: memory, orientation, language, praxis, gnosis, calculation, perception, logical reasoning, attention-concentration and programming. Main measurements: The main outcome variables were MEC, Set-Test, Barthel and Lawton-Brody. Results: Increases of the main result variables over their baseline level were analized. For MEC variable, the Intervention group obtained, on average, 1.58 points more than the Control group in the evaluation performed immediately after the intervention. After 6months, the improvement was 1.51 points and after a year, it was of 2.04 points. All these differences were statistically significant. For Set-Test, Barthel and Lawton-Brody variables, no statistically significant differences were observed between Intervention group and Control group. Conclusions; Cognitive stimulation with our program is effective to maintain or improve cognitive performance, measured with the variable MEC, our population of elderly people with normal cognition that are living in the community. There is no evidence that this improvement is transferred to the activities of daily life measured with Barthel and Lawton-Brody variables


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Remediación Cognitiva/métodos , Envejecimiento/psicología , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Envejecimiento Cognitivo/psicología , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos/organización & administración , Centros de Salud , Salud Mental , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual
4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 7, 2020 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910874

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Population aging is an important phenomenon for many countries worldwide. Considering the growing trend of aging population in Iran, it is very important to consider beliefs and perceptions of old people about aging. The Aging Perception Questionnaire (APQ) is one of the most common instruments that used to measure aging comprehension. The present study was a methodological inquiry that aimed to examine validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Aging Perception Questionnaire (APQ). METHODS: Forward-backward procedure was used for translation. Content validity and face validity were evaluated qualitatively. In order to evaluate construct validity a cross section study was conducted and both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. In order to determine reliability, internal consistency (the Cronbach's alpha) and stability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient -ICC) were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 500 elderly people attending the community centers in Tehran, Iran were entered in other study and completed the Persian version of the questionnaire. Most elderly were female (52.8%).The mean age of participants was 68.33 (SD ± 6.10) years. The results obtained from exploratory factor analysis showed a four-factors solution (consequences negative, emotional representation, control positive and consequences positive) that jointly explained 52.8% of the total variance observed. In addition the confirmatory factory analysis showed a good fit for the data. Finally, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.83 ranging from 0.80 to 0.87 was obtained for the whole scale and the subscales. The ICC value of 0.96 ranging from 0.90 to 0.98 was found for the whole scale and the subscales. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the Persian version of APQ is valid and can be used to measure aging perception in Iran.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Traducciones
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0224545, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910212

RESUMEN

As the resources for road safety in developing countries are scarce and unevenly distributed, vulnerable road users -such as the elderly- may be particularly at risk of road traffic deaths. To date, the impact of road safety measures over the rate of road traffic deaths in older adults (60 years or older), considering the within-country socioeconomic inequalities, has not been explored in developing nations. This study takes the Chilean case as an example -with its 2005 traffic law reform as one of the road safety measures investigated-, in which open data available from official national sources for all its 13 regions over the 2002-2013 period were used for a multilevel interrupted time-series analysis. A statistically significant secular reduction of the rates of road traffic deaths in the elderly population was found (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91 to 0.99), but no evidence for a significant intercept or slope change after the traffic law reform was observed. Regions with the highest number of traffic offenses prosecuted in local police courts had lower rates of road traffic deaths in older adults (IRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.00), and those regions in the third (IRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.25) and the fifth (IRR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.54) quintiles of socioeconomic deprivation had higher rates of road traffic deaths in the elderly. Such findings strongly support the conceptualization of the road safety of seniors in developing countries as a social equity issue, with implications for the design of traffic regulations and road environments.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Envejecimiento/psicología , Clase Social , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/patología , Chile/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(1): 104466, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medical mistrust influences patients' treatment seeking, adherence, health behaviors, and minority participation in research studies. However, medical mistrust remains understudied within neurological diseases like stroke despite disproportionately affecting minority populations. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship of medical mistrust with stroke knowledge among Black, Latino, Korean, and Chinese-Americans. METHODS: Subjects greater than 60 years were enrolled from senior centers to test a culturally-tailored educational curriculum around stroke risk reduction in a randomized controlled trial. A Trust Physician Scale and a modified Trust of Medical Researchers Scale measured medical mistrust. The Stroke Action Test instrument measured stroke knowledge, focusing on intent to call 911 appropriately when presented with stroke symptoms. RESULTS: Of 225 subjects, 69.5% were female (n = 157) with an average age of 73.7 years (standard deviation 6.7). Blacks had highest trust scores of physicians relative to Latino/a, Korean or Chinese subjects (P< .05). In multivariable analysis, decreased stroke knowledge was associated with decreased researcher trust at baseline (<.05), but not physician trust, when controlling for covariates. Among Latino/a, Korean, and Chinese groups, mainstream acculturation reduced the association between researcher trust and stroke knowledge. A mediation model showed no evidence of physician trust mediating researcher trust. CONCLUSIONS: Among minority seniors participating in a randomized controlled trial, decreased trust of researchers, not physicians, was associated with low baseline knowledge of stroke symptoms. Those least acculturated to US culture may be a particular focus for trust building intervention. Future studies should examine whether researcher mistrust is disproportionately preventing those with the largest knowledge gaps from participating in trials.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Investigadores/psicología , Sujetos de Investigación/psicología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/prevención & control , Confianza , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/etnología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Características Culturales , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente/etnología , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología
7.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 223-243, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403570

RESUMEN

This qualitative study explores the social lives of older gay men. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 gay men over the age of 65 to elicit details about their relationships with other people. Findings paint a complex picture of older gay social life that is compounded by significant events affecting gay men from a particular socio-historical period. Three overarching themes emerged that capture the social lives of the participants: (1) coming of age as a gay man in the 20th century; (2) dealing with the aging body; and (3) enduring loss and the consequent impact on social life. The participants reported that being in a gay environment and closing the gay generational divide helped them adjust to their changing social lives in later life. This study adds to the ongoing discussion about the experiences of older gay men and makes suggestions for future research and practice considerations.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Anciano , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Condiciones Sociales
8.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(1-2): 31-52, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532022

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyse the experiences of older people with a diagnosed functional mental illness and their carers in relation to mental health service delivery and analyse the experiences of health and social care professionals who care for and treat older people who have a diagnosed functional mental illness. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of functional mental illness in older adults is notable but to date has received less research attention than dementia. Older adults with functional mental illness have life expectancy of up to 20 years less than the rest of the population. Therefore, the experiences of older adults with functional mental illness, their carers and healthcare professionals, in relation to mental health services, need further exploration. DESIGN: Integrative literature review. METHODS: A five-stage process was informed by Whittemore and Knafl. MeSH was used. Keyword searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, EMBASE and AMED were conducted between January 2000-October 2017. Titles were screened, and data were extracted manually and analysed using narrative synthesis. The PRISMA checklist was used. RESULTS: A total of 342 articles were deemed potentially relevant to this review. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 28 articles were included. The literature presented an overarching theme "determinants influencing older people with functional mental illness use of services." The overarching theme is supported by two main themes: inevitable consequences of ageing and variations of the availability of healthcare services for older people with functional mental illness. CONCLUSION: Several determinants influence use of services by older people with functional mental illness. Older people with functional mental illness often perceived they did not have a mental health need. Within the literature, there was little acknowledgement of the experiences of older people with functional mental illness regarding their support needs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This integrative review has highlighted that some older people with functional mental illness do not seek mental health support because they believe that functional mental illness is an inevitable consequence of ageing; this is mirrored at times by healthcare professionals and carers. In addition to this finding, different views prevail regarding the impact that ageless and age-defined mental health service delivery models have on the needs of older people with functional mental illness. Further research is required to understand these findings.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Femenino , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos/organización & administración , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/enfermería , Servicios de Salud Mental
9.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1021-1039, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804110

RESUMEN

The role of historical change for individual functioning and development has long been a central feature of life span psychological and life course sociological theory. However, the mechanisms underlying how historical change in contexts shapes individual functioning and development are less well understood. To better understand such open questions, we present the HIDECO (HIstorical changes in DEvelopmental COntexts) theoretical framework to structure and integrate potential pathways of historical change in (a) population distributions of key resources for successful aging, (b) social and family life, (c) modern technological and scientific progress, and (d) Zeitgeist and norms including societal definitions of social roles, attitudes, and age norms. We then summarize the conceptual perspectives and empirical findings from developed countries for each of these four intertwined layers of contextual embedding. In a last major step, we use the empirical articles compiled in this Special Issue to illustrate the utility of the HIDECO framework. In doing so, we work out a number of key insights gained in this Special Issue and identify some of the open questions that need to be tackled in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Adulto , Humanos
10.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1040-1054, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804111

RESUMEN

Studies of historical and societal influences on cognitive aging generally document that later-born cohorts outperform earlier-born cohorts on tests of fluid cognitive performance. It is often noted how advances in educational attainment in childhood and adolescence may contribute to these historical improvements in cognitive aging. Less is known about the role of work environment in adulthood. Over the last century, work demands and characteristics have been changing profoundly, particularly with shifts from a manufacturing to a service and technical economy. In this article, we used data from the Seattle Longitudinal Study to compare age-related trajectories of cognitive change in five primary mental abilities between earlier-born (1901-1938) and later-born cohorts (1939-1966). Cohorts were matched on an observation-by-observation basis using age and retest, and analyses controlled for participants' gender and number of data points provided. We found that (a) later-born cohorts had higher levels of performance on most cognitive tasks and exhibited less age-related declines in word fluency; (b) later-born cohorts had more enriched perceived work environments, as indicated by higher levels of worker control and innovation, with no cohort differences in work autonomy; (c) these experiences were associated with higher levels of cognitive performance at age 55 years; (d) the effects of perceived work environment were independent of education; and (e) the effects of perceived work environment were consistent across cohorts. The findings suggest that perceived work environment is associated with cognitive functioning independently of education and invariably across historical time. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying these associations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Envejecimiento Cognitivo/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1077-1089, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804113

RESUMEN

Questionnaires like the Metamemory in Adulthood Questionnaire (MIA; Dixon, Hultsch, & Hertzog, 1988) have been used to examine longitudinal changes and cross-sectional age differences in multiple metamemory facets (e.g., memory self-efficacy). This study used 3 independent cross-sectional samples (N = 1,555; ages 55-85) from the Victoria Longitudinal Study collected in 1986, 1992, and 2000 to evaluate period and cohort effects on 8 MIA scales. Alternative general linear models analyzed age, cohort, and period effects, while subsequently assessing gender differences in metamemory beliefs. Period effects were detected on the MIA Internal Strategy and External Strategy scales; self-reported use of internal strategies decreased while use of external memory aids increased over the historical period. Reliable cohort (generational) differences were found for MIA Change, with the lowest levels of perceived change in individuals born between 1916 and 1925. MIA Task, measuring knowledge about memory, produced small age and cohort effects. Gender differences emerged in metamemory, especially for the Internal Strategy and External Strategy scales (women reporting higher strategy use). Gender differences were also seen for the Capacity, Locus, Anxiety, and Achievement scales, with women reporting higher perceived memory efficacy, control, memory anxiety, and greater motivation to have better memory, respectively. The historical trends in metamemory beliefs should be replicated with other measures and other populations; however, the results generally confirm conclusions from earlier cross-sectional studies regarding age sensitivity of metamemory beliefs from middle age to old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Metacognición/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
12.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1090-1108, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804114

RESUMEN

Life Span theory posits that sociohistorical contexts shape individual development. In line with this proposition, cohort differences favoring later-born cohorts have been widely documented for cognition and health. However, little is known about historical change in how key resources of psychosocial functioning such as control beliefs develop in old age. We pooled data from 3 independent samples: Berlin Aging Study (6 waves, N = 414); Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (4 waves, N = 925); and Berlin Aging Study II (4 waves, N = 1,111) to construct overlapping multiyear longitudinal data from ages 61 through 85 years for cohorts born 1905 to 1953 and examine historical changes in within-person trajectories of internal and external control beliefs. Results revealed that earlier-born cohorts exhibit age-related declines in internal control beliefs regarding both desirable and undesirable outcomes, whereas later-born cohorts perceive higher internal control and maintain this advantage into old age. Earlier-born cohorts also experience steep age-related increases in external control beliefs regarding both powerful others and chance, whereas later-born cohorts perceive lower external control and were stable across old age. Education and gender disparities in control beliefs narrowed over historical time. Sociodemographic, physical health, cognitive, and social factors explained some of the differences in control beliefs, and accounted for sizable portions of cohort effects. Our results indicate that current generations of older adults perceive more and better maintained internal control and fewer external constraints. We discuss potential underlying mechanisms and consider conceptual and societal implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cognición , Efecto de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
13.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1124-1133, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804116

RESUMEN

Data from two cohorts of individuals, one born in the 1920s and the other in the 1950s, all members of the Intergenerational Studies, a longitudinal study begun in 1929 in Berkeley and Oakland, California, were investigated to explore intraindividual change and interindividual differences in intraindividual change with respect to 2 culturally gendered aspects of personality. Study participants completed the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) a maximum of 5 times across a maximum time interval of 52 years. The CPI generates 20 subscales, 2 of which are particularly gender linked: Femininity (FM) and Dominance (DO). Application of 3-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated differential patterns of effects of gender, cohort, and education level by personality trait. Gender and education appeared to most strongly impact FM score: Women tended to decrease in FM across the adult life span, whereas men increased or held steady. Women who most markedly decreased in FM were highly educated. Cohort appears to most strongly impact DO score: Later-born individuals of either gender and of any level of education markedly increased in DO across the adult life span. Results are discussed in the context of the women's movement as it impacts those of different genders, cohorts, and levels of education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Intergeneracionales , Personalidad/fisiología , Adulto , Envejecimiento/psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1144-1157, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804118

RESUMEN

Media portrayals of a loneliness "epidemic" are premised on an increase in the proportion of people living alone and decreases in rates of civic engagement and religious affiliation over recent decades. However, loneliness is a subjective perception that does not correspond perfectly with objective social circumstances. In this study, we examined whether perceived loneliness is greater among the Baby Boomers-individuals born 1948-1965-relative to those born 1920-1947 and whether older adults have become lonelier over the past decade (2005-2016). We used data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project and from the Health and Retirement Study collected during 2005-2016 to estimate differences in loneliness associated with age, birth year, and survey time point. Overall, loneliness decreased with age through the early 70s, after which it increased. We found no evidence that loneliness is substantially higher among the Baby Boomers or that it has increased over the past decade. Loneliness is, however, associated with poor health, living alone or without a spouse-partner, and having fewer close family and friends, which together accounted for the overall increase in loneliness after age 75. Although these data do not support the idea that older adults are becoming lonelier, the actual number of lonely individuals may increase as the Baby Boomers age into their 80s and beyond. Our results suggest that attention to social factors and improving health may help to mitigate this. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Soledad/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
15.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1170-1184, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804120

RESUMEN

For a long time, life span psychologists have theorized that individual development is partially shaped by an everchanging historical context. For example, it has been hypothesized that the historically increasing flexibility of constructing social networks may influence the social development of adults into late life. To date, however, there is no established method in psychological science that allows researchers to easily gauge the effects of historical differences in time-varying covariates on aging trajectories, which are also subject to historical change. Here, the method of cohort centering is introduced as a potential remedy for this dilemma. Using a large-scale, cohort-sequential data set, representative of the German population aged 40 to 85 years (N = 19,017), I applied cohort centering to examine historical differences in the aging trajectories of number of friends in the close personal networks and time spent in activities with friends. The results indicated that older cohorts may be more engaged with friends than younger cohorts. Results also showed that historical differences in friendship relations in later life could partially be explained by historical gains in self-rated health, education, and individual perceptions of aging. In sum, cohort centering can tell us how future aging trajectories will look given a specific set of preconditions and can provide information about what could happen if these conditions change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Amigos/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales/historia , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226438, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887167

RESUMEN

Affect-driven cognitive biases can be used as an indicator of affective (emotional) state. Since humans in negative affective states demonstrate greater responses to negatively-valenced stimuli, we investigated putative affect-related bias in mice by monitoring their response to unexpected, task-irrelevant stimuli of different valence. Thirty-one C57BL/6J and 31 DBA/2J females were individually trained to return to their home-cage in a runway. Mice then underwent an affective manipulation acutely inducing a negative (NegAff) or a comparatively less negative (CompLessNeg) affective state before immediately being tested in the runway with either an 'attractive' (familiar food) or 'threatening' (flashing light) stimulus. Mice were subsequently trained and tested again (same affective manipulation) with the alternative stimulus. As predicted, mice were slower to approach the light and spent more time with the food. DBA/2J mice were slower than C57BL/6J overall. Contrary to predictions, NegAff mice tended to approach both stimuli more readily than CompLessNeg mice, especially the light, and even more so for DBA/2Js. Although the stimuli successfully differentiated the response of mice to unexpected, task-irrelevant stimuli, further refinement may be required to disentangle the effects of affect manipulation and arousal on the response to valenced stimuli. The results also highlight the significant importance of considering strain differences when developing cognitive tasks.


Asunto(s)
Afecto/fisiología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Cognición/fisiología , Animales , Sesgo , Femenino , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos DBA , Modelos Animales
17.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(10): 1783-1790, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of regular Nordic walking (NW) and memory training on the quality of life and subjective age perception in older adults. Relationships between changes in quality of life and subjective age and changes in physical and perceptual fitness were also examined. METHODS: The study examined 61 women aged 64 to 93 years living in adult day care centers. Twenty people participated in a 3-month program combining Nordic walking and cognitive training (group NW+C), 20 people participated only in Nordic walking classes (group NW), and 21 people were a control group (group C). The Fullerton Functional Fitness Test, the Romberg balance test, WHOQOL-Bref Age questionnaire and the Attention and Perceptivity Test were used in the study. RESULTS: After three months of exercises, a decrease in subjective age and an improvement in perceived quality of life was observed in NW+C and NW groups, with no such changes found in group C. Positive correlations were also found for the index of decline in subjective age and quality of life with indices of physical fitness improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Regular physical and intellectual activity has a positive effect on perceived quality of life and subjective age of the residents of adult day care centers.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Memoria , Calidad de Vida , Caminata , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Cognición , Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aptitud Física
18.
Dermatol Surg ; 45(12): 1635-1648, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702594

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic variations in skin structure and function may contribute to differential manifestations of facial aging in various races/ethnicities. OBJECTIVE: To examine self-assessed differences in facial aging in women by race/ethnicity and Fitzpatrick skin phototypes. METHODS: Women aged 18 to 75 years in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia compared their features against photonumeric rating scales depicting degrees of severity for 10 facial aging characteristics. Impact of race/ethnicity (black, Hispanic, Asian, and Caucasian) and skin phototypes on severity was assessed. RESULTS: In total, 3,267 women completed the study. Black women reported the least severe facial aging; Caucasian women reported the most severe facial aging, with Asian and Hispanic women falling between these groups. Similarly, women with a skin phototype V/VI reported lesser aging severity than women with phototypes I through IV. More than 30% of black women did not report the presence of moderate/severe aging of facial areas until 60 to 79 years; most Hispanics and Asians did not report moderate/severe facial aging until 50 to 69 years and Caucasians, 40 to 59 years. CONCLUSION: In this diverse sample, black women reported less severe aging of facial features compared with Hispanic, Asian, and Caucasian women. These results were supported by Fitzpatrick skin phototype analyses.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Autoevaluación , Envejecimiento de la Piel , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Envejecimiento/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Cara , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17719, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689809

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is a coexistence of both urgency urinary incontinence and stress urinary incontinence. Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social aspects of Aging (MESA) questionnaire is a validated and commonly used tool to diagnose predominant components of it and assess the severity, which can offer help in clinic. However, MESA questionnaire is still not available in China. The aim of the study is to translate English MESA questionnaire into a Chinese version, adapt it in Chinese culture, and validate the measurement properties among female patients with MUI and urgency-predominant MUI. METHODS: MESA questionnaire will be translated and culturally adapted in China. The validation will be embedded in a multicentered randomized controlled trial targeted at women with urgency-predominant MUI. Apart from MESA questionnaire, 3 groups of patients are to receive clinical extended assessment, keep 3-day voiding diary, and complete International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form to evaluate the measurement properties of reliability and validity (internal consistence, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness). DISCUSSION: If MESA questionnaire is of relatively high reliability and validity in diagnosing subtypes of MUI and assessing the severity, it can help to choose more appropriate therapy for patients and simplify the workload of clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03803878, January 11, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Incontinencia Urinaria/diagnóstico , Anciano , Envejecimiento/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/psicología , China , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Proyectos de Investigación , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Traducciones , Incontinencia Urinaria/psicología , Estudios de Validación como Asunto
20.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(4): 464-466, 2019.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767808

RESUMEN

No abstract available.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Humanos , Inteligencia
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