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Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535341


Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute occupational poisoning in Yunnan province, so as to provide basis for formulating prevention and control measures of acute occupational poisoning in Yunnan province. Methods: In December 2019, the information of acute occupational poisoning events reported in Yunnan province from 2004 to 2019 was collected, and the epidemiological distribution, event classification, industry characteristics, poison types and poisoning causes were analyzed. Results: A total of 47 acute occupational poisoning incidents were reported in Yunnan province from 2004 to 2019, with 562 poisoning cases and 51 deaths (case fatality rate of 9.07%) . The regions with the largest number of reported incidents were Kunming and Qujing, with 12 incidents (25.53%) and 10 incidents (21.28%) respectively; The majority of incidents was relatively large (31 incidents, 65.96%) , and the industry was mainly distributed in the chemical industry (19 incidents, 40.43%) and metallurgy (15 incidents, 31.91%) . The most poisonous poisons were carbon monoxide (10 incidents, 21.28%) and arsine (9 incidents, 19.15%) . The main causes of poisoning included not using personal protective equipment or poor equipment (25 incidents, 53.19%) , failure to formulate or violate safety operating procedures (15 incidents, 31.91%) . Conclusion: Acute occupational poisoning incidents occur from time to time in Yunnan province, and the fatality rate is high. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the supervision of key areas and industries.

Industria Química , Envenenamiento , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Metalurgia , Equipo de Protección Personal , Envenenamiento/epidemiología
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 133, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331527


OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of occupational pesticide exposure with acute and mental health symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out with 78 Brazilian family farmers, who were pesticide applicators and helpers conveniently selected. Symptoms and exposure data were collected by interviews, and mental health outcomes by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed to assess cholinesterase levels. Exposure indicators and symptoms were compared between applicators and helpers, and Poisson regression was performed to estimate prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Farmers reported exposure to multiple pesticides from early ages; they worked without safety training, technical support, and full protective equipment, and they had a high prevalence of acute and mental health symptoms (e.g., headache, mucosal irritation, tachycardia, and depressive signs). Applicators had more cholinesterase changes than helpers, but less symptoms. Helpers used less personal protection and had significantly higher prevalence ratio of headache, dyspnea, wheezing, cough, poor digestion, tiredness, and feeling worthless, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Acute and mental health symptoms were observed, both among farmers and helpers. Thus, surveillance actions must be reinforced in Brazil, technical support and safety training improved, focused on applicators and helpers, who are occupationally and environmentally exposed to pesticides. Agricultural practices of these groups with less pesticide use should receive incentive.

Depresión/inducido químicamente , Agricultores , Cefalea/inducido químicamente , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Plaguicidas/envenenamiento , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Enfermedades Respiratorias/inducido químicamente , Taquicardia/inducido químicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Familia , Femenino , Cefalea/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Prevalencia , Enfermedades Respiratorias/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Taquicardia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
Medisan ; 24(6) tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1143268


Introducción: Las intoxicaciones por accidentes constituyen causas crecientes de morbilidad, hospitalización, invalidez e incluso mortalidad. Objetivo: Describir aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos en niños y adolescentes con intoxicaciones agudas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo en niños y adolescentes ingresados por intoxicación exógena en los servicios de Atención Continuada a pacientes en estado grave y de Misceláneas del Hospital Infantil Docente Sur Dr. Antonio María Béguez César de Santiago de Cuba, de enero del 2016 a igual mes del 2018. Resultados: Las intoxicaciones presentaron una elevada incidencia en el grupo etario de 15-18 años (61,7 %) y en el sexo femenino (85,1 %); la mayoría se produjo de modo voluntario (85,1 %), principalmente en el hogar (84,1 %) y con predominio de los medicamentos como agente causal (86,9 %). La evolución clínica resultó ser satisfactoria en 68,2 % de los pacientes; en el resto no fue así debido a la aparición de complicaciones, sobre todo de gastritis medicamentosa (30,8 %). Conclusiones: Las intoxicaciones en la infancia y la adolescencia son una causa importante de morbilidad luego de las infecciones respiratorias, y constituyen un motivo usual de urgencia médica en los hospitales pediátricos.

Introduction: Poisonings due to accidents are increasing causes of morbidity, hospitalization, disability and even mortality. Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects in children with acute intoxications. Method: An observational, descriptive and prospective study was carried out in children and adolescent patients admitted with the diagnosis of exogenous intoxication in the services of Continuous Care to severely ill and Miscellaneous patients from Dr. Antonio María Béguez César Southern Pediatric Teaching Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba from January, 2016 to January, 2018. Results: Poisoning had a high incidence in the 15 - 18 years group (61,7 %) and in the female sex (85,1 %); most of them took place voluntarily (85,1 %), mainly at home (84,1 %) and with predominance of drugs as causal agent (86,9 %). Clinical course was satisfactory in 68,2 % of the patients; it was not the same in the rest due to the emergence of complications, above all due to drug gastritis (30,8 %) Conclusions: Poisoning in childhood and adolescence is an important cause of morbidity, after the respiratory infections, and constitute an usual reason of medical emergencies in pediatric hospitals.

Envenenamiento/prevención & control , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Hospitales Pediátricos , Niño , Adolescente , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(32): 1070-1073, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790662


Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is a liquid, gel, or foam that contains ethanol or isopropanol used to disinfect hands. Hand hygiene is an important component of the U.S. response to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). If soap and water are not readily available, CDC recommends the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products that contain at least 60% ethyl alcohol (ethanol) or 70% isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) in community settings (1); in health care settings, CDC recommendations specify that alcohol-based hand sanitizer products should contain 60%-95% alcohol (≥60% ethanol or ≥70% isopropanol) (2). According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates alcohol-based hand sanitizers as an over-the-counter drug, methanol (methyl alcohol) is not an acceptable ingredient. Cases of ethanol toxicity following ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products have been reported in persons with alcohol use disorder (3,4). On June 30, 2020, CDC received notification from public health partners in Arizona and New Mexico of cases of methanol poisoning associated with ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The case reports followed an FDA consumer alert issued on June 19, 2020, warning about specific hand sanitizers that contain methanol. Whereas early clinical effects of methanol and ethanol poisoning are similar (e.g., headache, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of coordination, and decreased level of consciousness), persons with methanol poisoning might develop severe anion-gap metabolic acidosis, seizures, and blindness. If left untreated methanol poisoning can be fatal (5). Survivors of methanol poisoning might have permanent visual impairment, including complete vision loss; data suggest that vision loss results from the direct toxic effect of formate, a toxic anion metabolite of methanol, on the optic nerve (6). CDC and state partners established a case definition of alcohol-based hand sanitizer-associated methanol poisoning and reviewed 62 poison center call records from May 1 through June 30, 2020, to characterize reported cases. Medical records were reviewed to abstract details missing from poison center call records. During this period, 15 adult patients met the case definition, including persons who were American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN). All had ingested an alcohol-based hand sanitizer and were subsequently admitted to a hospital. Four patients died and three were discharged with vision impairment. Persons should never ingest alcohol-based hand sanitizer, avoid use of specific imported products found to contain methanol, and continue to monitor FDA guidance (7). Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for methanol poisoning when evaluating adult or pediatric patients with reported swallowing of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer product or with symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings (e.g., elevated anion-gap metabolic acidosis) compatible with methanol poisoning. Treatment of methanol poisoning includes supportive care, correction of acidosis, administration of an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor (e.g., fomepizole), and frequently, hemodialysis.

Desinfectantes para las Manos/envenenamiento , Metanol/envenenamiento , Adulto , Anciano , Arizona/epidemiología , Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Desinfectantes para las Manos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Metanol/análisis , Persona de Mediana Edad , New Mexico/epidemiología , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Envenenamiento/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1528-1531, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816555


Data System. The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) jointly monitor the National Poison Data System (NPDS) for incidents of public health significance (IPHSs).Data Collection/Processing. NPDS is the data repository for US poison centers, which together cover all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and multiple territories. Information from calls to poison centers is uploaded to NPDS in near real time and continuously monitored for specific exposures and anomalies relative to historic data.Data Analysis/Dissemination. AAPCC and CDC toxicologists analyze NPDS-generated anomalies for evidence of public health significance. Presumptive results are confirmed with the receiving poison center to correctly identify IPHSs. Once verified, CDC notifies the state public health department.Implications. During 2013 to 2018, 3.7% of all NPDS-generated anomalies represented IPHSs. NPDS surveillance findings may be the first alert to state epidemiologists of IPHSs. Data are used locally and nationally to enhance situational awareness during a suspected or known public health threat. NPDS improves CDC's national surveillance capacity by identifying early markers of IPHSs.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./tendencias , Bases de Datos Factuales , Centros de Control de Intoxicaciones/tendencias , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Salud Pública , Recolección de Datos , District of Columbia/epidemiología , Epidemiólogos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(267): 4420-4424, ago.-2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1128885


Objetivo: Descrever o perfil das intoxicações exógenas atendidas em um hospital de ensino, no período de junho de 2015 a junho de 2019. Método: Estudo documental, retrospectivo, descritivo, com análise quantitativa. A coleta dos dados ocorreu no Sistema de Informação de Agravo de Notificação (SINAN), do período de junho de 2015 a junho de 2019. O total da amostra foi 152 notificações exógenas. Resultados: Quanto ao sexo predominou o feminino com 85 casos, houve predomínio para as idades, entre 20 a 34 anos, para o local de exposição, 132 casos aconteceram na residência, nos anos de 2017 e 2018 apresentaram maior incidência. Foram identificados 127 agentes toxicológicos dentre esses 98 casos, os anticoagulantes, benzodiazepínicos e antidepressivos tiveram maior incidência. Conclusão: Jovem adulto nas idades entre 20 a 34 anos, principalmente do sexo feminino predominam nas notificações de intoxicação exógena, com maior concentração para as pessoas com nível escolar incompleto.(AU)

Objective: Describe the profile of exogenous intoxication attended in a teaching hospital, between June 2015 and June 2019. Method: Documental, retrospective, descriptive study, with qualitative analysis. The data collection was done on the Information System of Notification Aggravation (SINAN), between June 2015 and June 2019. The total sample was 152 exogenous notifications. Results: The predominant gender was the female, with 85 cases, there was the predominance of the ages between 20 and 34 years old, in the local of exposition, 132 cases took place in the recidence, in 2017 and 2018 there was a higher incidence. 127 toxicological agents were identified among these 98 cases, the anticoagulants, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants had higher incidence. Conclusion: Young adults aged between 20 and 34 years old, especially of the female gender are predominant in notifications of exogenous intoxication, with bigger concentration of people with incomplete educational attainment.(AU)

Objetivo: Describir el perfil de intoxicaciones exógenas atendidas en un hospital docente, en el período de junio de 2015 a junio de 2019. Método: Estudio documental, retrospectivo, descriptivo, con análisis cuantitativo. La recopilación de datos tuvo lugar en el Sistema de Información de Divulgación Notificable (SINAN), en el periodo de junio de 2015 a junio de 2019. El total de la muestra fueron 152 notificaciones exógenas. Resultados: En cuanto al género, hubo un predominio de mujeres con 85 casos, hubo un predominio de edades, entre 20 y 34 años, para el lugar de exposición, 132 casos ocurrieron en la residencia, en los años 2017 y 2018 tuvieron una mayor incidencia. Se identificaron 127 agentes toxicológicos entre estos 98 casos, los anticoagulantes, las benzodiacepinas y los antidepresivos tuvieron una mayor incidencia. Conclusión: los adultos jóvenes entre 20 y 34 años, principalmente mujeres, predominan en las notificaciones de intoxicación exógena, con mayor concentración para las personas con escolarización incompleta.(AU)

Humanos , Envenenamiento , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Servicios de Vigilancia Epidemiológica , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Sistemas de Información en Salud
Alcohol ; 88: 29-32, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693023


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly worldwide and led to the deaths of thousands of people. To date, there is not any vaccine or specific antiviral medicine that can prevent or treat this virus. This caused panic among people who try their best to prevent being infected. In Iran, methanol poisoning was reported and led to the death of hundreds of people in several provinces. The incident occurred after a rumor circulated in the country that drinking alcohol (ethanol) can cure or prevent being infected by COVID-19.

Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Etanol/uso terapéutico , Metanol/envenenamiento , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Envenenamiento/mortalidad , Solventes/envenenamiento , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Contaminación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Contaminación de Alimentos , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Envenenamiento/etiología , Solventes/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(2): 250-254, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584003


BACKGROUND: Poison is defined as any substance which harms, endangers or even kills a person irrespective of the quality or quantity. Pakistan is a developing country and farming is the major occupation of the majority of the population. Due to the easy availability and increased use of pesticides, the accidental and suicidal poisoning is very common. The objective of the study is to find out the most common poison used by the people in the general population and its frequency in our setup. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection was undertaken in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar to determine the frequency of different poisons detected in various samples brought to the toxicological laboratory. A three-year data (1stJanuary 2014 to 31 December 2016) was retrieved from Forensic Laboratory of KMC, Peshawar. Different methods were used for the detection of poisons. All the cases coming from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province were included whereas; cases from other provinces were excluded. RESULTS: The study revealed that poisoning was more common among females and the most common age group affected was 21-25 years. The incidence of positive cases was more in Peshawar district followed by Swat district. The common poison detected was phosphine (wheat pill). CONCLUSIONS: Female and young people from Peshawar and Swat are more prone to Aluminum Phosphide (wheat pill) poison. It is a dangerous and lethal poison, so healthcare workers at emergency department ought to be prepared for such cases. Furthermore, its routine use as a domestic pesticide has to be strictly prohibited by creating awareness among the public.

Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Adulto , Compuestos de Aluminio/envenenamiento , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Pakistán , Fosfinas/envenenamiento , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e1040, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126746


Introducción: La utilización creciente de productos tóxicos a escala mundial ha generado un amplio espectro de problemas. El suicidio, entre ellos, constituye un problema de salud internacional. En Cuba ocupa el sexto lugar como causa de mortalidad general y el segundo en el grupo de 15 a 49 años. Objetivo: caracterizar algunas variables epidemiológicas relacionadas con las intoxicaciones exógenas agudas en infantes. Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo retrospectivo en una muestra constituida por 142 pacientes. ingresados con el diagnóstico de intoxicación exógena en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital General Docente Comandante Pinares de San Cristóbal, Artemisa, durante el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2008 a diciembre de 2016 Resultados: El grupo de 10-14 años representó la mayoría de la muestra para 39,4 por ciento y el 71,9. por ciento de esta muestra total correspondió al sexo femenino. El mayor porcentaje de las intoxicaciones ocurrieron de forma intencional (tentativa suicida) (64,1 por ciento). Los medicamentos ocuparon el primer lugar (87,3 por ciento) de los tóxicos identificados, el consumo de psicofármacos representó el 68,3 por ciento muchas veces asociado a la ingestión de alcohol (20,4 por ciento). Predominaron los síntomas neurológicos (66,3 por ciento), El lavado gástrico se le realizó en 79,6 por ciento y fue necesario realizar gastroenterodiálisis en 65,4 por ciento. Conclusiones: Las intoxicaciones exógenas constituyen una de las causas prevenibles que aportan incremento de la morbilidad y mortalidad en infantes. Su atención debe ser multidisciplinaria e intersectorial, lo que influirá positivamente en la calidad de vida de los grupos poblacionales vulnerables(AU)

Introduction: The increasing use of toxic products on a global scale has generated a broad spectrum of problems. Suicide, among them, is an international health problem. In Cuba, it is the sixth main cause of death and the second in the group of 15 to 49 years. Objective: To characterize some epidemiological variables related to exogenous acute poisonings in infants. Methods: An observational descriptive retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 142 patients admitted with the diagnosis of exogenous poisoning in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Comandante Pinares General Teaching Hospital, San Cristóbal, Artemisa province, during the period from January 2008 to December 2016. Results: The group of 10-14 years represented the majority of the sample for a 39.4 percent, and the 71.9 percent of the total sample was female sex. The largest percentage of the poisonings were intentional (suicide attempt) (64.1percent). Drugs were the first (87.3 percent) of the toxic chemicals identified; the consumption of psychotropic drugs represented the 68.3 percent often associated with alcohol ingestion (20.4 percent). There was a predominance of neurological symptoms (66.3 percent). The gastric lavage was performed in 79.6 percent and it was necessary to perform gastroentero dyalisis in 65.4 percent. Conclusions: Exogenous poisonings are one of the preventable causes that increase morbidity and mortality in infants. Their attention must be with a multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach, which positively influences the quality of life of vulnerable population groups(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Suicidio/prevención & control , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico/normas
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 404, 2020 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220225


BACKGROUND: Paraquat self-poisonings constitute a significant contributor to the global burden of suicide. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between social and economic variables with the incidence of self-poisoning with Paraquat in the northeast of Colombia. METHODS: Records of 154 cases of self-poisoning with Paraquat and several socio-economic variables of six regions of northeast of Colombia were analyzed. RESULTS: Most of the cases were mestizos, farmworkers, between 20 and 29 years, with intentional exposure using the oral route. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations among the incidence of self-poisoning with PQ with the ecological factors such as poverty greater than 30% (IRR 15.9 IC95% 5.56-44.72), land Gini index < 0.7 (IRR 7.11 IC95% 3.58-14.12), private health insurance < 40% (IRR 3.39 IC95% 1.30-8.82) and planted area > 10% (IRR 2.47 IC95% 1.60-3.80). CONCLUSION: There is a relationship between ecological factors and, as such, this study opens the way to further developments in the field.

Paraquat/envenenamiento , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229939, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130274


OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide basic data on the types and frequency of chemical ingestions and the clinical outcomes of chemical ingestion injury. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the data obtained from the Emergency Department-Based Injury In-depth Surveillance of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (South Korea) from 2011 to 2016. Patients ingesting chemicals aged ≥ 18 years were included, but those ingesting unknown chemical substances or with unknown clinical outcomes were excluded. RESULTS: This study included 2,712 (47.2% were men and 52.8% were women, mean age, 47.05 years) patients ingesting chemicals. Unintentional and intentional ingestions were reported in 1,673 (61.7%) and 1,039 (38.3%), respectively. The most commonly ingested chemical substances were hypochlorites, detergents, ethanol, and acetic acid. In the unintentional ingestion group, the most common chemicals upon admission were hypochlorites (74), glacial acetic acid (60), and detergent (33). The admission rates were 60% for glacial acetic acid, 58.3% ethylene glycol, and 30.4% other alkali agents. In the intentional ingestion group, the most common chemicals upon admission were hypochlorites (242), glacial acetic acid (79), ethylene glycol (42), and detergent (41). The admission rates were 91.9% for glacial acetic acid, 87.5% ethylene glycol, 85.7% potassium cyanide, and 81.4% hydrochloric acid. In total, 79 deaths (10 unintentional ingestions, 69 intentional ingestion) were reported, and glacial acetic acid had an odds ratio of 9.299 for mortality. CONCLUSION: We compared the intentional and unintentional ingestion groups, and analyzed the factors affecting hospital admission and mortality in each group. The types and clinical outcomes of chemical ingestion varied depending on the purpose of chemical ingestion. The findings are considered beneficial in establishing treatment policies for patients ingesting chemicals.

Ingestión de Alimentos , Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Ácido Acético/toxicidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antídotos/uso terapéutico , Detergentes/toxicidad , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Etanol/toxicidad , Glicol de Etileno , Femenino , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/toxicidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Centros de Control de Intoxicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Envenenamiento/fisiopatología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 48(2): 100-107, 2020 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133895


BACKGROUND: Intentional poisoning is becoming an important public health concern particularly among young women globally. Consequently, there is a need to analyze this further within countries to establish pertinent policies to reduce current incidence rates. This includes sub-Saharan African countries where there has been a scarcity of information. Consequently, we sought to establish the nature and sources of poisoning in patients admitted to a leading hospital in Botswana to help develop pertinent future policies for Botswana and surrounding countries. METHODS: Retrospectively reviewing the medical records of all patients admitted to Princess Marina Hospital (PMH), which is a leading tertiary hospital in the capital city of Botswana, due to acute poisoning over a six-year period. RESULTS: The records for 408 patients were reviewed. The majority of admissions (58%) were females, and the mean age of patients was 21(±14) years. Most poisoning cases (53%) were intentional. The 15-45 years age group was most likely to intentionally poison themselves compared to other age groups, with females four and half times more likely to intentionally poison themselves compared to males (AOR 4.53, 95% CI: 2.68-7.89, p < 0.001). Half of the patients were poisoned by medicines followed by household chemicals (22%), with females overall four times more likely to be poisoned by medicines compared to males. The medicine mostly ingested was paracetamol (30%). Failing relationships (57%) were the principal reason for intentional poisoning. Six patients died from poisoning representing a 1.5% mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest in-depth and urgent investigations on intentional poisoning are needed among young women across countries including sub-Saharan African countries to inform future policies on prevention strategies. Further, strategies for poisoning prevention should target social and family relationship problems. We will be following this up in the future.

Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Botswana/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(2): 761-772, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022215


Many studies analyze the epidemiological profile of deaths caused by a single toxic agent. However, broader mortality analyses can be obtained by evaluating multiple agents over the same period of time. For this purpose, a retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the deaths by intoxication registered in the Mortality Information System that occurred in Brazil from 2010 to 2015. Deaths were selected according to ICD-10 codes related to intoxication. There were 18,247 deaths and an increase of 3% of rates of mortality by intoxication during the period. The agents that caused the most deaths were pesticides (24%) followed by medication (23%) and street drugs (22%). With the exception of medication, where the female participation was 52%, there was a higher concentration of males for all agents and in most of the age groups. Only in the case of medication and pesticides was suicide the main circumstance of deaths. The results presented made it possible to define a mortality profile for each of the major toxic agents studied.

Sistemas de Información/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Envenenamiento/epidemiología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamiento , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Plaguicidas/envenenamiento , Envenenamiento/mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven