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1.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(5): e10717, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825777

RESUMEN

Scorpion venom is a Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP), a peptide isolated from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch, has an anti-epileptic effect by reducing seizure behavior according to a modified Racine scale. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of SVHRP on temporal lobe epilepsy. The hippocampus and hippocampal neurons from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats were treated with SVHRP at different doses and duration. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), stromal interaction molecule (STIM), and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (ORAI1). In the hippocampal tissues and primary hippocampal neuron cultures, SVHRP treatment resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of BDNF and NPY under the epileptic condition. The upregulation of BDNF and NPY expression was positively correlated with the dose level and treatment duration of SVHRP in hippocampal tissues from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats. On the other hand, no significant changes in the levels of CREB, STIM, or ORAI1 were observed. SVHRP may exhibit an anti-epileptic effect by upregulating the expression of BDNF and NPY in the epileptic hippocampus.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Venenos de Escorpión , Animales , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epilepsia/inducido químicamente , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Calor , Ácido Kaínico/toxicidad , Neuronas , Péptidos , Ratas , Venenos de Escorpión/toxicidad
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(4): 517-524, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851673

RESUMEN

Background: Epilepsy, a chronic brain disorder, predisposes children to low Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL). Objective: This study aimed at assessing the HRQOL in Nigerian children with epilepsy and compare it with that in healthy children. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 166 children with epilepsy (CWE), aged 5-18 years on anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for at least 6 months and 166 age and sex-matched apparently healthy children was conducted. A generic version of the Pediatric Quality of Life (Peds QoL version 4) scale was used to assess HRQOL. Results: There were significant differences in Quality-of-Life mean scores in the domains of social functioning, psychosocial combination, and psychosocial plus physical activities between cases and controls. The school function scores of <50, indicating low QOL, were significantly more (Chi square = 35.37) (P = 0.0001) among the cases (32.5%) compared to the controls (6.3%). Similarly, low quality of life in the psychosocial combination were observed significantly (P_ = 0.042) more among the cases (12.7%) compared to the controls (6.3%). Low quality of life in emotional feeling domain were noted significantly (Chi square = 12.9) (P = 0.0002) more in subjects aged between 8 and 12 (20%). QOL scores of below 50 in the social function domain were observed significantly (Chi square = 6.49) (P = 0.039) more in subjects aged between 5 and 7 years (44.8%). There was significant gender difference in Quality-of-life index in school functioning domain in subjects. (Chi Square = 6.49) (P value = 0.039). Children in the upper social class scored higher in the social functioning domain, and social class was significantly associated with scores in the social domain of functioning. (F = 3.75 and P = 0.03). QOL scores below 50 in the emotional domain were significantly more among subjects aged 8-12 years/13-18 year, s and QOL scores of <50 in the school function domain were significantly more in subjects aged 5-7 years. (P = 0.0002) (P = 0.039), respectively. Conclusion: HRQOL is reduced in CWE in all domains of Peds QoL. Significant predictors of reduced HRQOL include age, gender, and socioeconomic class. Beyond seizure control, epilepsy management should be oriented towards ensuring the optimal health-related quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Humanos , Nigeria , Convulsiones , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834715

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of extended release carbamazepine (finlepsin-retard and tegretol CR) in adult patients with new-onset focal epilepsy (FE) with the assessment of epileptiform activity index (EAI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 62 patients (38 (61.3%) men and 24 (38.7%) women) with new-onset FE aged ≥18 years (mean age 42.9±18.4 years). All patients underwent video-ECG-monitoring with EAI assessment at each visit. Treatment efficacy was assessed using the criteria of seizure absence (medically induced remission), seizure rate decrease by >50% (responders), seizure rate decrease by <50% - insufficient efficacy, retention on treatment and seizure rate increase compared to baseline and/or development of new type of seizures (aggravation). Overall study period was 12 months. RESULTS: By the end of the 12-month follow-up period, there was a 4.3-fold decrease of the total EAI compared to baseline (p<0.001). Retention on carbamazepine treatment during 12 months was achieved in 61.3% (n=38) patients; medically induced remission - in 40.3% (n=25); seizure rate decrease by >50% - in 21.0% (n=13). In 29.1% (n=18) of patients, treatment change was performed; double-drug therapy, including carbamazepine, was prescribed in 9.6% (n=6) of patients. Incidence of adverse events was 29.1% (n=18). CONCLUSIONS: Carbamazepine is an effective and promising drug for initial monotherapy of FE. Its use in the treatment of FE results in a 4.3-fold decrease of EAI (p<0.001), which reflects the efficacy of treatment. EAI is an additional objective measure of treatment efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsias Parciales , Epilepsia Generalizada , Epilepsia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapéutico , Epilepsias Parciales/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
4.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834730

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the possibility of using the polypeptide drug cortexin for the treatment of cognitive, emotional and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents with epilepsy and to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug in this group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients (41 girls and 45 boys) were examined at the age of 3 to 17 y.o. Cortexin was used along with antiepileptic drugs. Clinical and pathopsychological methods were administered. RESULTS: Children and teenagers with epilepsy have average IQ (91-110) in 72% of cases, 24% had mental deficiency of various intensity, these were children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, including 2% with IQ 154 and 2% with IQ 71-80. CONCLUSION: Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological study of children and adolescents with epilepsy reveal the improvement of electrophysiological parameters, there are no aggravation of seizures in 95% cases. The improvement of cognitive functions is observed in 65% of patients.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Niño , Cognición , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular/uso terapéutico , Masculino
5.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834729

RESUMEN

A clinical case of a genetically confirmed diagnosis of alternating hemiplegia associated with epilepsy is presented. The combination of two types of seizures in a child made it difficult to make a diagnosis. The result of video-EEG monitoring made it possible to understand that a child showed both epileptic seizures and non-epileptic seizures simultaneously with different periodicities. The mutation in the ATP1A3 gene was verified with genome-wide sequencing and targeted therapy was prescribed in a timely manner. As a result, both types of seizures stopped after treatment.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio , Niño , Electroencefalografía , Epilepsia/complicaciones , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemiplejía/complicaciones , Hemiplejía/diagnóstico , Hemiplejía/genética , Humanos , Convulsiones , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/metabolismo
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e25134, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725915

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is 1 of the common neurodevelopmental diseases. It can affect about 0.5% to 1.0% of the population regardless of their race and social class. Despite the development of a wide range of treatments, there remaining about one-third of patients still experience seizures. Chinese herbal compounds containing scorpion (CHCCS) have shown an outstanding curative effect on nerve protection and epilepsy. But there's no study to assess its clinical efficacy and safety. METHODS: Each data of CHCCS in treating epilepsy from related English and Chinese databases will be searched. The primary outcome is the efficacy of the CHCCS on epilepsy. And the secondary outcomes include recurrence rate and side effects. The risk of bias will be assessed, and RevMan5.3 and Stata14.0 will be performed for meta-analysis. Finally, we will assess the level of the resulting evidence. RESULTS: The results of the study will be combined with current evidence and published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSIONS: This study will specifically investigate the effectiveness and safety of CHCCS in treating epilepsy. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202120056.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/administración & dosificación , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Escorpiones/química , Animales , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/efectos adversos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Recurrencia , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728858

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of being detected gene mutations in patients with epilepsy in clinical practice of neurologists specializing in epilepsy with an analysis of diagnosed epileptic syndromes, the characteristics of seizures, the timing of a genetic diagnosis, options and treatment effectiveness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 100 patients (40 boys, 60 girls) with epilepsy and/or epileptic encephalopathy and a gene mutation identified. The average age was 6.9±5.1 years. Through remote access, epilepsy specialists filled out a specially designed unified table containing information from outpatient case history. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: There are patients with a wide range of gene mutations, the leading of which is a mutation in the SCN1A gene (15%). The main method (85%) of detection remains the sequencing of the last generation in the «Hereditary Epilepsy¼ panel. Years pass from the onset of the disease to the genetic diagnosis (Me - 3 years). In most cases, patients with severe (52% have epileptic encephalopathy, 88% have developmental disorders) and pharmacoresistant (mean amount of anti-epileptic drugs - 3.8±2.2, multitherapy - 70%) syndromes have undergone genetic testing. In the treatment of these patients epileptologists are increasingly (52%) use alternative methods: steroids, ketogenic diet and others. The absence of seizures was observed only in 46% of patients. CONCLUSION: Thus, in the outpatient practice of epileptologists, patients with a wide range of gene mutations are found. As a rule, these are patients with severe, therapy-resistant epileptic syndromes.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia Generalizada , Epilepsia , Síndromes Epilépticos , Niño , Preescolar , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Mutación , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Convulsiones
12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(1): 29-34, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease is an important cause of epilepsy. The incidence may significantly vary (from 2.3% to 43%). Post-stroke seizures occur within 2 weeks of stroke onset (as early-onset seizures) or 2 weeks after a stroke (as late-onset seizures). OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively evaluate and differentiate predictive factors for post-stroke seizures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical histories of 164 adult patients diagnosed with post-stroke seizures but no epilepsy recognized prior to the stroke who were hospitalized at the Neurology Clinic of Wroclaw Medical University between 2012 and 2018. The seizures were classified according to the criteria of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) from 2017. The relevant demographic data, type of stroke (ischemic/hemorrhagic), time of occurrence of seizures in relation to the type of stroke, score on the modified Rankin Scale, presence of cardiovascular risk factors, electroencephalography (EEG) recording, and antiepileptic treatment (AED) were collected. In the case of ischemic stroke (IS), the size of the stroke lesion was rated on the ASPECTS scale. RESULTS: The study involved 164 patients (average age = 68.83 years), including 86 men (average age = 66.2 years). In 20 out of 164 patients, the seizures were associated with hemorrhagic stroke (HS); in 144 out of 164 patients, the post-stroke epilepsy was associated with IS. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 101 out of 164 patients, focal aware seizures occurred in 19 out of 164 patients and focal impaired-awareness seizures occurred in 44 out of 164 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has confirmed that generalized seizures occur mostly after an IS and are late complications of it. Early-onset seizures occur mostly after HS associated with severe disability. Seizures are more likely to happen due to the cortical location of the stroke. There is a shift from generalized to focal seizures with an increase in the extent of IS as evaluated using the ASPECTS scale.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Anciano , Anticonvulsivantes , Electroencefalografía , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Convulsiones/tratamiento farmacológico , Convulsiones/epidemiología , Convulsiones/etiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico
13.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(1): 62-68, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611246

RESUMEN

The choice of a contraceptive method considered highly effective in epileptic women of childbearing age is important, since it requires taking into account the eligibility criteria and the possible pharmacological interactions between certain types of anti-seizure drugs (mainly enzyme inducers drugs of the hepatic system P450 such as: carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, oxacarbamazepine, eslicarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and topiramate in high doses) and certain contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives combined or only with progesterone and subdermal progesterone implants), which may accelerate the metabolism of the latter with the consequent risk of failure or vice versa, reduction of plasma concentration (such as lamotrigine) predisposing to seizures, risk of unwanted pregnancies, abortions, teratogenicity due to valproato, maternal- fetal complications and difficulty in the management of epileptic activity during pregnancy. In case of prescribing both medications, the combined use with a barrier method should be considered or the use of a depot injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate or intrauterine device as contraception should be considered. Family planning counseling at the first visit has been shown to influence the choice of the contraceptive method and the early initiation of folic acid in the search for fertility. In conclusion, the different therapeutic options should be analyzed together with the epileptic patients in order to achieve and optimize the best goal for each one.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción , Epilepsia , Anticonvulsivantes/efectos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Convulsiones/tratamiento farmacológico
14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 117: 107833, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618316

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into epilepsy care during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, we analyzed prescription data of a large cohort of persons with epilepsy (PWE) during lockdown in Germany. METHODS: Information was obtained from the Disease Analyzer database, which collects anonymous demographic and medical data from practice computer systems of general practitioners (GP) and neurologists (NL) throughout Germany. We retrospectively compared prescription data for anti-seizure medication (ASM) and physicians' notes of "known" and "new" PWE from January 2020 until May 2020 with the corresponding months in the three preceding years 2017-2019. Adherence was estimated by calculating the proportion of patients with follow-up prescriptions within 90 days after initial prescriptions in January or February. We additionally analyzed hospital referrals of PWE. The significance level was set to 0.01 to adjust for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: A total of 52,844 PWE were included. Anti-seizure medication prescriptions for known PWE increased in March 2020 (GP + 36%, NL + 29%; P < 0.01). By contrast, a decrease in prescriptions to known and new PWE was observed in April and significantly in May 2020 ranging from -16% to -29% (P < 0.01). The proportion of PWE receiving follow-up prescriptions was slightly higher in 2020 (73.5%) than in 2017-2019 (70.7%, P = 0.001). General practitioners and NL referred fewer PWE to hospitals in March 2020 (GP: -30%, P < 0.01; NL: -12%), April 2020 (GP: -29%, P < 0.01; NL: -37%), and May 2020 (GP: -24%, P < 0.01; NL: -16%). CONCLUSION: Adherence of known PWE to ASM treatment appeared to remain stable during lockdown in Germany. However, this study revealed findings which point to reduced care for newly diagnosed PWE as well as fewer hospital admissions. These elements may warrant consideration during future lockdown situations.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Epilepsia , Médicos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
Epilepsy Behav ; 117: 107855, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636530

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the impact of COVID-19 on children with epilepsy and their families, focusing on epilepsy management, family routines, learning, and adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pandemic guidelines (e.g., social distancing, mask wearing) within the first six months of the pandemic. Group differences in COVID-19 impact on families were also examined based on race and ethnicity, being medically and/or geographically underserved, and insurance status. METHODS: Participants (n = 131) included children with epilepsy and their families from two clinical trials. The Impact of COVID-19 on Pediatric Epilepsy Management (ICPEM) measure was developed and administered to caregivers online from April 2020 to September 2020 across four large pediatric hospitals. Administration of the ICPEM occurred both during routine study assessments and an additional acute time point to obtain information early in the pandemic (e.g., April and May 2020). Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used for analyses. RESULTS: Data indicate minor to moderate impact of COVID-19 on pediatric epilepsy management. Caregivers of children with epilepsy reported the most impact on education and social functioning. Adherence to CDC guidelines was reported to be high. Those having public insurance reported greater difficulties obtaining daily anti-seizure medications compared to those with private insurance. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents important initial data regarding the impact of COVID-19 epilepsy management and daily functioning in children with epilepsy and their families. While the acute impact of COVID-19 restrictions appear to be mild to moderate, it is unclear what the long-term impact of the pandemic will be on families of children with epilepsy.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Niño , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466734

RESUMEN

Cannabis sativa L. turned out to be a valuable source of chemical compounds of various structures, showing pharmacological activity. The most important groups of compounds include phytocannabinoids and terpenes. The pharmacological activity of Cannabis (in epilepsy, sclerosis multiplex (SM), vomiting and nausea, pain, appetite loss, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, glaucoma, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), which has been proven so far, results from the affinity of these compounds predominantly for the receptors of the endocannabinoid system (the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), type two (CB2), and the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55)) but, also, for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), glycine receptors, serotonin receptors (5-HT), transient receptor potential channels (TRP), and GPR, opioid receptors. The synergism of action of phytochemicals present in Cannabis sp. raw material is also expressed in their increased bioavailability and penetration through the blood-brain barrier. This review provides an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacology of compounds present in Cannabis extracts in the context of the current knowledge about their synergistic actions and the implications of clinical use in the treatment of selected diseases.


Asunto(s)
Cannabinoides/farmacología , Cannabis/química , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Terpenos/farmacología , Animales , Cannabinoides/química , Cannabinoides/uso terapéutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Endocannabinoides/metabolismo , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Parkinson/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Receptores de Cannabinoides/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Tourette/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Tourette/metabolismo
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504534

RESUMEN

A 47-year-old woman with history of seizure disorder (semiology of seizure unknown), not well controlled with antiepileptic drugs since last 30 years presented with 1-year history of intermittent throbbing headache. On the day prior to admission, she experienced worst headache, followed by loss of consciousness. On regaining consciousness, she had neck pain without any focal neurological deficit, but examination was marked by positive meningeal signs. She had history of oral ulceration, photosensitivity and small joints pain for which no medical consultancy was sought until. Following relevant investigations, this case came out to be moyamoya angiopathy secondary to underlying systemic lupus erythematosus. She was put on immunosuppressive and immunomodulator as per recommendations. Among neurological symptoms, headache improved dramatically without any further seizure recurrence till the 6 months of follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagen , Albuminuria , Angiografía de Substracción Digital , Anticuerpos Antinucleares/inmunología , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Angiografía Cerebral , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiología , Epilepsia/complicaciones , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/complicaciones , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/tratamiento farmacológico , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/inmunología , Angiografía por Resonancia Magnética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad de Moyamoya/complicaciones , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 116: 107785, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515934

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and rapidly spread globally. Vaccines have recently been developed and are being administered in some countries, but their widespread use is not yet sufficient; the battle against COVID-19 is protracted and people need to adapt to living under the influence of this disease. Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological condition characterized by spontaneous recurrence of unprovoked seizures. Various effects of COVID-19 on epilepsy have been studied in recent months. As clinicians, we need to keep up with daily updates in the evidence regarding interactions between COVID-19 and epilepsy. This review article summarizes the current evidence. Prospective studies on epilepsy and COVID-19 remain lacking. Most articles have comprised case reports, case series, retrospective studies, and recommendations/opinions that do not include data. However, summarizing these articles can identify the demands for research into COVID-19 and epilepsy by clarifying what is known and what remains unclear from current research.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Convulsiones/epidemiología , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/tendencias , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Convulsiones/tratamiento farmacológico
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