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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 234, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and a defining event for pregnant people, infants, and whanau (extended families). Recommendations have been made for a national preterm birth prevention initiative focusing on equity in Aotearoa New Zealand, including the development of a national best practice guide. An understanding of the number and quality of guidelines, and consideration of their suitability and impact on equity is required. METHODS: Guidelines were identified through a systematic literature search, search of professional bodies websites, and invitation to regional health services in Aotearoa New Zealand. Obstetric and midwifery clinical directors were invited to report on guideline use. Identified guidelines were appraised by a 23-member trans-disciplinary Review Panel; quantitatively using the AGREE-II instrument and qualitatively using modified ADAPTE questions. The quality of guidelines available but not in use was compared against those in current use, and by health services by level of maternity and neonatal care. Major themes affecting implementation and impact on equity were identified using Braun and Clarke methodology. RESULTS: A total of 235 guidelines were included for appraisal. Guidelines available but not in use by regional health services scored higher in quality than guidelines in current use (median domain score Rigour and Development 47.5 versus 18.8, p < 0.001, median domain score Overall Assessment 62.5 versus 44.4, p < 0.001). Guidelines in use by regional health services with tertiary maternity and neonatal services had higher median AGREE II scores in several domains, than those with secondary level services (median domain score Overall Assessment 50.0 versus 37.5, p < 0.001). Groups identified by the Review Panel as experiencing the greatest constraints and limitations to guideline implementation were rural, provincial, low socioeconomic, Maori, and Pacific populations. Identified themes to improve equity included a targeted approach to groups experiencing the least advantage; a culturally considered approach; nationally consistent guidance; and improved funding to support implementation of guideline recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: We have systematically identified and assessed guidelines on preterm birth. High-quality guidelines will inform a national best practice guide for use in Taonga Tuku Iho, a knowledge translation project for equity in preterm birth care and outcomes in Aotearoa.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Nacimiento Prematuro , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Pueblo Maorí , Nueva Zelanda , Nacimiento Prematuro/prevención & control , Atención Prenatal
2.
Adv Nutr ; 15(4): 100194, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616067

RESUMEN

Disparities in nutrition, such as poor diet quality and inadequate nutrient intake, arise from multiple factors and are related to adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. The aim of the current perspective is to present a nutrition-centric socioecological framework that delineates determinants and factors that contribute to diet and nutrition-related disparities among disadvantaged populations. The Nutrition Health Disparities Framework (NHDF) describes the domains (biological, behavioral, physical/built environment, sociocultural environment, and healthcare system) that influence nutrition-related health disparities through the lens of each level of influence (that is, individual, interpersonal, community, and societal). On the basis of the scientific literature, the authors engaged in consensus decision making in selecting nutrition-related determinants of health within each domain and socioecological level when creating the NHDF. The framework identifies how neighborhood food availability and access (individual/built environment) intersect with cultural norms and practices (interpersonal/sociocultural environment) to influence dietary behaviors, exposures, and risk of diet-related diseases. In addition, the NHDF shows how factors such as genetic predisposition (individual/biology), family dietary practices (interpersonal/behavioral), and food marketing policies (societal) may impact the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages and increase chronic disease risk. Family and peer norms (interpersonal/behavior) related to breastfeeding and early childhood nutrition interact with resource-poor environments such as lack of access to preventive healthcare settings (societal/healthcare system) and low usage of federal nutrition programs (societal/behavioral), which may increase risk of poor nutrition during childhood and food insecurity. The NHDF describes the synergistic interrelationships among factors at different levels of the socioecological model that influence nutrition-related outcomes and exacerbate health disparities. The framework is a useful resource for nutrition researchers, practitioners, food industry leaders, and policymakers interested in improving diet-related health outcomes and promoting health equity in diverse populations.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Desnutrición , Preescolar , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Alimentos , Inequidades en Salud
4.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557665

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Advancing health equity requires more contextualised evidence. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise published evidence using an existing framework on the origins of health disparities and determine care-related outcome disparities for residents of long-term care, comparing minoritised populations to the context-specific dominant population. DESIGN: Systematic review. SUBJECTS: Residents of 24-hour long-term care homes. METHODS: The protocol was registered a priori with PROSPERO (CRD42021269489). Literature published between 1 January 2000 and 26 September 2021, was searched, including studies comparing baseline characteristics and outcomes in minoritised versus dominant populations. Dual screening, two-reviewer verification for extraction, and risk of bias assessments were conducted to ensure rigour. Studies were synthesized using a conceptual framework to contextualise evidence according to multi-level factors contributing to the development of care disparities. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 34 included studies demonstrated disparities in care outcomes for minoritised groups compared to majority groups. Thirty-one studies observed differences in individual-level characteristics (e.g. age, education, underlying conditions) upon entry to homes, with several outcome disparities (e.g. restraint use, number of medications) present at baseline and remaining or worsening over time. Significant gaps in evidence were identified, particularly an absence of literature on provider information and evidence on the experience of intersecting minority identities that contribute to care-related outcome disparities in long-term care. CONCLUSION: This review found differences in minoritised populations' care-related outcomes. The findings provide guidance for future health equity policy and research-supporting diverse and intersectional capacity building in long-term care.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Humanos
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1286121, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560446

RESUMEN

Introduction: Health equity research uses impact evaluations to estimate the effectiveness of new interventions that aim to mitigate health inequities. Health inequities are influenced by many experiential factors and failure of research to account for such experiential factors and their potential interactions may jeopardize findings and lead to promoted methods that may unintentionally sustain or even worsen the targeted health inequity. Thus, it is imperative that health equity impact evaluations identify and include variables related to the circumstances, conditions, and experiences of the sample being studied in analyses. In this review, we promote intersectionality as a conceptual framework for brainstorming important yet often overlooked covariates in health equity related impact evaluations. Methods: We briefly review and define concepts and terminology relevant to health equity, then detail four domains of experiential factors that often intersect in ways that may obscure findings: Biological, Social, Environmental, and Economic. Results: We provide examples of the framework's application to lupus-related research and examples of covariates used in our own health equity impact evaluations with minority patients who have lupus. Discussion: Applying an intersectionality framework during covariate selection is an important component to actualizing precision prevention. While we do not provide an exhaustive list, our aim is to provide a springboard for brainstorming meaningful covariates for health equity evaluation that may further help unveil sustainable solutions to persisting health inequities.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Marco Interseccional , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud
6.
Cancer Med ; 13(7): e6966, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572962

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Examine the influence of household income on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data prospectively collected from pediatric patients receiving treatment for AML at 14 hospitals across the United States. EXPOSURE: Household income was self-reported on a demographic survey. The examined mediators included the acuity of presentation and treatment toxicity. OUTCOME: Caregiver proxy reported assessment of patient HRQOL from the Peds QL 4.0 survey. RESULT: Children with AML (n = 131) and caregivers were prospectively enrolled to complete PedsQL assessments. HRQOL scores were better for patients in the lowest versus highest income category (mean ± SD: 76.0 ± 14 household income <$25,000 vs. 59.9 ± 17 income ≥$75,000; adjusted mean difference: 11.2, 95% CI: 2.2-20.2). Seven percent of enrolled patients presented with high acuity (ICU-level care in the first 72 h), and 16% had high toxicity (any ICU-level care); there were no identifiable differences by income, refuting mediating roles in the association between income and HRQOL. Enrolled patients were less likely to be Black/African American (9.9% vs. 22.2%), more likely to be privately insured (50.4% vs. 40.7%), and more likely to have been treated on a clinical trial (26.7% vs. 18.5%) compared to eligible unenrolled patients not enrolled. Evaluations of potential selection bias on the association between income and HRQOL suggested differences in HRQOL may be smaller than observed or even in the opposing direction. CONCLUSIONS: While primary analyses suggested lower household income was associated with superior HRQOL, differential participation may have biased these results. Future studies should partner with patients/families to identify strategies for equitable participation in clinical research.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Niño , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Sesgo de Selección , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiología , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 48(2): In press, 2024.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595314

RESUMEN

Nowadays, in Italy, researchers from various disciplines and institutions are referring to environmental justice to promote health equity in relation to environmental risks and benefits. This presents an opportunity for the convergence of bottom-up and top-down perspectives, which differ in nature, to advance environmental justice at the local level. This contribution presents the experience of researchers from the Italian National Institute of Health in the contaminated area of Porto Torres (Sardinia). The experience began with the development of study activities aimed at describing the health profile of the population residing in Porto Torres. These activities embraced the requests of the local community and included interactions with local institutional and social actors. The study activities were designed with a focus on environmental justice, which requires an understanding of the local context and of its history. The contribution describes the various stages that led from the development of the study to the engagement with local institutional and social actors, communication of study results, and participation in local initiatives on environmental justice. Finally, the text proposes some considerations on how researchers from a central institution can develop and conduct study activities to promote environmental justice at the local level.


Asunto(s)
Justicia Ambiental , Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Promoción de la Salud , Comunicación
8.
Neurology ; 102(9): e209348, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608210

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medicaid beneficiaries in many American academic medical centers can receive care in a separate facility than those not covered by Medicaid. We aimed to identify possible disparities in care by evaluating the association between facility type (integrated faculty practice or Medicaid-only outpatient clinic) and telehealth utilization in people with epilepsy. METHODS: We performed retrospective analyses using structured data from the Mount Sinai Health System electronic medical record data from January 2003 to August 2021. We identified people of all ages with epilepsy who were followed by an epileptologist after January 3, 2018, using a validated ICD-9-CM/10-CM coded case definition. We evaluated associations between practice setting and telehealth utilization, an outcome measure that captures the evolving delivery of neurologic care in a post-coronavirus disease 2019 era, using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified 4,586 people with epilepsy seen by an epileptologist, including Medicaid beneficiaries in the Medicaid outpatient clinic (N = 387), Medicaid beneficiaries in the faculty practice after integration (N = 723), and non-Medicaid beneficiaries (N = 3,476). Patients not insured by Medicaid were significantly older (average age 40 years vs 29 in persons seen in Medicaid-only outpatient clinic and 28.5 in persons insured with Medicaid seen in faculty practice [p < 0.0001]). Medicaid beneficiaries were more likely to have drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), with 51.94% of people seen in Medicaid-only outpatient clinic, 41.63% of Medicaid beneficiaries seen in faculty practice, and 37.2% of non-Medicaid beneficiaries having DRE (p < 0.0001). Medicaid outpatient clinic patients were less likely to have telehealth visits (phone or video); 81.65% of patients in the Medicaid outpatient clinic having no telehealth visits vs 71.78% of Medicaid beneficiaries in the faculty practice and 70.89% of non-Medicaid beneficiaries (p < 0.0001). In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, Medicaid beneficiaries had lower odds (0.61; 95% CI 0.46-0.81) of using teleneurology compared with all patients seen in faculty practice (p = 0.0005). DISCUSSION: Compared with the Medicaid-only outpatient clinic, we found higher telehealth utilization in the integrated faculty practice with no difference by insurance status (Medicaid vs other). Integrated care may be associated with better health care delivery in people with epilepsy; thus, future research should examine its impact on other epilepsy-related outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia Refractaria , Epilepsia , Equidad en Salud , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Adulto , Medicaid , Estudios Retrospectivos , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/terapia
9.
Fam Med Community Health ; 12(Suppl 3)2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609082

RESUMEN

Storylines of Family Medicine is a 12-part series of thematically linked mini-essays with accompanying illustrations that explore the many dimensions of family medicine as interpreted by individual family physicians and medical educators in the USA and elsewhere around the world. In 'X: standing up for diversity, equity and inclusion', authors address the following themes: 'The power of diversity-why inclusivity is essential to equity in healthcare', 'Medical education for whom?', 'Growing a diverse and inclusive workforce', 'Therapeutic judo-an inclusive approach to patient care', 'Global family medicine-seeing the world "upside down"', 'The inverse care law', 'Social determinants of health as a lens for care', 'Why family physicians should care about human rights' and 'Toward health equity-the opportunome'. May the essays that follow inspire readers to promote change.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Diversidad, Equidad e Inclusión , Médicos de Familia
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 69, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610030

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: On the trajectory towards universal health coverage in Bhutan, health equity requires policy attention as significant disparities exist between urban and rural health outcomes. This paper examines health services utilization patterns, inequalities and their socio-economic determinants in rural and urban areas and decomposes the factors behind these differences. METHODS: We used the Bhutan Living Standard Survey 2017 to profile health services utilization patterns and equalities. We employed two different decomposition analyses: decomposition of mean differences in utilization using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition framework and differences in the income-related distribution in utilization using recentered influence function regressions between rural and urban areas. RESULTS: Significant differences exist in the type of outpatient services used by the rural and urban population groups, with those living in rural areas having 3.4 times higher odds of using primary health centers compared to outpatient hospital care. We find that the use of primary health care is pro-poor and that outpatient hospital resources is concentrated among the more affluent section of the population, with this observed inequality consistent across settings but more severe in rural areas. The rural-urban gap in utilization is primarily driven by income and residence in the eastern region, while income-related inequality in utilization is influenced, aside from income, by residence in the central region, household size, and marriage and employment status of the household head. We do not find evidence of significant mean differences in overall utilization or inequality in utilization of inpatient health care services. CONCLUSIONS: While the differences in average contacts with health services are insignificant, there are prominent differences in the level of services availed and the associated inequality among rural and urban settings in Bhutan. Besides, while there are obvious overlaps, factors influencing income-related inequality are not necessarily the same as those driving the utilization gaps. Cognizance of these differences may lead to better informed, targeted, and potentially more effective future research and policies for universal health coverage.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Humanos , Bután , Atención Ambulatoria , Hospitales
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(Suppl 1)2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589049

RESUMEN

Rising levels of inflation, debt and macrofiscal tightening are putting expenditures on the social sectors including health under immense scrutiny. Already, there are worrying signs of reductions in social sector investments. However, even before the pandemic, evidence showed the significant returns on investments in health equity and its social determinants. Emerging data and trends show that these potential returns have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic - investments in social determinants can mitigate widespread reductions in human capital and the increasing likelihood of costly syndemics, while promoting access to healthcare innovations that have thus far been inequitably distributed. Therefore, we argue that, despite immediate fiscal pressures, this is exactly the time to invest in health equity and its broader social determinants, as the returns on such investments have never been greater.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Inversiones en Salud , Atención a la Salud
12.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59505

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar las tendencias de mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en motocicleta en Colombia entre los años 2008 y 2021. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo de tendencias de la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en motocicleta a partir de los registros oficiales de defunciones entre 2008 y 2021. Se efectuó un análisis de regresión Jointpoint Poisson para detectar los puntos de inflexión en las tasas de mortalidad espe- cíficas por edad, sexo y área de residencia. Resultados. Se identificaron 28 200 muertes por accidentes de tránsito en motocicleta en todo el período; fallecieron 24 271 hombres y 3 929 mujeres. El 74,1% de las defunciones ocurrió en el área urbana y el 25,9% en el área rural. En esta área se observó una tendencia creciente en la mortalidad en adultos jóvenes de ambos sexos a lo largo de todo el período. Lo mismo ocurrió en hombres de más de 65 años. En el área urbana, se identificó una tendencia al aumento de la mortalidad en las edades entre 45 a 64 años para ambos sexos durante todo el período. Solo se detectó un punto de inflexión en el año 2015, que mostró una disminución en la tendencia, en mujeres adolescentes. Conclusión. La tendencia en la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en motocicleta en Colombia se mantuvo en aumento durante todo el período (2008-2021) tanto en áreas rurales para adultos jóvenes como en áreas urbanas para personas de mediana edad.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify trends in motorcycle road deaths in Colombia between 2008 and 2021. Methods. An observational and descriptive study of trends in motorcycle road deaths was conducted using official death records from 2008 to 2021. Jointpoint Poisson regression analysis was performed to detect inflection points in mortality rates specific to age, sex, and area of residence. Results. A total of 28 200 motorcycle road deaths were identified during the period; 24 271 men and 3 929 women died. Of the deaths, 74.1% occurred in urban areas and 25.9% in rural areas. In rural areas, there was an increasing trend in fatalities in young adults of both sexes during the period. The same occurred in men over 65 years of age. In urban areas, there was an upward trend in fatalities in the age group from 45-64 for both sexes during the period. Only one inflection point was detected, in 2015, showing a downward trend in adolescent females. Conclusion. The trend in motorcycle road deaths in Colombia continued to rise during the 2008-2021 period, both in rural areas for young adults and in urban areas for middle-aged adults.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar tendências de mortalidade por acidentes de motocicleta na Colômbia entre 2008 e 2021. Métodos. Realizou-se um estudo observacional e descritivo das tendências de mortalidade por acidentes de motocicleta com base em registros oficiais de óbitos entre 2008 e 2021. Conduziu-se uma análise baseada na regressão de Poisson (Joinpoint) para detectar pontos de inflexão em taxas de mortalidade específicas por idade, sexo e área de residência. Resultados. Foram identificadas 28 200 mortes por acidentes de motocicleta durante todo o período, corres- pondendo a 24 271 homens e 3 929 mulheres. As mortes ocorreram tanto na área urbana (74,1%) quanto rural (25,9%). Na área rural, observou-se uma tendência crescente na mortalidade de adultos jovens de ambos os sexos ao longo de todo o período. O mesmo ocorreu em relação a homens com mais de 65 anos. Na área urbana, identificou-se uma tendência de aumento da mortalidade na faixa etária de 45 a 64 anos, em ambos os sexos, durante todo o período. Apenas um ponto de inflexão foi detectado em 2015, mostrando uma redução na tendência em adolescentes do sexo feminino. Conclusão. A tendência de mortalidade por acidentes de motocicleta na Colômbia continuou a aumentar durante todo o período (2008 a 2021), tanto na área rural, para jovens adultos, quanto na área urbana, para pessoas de meia-idade.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Motocicletas , Mortalidad Prematura , Equidad en Salud , Colombia , Accidentes de Tránsito , Motocicletas , Mortalidad Prematura , Equidad en Salud , Accidentes de Tránsito , Mortalidad Prematura , Equidad en Salud
13.
J Biomed Inform ; 152: 104631, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548006

RESUMEN

Selection bias can arise through many aspects of a study, including recruitment, inclusion/exclusion criteria, input-level exclusion and outcome-level exclusion, and often reflects the underrepresentation of populations historically disadvantaged in medical research. The effects of selection bias can be further amplified when non-representative samples are used in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) applications to construct clinical algorithms. Building on the "Data Cards" initiative for transparency in AI research, we advocate for the addition of a participant flow diagram for AI studies detailing relevant sociodemographic and/or clinical characteristics of excluded participants across study phases, with the goal of identifying potential algorithmic biases before their clinical implementation. We include both a model for this flow diagram as well as a brief case study explaining how it could be implemented in practice. Through standardized reporting of participant flow diagrams, we aim to better identify potential inequities embedded in AI applications, facilitating more reliable and equitable clinical algorithms.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Inteligencia Artificial , Algoritmos , Aprendizaje Automático
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 46, 2024 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443921

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Every human being has the right to affordable, high-quality health services. However, mothers and children in wealthier households worldwide have better access to healthcare and lower mortality rates than those in lower-income ones. Despite Somalia's fragile health system and the under-5 mortality rate being among the highest worldwide, it has made progress in increasing reproductive, maternal, and child health care coverage. However, evidence suggests that not all groups have benefited equally. We analysed secondary 2006 and 2018-19 data to monitor disparities in reproductive, maternal, and child health care in Somalia. METHODS: The study's variables of interest are the percentage of contraceptive prevalence through modern methods, adolescent fertility rate, prenatal care, the rate of births attended by midwives, the rate of births in a health care facility, the rate of early initiation of breastfeeding, stunting and wasting prevalence and care-seeking for children under-five. As the outcome variable, we analysed the under-five mortality rate. Using reliable data from secondary sources, we calculated the difference and ratio of the best and worst-performing groups for 2006 and 2018-19 in Somalia and measured the changes between the two. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2018-19, An increase in the difference between women with high and low incomes was noticed in terms of attended labours. Little change was noted regarding socioeconomic inequities in breastfeeding. The difference in the stunting prevalence between the highest and lowest income children decreased by 20.5 points, and the difference in the wasting prevalence of the highest and the lowest income children decreased by 9% points. Care-seeking increased by 31.1% points. Finally, although under-five mortality rates have decreased in the study period, a marked income slope remains. CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings indicate that Somalia achieved significant progress in reducing malnutrition inequalities in children, a positive development that may have also contributed to the decrease in under-five mortality rate inequities also reported in this study. However, an increase in inequalities related to access to contraception and healthcare for mothers is shown, as well as for care-seeking for sick children under the age of five. To ensure that all mothers and children have equal access to healthcare, it is crucial to enhance efforts in providing essential quality healthcare services and distributing them fairly and equitably across Somalia.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Adolescente , Niño , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Salud del Lactante , Somalia/epidemiología , Familia , Trastornos del Crecimiento
20.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299359, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446804

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Public health expenditure is one of the fastest-growing spending items in EU member states. As the population ages and wealth increases, governments allocate more resources to their health systems. In view of this, the aim of this study is to identify the key determinants of public health expenditure in the EU member states. METHODS: This study is based on macro-level EU panel data covering the period from 2000 to 2018. The association between explanatory variables and public health expenditure is analyzed by applying both static and dynamic econometric modeling. RESULTS: Although GDP and out-of-pocket health expenditure are identified as the key drivers of public health expenditure, there are other variables, such as health system characteristics, with a statistically significant association with expenditure. Other variables, such as election year and the level of public debt, result to exert only a modest influence on the level of public health expenditure. Results also indicate that the aging of the population, political ideologies of governments and citizens' expectations, appear to be statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: Since increases in public health expenditure in EU member states are mainly triggered by GDP increases, it is expected that differences in PHE per capita across member states will persist and, consequently, making it more difficult to attain the health equity sustainable development goal. Thus, measures to reduce EU economic inequalities, will ultimately result in reducing disparities in public health expenditures across member states.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , Gobierno , Envejecimiento , Cabeza
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