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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597165

RESUMEN

Placement of a double-lumen tube to achieve one lung ventilation is an aerosol-generating procedure. Performing it on a patient with COVID-19 will put healthcare workers at high risk of contracting the disease. We herein report a case of its use in a patient with traumatic diaphragmatic rupture, who was also suspected to have COVID-19. This article aims to highlight the issues, it presented and ways to address them as well as the perioperative impact of personal protective equipment.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/normas , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Ventilación Unipulmonar/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Accidentes de Tránsito , Adulto , /transmisión , Diafragma/lesiones , Diafragma/cirugía , Humanos , Masculino , Ventilación Unipulmonar/instrumentación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , /etiología , Rotura/etiología , Rotura/terapia
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567665

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was shortage of the standard respiratory protective equipment (RPE). The aim of this study was to develop a procedure to test the performance of alternative RPEs used in the care of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A laboratory-based test was developed to compare RPEs by total inward leakage (TIL). We used a crossflow nebulizer to produce a jet spray of 1-100 µm water droplets with a fluorescent marker. The RPEs were placed on a dummy head and sprayed at distances of 30 and 60 cm. The outcome was determined as the recovery of the fluorescent marker on a membrane filter placed on the mouth of the dummy head. RESULTS: At 30 cm, a type IIR surgical mask gave a 17.7% lower TIL compared with an FFP2 respirator. At 60 cm, this difference was similar, with a 21.7% lower TIL for the surgical mask compared to the respirator. When adding a face shield, the TIL at 30 cm was further reduced by 9.5% for the respirator and 16.6% in the case of the surgical mask. CONCLUSIONS: A safe, fast and very sensitive test method was developed to assess the effectiveness of RPE by comparison under controlled conditions.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Máscaras/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria/normas , Aerosoles/efectos adversos , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Ventiladores Mecánicos , Agua
3.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200657, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605363

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To reflect on the safe care exercised by the pre-hospital care team by emergency ambulance in times of coronavirus infection. METHOD: A reflection and description of how to provide safe care to the patient and the professional during pre-hospital care in times of coronavirus infection. RESULTS: To ensure the health of all those involved in the care, health professionals who work in pre-hospital care by emergency ambulance should use the recommended Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), such as the use of surgical masks and N95, N99, N100, PFF2 or PFF3, the use of an apron or overall, goggles and face shield, gloves and a hat. The entire team must receive training and demonstrate the ability to use PPE correctly and safely. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The professional working in the pre-hospital care by ambulance is exposed to a series of occupational risks that need to be discussed and minimized through professional training.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias/normas , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/normas , Auxiliares de Urgencia/normas , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Transporte de Pacientes/normas , Adulto , Ambulancias/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Seguridad del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Transporte de Pacientes/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Br J Nurs ; 30(1): 16-22, 2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global pandemic in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The unpredictable nature of transmission of COVID-19 requires a meticulous understanding of guidance on personal protective equipment (PPE) as published by WHO and Public Health England (PHE). AIM: To assess perceived confidence and knowledge of PHE guidance relating to PPE by nursing staff. METHODS: A nationwide survey was disseminated between May and June 2020 through social media platforms as well as internal mail via regulatory bodies and individual hospital trusts. RESULTS: Data were collated from 339 nurses. Perceived confidence as measured on a Likert scale was a mode score of 3/5, with the average score for knowledge-based questions being 5/10. Of the respondents, 47% cited insufficient training on PPE guidance, and 84% advocated further training. Conclusions: Unifying published PPE guidance and ensuring consistency in training can improve awareness, confidence, and knowledge among nursing staff.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermería , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Autoinforme
6.
AANA J ; 89(1): 71-75, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501911

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created many changes and difficulties in healthcare, and the anesthesia specialty is no exception. Both the increased need for personal protective equipment (PPE) and the potential for infection and contamination through respiratory droplets have been sources of much concern. Policies and protocols have been adapted worldwide to help neutralize infection risk and exposure. Transmission of the virus to healthcare workers has been a major concern, and the risk of infection is exceptionally high for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) because of their close contact with infected patients. CRNAs are in a unique position to help decrease exposure for themselves and other members of the healthcare team by taking extra precautions during airway manipulation. A great deal of focus has been placed on reducing risks during intubation, but reports describing methods of reducing contamination and exposure to respiratory droplets during emergence and extubation are scarce. The authors have reviewed techniques to reduce coughing, thereby decreasing the potential of virus exposure through contact with large respiratory droplets and aerosolized particles that may remain suspended in air.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/psicología , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Control de Infecciones/normas , Quirófanos/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 5-11, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350330

RESUMEN

Aim: Face masks are an important addition to our arsenal in the fight against COVID-19. The aim of this study is to present a novel method of measuring mask performance which can simultaneously assess both fabric penetration and leakage due to poor fit. Materials & methods: A synthetic aerosol is introduced into the lung of a medical dummy. A conical laser sheet surrounds the face of the dummy where it illuminates the aerosol emitted during a simulated breath. The system is demonstrated with five mask types. Conclusions: The curved laser sheet highlights both penetration through the mask fabric and leakage around the edges of the mask. A large variation in both material penetration and leakage was observed.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Máscaras/normas , Textiles , Aerosoles/análisis , Vestuario , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Tamaño de la Partícula , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Cloruro de Sodio
10.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(2): 72-83, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315526

RESUMEN

Simple plastic face shields have numerous practical advantages over regular surgical masks. In light of the spreading COVID-19 pandemic, the potential of face shields as a substitution for surgical masks was investigated. In order to determine the efficacy of the protective equipment we used a cough simulator. The protective equipment considered was placed on a manikin head that simulated human breathing. Concentration and size distribution of small particles that reached the manikin respiration pathways during the few tens of seconds following the cough event were monitored. Additionally, water sensitive papers were taped on the tested protective equipment and the manikin face. In the case of frontal exposure, for droplet diameter larger than 3 µm, the shield efficiency in blocking cough droplets was found to be comparable to that of regular surgical masks, with enhanced protection for portions of the face that the mask does not cover. Additionally, for finer particles, down to 0.3 µm diameter, a shield blocked about 10 times more fine particles than the surgical mask. When exposure from the side was considered, the performance of the shield was found to depend dramatically on its geometry. While a narrow shield allowed more droplets and aerosol to penetrate in comparison to a mask under the same configuration, a slightly wider shield significantly improved the performance. The source control potential of shields was also investigated. A shield, and alternatively, a surgical mask, were placed on the cough simulator, while the breathing simulator, situated 60 cm away in the jet direction, remained totally exposed. In both cases, no droplets or particles were found in the vicinity of the breathing simulator. Conducted experiments were limited to short time periods after expiratory events, and do not include longer time ranges associated with exposure to suspended aerosol. Thus, additional evidence regarding the risk posed by floating aerosol is needed to establish practical conclusions regarding actual transmittance reduction potential of face shields and surgical face masks.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Exposición por Inhalación/análisis , Máscaras/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , /aislamiento & purificación , Aerosoles/análisis , Microbiología del Aire , Tos/virología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Exposición por Inhalación/prevención & control , Ensayo de Materiales , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control
11.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(3): 327-331, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320331

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 which spreads via droplets from an infected person. There has been an unprecedented rise in the use of personal protective equipment and practice of personal hygiene measures against COVID-19. The extended use of protective measures (PM) can lead to ill effects on the skin. Our aim was to investigate PM-induced dermatoses amongst healthcare workers and the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 2 months. The study subjects were patients who presented to dermatology outpatient clinics or sought teleconsultation for skin problems related to the use of PMs against COVID-19. A detailed history was obtained and cutaneous examination was documented for all the patients in a pre-set proforma. Diagnoses of the adverse skin effects were formulated based upon history and clinical examination. RESULTS: A total of 101 cases with cutaneous adverse effects due to the use of PMs against COVID-19 were included in the study. The general population and healthcare workers were affected similarly, comprising of 54.5% and 45.5%, respectively. The mean age of the study participants was 36.71 ± 15.72 years. The most common culprit material was soap and water (56.4%). Contact dermatitis was found to be the most common adverse effect in the majority of our patients (72.3%). The most common symptom reported was pruritus (45.5%). The wearing of personal protective equipment for a longer duration was significantly associated with multiple symptoms (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The enhanced use of different PMs against COVID-19 can result in a variety of adverse skin effects. In our study, the use of soap and water was the most common culprit PM, and contact dermatitis was the most common adverse effect noted.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Dermatitis por Contacto/epidemiología , Dermatitis Profesional/epidemiología , Higiene de las Manos/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/efectos adversos , Adulto , /transmisión , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/instrumentación , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Estudios Transversales , Dermatitis por Contacto/etiología , Dermatitis Profesional/etiología , Femenino , Higiene de las Manos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Jabones/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
12.
Anaesthesia ; 76(1): 91-100, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932556

RESUMEN

For healthcare workers performing aerosol-generating procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic, well fitted filtering facepiece respirators, for example, N95/FFP2 or N99/FFP3 masks, are recommended as part of personal protective equipment. In this review, we evaluate the role of fit checking and fit testing of respirators, in addition to airborne protection provided by respirators. Filtering facepiece respirators are made of material with sufficient high filter capacity to protect against airborne respiratory viruses. Adequate viral protection can only be provided by respirators that properly fit the wearer's facial characteristics. Initial fit pass rates vary between 40% and 90% and are especially low in female and in Asian healthcare workers. Fit testing is recommended to ensure a proper fit of respirators for the individual healthcare worker so that alternative respirators can be selected if required. Although fit testing is required to comply with respirator standards, it is not performed consistently within all healthcare settings. Fit checking (a self-test) is recommended every time a healthcare worker dons a respirator, but is unreliable in detecting proper fit or leak. Additionally, fit testing has a high educational value and as such is best performed as part of a hospital respiratory protection programme. Whether fit checking alone, as opposed to fit tested and fit checked respirators, provides adequate airborne protection against aerosols containing the SARS-CoV-2 virus and other respiratory viruses remains unknown. While fit testing undoubtedly incurs additional costs, it is still recommended, not only to protect healthcare workers but also as it may reduce overall healthcare cost when considering the potential costs of sickness leave and the associated legal costs of compensation.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Máscaras/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria/normas
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244020, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320905

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess the distribution and deposition of aerosols during simulated periodontal therapy. METHODS: A manikin with simulated fluorescein salivation was treated by four experienced dentists applying two different periodontal treatment options, i.e. air-polishing with an airflow device or ultrasonic scaling in the upper and lower anterior front for 5 minutes, respectively. Aerosol deposition was quantitatively measured on 21 pre-defined locations with varying distances to the manikins mouth in triplicates using absorbent filter papers. RESULTS: The selected periodontal interventions resulted in different contamination levels around the patient's mouth. The highest contamination could be measured on probes on the patient's chest and forehead but also on the practitioner's glove. With increasing distance to the working site contamination of the probes decreased with both devices. Air-polishing led to greater contamination than ultrasonic. CONCLUSION: Both devices showed contamination of the nearby structures, less contamination was detected when using the ultrasonic. Affirming the value of wearing protective equipment we support the need for universal barrier precautions and effective routine infection control in dental practice.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles/química , Pulido Dental/instrumentación , Control de Infección Dental/métodos , Periodoncia/instrumentación , Terapia por Ultrasonido/instrumentación , Humanos , Maniquíes , Seguridad del Paciente , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Saliva/química
14.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51476, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1119621

RESUMEN

Objetivo: desenvolver um modelo de máscara de tecido, com aplicação do elemento filtrante em celulose, para fins de utilização como barreira física segura para aerossóis, como estratégia de resposta emergencial à pandemia provocada pelo SARS-CoV-2. Método: pesquisa laboratorial realizada por meio de protótipos, testagens empíricas e análises e discussões junto a expertises. Resultados: a condução da pesquisa demonstrou que os aerossóis são retidos pela barreira física de celulose introduzida à estrutura das máscaras, o que motivou a segunda fase do estudo em unidade da Rede Brasileira de Laboratórios Analíticos de Saúde sobre a eficácia desses materiais. Conclusão: a confecção de máscaras de tecido é um fenômeno mundial importante e urgente frente à pandemia da COVID-19. Em função da crise de abastecimento e dos parâmetros ressaltados neste estudo, acredita-se que o uso desse equipamento possa ser estendido a setores não críticos de unidades de saúde, além da população em geral.


Objective: to develop a model of fabric mask, with the application of a cellulose filter element, for use as a safe physical barrier for aerosols, as an emergency response strategy for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Method: laboratory research carried out by means of prototypes, empirical tests and analyses, and discussions with experts. Results: the research demonstrated that aerosols are retained by the physical cellulose barrier introduced into the structure of the masks, which motivated the second phase of the study into the effectiveness of these materials at a unit of the Brazilian Analytical Health Laboratories Network. Conclusion: the making of fabric masks is an important and urgent worldwide phenomenon in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. In view of the supply crisis and the parameters highlighted in this study, it is believed that the use of this equipment can be extended to non-critical sectors of health units, as well as to the general population.


Objetivo: desarrollar un modelo de mascarilla de tela, con la aplicación de un elemento filtrante de celulosa, para su uso como barrera física segura para aerosoles, como estrategia de respuesta de emergencia para la pandemia SARS-CoV-2. Método: investigación de laboratorio realizada mediante prototipos, pruebas y análisis empíricos y discusiones con expertos. Resultados: la investigación demostró que los aerosoles son retenidos por la barrera física de celulosa introducida en la estructura de las máscaras, lo que motivó la segunda fase del estudio sobre la efectividad de estos materiales en una unidad de la Red Brasileña de Laboratorios Analíticos de Salud. Conclusión: la fabricación de máscaras de tela es un fenómeno mundial importante y urgente para hacer frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Ante la crisis de oferta y los parámetros resaltados en este estudio, se cree que el uso de este equipamiento puede extenderse a sectores no críticos de las unidades de salud, así como a la población en general.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/normas , Ensayo de Materiales , Brasil , Celulosa , Filtros , Capacidad de Reacción , Pandemias/prevención & control
15.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1097275

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/provisión & distribución , Riesgos Laborales , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Máscaras/normas
16.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 185, 2020 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prehospital professionals such as emergency physicians or paramedics must be able to choose and adequately don and doff personal protective equipment (PPE) in order to avoid COVID-19 infection. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a gamified e-learning module on adequacy of PPE in student paramedics. METHODS: This was a web-based, randomized 1:1, parallel-group, triple-blind controlled trial. Student paramedics from three Swiss schools were invited to participate. They were informed they would be presented with both an e-learning module and an abridged version of the current regional prehospital COVID-19 guidelines, albeit not in which order. After a set of 22 questions designed to assess baseline knowledge, the control group was shown the guidelines before answering a set of 14 post-intervention questions. The e-learning group was shown the gamified e-learning module right after the guidelines, and before answering post-intervention questions. The primary outcome was the difference in the percentage of adequate choices of PPE before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The participation rate was of 71% (98/138). A total of 90 answer sets was analyzed. Adequate choice of PPE increased significantly both in the control (50% [33;83] vs 25% [25;50], P = .013) and in the e-learning group (67% [50;83] vs 25% [25;50], P = .001) following the intervention. Though the median of the difference was higher in the e-learning group, there was no statistically significant superiority over the control (33% [0;58] vs 17% [- 17;42], P = .087). The e-learning module was of greatest benefit in the subgroup of student paramedics who were actively working in an ambulance company (42% [8;58] vs 25% [- 17;42], P = 0.021). There was no significant effect in student paramedics who were not actively working in an ambulance service (0% [- 25;33] vs 17% [- 8;50], P = .584). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a gamified e-learning module increases the rate of adequate choice of PPE only among student paramedics actively working in an ambulance service. In this subgroup, combining this teaching modality with other interventions might help spare PPE and efficiently protect against COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/educación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto , Técnicos Medios en Salud/educación , Técnicos Medios en Salud/normas , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Personal de Salud/normas , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Internet , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240398, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052962

RESUMEN

Wearing face masks is highly recommended to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in health care workers and for the general public. The demand for high quality face masks has seen an upsurge in the recent times, leading to exploration of alternative economic and easily available options, without compromising on the quality. Particle removal from air in terms of capture efficiency of the filter media or the face mask is a crucial parameter for testing and quality assurance. Short-term reusability of the face masks is also an important aspect as the demand for masks will potentially outstrip the supply in future. Sterilization Wraps, which are used to wrap sterile surgical instruments, have shown a promising performance in terms of removal of particles from air. In this study, we evaluate the particle filtration characteristics of face masks made of 2 different metric weights [45 and 60 gram per square metre (GSM)] respectively, using locally available Sterilization Wraps. The aerosol filtration characteristics were also studied after sterilisation by different techniques such as heat with 50% humidity (thermal treatment), ethylene oxide (ETO), steam and radiation dose of 30kGy. We found that 60 GSM face mask had particle capture efficiency of 94% for total particles greater than 0.3 microns and this capture efficiency was maintained even after sterilisation with ETO and thermal treatment. The cost of producing these masks was 30 US cents/mask at our institute. Our study suggests that sterilization wrap material made of non-woven polypropylene spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) fibres could be an appropriate readily available inexpensive material for making face masks or N95 respirators.


Asunto(s)
Máscaras/normas , Tamaño de la Partícula , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Textiles/normas , Aerosoles/química , Desinfección/métodos , Desinfección/normas , Óxido de Etileno/química , Filtración/normas , Calor , Humedad , Polipropilenos/química
18.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 76, 2020 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106189

RESUMEN

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has created a worldwide deadly pandemic that has become a major public health challenge. All semi-urgent and elective medical care has come to a halt to conserve capacity to care for patients during this pandemic. As the numbers of COVID-19 cases decrease across Canada, our healthcare system also began to reopen various facilities and medical offices. The aim for this document is to compile the current evidence and provide expert consensus on the safe return to clinic practice in Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. These recommendations will also summarize general precaution principles and practical tips for office across Canada to optimize patient and provider safety. Risk assessment and patient selection are crucial to minimizing exposure to COVID-19. Controversial topics such as COVID-19 mode of transmission, duration of exposure, personal protective equipment, and aerosol-generating procedures will be analyzed and discussed. Practical solutions of pre-visit office preparation, front office and examination room set-up, and check out procedures are explored. Specific considerations for audiology, pediatric population, and high risk AGMPs are also addressed. Given that the literature surrounding COVID-19 is rapidly evolving, these guidelines will serve to start our specialty back into practice over the next weeks to months and they may change as we learn more about this disease.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Otolaringología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sociedades Médicas , Canadá/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
19.
Int J Dermatol ; 59(12): 1437-1449, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107038

RESUMEN

Numerous unexplained pneumonia cases were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by Wuhan, China, in December 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a zoonotic pathogen, came into sight, spreading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) all over the globe. Association of cutaneous signs and symptoms with COVID-19 is being studied worldwide, principally, to determine if these dermatoses can help in early recognition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These dermatological manifestations can range from erythematous rash, urticaria to livedo reticularis, and acrocyanosis in patients of all age groups. Correspondingly, dermatologists treating COVID-19 patients, suffering from inflammatory dermatoses, with biologics or immunomodulators should exert caution and use specific protocols to adjust the doses of these medications. Prevention of person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 is being promoted universally, with the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand washes, and hand sanitizers around the clock. However, an array of cutaneous adverse effects such as contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, friction blisters, contact urticaria, acne, and infections are associated with the use of PPE. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 are still emerging in the community, and physicians and researchers are working together globally to strengthen the clinical management of these patients. Cases of COVID-19 continue to rise across the world, and an unprecedented approach has been taken to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic strategies against existing and forthcoming mutagenic strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Dermatitis por Contacto/epidemiología , Dermatología/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Infecciosas/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/instrumentación , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Dermatitis por Contacto/diagnóstico , Dermatitis por Contacto/etiología , Dermatología/normas , Higiene de las Manos/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/efectos adversos , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Enfermedades Cutáneas Infecciosas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cutáneas Infecciosas/virología
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