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1.
Forensic Sci Rev ; 32(1): 55-81, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007928

RESUMEN

This review focuses on the role of motor vehicles in the prevention of alcohol-related fatalities in the United States. Since alcohol significantly affects brain function, it is natural to make drivers the prime targets for impaired-driving-prevention programs. However, the prevalence, design, ease of operation, and safety features of motor vehicles, as well as state regulations of their operation, have an important influence on crash occurrences, particularly those involving alcohol. This review begins with a discussion of why the automobile became the central technological device in the alcohol-related fatality problem and then moves on to an overview of motor vehicle safety programs that have impacted impaired driving. The article then presents an extended discussion of the effectiveness of vehicle-based, alcohol-detecting ignition interlock devices (interlocks), which provided the principal specific vehicle-based effort in the 20th century to separate alcohol consumption from driving. The review ends with a commentary on the issues that will arise in managing operator impairment in autonomous (self-driving) vehicles-the probable principal 21st-century effort to reduce impaired driving and eliminate alcohol-related crashes by minimizing the role of the driver.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducir bajo la Influencia , Vehículos a Motor , Equipos de Seguridad , Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956187

RESUMEN

It is important to reduce the dose received by medical staffs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of protective curtain and the property of small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters used for ambient dose measurement in fluoroscopy. The property of small OSL dosimeters was investigated in terms of uniformity, changing fluoroscopy time and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) thickness, and angular dependence. Paper pipes were assembled in glid shape and ambient dose was investigated by using small OSL dosimeters that were put on them with and without protective curtain. Air kerma was investigated by small OSL dosimeters that were put on a head phantom at the position of eyes. Dose response of small OSL dosimeters was independent of fluoroscopy time and PMMA thickness, so it is appropriate to measure ambient dose by small OSL dosimeters. In relation to ambient dose, there was significant difference with and without protective curtain (p<0.001, paired-t-test). These air kerma on the head phantom were reduced to approximately 20% by attaching protective curtain. In order to reduce the dose received by operators, it is desirable to use protective curtain.


Asunto(s)
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Dosis de Radiación , Exposición a la Radiación , Protección Radiológica , Humanos , Equipos de Seguridad
3.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Nov 14.
Artículo en Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742653

RESUMEN

In Sweden equestrian sport activities are the sixth most popular sport and predominantly women and girls are engaged. Horses are prey animals and humans are predators, and the two species therefore act in completely different ways. It is well known that accidents can occur when horses and humans interact. Literature from different countries in the world reveals that most accidents happen to females and also children are at risk. The most common accident is when a rider falls from a horse, but also unmounted humans are at risk for injuries. Most of the injuries are uncomplicated, but there are several reports of serious injuries and death. Prevention of injuries is very important. Education about how horses behave and react in different situations and how to communicate with horses according to Natural Horsemanship strategies make the horses less inclined to escape. The effectiveness of helmets in preventing serious head injury has been well established.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Caballos , Heridas y Traumatismos , Prevención de Accidentes , Accidentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Traumatismos en Atletas/prevención & control , Niño , Humanos , Equipos de Seguridad , Suecia/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105289, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586824

RESUMEN

In recent years, the popularity of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in the United States (US) has increased, and the number of ATV driver and passenger deaths have also increased substantially in the last few decades. Riders or occupants of ATVs as well as golf carts are particularly vulnerable to injury, not only due to the lack of protection and safety equipment offered by their vehicles, but also the propensity for ejection in the event of a crash. Given the vulnerability of these road users, it's critical to understand factors which may affect injury severity to plan effective countermeasures aimed at reducing these injuries and fatalities. To better understand factors affecting the injury severity of ATV and golf cart riders or occupants involved in police-reported crashes, this study presents an analysis using six years of crash data from the US state of Arizona. Over the analysis period, there were 1769 drivers/passengers of these vehicle types involved in police-reported crashes. Of these occupants/riders, 67.7% were injured or killed as a result of the crash; a proportion significantly higher than police-reported crashes involving most other vehicle types, exhibiting the need to examine factors leading to these injuries and fatalities. In order to analyse factors affecting the injury severity of ATV and golf cart occupants/riders, a random parameters (RP) ordered logit statistical model was developed, which was most appropriate given the ordered nature of injury-severity data. Several person- vehicle- roadway- and environmental-related variables were found to significantly affect the injury severity of riders or occupants of ATVs and golf carts. Given the vulnerability of these road users, it's important for transportation agencies to explore effective countermeasures aimed at reducing the severity of crashes involving these vehicle types. The results of this study provide important insights which can assist in developing effective engineering-, enforcement-, education, or policy-related countermeasures.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Vehículos a Motor Todoterreno , Heridas y Traumatismos/mortalidad , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Adulto , Arizona/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Puntaje de Gravedad del Traumatismo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipos de Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(7): 2057-2060, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568157

RESUMEN

Zygomatic fractures account for 10% to 15% of all facial fractures. The surgical management of isolated zygomatic arch fractures usually requires open reduction treatment without fixation through an intraoral access. Therefore, the main problem in the non-fixed treatment of zygomatic arch fractures is related to the difficulty in obtaining a stable reduction for a period long enough to guarantee the physiological bone healing process. We propose an innovative "in-house" rapid prototyping (RP) protocol for the 3D-zygoma mask manufacture of a patient-specific protective device to apply after zygomatic arch fracture reduction. Our study includes 16 consecutive patients who underwent surgical open reduction for an isolated zygoma fracture without fixation between January 2017 and February 2018. The patients received regular postoperative checks at weeks 1 and 2. Before the device was removed, a multiple choice questionnaire was administered to measure the degree of wearability of the mask. The estimated cost of the production is around &OV0556;5 per case and the construction time is around 90 minutes. Based on the encouraging results, obtained in our experience, we hope that other studies can be conducted to confirm our procedure and improve its functionality in the field of facial trauma.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posoperatorios , Equipos de Seguridad , Fracturas Cigomáticas/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Cara , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven , Cigoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Cigoma/cirugía , Fracturas Cigomáticas/cirugía
6.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1161-1166, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1022183

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Explorar a visão dos profissionais de enfermagem quanto aos riscos ocupacionais e acidentes ocupacionais na Central de Material Esterilização. Método: estudo qualitativo exploratório realizado em um hospital de referência do estado do Piauí, com 12 profissionais de enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados no mês de maio de 2017, utilizou-se um roteiro de entrevista semi-estruturada e a análise dos dados foi realizada pelo Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultado: Emergiram três temas: Riscos presentes no ambiente de trabalho; A visão da Equipe de Enfermagem sobre os acidentes na CME e Assistência prestada aos profissionais acidentados. Conclusão: percebeu-se que os participantes estão cientes de que as atividades nesta unidade requerem o uso adequado de equipamento de proteção individual para protegê-los dos riscos e acidentes de trabalho, no entanto o processo de educação continuada precisa ser valorizado e periodicamente efetivado para maior segurança e valorização da equipe e melhorar do processo de trabalho


Objective: The research's main goal has been to explore the nursing professionals' perspective on occupational risks and work accidents in the Sterilization and Materials Processing Centers (SMPC). Methods: It is a qualitative exploratory study performed at a reference hospital in the State of Piauí, with 12 nursing professionals. Data were collected in May of 2017; a semi-structured interview script was used, and data analysis was performed by the Discourse of the Collective Subject. Result: Three themes emerged: Risks present in the work environment; The Nursing Team's view on accidents at SMPC and Assistance to injured professionals. Conclusion: Participants were aware that activities in this unit require the adequate use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to protect them from occupational risks and accidents, however, the continuing education process needs to be valued and periodically effective for greater security and valorization of the team and improve the work process


Objetivo: Explorar la visión de los profesionales de enfermería en cuanto a los riesgos ocupacionales y accidentes ocupacionales en la Central de Material Esterilización. Método: estudio cualitativo exploratorio realizado en un hospital de referencia del estado de Piauí, con 12 profesionales de enfermería. Los datos fueron recolectados en el mes de mayo de 2017, se utilizó un guión de entrevista semiestructurada y el análisis de los datos fue realizado por el Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo. Resultado: emergieron tres temas: Riesgos presentes en el ambiente de trabajo; La visión del equipo de enfermería sobre los accidentes en la CME y la asistencia a los profesionales accidentados. Conclusión: se percibió que los participantes son conscientes de que las actividades en esta unidad requieren el uso adecuado de equipo de protección individual para protegerlos de los riesgos y accidentes de trabajo, sin embargo el proceso de educación continuada necesita ser valorado y periódicamente efectuado para mayor seguridad y valoración del equipo y mejorar el proceso de trabajo


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Riesgos Laborales , Accidentes de Trabajo , Esterilización , Equipos de Seguridad , Brasil , Salud Laboral , Grupo de Enfermería
7.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 21(1): 29-35, 2019 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522160

RESUMEN

A 47-year-old Caucasian male presented with a radiolucent area around the apical region of an implant placed using the socket shield technique. A second surgical procedure was performed to curette the lesion and fill the defect with a xenogeneic bone graft. Twenty months after implant placement and 10 months after the second surgery, there was no sign of recurrence of the lesion and radiographic evaluation was consistent with new bone formation in the region. Thus, although numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the socket shield technique, this case report illustrates the need for further randomized clinical studies for a better understanding of the clinical complications and indications for the technique.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Alveolo Dental , Trasplante Óseo , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Humanos , Articulaciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipos de Seguridad , Extracción Dental
8.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1281-1286, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501370

RESUMEN

At Ogaki Municipal Hospital, we expanded the preparation of anticancer drugs using a closed system drug transfer device (CSTD)when revising medical fees in 2016. In this study, we investigated the number of regimens and number of preparations for outpatients in December 2017. Subsequently, the cost of all consumables related to the preparation of anticancer drugs was calculated. In total, 574 preparations of 68 regimens were conducted, with CSTD used in the preparation of 331 (57.7%)drugs. The cost associated with preparation of anticancer drugs was 1,608,163 yen/month, of which the CSTD cost was 1,135,315 yen/month(70.6%). Given the disproportionately high cost related to CSTD, we investigated for material cost reduction. Although CSTD has a mechanism for adjusting the differential pressure inside and outside the vial, the conditions were used to calculate medical fee; however, if we use what we do not have, we estimated that the facility burden would be reduced by 24.7%. CSTD can contribute not only to safety through exposure prevention but also to medical cost reduction through introduction of "Drug Vial Optimization." We believe it will continue to act as a medical evidence to reduce medical fee remuneration and ease the conditions of fee calculation.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/economía , Exposición Profesional , Equipos de Seguridad
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 170: 104714, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421492

RESUMEN

Although dogs routinely travel in motor vehicles, there is a lack of evidence on if, how, and why people choose to restrain their dogs when travelling. A lack of restraint is likely to be associated with an increased risk of serious injury or death in the case of an accident, and in some cases may even precipitate an accident. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency in which dog restraints are used in the US, UK and Australia in a convenience sample, and the factors associated with whether or not a dog is restrained. Online surveys using SurveyMonkey® were distributed in the US, UK and Australia during 2017-2018. The survey consisted of questions related to owning a dog, owner and dog demographics, use of restraint when driving with the dog, reasons for restraining/not restraining the dog, and attitudes to restraint of dogs in vehicles. A logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with the use of restraint. There were 706, 692 and 637 completed surveys from the US, UK and Australia, respectively. A little over half of respondents restrained their dog in the US (55%) compared to 67% in Australia and 72% in the UK. The most common method of restraint in the US and UK was a cage/crate in the cargo area in the back of the vehicle; in Australia it was a harness and tether attached to a seat buckle. In the generalised linear model, country, dog size, owner age, dog age and vehicle type were all significant factors associated with the use of restraint for dogs in cars. Younger dog owners from the US who drove a pickup truck or utility van, had a large dog, and drove with their dogs less frequently were least likely to restrain their dogs. This research highlights the need for improved education and information regarding the use of restraints for dogs traveling in vehicles, although the limitations in the convenience sample used mean further research is needed, including use of a more representative sample.


Asunto(s)
Perros , Vehículos a Motor/normas , Equipos de Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Australia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vehículos a Motor/clasificación , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
10.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S21-S26, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381428

RESUMEN

Objective: Systems that can warn the driver of a possible collision with a vulnerable road user (VRU) have significant safety benefits. However, incorrect warning times can have adverse effects on the driver. If the warning is too late, drivers might not be able to react; if the warning is too early, drivers can become annoyed and might turn off the system. Currently, there are no methods to determine the right timing for a warning to achieve high effectiveness and acceptance by the driver. This study aims to validate a driver model as the basis for selecting appropriate warning times. The timing of the forward collision warnings (FCWs) selected for the current study was based on the comfort boundary (CB) model developed during a previous project, which describes the moment a driver would brake. Drivers' acceptance toward these warnings was analyzed. The present study was conducted as part of the European research project PROSPECT ("Proactive Safety for Pedestrians and Cyclists"). Methods: Two warnings were selected: One inside the CB and one outside the CB. The scenario tested was a cyclist crossing scenario with time to arrival (TTA) of 4 s (it takes the cyclist 4 s to reach the intersection). The timing of the warning inside the CB was at a time to collision (TTC) of 2.6 s (asymptotic value of the model at TTA = 4 s) and the warning outside the CB was at TTC = 1.7 s (below the lower 95% value at TTA = 4 s). Thirty-one participants took part in the test track study (between-subjects design where warning time was the independent variable). Participants were informed that they could brake any moment after the warning was issued. After the experiment, participants completed an acceptance survey. Results: Participants reacted faster to the warning outside the CB compared to the warning inside the CB. This confirms that the CB model represents the criticality felt by the driver. Participants also rated the warning inside the CB as more disturbing, and they had a higher acceptance of the system with the warning outside the CB. The above results confirm the possibility of developing wellsaccepted warnings based on driver models. Conclusions: Similar to other studies' results, drivers prefer warning times that compare with their driving behavior. It is important to consider that the study tested only one scenario. In addition, in this study, participants were aware of the appearance of the cyclist and the warning. A further investigation should be conducted to determine the acceptance of distracted drivers.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Modelos Psicológicos , Equipos de Seguridad , Adulto , Ciclismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 872, 2019 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272445

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Domestic fire-related injuries and deaths among the aged remain a concern of many countries including Australia. This study aimed to assess the impact of a home fire safety visit project on domestic fire emergency escape plans among the 373 aged persons using multivariate analyses. METHOD: The study used data from a collaborative intervention program by three emergency agencies in New South Wales. It covered 373 older people at registration and 156 at post home visit follow-up. The five fire emergency escape plan outcome measures (participants having a working smoke alarm, finding out what to do if there was a fire at their home, making a plan to escape their home in the event of a fire, finding out how to escape their home in an emergency and finding out how to maintain their installed smoke alarm) were examined by adjusting for key characteristics of participants, using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model that adjusted for repeated measures in order to examine the association between the home visit program and fire emergency escape plans. RESULTS: There were significant improvements in participants' likelihood of finding out what to do if there was a fire in their home [AOR; 95% CI 1.89 (1.59-2.26)], making a plan to escape their home [AOR; 95% CI 1.80 (1.50-2.17)], how to escape their home in an emergency [AOR; 95% CI 1.33 (1.07-1.66)] and how to maintain their smoke alarm [AOR; 95% CI 1.77 (1.48-2.12)]. Female participants were less likely to have a plan to escape their home in the event of a fire [AOR; 95% CI 0.86 (0.75-0.99)] and to find out how to escape their home in an emergency [AOR; 95% CI 0.71 (0.61-0.82)] compared with their male counterparts. Additionally, participants who spoke languages other than English at home were significantly less likely to have a working smoke alarm [AOR; 95% CI 0.88 (0.38-0.69)]. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that home visit programs are able to increase fire safety of vulnerable and isolated older people.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes Domésticos , Planificación en Desastres/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuego , Visita Domiciliaria , Seguridad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Gales del Sur , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Equipos de Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo
14.
J Community Health Nurs ; 36(3): 115-123, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291773

RESUMEN

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is preventable yet remains the most common cause of U.S. non-drug poisoning. The purpose of this non-experimental study was to develop and evaluate the theory-based CO Blitz Model. Events targeted five SC communities; volunteers provided education while local firefighters installed CO alarms. At the 4-6-month follow-up evaluation, all homes still had a functioning CO alarm; most recipients could name CO sources in their homes (78%) and what to do if the alarm sounded (90%). The theory-driven process evaluation revealed the CO Blitz Model was tailorable and effective in addressing unique community resources and needs.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/prevención & control , Administración de la Seguridad/métodos , Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/mortalidad , Bomberos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Equipos de Seguridad , South Carolina
15.
Appl Ergon ; 80: 102-110, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280793

RESUMEN

This paper discusses the design and evaluation of connected and cooperative vehicle in-vehicle sign designs displayed on a mobile phone: Emergency Electronic Brake Lights (EEBL), Emergency Vehicle Warning (EVW), Traffic Condition Warning, and Road Works Warning. Appropriateness and comprehension of each design alternative were assessed using quantitative (i.e. Likert scales) and qualitative (i.e. open-ended questions) methods. Forty-four participants took part in the study and were shown twelve dashboard camera videos presenting a total of eleven designs alternatives, displayed with or without a legend. Despite their appropriateness, EEBL and EVW signs displayed with a legend were better comprehended and less ambiguous than those displayed without a legend. Moreover, displaying a legend below the signs to warn drivers of an emergency braking ahead was efficient in low visibility condition and could potentially increase safety in critical situations.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Urgencias Médicas/psicología , Diseño de Equipo/métodos , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación , Equipos de Seguridad , Adulto , Automóviles , Comprensión , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción , Adulto Joven
16.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 26(3): 315-321, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185794

RESUMEN

Motorcyclists are vulnerable road users in Uganda and 21.7% (3912/18,016) experienced crashes in 2012. This study determined the prevalence of and factors associated with compliance to selected road safety measures (helmet use, retro-reflective jackets use, riding permit and carrying one passenger) among commercial motorcyclists in Kawempe, from April to June 2014 using interviewer administered questionnaires. Total compliance was 0.9% and 24.4% to at least 3/4 measures. Compliance by measure was; 7.6% retroreflective jackets, 28.8% riding permits, 69.4% helmet use and 86.1% carrying one passenger. The associated factors were; knowing that (training before one starts to ride prevents crashes, Adjusted-odds-ratio (AOR) = 2.38 (1.36-4.19), maintaining the motorcycle in good condition prevents crashes, AOR = 0.34 (0.15-0.77) and padding reduces impact of road traffic injury, AOR = 0.37 (0.15-0.89)). Prevalence to compliance is very low. Road safety messages should highlight the importance of all road safety measures to improve compliance.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil/estadística & datos numéricos , Motocicletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducción de Automóvil/educación , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Dispositivos de Protección de la Cabeza/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Equipos de Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Joven
17.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(2): 52-54, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213593

RESUMEN

This article reports the results of a forensic medical expertise of the gunshot wound in a serviceman wearing a bulletproof vest with special reference to the behaviour of the bullet that underwent deformation upon hitting the jacket. The authors emphasize the difficulty of differential diagnostics between the entry and exit wounds in the cases like that described in the paper. A series of experiments provided the data suggesting the specific mechanism by which exit gunshot wounds are formed in those parts of the body that adjoin the material from which the bulletproof vest is made. Special attention is given to the morphological features of such wounds and injuries to the biological tissues.


Asunto(s)
Balística Forense , Equipos de Seguridad , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 30-43, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103877

RESUMEN

Measuring risk is critical for collision avoidance. The paper aims to develop an online risk level classification algorithm for forward collision avoidance systems. Assuming risk levels are reflected by braking profiles, deceleration curves from critical evasive braking events from the Virginia "100-car" database were first extracted. The curves are then clustered into different risk levels based on spectrum clustering, using curve distance and curve changing rate as dissimilarity metrics among deceleration curves. Fuzzy logic rules of safety indicators at critical braking onset for risk classification were then extracted according to the clustered risk levels. The safety indicators include time to collision, time headway, and final relative distance under emergency braking, which characterizes three kinds of uncertain critical conditions respectively. Finally, the obtained fuzzy risk level classification algorithm was tested and compared with other Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) algorithms under Euro-NCAP testing scenarios in simulation. Results show the proposed algorithm is promising in balancing the objectives of avoiding collision and reducing interference with driver's normal driving compared with other algorithms.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Automóviles , Equipos de Seguridad , Algoritmos , Desaceleración , Lógica Difusa , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Virginia
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 44-54, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103878

RESUMEN

Automated vehicles (AV) testing on the public roads is ongoing in several states in the US as well as in Europe and Asia. As long as the automated vehicle technology has not achieved full automation (Level 5), human drivers are still expected to take over the steering wheel and throttles when there is an automated vehicle disengagement. However, contributing factors and the mechanism about automated vehicle-initiated disengagement has not been quantitatively and comprehensively explored and investigated due to the lack of field test data. Besides, understanding human drivers' perception and promptness of reaction to the AV disengagement is essential to ensure safety transition between automated and manual driving. By harnessing California's Autonomous Vehicle Disengagement Report Database, which includes the AV disengagement data from field tests in 2016-2017, this paper quantitatively investigated the AV disengagement using multiple statistical modeling approaches that involve statistical modeling and classification tree. Specifically, the paper identifies the contributing factors impacting human drivers' promptness to AV disengagements, and quantitatively investigates the underlying causes to AV disengagements. Results indicate that current AV disengagement on public roads is dominated by causes due to a planning issue. The cause of an AV disengagement is significantly induced by lacking certain numbers of radar and LiDAR sensors installed on the automated vehicles. These thresholds of these sensors needed are revealed. Cause of disengagement and roadway characteristics significantly impact drivers' take-over time when facing an AV disengagement. AV perception or control issue-based disengagement can significantly extend drivers' perception-reaction time to take over the driving. The quantitative knowledge obtained ultimately facilitates revealing the mechanisms of the automated vehicle disengagements to ensure safe AV operations on public roads.


Asunto(s)
Automatización , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Automóviles , Equipos de Seguridad/normas , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Tecnología
20.
Surg Technol Int ; 34: 40-45, 2019 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037721

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although forced-air warming is the most commonly used method for perioperative patient warming, it is fundamentally problematic because it disturbs the carefully designed airflow in the operating room. Because unintended hypothermia has significant consequences, there is a need for more effective warming strategies. The effectiveness of warming technologies that apply heat through the skin is based on surface-area contact with the heat source and the duration of pre-warming. Therefore, we sought to test the therapeutic effectiveness of combined above- and below-warming therapies. Our hospital prohibits forced-air warming before the patient is draped, so a secondary goal was to determine the effect of preoperative warming using a system that does not interfere with airflow in the operating room. METHODS: We prospectively randomized 35 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty into two groups: 1) forced-air warming/water mattress, using both WarmTouch® upper-body forced-air warming (Medtronic/Covidien Inc., Dublin, Ireland) and a Norm-O-Temp® underbody water mattress (CSZ/Gentherm Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA), and 2) conductive fabric warming, using a HotDog® electric upper-body blanket (Augustine Temperature Management LLC, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) and a HotDog® underbody mattress. RESULTS: Throughout the surgical procedure, group 2 patients had significantly higher temperatures; this group experienced superior pre-warming during preoperative preparations and thus the redistribution temperature drop following the induction of anesthesia was reduced. Both groups achieved 100% normothermia by the end of surgery. CONCLUSION: Based solely on the temperatures at the end of surgery, these data indicate that forced-air warming in conjunction with a water mattress warming system is as effective as a conductive fabric electric warming system alone.


Asunto(s)
Calefacción/instrumentación , Hipotermia/prevención & control , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla/métodos , Lechos , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Atención Perioperativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Equipos de Seguridad
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