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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 325, 2021 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493240

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Designing educational interventions tailored to the needs of Contact Lens Wearers (CLWs) are important and necessary. The present study aimed to determine the information needs of CLWs to educate and provide information to them to increase their knowledge and reduce complications and non-compliance behaviors. METHODS: A qualitative approach was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted in three contact lenses (CL) clinics in Iran among all their practitioners and 24 purposively selected patients. Data were analyzed using the Lundman and Graneheim conventional content analysis. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis revealed knowledge and skill themes as two main categories. The knowledge category includes five subcategories of basic information for the CLWs, acquaintance with the CL, caring for CL, hygiene and vigilance of CL, and challenges of using CL. The skill category consists of two subcategories, including handling/insertion and removal of the CL, and stabilization of learned information. Moreover, 36 sub-subcategories emerged from these seven subcategories that reflected the information needs of CLWs. CONCLUSIONS: A clear understanding of CLWs' information needs can help to design and develop appropriate educational approaches to overcome training barriers such as physicians' time constraints and high workload. Moreover, it can help deal with CLWs' insufficient knowledge and provide the required information simply and practically with the possibility of enough repetition.


Asunto(s)
Lentes de Contacto , Escolaridad , Humanos , Higiene , Cooperación del Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa
2.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211042177, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465251

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Postnatal hospital stay is decreased by 30% during COVID-19 in developed countries. However, there is paucity of data in developing countries. Hence, this study aims to assess the prevalence of early postnatal discharge during COVID-19 in Jimma Health Centers. METHODS: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 February to 30 March 2021. Sample was calculated using single population proportion formula and allocated proportionally to the health centers. Data were interred into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 22.0 for analysis. Multivariable regression was done to identify associating factors at p < 0.05. RESULT: Three hundred ninety women were included into study making a response rate of 96.8%. Early discharge prevalence was 316 (81.0%). Attending elementary school adjusted odds ratio = 0.26 (confidence interval = 0.087-0.798), plan for postnatal care within a week adjusted odds ratio = 0.410 (confidence interval = 0.221-0.760), knowing postnatal maternal danger sign adjusted odds ratio = 0.258 (confidence interval = 0.141-0.473), women adjusted odds ratio = 0.421 (confidence interval = 0.211-0.838), or husband adjusted odds ratio = 0.051 (confidence interval = 0.014-0.186) made decision of discharge were negatively and distance on foot <30 min adjusted odds ratio = 3 (confidence interval = 1.121-8.058) was positively associated with early discharge significantly. CONCLUSION: This study has identified early postnatal discharge is high which can contribute to reduce the risk of acquiring COVID-19. However, the authors recommend further study to differentiate whether early discharge is due to COVID-19 or other reasons.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Posnatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Empleo , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
3.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13002, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484709

RESUMEN

Background: Early marriage and maternity prevalence rates among adolescent girls remain alarmingly high in West and Central Africa (WCA). This study aims to explore the associations between socio-economic factors and the prevalence of early marriage and maternity, thus contributing to the identification of girls at risk of early pregnancy or marriage. Methods: We pooled data from national representative surveys (1986 - 2017) for 23 countries in WCA to examine associations between wealth, educational attainment, religious affiliation, and place of residence with adolescent marriage and maternity. We decomposed the wealth and education gradients for individual countries, while controlling for common characteristics of the local environment via the use of primary sampling unit fixed-effects. The pooled sample provides information on 262 721 girls (age 15-19 years). Survey weights and population share weights were used in the estimations. Results: The prevalence of adolescent maternity and marriage exhibited a wealth and education gradient. Prevalence of marriage in the poorest wealth quintile was 41.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.8%-43.5%) and 10.5% (95% CI = 9.5%-11.6%) in the richest. For maternity it was 38.3% (95% CI = 36.4%-40.3%) in the poorest quintile and 12.7% (95% CI = 11.5%-13.9%) in the richest. Marriage/maternity is three/two times more likely to occur among girls with incomplete primary or no formal education than in those with at least primary. Maternity and marriage among adolescents exhibit a geographical pattern and differences between religious groups. Adolescent marriage prevalence was 34.4% (95% CI = 32.9%-35.8%) in rural areas compared to 13.3% (95% CI = 12.3%-14.2%) in urban areas. Adolescent maternity prevalence was 32.8% (95% CI = 31.7%-33.9%) in rural compared to 16.3% (95% CI = 15.3%-17.3%) in urban areas. Finally, the prevalence of adolescent marriage was substantially higher among Muslims compared to all other religious groups. Conclusions: Our results highlight the disparities in the prevalence of adolescent marriage and maternity and confirm the existence of wealth and education gradients. These findings can help to improve targeting of vulnerable adolescents and to identify areas for policy implementation.


Asunto(s)
Matrimonio , Población Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
4.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13004, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484711

RESUMEN

Objective: Early marriage and childbearing have substantial detrimental effects on both, the affected girls and women at the micro level, as well as entire economies on the macro level. West and Central African countries have some of the highest prevalence rates of early marriage and maternity worldwide. This work attempts to quantify the long-term economic, societal, and fertility effects of marriage and pregnancy in early and late adolescence in West and Central Africa. Methods: We used pooled cross-sectional data collected between 1986 and 2017 in 21 West and Central African countries within the DHS and MICS programs to estimate the associations of marriage and maternity during early (10-14) and late (15-19) adolescence retrospectively on wealth accumulation, educational attainment, as well as the woman's lifetime fertility. Results: Descriptively, women who married or gave birth as young or very young adolescents are overrepresented among the poorest and least educated quintiles of the adult population and underrepresented among the richest and most educated. These gradients were confirmed within a regression analysis which additionally controlled for current age of the woman and PSU fixed effects. Marrying in early/late adolescence was associated with a 12%/6% higher likelihood of being in the poorest wealth quintile in later life and 29%/20% increased likelihood of not completing primary education, as compared to women who married as adults. Maternity in early/late adolescence was associated with a 7%/4% higher likelihood of belonging to the poorest quintile and 17%/10% higher likelihood of being uneducated. Moreover, women who married/gave birth during early or late adolescence, on average, have 2.2/2.3 or 1.4/1.5 more children than those who have married/become mothers as adults. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the dire consequences of early marriage and maternity hit youngest girls the hardest - both immediately and long-term. Hence, it is not only worthwhile to prevent adolescent marriage and pregnancy in general, but also specifically target very young girls below age 15 to attempt to at least delay such far-reaching demographic life events.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Matrimonio , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Factores de Edad , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13007, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484714

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescence is a formative period when an individual acquires physical, cognitive, emotional, and social resources that are the foundation for later life, health, and well-being [1]. However, in West and Central African region, this trajectory is curtailed by early childbearing associated with an increased risk of undernutrition and anemia. Evidence on socio-economic determinants of anemia and undernutrition in adolescent mothers is limited. This paper aims to shed some light on this issue and, more specifically, assess the socio-economic determinants of anemia among childbearing adolescents in the region. Methods: For this observational study, we pooled data from all Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in countries in West and Central Africa region between 1986 and 2017. Outcomes were undernutrition and anemia in adolescent mothers. Predictors were education, wealth, place of residence (rural/urban), and religion. Descriptive statistics were calculated using survey weights for individual surveys and in the pooled sample each country was additionally weighted with its population share. We estimated multiple regression models with and without primary sampling unit fixed effects for both outcomes. All regressions were linear probability models. Results: Having no formal education was the strongest predictor for both anemia and undernutrition. Belonging to the richest asset quintile was also associated with lower anemia and undernutrition prevalence in some specifications. While urban location of the mother was positively associated with anemia, there was no association with undernutrition. Conclusions: Overall, having any formal education emerged as a sole strong predictor of reduced adolescent maternal undernutrition and anemia. Promotion of female education can potentially serve as a high-impact intervention to improve adolescent girls' health in the region. However, we cannot make conclusions about its causal impact based on this study alone.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Desnutrición , Adolescente , África Central , Anemia/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Madres , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos
6.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486858

RESUMEN

The education is often considered as one of the basic social determinants of population health, but its impact on the need for medical care is to be studied. The purpose of the study is to analyze effect of education as health social determinant on intensity of medical care consumption by women of reproductive age. The sampling consisted of 566 non-pregnant women aged 18-49 years residing in Samara and being monitored in municipal antenatal clinics. The level of territorial accessibility of medical care for all women participating in the study did not differ reliably. The data was obtained using anonymous survey with adapted questionnaire "Research of social determinants of health". The first comparison group included 306 women with higher or incomplete higher education (high educational status). The second comparison group included 260 women with secondary or specialized secondary education (lower educational status). Each of the groups was divided into four subgroups based on age characteristic (18-25, 26-34, 35-42, 43-49 years). In the group of women with a high educational status, volume of consumption of out-patient medical care were higher and decreasing of health self-rating was accompanied by decreased rate of visits to ambulatory physicians (r = -0.67). Whereas in women with low educational status, decreasing of health self-rating is accompanied by decreased rates of visits to ambulatory physicians (r=0.5). With age increased, volume of out-patient medical care consumption in group of women with high educational status increases, while in group of women with low educational status this volume decreases. The lower rate of out-patient medical care consumption results in increasing of volume of in-patient medical care consumption in the group of women with low educational status. Despite the same increasing dynamics of volume of consumption of in-patient medical care in women with different educational statuses, gain rate of demand is significantly higher in group of women with low educational status (1.42% versus 2.54% of annual gain in consumption). More significant increase in consumption of emergency medical care was observed in group of women with low educational status (annual increase 3% versus 0.22%).


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
7.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 Aug 25.
Artículo en Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498241

RESUMEN

The process of acquiring prescribing skills starts in medical school, and recent research highlights that educational efforts are needed to make students sufficiently prepared for this professional task. In this study, we explored and quantified aspects that medical students find important during medical school to develop basic prescribing skills. Written text from 75 final-year students (median age: 25 years, 59% female) formed the data. At the end of an anonymous and voluntary test in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, the students provided (i) information regarding key elements in medical school that had prepared them for prescribing and (ii) suggestions for facilitating their learning of pharmacotherapy. In a manifest content analysis, five themes emerged: workplace-based learning under supervision and taking responsibility for patients; theoretical knowledge base for prescribing; writing prescriptions and helpful resources; varied teaching methods with specific examinations; and continuity, repetition, and progression. The quantitative analysis revealed that workplace-based learning was the most frequently recurring key element for the learning process, and case seminars a preferred pedagogic format. Most suggestions to facilitate learning concerned the category pharmacotherapeutics theory. Categories of the theme continuity, repetition, and progression, as opposed to other themes, encompassed no key elements but only suggestions to facilitate learning. These themes and categories, summarising aspects that medical students find important in the process of acquiring basic prescribing skills essential for their professional life, could form a basis for further developments of pharmacotherapy in medical school.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Farmacología Clínica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Adulto , Competencia Clínica , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Farmacología Clínica/educación , Facultades de Medicina
8.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 298-310, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202553

RESUMEN

En el marco del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, el profesorado ha de contar con capacidades profesionales para impulsar en el alumnado la competencia aprender a aprender, que hace referencia a la capacidad de autorregulación del propio proceso de aprendizaje. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en diseñar y validar un cuestionario para medir los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje que el profesorado universitario activa para el desarrollo de la competencia aprender a aprender, el CAA. En primer lugar, en base a la revisión teórica y empírica, se definieron 86 ítems. A continuación, se examinaron la validez de contenido (n = 20 expertos), la validez basada en los procesos de respuesta (n = 10 docentes), la validez basada en la estructura interna (n = 415 docentes), la validez concurrente y la validez externa. Los resultados mostraron una adecuada calidad psicométrica, consistencia interna, fiabilidad y bondad de ajuste. La versión final del CAA comprendió 4 dimensiones y 39 ítems. Este instrumento puede ser una herramienta de rápida aplicación, válida y fiable, para conocer el desarrollo de los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje de la competencia aprender a aprender. Asimismo, puede servir para detectar necesidades de formación profesional en el desarrollo de dicha competencia


Within the European Higher Education Area framework, educators must have acquired professional skills in order to promote the learning to learn competence, which refers to the ability to self-regulate the learning process itself, in their students. The objective of this work was to design and validate a questionnaire, the learning to learn questionnaire (LLQ), to measure the facilitative learning contexts implemented by university educators to develop the learning to learn competence. First, based on a theoretical and empirical review, 86 items belonging to 7 dimensions were de-fined. Next, content validity (n = 20 experts), validity based on response processes (n = 10 teachers), validity based on internal structure (n = 415 teachers), and concurrent validity were examined. Our results showed sufficient psychometric quality, reliability of scores and goodness of fit. The final version of the LLQ consisted of 4 dimensions and 39 items. This instrument can be considered a valid and reliable tool that can be quickly ap-plied in order to identify the development of facilitative learning contexts in the evolution of the learning to learn competence. Likewise, it can also serve to detect training needs in the development of this competence in university educators


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aprendizaje , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Docentes/psicología , Competencia Profesional , Psicometría , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Análisis Factorial , Escolaridad , Factores de Tiempo , Factores Sexuales
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1572, 2021 08 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416876

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We investigated a) whether urbanicity is associated with individual-level non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors and whether urbanicity modifies trends over time in risk factors; and (b) whether educational inequalities in NCD risk factors change over time or are modified by province urbanicity. METHODS: We used data from three large national surveys on NCD risk factors (Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo; ENFR2005-2009-2013) conducted in urban areas of Argentina (n = 108,489). We used gender-stratified logistic random-intercept models (individuals nested within provinces) to determine adjusted associations of self-reported individual NCD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and current smoking) with education and urbanicity. RESULTS: In both men and women, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased over time but smoking decreased. Hypertension prevalence increased over time in men. Higher urbanicity was associated with higher odds of smoking and lower odds of hypertension in women but was not associated with NCD risk factors in men. Obesity increased more over time in more compared to less urbanized provinces (in men) while smoking decreased more over time in less urbanized provinces. All risk factors had a higher prevalence in persons with lower education (stronger in women than in men), except for diabetes in men and smoking in women. Educational inequalities in obesity (in men) and hypertension (in men and women) became stronger over time, while an initial inverse social gradient in smoking for women reverted and became similar to other risk factors over time. In general, the inverse associations of education with the risk factors became stronger with increasing levels of province urbanicity. CONCLUSION: Increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity over time and growing inequities by education highlight the need for policies aimed at reducing NCD risk factors among lower socioeconomic populations in urban environments in Argentina.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Argentina/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 447, 2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429092

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The quality of root canal treatments performed by undergraduate students is often unsatisfactory questioning the current methods of teaching. Based on treatment errors made by students participating the endodontic courses at RWTH Aachen University (Germany), new radiopaque artificial root canal treatment models (DRSK RCT; incisor, premolar, molar) were designed and developed. The aim of the study was to evaluate these models by groups of students and demonstrators. METHODS: A total number of 60 students and seven demonstrators from a single institution (RWTH Aachen) participated in this study. They performed endodontic treatments on either initial versions of the DRSK RCT or modified versions. The initial versions were evaluated by students (n = 25) and demonstrators (n = 7). The obtained questionnaire was conducted as 7-point Likert-Scale covering the topics material properties, feeling while performing exercises and perception of its closeness to reality via 19 items (students) and 21 items (demonstrators). According to the evaluations several alterations were applied to the DRSK RCT, the whole study was repeated and evaluated by different students (n = 35) and the same demonstrators (n = 7). Additionally, the demonstrators blindly evaluated the quality of root canal treatments performed by the students (n = 35) on the modified DRSK RCT. Comparisons between the initial versions and the modified versions were calculated using Chi-squared tests. RESULTS: Students as well as demonstrators positively evaluated both variants of the DRSK RCT with especially high ratings in the overall evaluation. Students' rating of the pulp anatomy significantly increased from 5.4 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) to 5.9 ± 0.9 (mean ± SD; p < 0.05) for the modified model. Likewise, students felt that the ability to flare root canals improved after alterations have been applied. Ratings significantly increased from 4.8 ± 1.6 (mean ± SD) to 5.6 ± 1.0 (mean ± SD; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the DRSK RCT is a promising candidate to be used as an alternative to extracted teeth or as an additional tool for improving dental education. However, some limitations of our analysis have to be considered.


Asunto(s)
Endodoncia , Estudiantes de Odontología , Educación en Odontología , Escolaridad , Humanos , Tratamiento del Conducto Radicular
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 39, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422162

RESUMEN

Introduction: contraceptives in family planning are used to control the timings between pregnancies. Although the number of those using family planning has increased, determinants of contraceptive use among women in Indonesia remain insufficient. This research aimed to identify the factors associated with contraceptive use among reproductive aged women in Bangka Belitung Province. Methods: this study employed data from the Indonesian demographic and health survey (IDHS) 2017. The selected respondents were 768 women aged 15-49 years. Then, the determinants of contraceptive use among women were examined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: women's aged 15-49 years (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) =8.955; 95% CI=3.573-22.439), level of education (aOR=2.017; 95% CI=1.053-3.862), the number of children (aOR=1.207; 95% CI=0.498-2.926), residential location (aOR=0.877; 95% CI=0.601-1.282), wealth index (aOR=2.23; 95% CI=0.953-5.218), visited health facilities (aOR=1.683; 95% CI=1.174-2.412), knowledge of contraceptive method (aOR=2.043; 95% CI=2.043-2.043) were significantly associated with contraceptive use among reproductive age women. Conclusion: factors such as women's age, education, number of living children, area of residence, wealth index, knowledge, and visits to health facilities were still considered significant issues in determining contraceptive use among reproductive-age women in Bangka Belitung Province.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Anticoncepción/métodos , Anticonceptivos/administración & dosificación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Escolaridad , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Indonesia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444097

RESUMEN

This scoping review mapped the existing evidence on interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and/or components of physical literacy (PL) in Brazilian school-aged children and adolescents. Nine electronic databases and gray literature were consulted in May 2020, with no limit on year or language. School-based intervention studies (6 to 18 years old, primarily) that assessed PA or PL components (PA-related factors or attributes) were eligible. The studies were stratified by children (<12 years of age) and adolescents (≥12 years of age). A total of 63 documents were included, which refer to 42 different intervention studies. Twenty-five interventions focused on adolescents and 17 on children. The most-used strategies in the interventions were changes in physical and environmental education classes, extracurricular PA sessions, and health education. No study has analyzed all components of PL or evaluated PL using specific protocols or instruments. PA attributes were the most studied components (30 studies). This review identified the need to conduct interventions with strategies that target all components of PL, representing important elements for a research agenda that underlies school interventions that contribute to an active lifestyle.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Alfabetización , Adolescente , Niño , Escolaridad , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Instituciones Académicas
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256283, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411161

RESUMEN

The educational integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has been put to the test because of the need to implement «emergency remote education¼ as a result of COVID-19. Within this context of uncertainty («viral modernity¼), flexible education is an option to promote a more just, equitable, accessible and creative educational system. In order to properly interpret the effects of this unique educational circumstance, it is essential to study the previous situation in terms of the use of digital technologies in teaching practices. The objective of the study is to describe the educational integration of ICT and the teacher education model to obtain evidence that contributes to understanding the phenomenon. To this end, a questionnaire consisting of two self-reporting tools and a scale on the description of teaching practice with ICT was applied. The sample is made up of teachers from public primary and secondary schools (N = 251). Data collection was carried out in the months prior to the closure of schools due to the Covid-19 pandemic. A univariate analysis of the variables and contrast tests of non-parametric hypotheses was carried out, along with calculation of the reliability and construction validity of the measuring instruments. The results reveal the most frequent types of teaching practice with ICT and the spaces where digital technologies are commonly used. Various weaknesses can be identified in digital competence among teachers, as well as in the initial/continuing training model, which contribute to the understanding of the difficulties encountered during "emergency remote education". Participation in ICT didactic innovation projects and the performance of ICT Coordination are associated with more experiential training. Flexible education requires a redefinition of the teacher training model that encourages learning anywhere, anytime.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Tecnología Digital , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituciones Académicas , Formación del Profesorado , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Tecnología de la Información , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045630, 2021 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341038

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C cause a heavy disease burden in China. This paper aims to investigate the public's knowledge on hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Chongqing municipality and Chengdu City, China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to April 2017. SETTING: Two communities from Chongqing and Chengdu were involved in this study. PARTICIPANTS: Data from 928 community residents were analysed. OUTCOME: Demographic characteristics, knowledge on hepatitis B and hepatitis C and sources of hepatitis knowledge were obtained from questionnaires. The participants' scores ranged from 0 to 24, and a test score about more than 14.4 (60% of the total score) was defined as sufficient knowledge. RESULTS: Among the participants, only 36.10% presented sufficient knowledge on hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and about 40% were unaware of the two antidiscrimination policies in China. The sources of information about hepatitis were mainly from doctors and the internet. Unmarried individuals, people with secondary education and above and those with an annual income above US$2108 tended to exhibit a higher level of knowledge on hepatitis B and hepatitis C. CONCLUSIONS: The community members demonstrated limited awareness and level of knowledge on hepatitis B and hepatitis C, particularly in relation to the antidiscrimination policies. Extensive health education should be provided to the public, particularly to those with low educational status and income.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e03784, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406218

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expansion of undergraduate Nursing courses in Brazil, especially those in the distance education modality. METHODS: Exploratory, descriptive, analytical, and documentary study that used the Statistical Overview of Higher Education - Undergraduate Courses, of the Brazilian National Institute for Educational Studies and Research "Anísio Teixeira", which is part of the Ministry of Education and Culture, as a source of secondary data for the period between 2009 and 2018. RESULTS: There was a growth in the number of undergraduate Nursing courses and new seats in the distance education modality. However, only 8.89% of these seats were occupied and 3.39% of the enrolled students completed the course, which accounted for 0.30% of the new seats. CONCLUSION: The expansion of undergraduate Nursing courses is aligned with the general trends in higher education. This scenario exposes the interests of capital in education, which emphasizes the need for collective development of strategies to guarantee the right to education that is public, free and has social quality.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia , Bachillerato en Enfermería , Educación en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Brasil , Curriculum , Escolaridad , Humanos
17.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 4): e20201163, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406274

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: to validate the content and appearance of the booklet "Going home after a child's cardiac surgery" and assess family members' cognitive learning regarding its use. METHODS: a methodological and quasi-experimental study of before and after type, with semi-structured interview, pre-test and reading of the booklet in a hospital; post-test and validation occurred after hospital discharge. Wilcoxon non-parametric statistics were used. RESULTS: nineteen family members of children with heart disease participated. The average of correct answers increased 14 percentage points from pre- to post-test; most were medication errors. There was a significant difference (p <0.0001) in the comparison between cognitive knowledge prior to using the booklet and learning acquired from its use. All items received a positive rating, except font size. CONCLUSIONS: the booklet helps family members to understand a child's needs after cardiac surgery, and can be used to prevent unwanted occurrences and enable safe care at home.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos , Familia , Niño , Escolaridad , Humanos , Folletos , Alta del Paciente
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 4): e20201243, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406275

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: to describe the contribution of pregnant women to the construction and evaluation of educational technology. METHODS: a participatory study developed in three stages, which occurred between March 2018 and June 2019 for identifying the content, construction, and evaluation of the comic. Non-directive interviews were conducted in educational groups with 34 pregnant women. After the comic was built by a team, including a designer, an instrument was applied to 41 pregnant women to evaluate the items Objectives, Organization, Writing style, Appearance, and Motivation. RESULTS: the comic contains 40 pages of contents, illustrations, and quizzes (word search, cross-puzzle, seven mistakes, etc). The pregnant women evaluated it as easy to understand, self-explanatory, aesthetically attractive, and capable of motivating good care practices during pregnancy, obtaining a minimum agreement of 92.1%. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the innovation of the educational technology consisted of incorporating the voices of pregnant women in prenatal care, with the potential to stimulate reflections and the learning process of this target audience.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Embarazadas , Atención Prenatal , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Motivación , Embarazo
19.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5663, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406314

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of risk factors on infant mortality in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo according to maternal and neonate characteristics, as well as mode of delivery. METHODS: An ecological, quantitative study based on secondary data retrieved from infant mortality and live birth data systems. Data from 39 municipalities located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo were analyzed. Newborn and maternal variables were extracted from the Information Technology Department of the Unified Health System. Absolute and relative frequencies were presented, as well as linear regression and Pearson´s correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The following maternal profile prevailed from 2006 to 2016: 8 to 11 years of education (ß=73.58; p=0.023), age between 30 and 34 years (ß=19.04; p=0.015) and delivery by cesarean section (ß=39.59; p=0.009) after full-term pregnancy (ß=-14.20; p=0.324). Mortality rates decreased in neonates compared to other age groups (ß=-25.30; p<0.001). Infant mortality rates tended to be higher among women experiencing pre-term (r=0.86; p<0.001) or post-term (r=0.95; p<0.001) gestation. CONCLUSION: Maternal age and level of education increased among women giving birth in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo from 2006 to 2016. These were relevant factors for infant mortality rate reduction.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea , Mortalidad Infantil , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Edad Materna , Embarazo
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 50, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406319

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe the evolution of care during pregnancy and childbirth among postpartum women living in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil, using data from surveys carried out every three years between 2007 and 2019. METHODS: Within 48 hours after delivery, a single, standardized questionnaire was applied to all mothers who had children in local hospitals and met the inclusion criteria. Demographic and reproductive characteristics, lifestyle habits, socioeconomic level of the family, and care received during pregnancy and childbirth were investigated. In the analysis, the chi-square test for linear trend was used to assess the distribution of indicators per survey. RESULTS: A total of 12,645 parturients were interviewed (98% of the women eligible to participate in the surveys). In the period evaluated, the proportion of births fell 35% among adolescents and increased 25% among women aged 35 years and over. Mothers gained, on average, two years of schooling, and their families experienced an important economic improvement, followed by loss of income in the last survey. Maternal smoking, before and during pregnancy, fell by half. The rate of mothers who started prenatal care in the first trimester and the number of consultations and laboratory tests increased. Almost 60% of prenatal consultations and 80% of births took place in the Brazilian Unified Health System. In 2019, vaginal delivery was once again the most common. The rates of low birth weight (9%) and prematurity (17%) virtually remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: We found an important change in the reproductive profile and increased coverage of various prenatal care and delivery services. Children continue to be born well, but low birth weight and prematurity remain endemic.


Asunto(s)
Parto , Atención Prenatal , Adolescente , Brasil , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos
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