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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302876, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722931

RESUMEN

Realizing the common wealth of all people is the essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Measuring the process of realizing common wealth and the differences between groups is one of the important issues that need to be addressed urgently. In order to reasonably measure the process of realizing common wealth in China, on the premise of horizontal comparability and vertical consistency, the principles of comparability and consistency are introduced, and a comparative method of opportunity advantage based on income distribution is proposed from the perspective of opportunity equity. Using the 2012-2020 CFPS data to measure and test the opportunity advantages and their differences across regions and groups in China. The study found, firstly, that the opportunity advantage persists but tends to diminish across groups, with the more educated group having a more pronounced opportunity advantage, but that this advantage is diminishing over time. Secondly, the doctoral degree group has a greater probability of earning higher incomes, followed by the master's and bachelor's degree groups, but this opportunity advantage, i.e., the probability of earning higher incomes, is diminishing, i.e., the education dividend is diminishing. Third, the difference in opportunity advantage between urban and rural areas still exists, as evidenced by the greater probability of higher incomes in towns than in rural areas, but this advantage has narrowed further over time, with a clear process of urban-rural integration. Fourthly, in terms of gender, men have a certain opportunity advantage over women, but this difference is not significant. Fifthly, in the context of education levels, gender and urban/rural subgroups, under the framework proposed in this paper, China has achieved some success in the process of realizing the common wealth, and is showing a steady upward trend.


Asunto(s)
Renta , Población Rural , China , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Población Urbana , Escolaridad
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10700, 2024 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730232

RESUMEN

This cross-sectional study, conducted between January 2020 and July 2023, aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among parents with children undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment. Out of 201 valid questionnaires collected, the median knowledge score was 3.00, the mean attitude score was 27.00 ± 3.20, and the mean PTSS score was 3.50 ± 1.54. Logistic regression identified associations between PTSS and parents with lower education levels, particularly junior high school and high school/technical secondary school education, as well as those occupied as housewives. Structural equation modeling highlighted direct effects, such as the impact of residence on education, education on employment status, and associations between knowledge, attitude, PTSS, employment status, monthly income, and parental demographics. The findings indicated inadequate knowledge and suboptimal attitudes among parents, especially those with lower education levels, emphasizing the need for educational resources. Furthermore, addressing parental PTSS through psychosocial support and screening was deemed essential, providing valuable insights for tailored interventions in this context.


Asunto(s)
Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Padres , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Padres/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Persona de Mediana Edad , Niño , Escolaridad
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e082773, 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697760

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of neurocognitive disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in South Gondar primary hospitals, North-West Ethiopia, 2023. DESIGN: Institution-based cross-sectional study design. SETTING: South Gondar primary hospitals, North-West Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: 608 participants were recruited using the systematic random sampling technique. MEASUREMENT: Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and medical chart reviews. The International HIV Dementia Scale was used to screen for neurocognitive disorder. The data were entered through EPI-DATA V.4.6 and exported to SPSS V.21 statistical software for analysis. In the bivariable logistic regression analyses, variables with a value of p<0.25 were entered into a multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors independently associated with neurocognitive disorder. Statistical significance was declared at a value of p<0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of neurocognitive disorder among HIV-positive participants was 39.1%. In multivariable logistic regression, lower level of education (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.94; 95% CI 1.29 to 6.82), unemployment (AOR=2.74; 95% CI 1.29 to 6.84) and comorbid medical illness (AOR=1.80; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.14) were significantly associated with neurocognitive disorder. CONCLUSION: HIV-associated neurocognitive problems affected over a third of the participants. According to the current study, comorbid medical conditions, unemployment and low educational attainment are associated with an increased risk of neurocognitive disorder. Therefore, early detection and treatment are essential.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Trastornos Neurocognitivos , Humanos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Prevalencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Neurocognitivos/epidemiología , Trastornos Neurocognitivos/etiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Adulto Joven , Factores de Riesgo , Complejo SIDA Demencia/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Adolescente , Escolaridad , Comorbilidad , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606932, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742099

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study examined the contribution of obesity to the development of educational inequalities in physical health. Methods: We used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2002-2020. Physical health was measured with the modified SF12-questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate time trends. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) were calculated to examine educational inequalities. The role of obesity as a mediator was analyzed using the Karlson-Holm-Breen (KHB) method. Results: Over time, educational inequalities in obesity as well as impaired physical health widened in men and women, particularly among those aged 30-49 years. For individuals with a low level of education at this age, the probability of impaired physical health increased significantly by 7.7%-points in women and 9.4%-points in men. Of this increase, 25.9% for women and 14.8% for men could be attributed to the increase in obesity. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the steeper rise in obesity among individuals with a low level of education partly explains the observed widening in educational inequalities in physical health.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Obesidad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alemania/epidemiología , Adulto , Obesidad/epidemiología , Análisis de Mediación , Anciano , Estado de Salud
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 356, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745311

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy can have adverse outcomes if untreated. Both malaria and pregnancy are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Although malaria is treated prophylactically with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screened for in pregnancy as part a routine antenatal care, their impacts have not been examined in terms of other forms of dysglycaemia. This cross-sectional study examined insulin resistance and its relationship with dysglycaemia and malaria among pregnant women in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH). METHODS: Using a structured questionnaire, demographic and clinical information were obtained from 252 pregnant women aged 18-42 years. Weight and height were measured for computation of body mass index (BMI). Measurement of insulin, lipid profile and glucose were taken under fasting conditions followed by oral glucose tolerant test. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were assessed by the homeostatic model as malaria was diagnosed by microscopy. RESULTS: The respective prevalence of GDM, gestational glucose intolerance (GGI) and insulin resistance were 0.8% (2/252), 19.44% (49/252) and 56.75% (143/252). No malaria parasite or dyslipidaemia was detected in any of the participants. Apart from BMI that increased across trimesters, no other measured parameter differed among the participants. Junior High School (JHS) education compared with no formal education increased the odds (AOR: 2.53; CI: 1.12-5.71; P = 0.03) but 2nd trimester of pregnancy compared to the 1st decreased the odds (AOR: 0.32; CI: 0.12-0.81; P = 0.02) of having insulin resistance in the entire sample. In a sub-group analysis across trimesters, pregnant women with JHS education in their 3rd trimester had increased odds (AOR: 4.41; CI: 1.25-15.62; P = 0.02) of having insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of GDM and GGI were 0.8% and 19.44% respectively. The odds of insulin resistance increased in pregnant women with JHS education in the 3rd trimester. Appropriate measures are needed to assuage the diabetogenic risk posed by GGI in our setting.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Resistencia a la Insulina , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Prevalencia , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Intolerancia a la Glucosa/epidemiología , Intolerancia a la Glucosa/sangre , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Glucemia/análisis , Glucemia/metabolismo , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/sangre , Escolaridad
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e11122023, 2024 May.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747772

RESUMEN

The study aims to estimate the proportion of puerperae with an unplanned pregnancy, evaluate trends and identify factors associated with its occurrence in Rio Grande-RS, Brazil. Trained interviewers applied a single, standardized questionnaire to all puerperae residing in the municipality in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019. The chi-square test compared proportions and the Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment in the multivariate analysis. The prevalence ratio (PR) was the effect measure employed. The study includes 12,415 puerperae (98% of the total). The unplanned pregnancy rate was 63.3% (95%CI: 62.5%-64.1%). After adjusting, the highest PR for not planning pregnancy were observed among younger, black women, living without a partner, with more significant household agglomeration, lower schooling, and household income, multiparous and smokers. The rate of unplanned pregnancy is high and stable, with a higher propensity among women those with the highest risk of unfavorable events during pregnancy and childbirth. Reaching these women in high schools, companies, services and health professionals, in addition to the mass media, can be strategies to prevent unplanned pregnancy.


Este estudo estimou a proporção de puérperas que não planejaram a gravidez, avaliou tendência e identificou fatores associados à sua ocorrência no município de Rio Grande-RS. Entre 01/01 e 31/12 de 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 e 2019 entrevistadoras treinadas aplicaram questionário único e padronizado a todas as puérperas residentes neste município. Utilizou-se teste qui-quadrado para comparar proporções e regressão de Poisson com ajuste da variância robusta na análise multivariável. A medida de efeito utilizada foi razão de prevalências (RP). O estudo incluiu 12.415 puérperas (98% do total). A prevalência de não planejamento foi 63,3% (IC95%: 62,5%-64,1%). Após ajuste, as maiores RP para não planejamento da gravidez foram observadas entre mulheres de menor idade, cor da pele preta, com companheiro, maior aglomeração domiciliar, pior escolaridade e renda familiar, maior paridade e tabagistas. Houve pequeno aumento na prevalência de não planejamento da gravidez no final do período principalmente entre àquelas com maiores riscos de eventos desfavoráveis na gestação e parto. Alcançar estas mulheres nas escolas de ensino médio, empresas, serviços e profissionais de saúde, além de meios de comunicação de massa, pode auxiliar na prevenção desse tipo de gravidez.


Asunto(s)
Embarazo no Planeado , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Multivariante
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10171, 2024 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702409

RESUMEN

Mental health issues are intricately linked to socioeconomic background, employment and migration status. However, there remains a gap in understanding the mental health challenges faced by graduate youth in India, particularly in Kolkata City. This study aims to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher-educated migrant youth. A survey was conducted on four hundred migrant graduate youths aged 21-35 residing in Kolkata. Measures included socio-demographics and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were employed to identify factors associated with mental health issues. The overall prevalence rates were 54.4% for depression, 61.8% for anxiety, and 47.9% for stress. Unemployed youths exhibited significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than their employed counter parts. The logistic regression model showed that unemployed youth, female sex, never married, and second- and third-time migrant youths were risk factors for high scores on the DASS-21. This study showed that mental health issues were alarming in the higher educated migrant youth. The study suggests the implementation of skill-based, job-oriented, and professional courses at the graduation level to prevent graduates from being rendered unproductive and jobless. Beside these, regular psychological support should be provided to the higher educated youth by the local governments.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Depresión , Migrantes , Desempleo , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , India/epidemiología , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Desempleo/psicología , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Prevalencia , Salud Mental , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Escolaridad
8.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 345, 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693494

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Educational duration might play a vital role in preventing the occurrence and development of osteoporosis(OP). PURPOSE: To assess the causal effect of educational duration on bone mineral density(BMD) and risk factors for OP by Mendelian randomization(MR) study. METHODS: The causal relationship was analyzed using data from genome-wide association study(GWAS). Inverse variance weighting (IVW) was used as the main analysis method. Horizontal pleiotropy was identified by MR-Egger intercept test, MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) test. The leave-one-out method was used as a sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The IVW results indicated that there was a positive causal relationship between educational duration and BMD (OR = 1.012, 95%CI:1.003-1.022), physical activity(PA) (OR = 1.156, 95%CI:1.032-1.295), calcium consumption (OR = 1.004, 95%CI:1.002-1.005), and coffee intake (OR = 1.019, 95%CI:1.014-1.024). There was a negative association between whole body fat mass (OR = 0.950, 95%CI:0.939-0.961), time for vigorous PA (OR = 0.955, 95%CI:0.939-0.972), sunbath (OR = 0.987, 95%CI:0.986-0.989), salt consumption (OR = 0.965, 95%CI:0.959-0.971), fizzy drink intake (OR = 0.985, 95%CI:0.978-0.992), smoking (OR = 0.969, 95%CI:0.964-0.975), and falling risk (OR = 0.976, 95%CI:0.965-0.987). There was no significant association between educational duration and lean mass, time for light-to-moderate PA, milk intake, and alcohol intake. Horizontal pleiotropy was absent in this study. The results were robust under sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: A longer educational duration was causally linked with increased BMD. No causal relationship had been found between educational duration and lean mass, time for light-to-moderate PA, milk intake, and alcohol consumption as risk factors for osteoporosis.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Ejercicio Físico , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Osteoporosis , Humanos , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Osteoporosis/etiología , Osteoporosis/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Escolaridad , Factores de Tiempo , Femenino
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 275, 2024 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706007

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In this study we shed light on ongoing trends in contraceptive use in Flanders (Belgium). Building on the fundamental cause theory and social diffusion of innovation theory, we examine socio-economic gradients in contraceptive use and the relationship to health behaviours. METHODS: Using the unique and recently collected (2020) ISALA data, we used multinomial logistic regression to model the uptake of contraceptives and its association to educational level and health behaviour (N:4316 women). RESULTS: Higher educated women, and women with a healthy lifestyle especially, tend to use non-hormonal contraceptives or perceived lower-dosage hormonal contraceptives that are still trustworthy from a medical point of view. Moreover, we identified a potentially vulnerable group in terms of health as our results indicate that women who do not engage in preventive health behaviours are more likely to use no, or no modern, contraceptive method. DISCUSSION: The fact that higher educated women and women with a healthy lifestyle are less likely to use hormonal contraceptive methods is in line with patient empowerment, as women no longer necessarily follow recommendations by healthcare professionals, and there is a growing demand for naturalness in Western societies. CONCLUSION: The results of this study can therefore be used to inform policy makers and reproductive healthcare professionals, since up-to-date understanding of women's contraceptive choices is clearly needed in order to develop effective strategies to prevent sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies, and in which women can take control over their sexuality and fertility in a comfortable and pleasurable way.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Bélgica , Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Anticonceptiva/psicología , Adulto Joven , Escolaridad , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Anticoncepción/métodos , Conducta de Elección , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
10.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 11(3): 759-768, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706292

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With differences apparent in the gut microbiome in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, and risk factors of dementia linked to alterations of the gut microbiome, the question remains if gut microbiome characteristics may mediate associations of education with MCI. OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine potential mediation of the association of education and MCI by gut microbiome diversity or composition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Luxembourg, the Greater Region (surrounding areas in Belgium, France, Germany). PARTICIPANTS: Control participants of the Luxembourg Parkinson's Study. MEASUREMENTS: Gut microbiome composition, ascertained with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Differential abundance, assessed across education groups (0-10, 11-16, 16+ years of education). Alpha diversity (Chao1, Shannon and inverse Simpson indices). Mediation analysis with effect decomposition was conducted with education as exposure, MCI as outcome and gut microbiome metrics as mediators. RESULTS: After exclusion of participants below 50, or with missing data, n=258 participants (n=58 MCI) were included (M [SD] Age=64.6 [8.3] years). Higher education (16+ years) was associated with MCI (Odds ratio natural direct effect=0.35 [95% CI 0.15-0.81]. Streptococcus and Lachnospiraceae-UCG-001 genera were more abundant in higher education. CONCLUSIONS: Education is associated with gut microbiome composition and MCI risk without clear evidence for mediation. However, our results suggest signatures of the gut microbiome that have been identified previously in AD and MCI to be reflected in lower education and suggest education as important covariate in microbiome studies.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Escolaridad , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Disfunción Cognitiva/microbiología , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Luxemburgo/epidemiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0295380, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stunting is associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood. This article specifically aims to analyse the relationship between childhood stunting and education as well as cognitive outcomes for adults in Indonesia. METHODS: Pooled data from wave one (1) and two (2) of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) in 1993 and 1997 identified a sub-sample of 4,379 children aged 0-5 by their height-for-age (HAZ) to be compared for their differences in educational outcomes and cognitive abilities in 2014. HAZ was used to proxy relative height to determine stunting status based on 2006 WHO child's growth standards. Education and cognitive abilities outcomes include years of schooling, age of school entry, grade repetition, and scores for cognitive and math tests. The study employs estimation models of pooled regressions and instrumental variable (IV) to address problems of endogeneity and bias from omitted variables. RESULTS: Stunting and relatively small stature had significant associations with cognitive development, and they worked as intermediaries to cognitive developmental barriers as manifested in reduced educational outcomes. A lack of one SD in HAZ was associated with 0.6 years shortened length of the school, 3% higher chances of dropouts from secondary school, and 0.10-0.23 SD lowered cognitive and numerical scores. Similarly, stunting is associated with decrease cognitive test scores by 0.56-0.8 SD compared to non-stunting, two years less schooling, and 0.4 years of delayed entry to school. As for cognitive abilities, stunting is associated with lower cognitive and numerical abilities by 0.38-0.82 z-scores. CONCLUSION: Growth retardation during childhood in Indonesia was associated with lower cognitive abilities, particularly during school age, and this correlation faded as individuals grew up. Subsequently, growth retardation is significantly linked to lower educational outcomes. Impaired growth has implications for reduced lifetime earnings potential mediated by diminished cognitive capacity and lower educational attainment. The finding suggests that development in Indonesia during recent decades has not provided an adequate environment to enable children to achieve their potential educational outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Escolaridad , Trastornos del Crecimiento , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Longitudinales , Preescolar , Adulto , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Estatura
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 517, 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698356

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The goal of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 is to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. The aim of this scoping review was to map the current evidence on the association between the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and parental education; and to identify possible pathways by which parental education may protect against ECC. METHODS: The two questions that guided this review were: what is the existing evidence on the association between maternal and paternal education and ECC; and what are the pathways by which parental education protects against ECC? The initial search was conducted in January 2023 in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Articles published in English between January 2000 and October 2022 that reported on the association between parental education and ECC were screened, and the extracted data were compiled, summarized, and synthesized. Review papers and non-primary quantitative research papers were excluded from the full-text review. Open coding was applied to develop a conceptual framework. RESULTS: In total, 49 studies were included: 42 cross-sectional, 3 case-control and 4 cohort studies. The majority (91.8%) reported on the associations between ECC and maternal (n = 33), paternal (n = 3), and parental (n = 9) level of education, and 13 (26.7%) reported on the association between parental education and the severity of ECC. Mothers with more than primary school education (n = 3), post-secondary/college/tertiary education (n = 23), and more than 4-12 years of education (n = 12) had children with lower risk for ECC. Two studies reporting on parental education found an association between maternal but not paternal education and ECC. The review suggests that achieving the SDG 4.1 may reduce the risk of ECC. Possible pathways by which maternal education protects from ECC were feeding practices, oral hygiene practices, and the use of dental services. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggests that higher maternal educational level may reduce the risk for the consumption of cariogenic diet, poor oral hygiene practices and poor use of dental services for caries prevention. However, the association between paternal education and ECC was not consistently observed, with significant associations less frequently reported compared to maternal education. Future studies are needed to define the magnitude and modifiers of the impact of maternal education on the risk for ECC.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Escolaridad , Padres , Desarrollo Sostenible , Humanos , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Padres/educación , Preescolar , Niño , Prevalencia
14.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695263

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study aimed to test whether the alcohol harm paradox (AHP) is observed in Brazil by investigating (i) the association between educational attainment and alcohol-related consequences (ARC) and (ii) the contribution of average alcohol volume consumed (AVC), past-month heavy episodic drinking (HED), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and depression in accounting for the disparities in ARC. METHODS: We analysed data from the 2019 Brazilian National Health Survey, a nationally representative household survey. The composite ARC outcome was considered present when an individual reported a past-year episode of activity failure, amnesia, and concern by others due to alcohol consumption. Adjusted binary logistic regression models were fitted using a hierarchical approach to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CI), and to assess the contribution of each set of variables in attenuating the educational differences in ARC. RESULTS: Those from the lowest educational strata (incomplete elementary school) exhibited higher odds of ARC than their counterparts (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.73-2.37). Although smoking, BMI, and depression attenuated the educational gradient (i.e. reduced the difference between reference and riskier categories) in ARC by ~13%, the adjustment for AVC and HED amplified inequalities by 0.3% and 5.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found evidence of the AHP in Brazil. Educational inequalities in ARC were scarcely attenuated by behavioural factors, and a suppression effect was noted when adjusting for AVC and HED.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Escolaridad , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Depresión/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Anciano
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302472, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691564

RESUMEN

The Danish National School Test Program is a set of nationwide tests performed annually since 2010 in all public schools in Denmark. To assess the utility of this data resource for health research purposes, we examined the association of school test performance with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as correlations with ninth-grade exams and higher educational attainment. This nationwide descriptive register-based study includes children born between 1994 and 2010 who lived in Denmark at the age of six years. Norm-based test scores (range 1-100, higher scores indicate better performance) in reading (Danish) and mathematics from the Danish National School Test Program were obtained for children aged 6-16 attending public schools in Denmark from 2010 to 2019. Population registers were used to identify relevant demographic and socioeconomic variables. Mean test scores by demographic and socioeconomic variables were estimated using linear regression models. Among the full Danish population of 1,137,290 children (51.3% male), 960,450 (84.5%) children attended public schools. There were 885,360 children who completed one or more tests in reading or mathematics (test participation was 77.8% for the entire population, and 92.1% for children in public schools). Mean test scores varied by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, most notably with education and labour market affiliation of parents. For every 1-point decrease in the test scores, there was a 0.95% (95% CI: 0.93%; 0.97%) lower probability of scoring B or higher in the ninth-grade exam and a 1.03% (95% CI: 1.00%; 1.05%) lower probability of completing high school within five years after graduating from lower secondary school. In this study of schoolchildren in Denmark, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were associated with test scores from the Danish National School Test Program. Performance in school tests correlated closely with later educational attainment, suggesting that these early measures of school performance are good markers of subsequent academic potential.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas , Humanos , Dinamarca , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Escolaridad , Evaluación Educacional , Factores Sociodemográficos , Matemática
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 89, 2024.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737217

RESUMEN

Introduction: trauma-related disorders following a road accident have both a health and an economic impact. Methods: we conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of these disorders, and to identify risk factors in subjects victims of road accidents and hospitalized in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology of the University Hospital Center of Sfax-Tunisia. Results: a total of sixty-ten subjects were included in this study. The prevalence of acute stress disorder was 37.1% and was associated with female sex, low educational level, previous medical and surgical history, passivity during the accident, severity of injuries and the presence of anxious and depressive symptoms. Post-traumatic stress disorder was observed in 40% of subjects and was associated with urban residential environment, passivity during the accident and anxious and depressive symptoms. Low scores for functional coping strategies and high scores for dysfunctional coping strategies were significantly associated with both disorders. Low educational level, urban residential environment, high levels of anxiety and depression, and denial coping strategy appear to be independent risk factors for acute stress and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion: It is therefore important to determine the profile of people at greater risk of post-traumatic stress disorder, to enable early diagnosis in victims of road accidents.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Ansiedad , Depresión , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Femenino , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Masculino , Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Túnez/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Adulto Joven , Escolaridad , Adaptación Psicológica , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático Agudo/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Adolescente , Anciano , Heridas y Lesiones/epidemiología , Heridas y Lesiones/psicología , Hospitales Universitarios
17.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080611, 2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688673

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine associations between educational level, serving as an indicator of socioeconomic position, and prevalence of WHO-established leading behavioural and biological risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in middle-aged to older women and men. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: All inhabitants of the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, aged ≥40 years, were invited to the seventh survey (2015-2016) of the Tromsø Study; an ongoing population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 32 591 invited; 65% attended, and a total of 21 069 women (53%) and men aged 40-99 years were included in our study. OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed associations between educational level and NCD behavioural and biological risk factors: daily smoking, physical inactivity (sedentary in leisure time), insufficient fruit/vegetable intake (<5 units/day), harmful alcohol use (>10 g/day in women, >20 g/day in men), hypertension, obesity, intermediate hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. These were expressed as odds ratios (OR) per unit decrease in educational level, with 95% CIs, in women and men. RESULTS: In women (results were not significantly different in men), we observed statistically significant associations between lower educational levels and higher odds of daily smoking (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.60 to 1.78), physical inactivity (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.46), insufficient fruit/vegetable intake (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.66), hypertension (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.30), obesity (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.29), intermediate hyperglycaemia (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.19), and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12), and lower odds of harmful alcohol use (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.78). CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant educational gradients in women and men for all WHO-established leading NCD risk factors within a Nordic middle-aged to older general population. The prevalence of all risk factors increased at lower educational levels, except for harmful alcohol use, which increased at higher educational levels.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Conducta Sedentaria , Fumar , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Anciano , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto , Prevalencia , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fumar/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Hiperglucemia/epidemiología
18.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 78(6): 395-401, 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589221

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In utero exposure to maternal cancer and cancer treatment might influence the child's cognitive development. This study investigated if exposure to maternal cancer during fetal life impacted school performance and educational achievement as adults. METHODS: This nationwide retrospective cohort study identified all live-born children in Denmark between January 1978 and December 2013. Exposure was defined as maternal cancer diagnosis during pregnancy. Four partly overlapping birth cohorts were constructed depending on the outcome of interest: (1) receiving special educational support for birth years 2001-2013; (2) grade point average (GPA) at the final exams after 10th grade for 1986-2003; (3) educational achievement at 20 years for 1978-1998; and (4) education at 30 years for 1978-1988. Logistic and linear models were adjusted for birth year, maternal age, maternal education and maternal death. RESULTS: The estimated probability of receiving special educational support was similar in the exposed group and the reference (adjusted OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.77, non-significant). The GPA did not statistically differ (0.13 grade points; 95% CI -0.18 to 0.45, non-significant). The achieved educational levels were similar for the exposed group and the reference at 20 years, with an adjusted OR of 1.07 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.40) for low versus medium educational level, and at 30 years with an adjusted OR of 0.73 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.50) for low versus high educational level and of 1.07 (95% CI 0.66 to 1.72) for medium versus high educational level. CONCLUSION: Our findings did not indicate poorer performance in compulsory school nor impairment of adult educational achievement after exposure to maternal cancer in utero.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Escolaridad , Neoplasias , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Humanos , Femenino , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Adulto , Masculino , Niño , Adolescente , Rendimiento Académico
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(9): e033078, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639361

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This review aimed to quantify the impact of socioeconomic status on functional outcomes from stroke and identify the socioeconomic status indicators that exhibit the highest magnitude of association. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic literature search across Medline and Embase from inception to May 2022, to identify observational studies (n≥100, and in English). Risk of bias was assessed using the modified Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool data. We included 19 studies (157 715 patients, 47.7% women) reporting functional outcomes measured with modified Rankin Scale or Barthel index, with 10 assessed as low risk of bias. Measures of socioeconomic status reported were education (11 studies), income (8), occupation (4), health insurance status (3), and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (3). Pooled data suggested that low socioeconomic status was significantly associated with poor functional outcomes, including incomplete education or below high school level versus high school attainment and above (odds ratio [OR], 1.66 [95% CI, 1.40-1.95]), lowest income versus highest income (OR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.02-1.83]), a manual job/being unemployed versus a nonmanual job/working (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.29-2.02]), and living in the most disadvantaged socioeconomic neighborhood versus the least disadvantaged (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.25-1.92]). Low health insurance status was also associated with an increased risk of poor functional outcomes (OR, 1.32 [95% CI, 0.95-1.84]), although this was association was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite great strides in stroke treatment in the past decades, social disadvantage remains a risk factor for poor functional outcome after an acute stroke. Further research is needed to better understand causal mechanisms and disparities.


Asunto(s)
Clase Social , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Recuperación de la Función , Renta , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Escolaridad , Factores de Riesgo , Estado Funcional , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Factores Socioeconómicos , Femenino , Masculino
20.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371684, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562258

RESUMEN

Background: One of the most important occupational complications that could occur in nurses is musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, we designed an educational intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to investigate its effects on a group of nurses on preventive behaviors of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: A total of 120 nurses working in Izeh City, Iran, participated in this semi-experimental study. The sampling was performed through a convenient sampling method, and the participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups (60 participants for each group). Both groups filled out a questionnaire based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model before and 2 months after the educational program as part of the data collection process. The data were examined using a paired t-test, an independent t-test, and a chi-square test after being entered into SPSS version 24. Results: According to the findings, prior to the intervention, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their knowledge (p = 0.221), attitude (p = 0.136), enabling factors (p = 0.325), reinforcing factors (p = 0.548), self-efficacy (0.421), and behavior (0.257) levels. However, following the intervention, a substantial rise was witnessed in the experimental group in each of the mentioned variables (p = 0.001). Conclusion: In the current study, education based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model led to the improvement of knowledge, attitude, enabling and reinforcing factors, self-efficacy, and finally preventive behaviors with musculoskeletal disorders in the participants. Considering the importance of the role of health education in promoting behaviors related to musculoskeletal disorders in nurses and the importance of observing related behaviors in preventing long-term complications, the necessity of education in a wider dimension and with different tools is felt more and more in society. Therefore, longer interventions with this aim could be carried out on nurses and other healthcare personnel.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas , Humanos , Educación en Salud/métodos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Escolaridad , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/prevención & control
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