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Food Chem ; 336: 127725, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768912


Thirty one samples from different macroalgae species have been studied to determine the influence of several parameters such as the harvesting season, the geographical origin, the species or a pretreatment procedure on their volatile composition. A Multiple Head Space Sorptive Extraction methodology coupled to Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection (MHSSE-GC-MS) has been used to analyze 44 volatile compounds that can be found in the different samples. Of all the factors, the collection season proved to be the most influential, followed by origin with significantly lower volatile compounds concentrations found in the samples collected in spring and in southern Spain. A Principal Component Analysis showed that beta ionone, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, together with some acids were the most strongly affected by the season, with highest values in those samples that had been collected in the autumn. On the other hand, the pretreatment (raw, salting or dehydration) proved to have a low influence.

Algas Marinas/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Análisis de Varianza , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Análisis de Componente Principal , Estaciones del Año , Algas Marinas/metabolismo , España
Food Chem ; 336: 127758, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784062


Heather honey is highly appreciated by consumers for its sensorial profile, which varies depending on the flora used by the honeybees. Volatile compounds contribute to these qualities. Characterisation of the volatile profile related to the botanical origin is of great interest for the standardization of unifloral honey. For this reason, 33 heather honey samples from northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to identify the key volatile compounds in this type of honey. The aim of this research was to provide a descriptive analysis of these compounds, and to find whether there is any relationship with the main Erica species. A total of 58 volatile organic compounds were found, with hotrienol, phenylacetaldehyde, and cis-linalool being the most abundant. A principal component analysis and Spearman's rank correlation showed the homogeneity of the volatile profile in the samples, and their close relationship with the main pollen types.

Ericaceae/química , Miel/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Animales , Abejas , Ericaceae/metabolismo , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Polen/química , Análisis de Componente Principal , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , España , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 142257, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181975


COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly spread worldwide. Spain has suffered one of the largest nationwide bursts, particularly in the highly populated areas of Madrid and Barcelona (two of the five largest conurbations in Europe). We used segmented regression analyses to identify shifts in the evolution of the effective reproduction number (Rt) reported for 16 Spanish administrative regions. We associate these breaking points with a timeline of key containment measures taken by national and regional governments, applying time lags for the time from contagion to case detection, with their associated errors. Results show an early decrease of Rt that preceded the nationwide lockdown; a generalized, sharp decrease in Rt associated with such lockdown; a low impact of the strengthened lockdown, with a flattening of Rt evolution in high-incidence regions, and even increases in Rt at low-incidence regions; and an increase in Rt associated to the relaxation of the lockdown measures in ten regions. These results evidence the importance of generalized lockdown measures to contain COVID-19 spread, and the limited effect of the subsequent application of a stricter lockdown (restrictions to all non-essential economic activities). Most importantly, they highlight the importance of maintaining strong social distancing measures and strengthening public health control during lockdown de-escalation.

Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidencia , España
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141833, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207478


The use of freshwater in agricultural systems represents a high percentage of total water consumption worldwide. Therefore, alternative sources of water for irrigation will need to be developed, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas, in order to meet the growing demand for food in the future. The use of recycled wastewater (RWW), brackish water (BW) or desalinated brackish water (DBW) are among the different non-conventional water resources proposed. However, it is necessary to evaluate the health risks for humans and animals associated with the microbiological load of these waters. Protozoa such as free-living amoebae (FLA) are considered an emerging group of opportunistic pathogens capable to cause several diseases in humans (e.g. cutaneous and ocular infections, lung, bone or adrenal gland conditions or fatal encephalitis). In the present study we evaluate FLA presence in three different irrigation water qualities (RWW, BW and DBW) and its survival in irrigated agricultural soils of an extremely arid insular ecosystem (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, Spain). Samples were cultured on 2% Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of FLA. According to the prevalence of FLA, Vermamoeba vermiformis (53,8%), Acanthamoeba spp. (30,8%), Vahlkampfia avara (7,7%) and Naegleria australiensis (7,7%) were detected in the analysed water samples, while Acanthamoeba (83,3%), Cercozoa spp. (8,3%) and Vahlkampfia orchilla (8,3%) were isolated in irrigated soils. Only Acanthamoeba strains were isolated in no irrigated soils used as control, evidencing the capability of these protozoa to resist environmental harsh conditions. Additionally, all analysed water sources and the irrigated soils presented growth of several pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, the coexistence in water and soils of pathogenic bacteria and FLA, can mean an increased risk of infection in agroecosystems.

Amoeba , Ecosistema , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Suelo , España
Ann Med ; 53(1): 103-116, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063540


BACKGROUND: Hyperglycaemia has emerged as an important risk factor for death in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between blood glucose (BG) levels and in-hospital mortality in non-critically patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-centre study involving patients hospitalized in Spain. Patients were categorized into three groups according to admission BG levels: <140 mg/dL, 140-180 mg/dL and >180 mg/dL. The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 11,312 patients, only 2128 (18.9%) had diabetes and 2289 (20.4%) died during hospitalization. The in-hospital mortality rates were 15.7% (<140 mg/dL), 33.7% (140-180 mg) and 41.1% (>180 mg/dL), p<.001. The cumulative probability of mortality was significantly higher in patients with hyperglycaemia compared to patients with normoglycaemia (log rank, p<.001), independently of pre-existing diabetes. Hyperglycaemia (after adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension and other confounding factors) was an independent risk factor of mortality (BG >180 mg/dL: HR 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-1.73) (BG 140-180 mg/dL; HR 1.48; 95%CI: 1.29-1.70). Hyperglycaemia was also associated with requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Admission hyperglycaemia is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in non-critically hospitalized COVID-19 patients regardless of prior history of diabetes. KEY MESSAGE Admission hyperglycaemia is a stronger and independent risk factor for mortality in COVID-19. Screening for hyperglycaemia, in patients without diabetes, and early treatment of hyperglycaemia should be mandatory in the management of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Admission hyperglycaemia should not be overlooked in all patients regardless prior history of diabetes.

Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Hiperglucemia/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Sistema de Registros , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Glucemia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/mortalidad , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , España/epidemiología
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141844, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861949


Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are very toxic chemicals which are emitted in waste incineration and whose exposure has important adverse effects for the human health. In 2019, adipose tissue samples were collected from 15 individuals with a median age of 61 years, who had been living near a hazardous waste incinerator in Constantí (Spain). The content of PCDD/Fs in each sample was analyzed. The results were compared with data from previous studies, conducted before (1998) and after (2002, 2007 and 2013) the facility started to operate, and based on populations of similar age. In 2019, the mean concentration of PCDD/Fs in adipose tissue was 6.63 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat, ranging from 0.95 to 12.95 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. A significant reduction was observed with respect to the baseline study (1998), when a mean PCDD/Fs concentration of 40.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat was found. Moreover, the current level was much lower than those observed in the 3 previous studies (9.89, 14.6 and 11.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat in 2002, 2007 and 2013, respectively). The body burdens of PCDD/Fs were strongly correlated with age. The significant reduction of PCDD/Fs levels in adipose tissue fully agreed with the decreasing trend of the dietary intake of PCDD/Fs by the population of the zone (from 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day in 2018 to 8.54 pg WHO-TEQ/day in 2018). Furthermore, a similar decrease has been also observed in other biological, such as breast milk and plasma. The current data in adipose tissue, as well as those in other biological monitors, indicate that the population living near the HWI is not particularly exposed to high levels of PCDD/Fs. However, biomonitoring studies cannot differentiate the impact of the HWI emissions from food consumption patterns. This question can be only solved by conducting complementary investigations and contrasting the results of monitoring and epidemiological studies.

Benzofuranos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Tejido Adiposo/química , Animales , Benzofuranos/análisis , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Residuos Peligrosos/análisis , Humanos , Incineración , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análisis , España
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141424, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853931


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an unprecedented global health crisis, with several countries imposing lockdowns to control the coronavirus spread. Important research efforts are focused on evaluating the association of environmental factors with the survival and spread of the virus and different works have been published, with contradictory results in some cases. Data with spatial and temporal information is a key factor to get reliable results and, although there are some data repositories for monitoring the disease both globally and locally, an application that integrates and aggregates data from meteorological and air quality variables with COVID-19 information has not been described so far to the best of our knowledge. Here, we present DatAC (Data Against COVID-19), a data fusion project with an interactive web frontend that integrates COVID-19 and environmental data in Spain. DatAC is provided with powerful data analysis and statistical capabilities that allow users to explore and analyze individual trends and associations among the provided data. Using the application, we have evaluated the impact of the Spanish lockdown on the air quality, observing that NO2, CO, PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 levels decreased drastically in the entire territory, while O3 levels increased. We observed similar trends in urban and rural areas, although the impact has been more important in the former. Moreover, the application allowed us to analyze correlations among climate factors, such as ambient temperature, and the incidence of COVID-19 in Spain. Our results indicate that temperature is not the driving factor and without effective control actions, outbreaks will appear and warm weather will not substantially limit the growth of the pandemic. DatAC is available at

Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , España/epidemiología
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141252, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182174


Anthropogenic activities are seriously endangering the conservation of biodiversity worldwide, calling for urgent actions to mitigate their impact on ecosystems. We applied machine learning techniques to predict the response of freshwater ecosystems to multiple anthropogenic pressures, with the goal of informing the definition of water policy targets and management measures to recover and protect aquatic biodiversity. Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Regression Trees algorithms were used for the modelling of the biological indices of macroinvertebrates and diatoms in the Tagus river basin (Spain). Among the anthropogenic stressors considered as explanatory variables, the categories of land cover in the upstream catchment area and the nutrient concentrations showed the highest impact on biological communities. The model was then used to predict the biological response to different nutrient concentrations in river water, with the goal of exploring the effect of different regulatory thresholds on the ecosystem status. Specifically, we considered the maximum nutrient concentrations set by the Spanish legislation, as well as by the legislation of other European Union Member States. According to our model, the current nutrient thresholds in Spain ensure values of biological indices consistent with the good ecological status in only about 60% of the total number of water bodies. By applying more restrictive nutrient concentrations, the number of water bodies with biological indices in good status could increase by almost 40%. Moreover, coupling more restrictive nutrient thresholds with measures that improve the riparian habitat yields up to 85% of water bodies with biological indices in good status, thus proving to be a key approach to restore the status of the ecosystem.

Ecosistema , Ríos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático , España , Agua
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142260, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182217


The ingestion of lead (Pb) ammunition is the most important exposure pathway to this metal in birds and involve negative consequences to their health. We have performed a passive monitoring of Pb poisoning in birds of prey by measuring liver (n = 727) and blood (n = 32) Pb levels in individuals of 16 species found dead or sick in Spain between 2004 and 2020. We also performed an active monitoring by measuring blood Pb levels and biomarkers of haem biosynthesis, phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) metabolism, oxidative stress and immune function in individuals (n = 194) of 9 species trapped alive in the field between 2016 and 2017. Passive monitoring results revealed some species with liver Pb levels associated with severe clinical poisoning (>30 µg/g d.w. of Pb): Eurasian griffon vulture (27/257, 10.5%), red kite (1/132, 0.8%), golden eagle (4/38, 10.5%), and Northern goshawk (1/8, 12.5%). The active monitoring results showed that individuals of bearded vulture (1/3, 33.3%), Eurasian griffon vulture (87/118, 73.7%), Spanish imperial eagle (1/6, 16.7%) and red kite (1/18, 5.6%) had abnormal blood Pb levels (>20 µg/dL). Blood Pb levels increased with age, and both monitoring methods showed seasonality in Pb exposure associated with a delayed effect of the hunting season. In Eurasian griffon, blood Pb concentration was associated with lower δ-ALAD activity in blood and P levels in plasma, and with higher blood lipid peroxidation and plasma carotenoid levels in agreement with other experimental and field studies in Pb-exposed birds. The study reveals that Pb poisoning is a significant cause of death and sublethal effects on haem biosynthesis, P metabolism and oxidative stress in birds of prey in Spain.

Águilas , Intoxicación por Plomo , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Plomo/toxicidad , Intoxicación por Plomo/veterinaria , Estrés Oxidativo , España/epidemiología
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monografía en Portugués | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677


Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.

This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.

Política Pública , Coronavirus , Pandemias , España/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847


El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización

On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them

Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Sociedades Médicas , España
Rev Infirm ; 69(264): 33-35, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129475


Spain is one of the European countries most affected by COVID-19. The pandemic has had significant psychological consequences in the general population. Nurses involved in the management of this sudden and major health crisis were particularly impacted on a psychological level. In this article, a global overview is presented including negative and positive factors of the nurses' experiences in the two main cities of Spain affected by the virus: Madrid and Barcelona.

Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Humanos , España/epidemiología
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(4): 490-500, nov. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-194224


BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has highlighted the importance of studying the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. The aim of this study is to examine the role of age in the early psychological responses to the pandemic in a Spanish community sample, focusing on how different generations coped with it. METHOD: An online survey was conducted during the early stages of the quarantine. Sociodemographic, health and behavioral variables were compared for five age groups. Mental health was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and psychological impacts were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: 3,524 participants were included (Mage = 39.24, SDage = 12.00). Participants aged between 18 and 33 years old showed more hyperactivation and evitation, were more depressed, anxious and stressed. Those aged between 26 and 33 years old showed more intrusion. Those aged between 18 and 25 years old suffered more sleep disturbances, claustrophobia and somatization and maintained worse routines. Elderly people showed better psychological responses in general. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence that the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic hits young people harder. These results should be taken into account when developing specific evidence-based strategies

ANTECEDENTES: la Organización Mundial de la Salud ha destacado la importancia de estudiar sus consecuencias sobre la salud mental de la COVID-19. Esta investigación estudia el papel de la edad sobre las respuestas psicológicas tempranas a la pandemia. MÉTODO: se realizó una encuesta online en la población adulta de España durante la cuarentena. Las variables sociodemofráficas, de salud y conductuales fueron estudiadas en 5 grupos de edad. El estado mental se estudió a través del DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale) y el impacto psicológico a través del IES-R (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). RESULTADOS: 3.524 participantes fueron incluidos (Medad = 39.24, DTedad = 12.00). Los participantes entre 18 y 33 se mostraban más hiperactivados, evitativos, ansiosos, deprimidos y estresados. Aquellos entre 26 y 33 años presentaban más intrusión. Los participantes entre 18 y 25 años dormían peor, presentaban más claustrofobia y somatizaciones, mayores dificultades para mantener rutinas, mientras que los mayores presentaban mejores respuestas en general. CONCLUSIONES: este estudio indica que la población española más joven se ha visto más afectada por las consecuencias psicológicas de la pandemia. Algunas de las diferencias en conductas y preocupaciones que dependieron de la edad deberían tenerse en cuenta para elaborar estrategias de intervención

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Pandemias , Factores de Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudios Transversales , España
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 220(8): 480-494, nov. 2020. tab, mapas
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192204


ANTECEDENTES: España ha sido uno de los países más afectados por la pandemia de COVID-19. OBJETIVO: Crear un registro de pacientes hospitalizados en España por COVID-19 para mejorar nuestro conocimiento sobre los aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos, terapéuticos y pronósticos de esta enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, multicéntrico, que incluye pacientes consecutivos hospitalizados con COVID-19 confirmada en toda España. Se obtuvieron los datos epidemiológicos y clínicos, las pruebas complementarias al ingreso y a los 7 días de la admisión, los tratamientos administrados y la evolución a los 30 días de hospitalización de las historias clínicas electrónicas. RESULTADOS: Hasta el 30 de junio de 2020 se incluyeron 15.111 pacientes de 150 hospitales. Su mediana de edad fue 69,4 años (rango: 18-102 años) y el 57,2% eran hombres. Las prevalencias de hipertensión, dislipemia y diabetes mellitus fueron 50,9%, 39,7% y 19,4%, respectivamente. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron fiebre (84,2%) y tos (73,5%). Fueron frecuentes los valores elevados de ferritina (73,5%), lactato deshidrogenasa (73,9%) y dímero D (63,8%), así como la linfopenia (52,8%). Los fármacos antivirales más utilizados fueron la hidroxicloroquina (85,6%) y el lopinavir/ritonavir (61,4%). El 33,1% desarrolló distrés respiratorio. La tasa de mortalidad global fue del 21,0%, con un marcado incremento con la edad (50-59 años: 4,7%; 60-69 años: 10,5%; 70-79 años: 26,9%; ≥80 años: 46%). CONCLUSIONES: El Registro SEMI-COVID-19 proporciona información sobre las características clínicas de los pacientes con COVID-19 hospitalizados en España. Los pacientes con COVID-19 hospitalizados en España son en su mayoría casos graves, ya que uno de cada 3 pacientes desarrolló distrés respiratorio y uno de cada 5 pacientes falleció. Nuestros datos confirman una estrecha relación entre la edad avanzada y la mortalidad

BACKGROUND: Spain has been one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To create a registry of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain, in order to improve our knowledge of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of this disease. METHODS: A multicentre retrospective cohort study, including consecutive patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 throughout Spain. Epidemiological and clinical data, additional tests at admission and at seven days, treatments administered, and progress at 30 days of hospitalization were collected from electronic medical records. RESULTS: Up to June 30th 2020, 15,111 patients from 150 hospitals were included. Their median age was 69.4 years (range: 18-102 years) and 57.2% were male. Prevalences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus were 50.9%, 39.7%, and 19.4%, respectively. The most frequent symptoms were fever (84.2%) and cough (73.5%). High values of ferritin (73.5%), lactate dehydrogenase (73.9%), and D-dimer (63.8%), as well as lymphopenia (52.8%), were frequent. The most used antiviral drugs were hydroxychloroquine (85.6%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (61.4%); 33.1% developed respiratory distress. Overall mortality rate was 21.0%, with a marked increase with age (50-59 years: 4.7%, 60-69 years: 10.5%, 70-79 years: 26.9%, ≥80 years: 46.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The SEMI-COVID-19 Network provides data on the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain. Patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain are mostly severe cases, as one in three patients developed respiratory distress and one in five patients died. These findings confirm a close relationship between advanced age and mortality

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Neumonía/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Pacientes Internos/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Registros de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241743, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166344


The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has fast spread to over 200 countries and regions worldwide since its outbreak, while in March, Europe became the emerging epicentre. In this study, we aimed to model the epidemic trends and estimate the essential epidemic features of COVID-19 in Italy, Spain, Germany, and France at the initial stage. The numbers of daily confirmed cases and total confirmed cases were extracted from the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) situation reports of WHO. We applied an extended Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model to fit the epidemic trend and estimated corresponding epidemic features. The transmission rate estimates were 1.67 (95% credible interval (CrI), 1.64-1.71), 2.83 (2.72-2.85), 1.91 (1.84-1.98), and 1.89 (1.82-1.96) for Italy, Spain, Germany, and France, corresponding to the basic reproduction numbers (R0) 3.44 (3.35-3.54), 6.25 (5.97-6.55), 4.03 (3.84-4.23), and 4.00 (3.82-4.19), respectively. We found Spain had the lowest ascertainment rate of 0.22 (0.19-0.25), followed by France, Germany, and Italy of 0.45 (0.40-0.50), 0.46 (0.40-0.52), and 0.59 (0.55-0.64). The peaks of daily new confirmed cases would reach on April 16, April 5, April 21, and April 19 for Italy, Spain, Germany, and France if no action was taken by the authorities. Given the high transmissibility and high covertness of COVID-19, strict countermeasures, such as national lockdown and social distancing, were essential to be implemented to reduce the spread of the disease.

Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Francia/epidemiología , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , España/epidemiología