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2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2411-2421, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520286

RESUMEN

This paper presents the results of an opinion poll conducted in Brazil on the perception of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was prepared on Google Forms, disseminated through social networks, with questions about the socioeconomic profile and factors associated with isolation. A non-probabilistic sample was obtained with 16,440 respondents. Data were analyzed using the Stata 13 software. Social interaction was the most affected aspect among people with higher education and income (45.8%), and financial problems caused a more significant impact (35%) among people with low income and education. Those who practice some physical activity showed lower levels of stress 13%, as well as greater normality in sleep 50.3%. People who reported living in worse habitability conditions reported willingness to remain isolated for less time, 73.9%. Among non-isolated people (10.7% of the total sample), 75.8% believe that social isolation will reduce the number of victims of COVID-19. We conclude, based on this sample, that the perception about social isolation as a pandemic mitigation action varies by income, education, age, and gender. However, most believe that it is the most appropriate control measure and are willing to wait as long as necessary to contribute to the fight against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Espacio Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Opinión Pública , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 13, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528624

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) scourge has challenged the world's health systems and presented multiple socio-economic and public health challenges to the states it has affected. Zimbabwe has been affected by the pandemic, and in response, the government has set up an array of measures, including a national lockdown, to curb transmission. While it is critical to maintain such vigorous containment measures, socio-economic pressures in Zimbabwe will challenge the sustainability of the lockdown. Given the potential for lift of the lockdown before the Covid-19 pandemic ends, we discuss the Covid-19 pandemic situation in Zimbabwe and viewpoints on important considerations and strategies for lifting the lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Control Social Formal/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Espacio Personal , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2423-2446, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520287

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged researchers and policy makers to identify public safety measures forpreventing the collapse of healthcare systems and reducingdeaths. This narrative review summarizes the available evidence on the impact of social distancing measures on the epidemic and discusses the implementation of these measures in Brazil. Articles on the effect of social distancing on COVID-19 were selected from the PubMed, medRXiv and bioRvix databases. Federal and state legislation was analyzed to summarize the strategies implemented in Brazil. Social distancing measures adopted by the population appear effective, particularly when implemented in conjunction with the isolation of cases and quarantining of contacts. Therefore, social distancing measures, and social protection policies to guarantee the sustainability of these measures, should be implemented. To control COVID-19 in Brazil, it is also crucial that epidemiological monitoring is strengthened at all three levels of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). This includes evaluating and usingsupplementary indicators to monitor the progression of the pandemic and the effect of the control measures, increasing testing capacity, and making disaggregated notificationsand testing resultstransparentand broadly available.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Espacio Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Brasil/epidemiología , Creación de Capacidad , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Conducta de Masa , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Política Pública , Aislamiento Social
5.
Bull Cancer ; 107(6): 623-628, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416925
6.
Salud Publica Mex ; 62(3): 331-340, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304371

RESUMEN

Health literacy is the process of obtaining knowledge, motivation and individual competencies to understand and access information, express opinions and make decisions with respect to health promotion and maintenance. This applies in different contexts, environments, and throughout life. This conceptual perspective is very necessary in the face of the SARS-CoV-2 virus emergency. This virus produces the Covid-19 disease, which has become a pandemic of devastating effects not only healthwise, but also, importantly, from an economic, political and social point of view. This essay seeks to establish the scientific evidence-based elements that guide public policies for prevention and control. Some of these elements are: a) epidemiologic intelligence. This includes not only the strategy of public surveillance, but also sentinel and event-based surveillance, as it is impossible to actually identify all positive cases; b) Mitigating measures against the spread of the epidemic, such as social distancing and hygiene, washing hands, quarantine, restricting movement and using masks, among others; c) Measures to suppress transmission when the number of cases is very high, such as strict measures to stay at home; d) strengthening health services 'capacity for medical attention and improving health services' ability to prevent transmission, including the use of diagnostic tests; e) the development of prophylactic vaccines against Covid-19, as well as the development of therapeutic agents. All of these actions must be rapidly implemented, from a multidisciplinary and multisectorial public health perspective, and they absolutely must also be taken with the community's participation as shared responsibility. Therefore, public health literacy is needed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Alfabetización en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Higiene de las Manos , Humanos , Máscaras , Espacio Personal , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Vigilancia de la Población , Vigilancia de Guardia , Aislamiento Social , Evaluación de Síntomas
8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 75(6): 681-690, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173133

RESUMEN

Lactation benefits both lactating individuals and their infants. Despite high rates of breastfeeding initiation, physicians are a high-risk group for early cessation. Barriers to meeting lactation goals for physicians include lack of protected time, dedicated space, and collegial support. The emergency department (ED) is a uniquely challenging setting for lactating emergency physicians, given the high-stress, high-acuity environment that lacks predictability or scheduled breaks. This article presents an overview of relevant lactation physiology and evidence for specific strategies that the lactating emergency physician, colleagues, and ED leadership can implement to overcome barriers and facilitate meeting lactation goals.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/métodos , Lactancia/fisiología , Médicos/psicología , Técnicos Medios en Salud/psicología , Lactancia Materna/instrumentación , Lactancia Materna/tendencias , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/normas , Femenino , Objetivos , Humanos , Lactante , Liderazgo , Espacio Personal , Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Lugar de Trabajo/organización & administración
9.
Acad Med ; 95(1): 52-58, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567172

RESUMEN

Facing space constraints similar to those experienced by many urban campuses, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) looked to innovative office workplace design to curb growing facilities expenditures. Mission Hall, a new office building primarily for desktop and clinical researchers and staff, was designed as an activity-based workplace (ABW), a type of open-space design. ABW was simultaneously being proposed as the template for future UCSF desktop research workspaces. ABWs can be less costly to construct than other designs, and their mix of shared and open workspaces is intended to improve efficiency and interaction. Evaluations of ABWs in corporate settings have yielded mixed results. Examples of ABW buildings for faculty in academic health centers (AHCs) are rare.The Mission Hall experience provided a unique opportunity to understand the impact of an ABW design on faculty satisfaction, work effectiveness, well-being, and engagement. In a 2016 survey of faculty, 1 year after occupancy, respondents reported adverse changes in all 4 areas. The most common complaints involved noise exposure and lack of visual and auditory privacy. In response to these issues, faculty reported working at home or elsewhere more frequently, making collaboration more difficult. In 2018, UCSF retrofitted the building to create some private offices and adjusted its overall program to balance private office and open workspaces in future projects.Lessons drawn from this experience can inform workplace solutions at other AHCs. Most critical are the needs to assess functional requirements of work and align design, change management, and technologies to support those requirements.


Asunto(s)
Arquitectura y Construcción de Instituciones de Salud/economía , Docentes/organización & administración , Universidades/organización & administración , Lugar de Trabajo/organización & administración , Eficiencia/ética , Arquitectura y Construcción de Instituciones de Salud/métodos , Arquitectura y Construcción de Instituciones de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Ruido/efectos adversos , Satisfacción Personal , Espacio Personal , Investigadores/estadística & datos numéricos , San Francisco/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/normas , Compromiso Laboral , Lugar de Trabajo/economía
10.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919870990, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533479

RESUMEN

Individuals vary in their personal space (PS) size as reflected by the preferred distance to another person during social interactions. A previous study with adults showed that pathogen-relevant disgust proneness (DP) predicted PS magnitude. The present study investigated whether this association between DP and PS already exists in 8- to 12-year-old children (144 girls, 101 boys). The children answered a disgust questionnaire with the two trait dimensions "core disgust (contact with spoiled food and poor hygiene) and "death-relevant disgust" (imagined contact with dead and dying organisms). PS magnitude was assessed with a paper-pencil measure (drawing a PS bubble; Experiment 1) or with the stop-distance task (preferred distance to an approaching woman or man; Experiment 2). In both experiments, only death-related disgust predicted PS magnitude and only if the approaching person was male. The current study questions the relevance of pathogen-related disgust in children for regulating interpersonal distance.


Asunto(s)
Asco , Espacio Personal , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(11): 2911-2924, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494683

RESUMEN

While reaching for a coffee cup, we are aware that the hand we see belongs to us and it moves at our will (reflecting our senses of ownership and agency, respectively), and that the cup is within our hand's reach rather than beyond it (i.e., in reachable space, RS, rather than in non-reachable space, NRS). Accepted psychological explanations of our sense of ownership, sense of agency, and our perception of space surrounding the body as RS or NRS propose a unitary dependence on Euclidean distance from the body. Here, we propose an alternate, affordance-based explanation of experienced ownership, agency, and perception of space surrounding the body as RS and NRS. Adult participants experienced the static rubber hand illusion (RHI) and its dynamic variant, while the rubber hand was either within their arm's reach (i.e., in self-identified RS) or beyond it (i.e., in self-identified NRS). We found that when the participants experienced synchronous visual and tactile signals in the static RHI, and synchronous visual and kinesthetic signals in the dynamic RHI, they felt illusory ownership when the rubber hand was in RS but not when it was in NRS. Conversely, when the participants experienced synchronous visual and kinesthetic signals in the dynamic RHI, they felt agency, regardless of the rubber hand's location. In addition, illusory ownership was accompanied by proprioceptive drift, a feeling that their hand was closer to the rubber hand than it actually was, but agency was not accompanied by proprioceptive drift. Together, these results indicate that our sense of ownership, while malleable enough to incorporate visible non-corporeal objects resembling a body part, is spatially constrained by proprioceptive signals specifying that body part's actual location. In contrast, our sense of agency can incorporate a visible non-corporeal object, independent of its location with respect to the body. We propose that the psychological processes mediating our sense of ownership are closely linked with our perception of space surrounding the body, and that the spatial independence of our sense of agency reflects the coupling between our actions and perception of the environment, such as while using handheld tools as extensions of our body.


Asunto(s)
Mano , Ilusiones/fisiología , Cinestesia/fisiología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Espacio Personal , Percepción Espacial/fisiología , Percepción del Tacto/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
12.
Neurocase ; 25(5): 209-215, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448972

RESUMEN

We developed a new visual search test to assess signs of left visual peripersonal neglect. Five right-hemisphere-damaged patients, 10 healthy controls, and 10 orthopedic controls were administered the test in four conditions: easy task (no distractors)/time-limited (45''), easy task (no distractors)/time-unlimited, difficult task (distractors)/time-limited (45''), difficult task (distractors)/time-unlimited. With respect to controls, most RHDP showed signs of left visual peripersonal neglect in the time-limited condition, but not in the time-unlimited condition, particularly on the difficult task. We suggest that the presence of appropriate time limits, in difficult visual search tasks, could considerably improve the diagnosis of left visual peripersonal neglect.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Encefálicas/psicología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Trastornos de la Percepción/diagnóstico , Espacio Personal , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Isquemia Encefálica/complicaciones , Isquemia Encefálica/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos de la Percepción/etiología , Trastornos de la Percepción/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología
13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218675, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233542

RESUMEN

The subcortical mechanisms subtending the sensorimotor processes related to the peripersonal space (PPS) have been well characterized, whereas less evidence is available concerning the cortical mechanisms. We investigated the theta, alpha and beta event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) while holding the forearm in different positions into the PPS of the face. Fifty healthy individuals were subjected to EEG recording while being provided with median nerve electric stimulation at the wrist of the right hand held at different hand-to-face distances. Theta and beta rhythms were significantly perturbed depending on the hand-to-face distance, whereas alpha oscillations reflected a more general, non-specific oscillatory response to the motor task. The perturbation of theta and beta frequency bands may reflect the processes of top-down modulation overseeing the conscious spatiotemporal encoding of sensory-motor information within the PPS. In other words, such perturbation reflects the continuous update of the conscious internal representations of the PPS to build up a purposeful and reflexive motor response.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía , Espacio Personal , Adulto , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiología , Estimulación Eléctrica , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenómenos Fisiológicos del Sistema Nervioso , Corteza Sensoriomotora/fisiología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Muñeca , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217587, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163063

RESUMEN

Violations of personal space are associated with discomfort. However, the exact function linking the magnitude of discomfort to interpersonal distance has not yet been specified. In this study, we explore whether interpersonal distance and discomfort are isotropic with respect to uncomfortably far or close distances. We also extend previous findings with regard to intrusions into personal space as well as maintenance of distances outside of personal space. We presented subjects with 15 interpersonal distances ranging from 40 to 250 cm and obtained verbal and joystick-based ratings of discomfort. Whereas discomfort rose immediately when personal space was entered, the gradient was less steep for distances that exceeded the comfort region of personal space. Thus, personal space is anisotropic with regard to experienced discomfort.


Asunto(s)
Espacio Personal , Adulto , Anisotropía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Adulto Joven
15.
Lancet ; 393(10188): 2291, 2019 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180023
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0210045, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095562

RESUMEN

Representations of the body and peripersonal space can be distorted for people with some chronic pain conditions. Experimental pain induction can give rise to similar, but transient distortions in healthy individuals. However, spatial and bodily representations are dynamic, and constantly update as we interact with objects in our environment. It is unclear whether induced pain disrupts the mechanisms involved in updating these representations. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of induced pain on the updating of peripersonal space and body representations during and following tool-use. We compared performance under three conditions (pain, active placebo, neutral) on a visuotactile crossmodal congruency task and a tactile distance judgement task to measure updating of peripersonal space and body representations, respectively. Consistent with previous findings, the difference in crossmodal interference from visual distractors in the same compared to opposite visual field to the tactile target was less when tools were crossed than uncrossed. This suggests an extension of peripersonal space to incorporate the tips of the tools. Also consistent with previous findings, estimates of the felt tactile distance judgements decreased after active tool-use. In contrast to our predictions, however, we found no evidence that pain interfered with performance on either task when compared to the control conditions. Our findings suggest that the updating of peripersonal space and body representations is not disrupted by induced pain. That is, experiencing acute pain does not give rise to distorted representations of the body and peripersonal space that can be present in people with chronic pain conditions.


Asunto(s)
Dolor/fisiopatología , Espacio Personal , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagen Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción del Tacto/fisiología , Campos Visuales , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Med Humanit ; 45(2): 131-140, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048329

RESUMEN

The impact of social and material conditions on mental health is well established but lacking in a coherent approach. We offer the concept of 'vitality' as means of describing how environments facilitate 'feelings of being alive' that cut across existing diagnostic categories. Drawing on the work of Stern, Fuchs, Worms and Duff, we argue that vitality is not solely a quality of an individual body, but rather emerges from attunements and resonances between bodies and materials. We use vitality as a lens to explore how movements within and between assembled sets of relations can facilitate or disable feelings and expressions of being alive. Building on extended discussions of both inpatient and community-based mental healthcare, we sketch out a research agenda for analysing 'vital spaces'.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Espacio Personal , Filosofía Médica , Humanos
18.
J Neurophysiol ; 121(4): 1111-1124, 2019 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811266

RESUMEN

The cutaneous silent period (CSP) to noxious finger stimulation constitutes a robust spinal inhibitory reflex that protects the hand from injury. In certain conditions, spinal inhibition is interrupted by a brief burst-like electromyographic activity, dividing the CSP into two inhibitory phases (I1 and I2). This excitatory component is termed long-loop reflex (LLR) and is presumed to be transcortical in origin. Efficient defense from environmental threats requires sensorimotor integration between multimodal sensory afferents and planning of defensive movements. In the defensive peripersonal space (DPPS) immediately surrounding the body, we interact with objects and persons with increased alertness. We investigated whether CSP differs when the stimulated hand is in the DPPS of the face compared with a distant position. Furthermore, we investigated the possible role of vision in CSP modulation. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent CSP testing with the handheld either within 5 cm from the nose (near) or away from the body (far). Recordings were obtained from first dorsal interosseous muscle following index (D2) or little finger (D5) stimulation with varying intensities. A subgroup of subjects underwent CSP recordings in near and far conditions, both with eyes open and with eyes closed. No inhibitory CSP parameter differed between stimulation in near and far conditions. LLRs occurring following D2 stimulation were significantly larger in near than far conditions at all stimulus intensities, irrespective of subjects seeing their hand. Similar to the hand-blink reflex, spinally organized protective reflexes may be modulated by corticospinal facilitatory input when the hand enters the DPPS of the face. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present findings demonstrate for the first time that a spinally organized protective reflex, the cutaneous silent period (CSP), may be modulated by top-down corticospinal facilitatory input when the stimulated hand enters the defensive peripersonal space (DPPS) of the face. In particular, the cortically mediated excitatory long-loop reflex, which may interrupt the CSP, is facilitated when the stimulated hand is in the DPPS, irrespective of visual control over the hand. No spinal inhibitory CSP parameter differs significantly in or outside the DPPS.


Asunto(s)
Contracción Muscular , Espacio Personal , Reflejo , Adulto , Femenino , Dedos/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción , Percepción Visual
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 193: 113-122, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622020

RESUMEN

The notion of a personal space surrounding one's ego-center is time-honored. However, few attempts have been made to measure the shape of this space. With increasing use of virtual environments, the question has arisen if real-world aspects, such as gender-effects or the shape of personal space, translate to virtual setups. We conducted two experiments, one with real people matched according to body height and level of acquaintance in a large laboratory setting, and one where subjects faced a virtual character, likewise matched to their body height. The first experiment also used a mannequin in place of the second human observer. The second experiment additionally manipulated the perspective of the subject to compare estimates of interpersonal distance between an egocentric and an allocentric perspective (in third-person view). Subjects approached (or were approached) from different angles until a comfortable distance for conversation with a stranger was reached (stop-distance task). Personal space turned out to be rather circular with a radius of about 1 m. Male pairs kept larger distances from one another than female or mixed-gender pairs. All subjects assumed larger distances to the mannequin compared to the real observer. Very comparable distances were preferred to the avatar in the virtual environment. Also, it did not matter whether the subject was engaged in active approach, was approached, or merely adjusted the distance between two avatars. Implications for theories of personal space are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Espacio Personal , Percepción Espacial/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicación , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
20.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(3): 855-864, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617745

RESUMEN

Peripersonal space (PPS) is created by a multisensory interaction between different sensory modalities and can be modified by experience. In this article, we investigated whether an auditory training, inside the peripersonal space area, can modify the PPS around the head in sighted participants. The auditory training was based on echolocation. We measured the participant's reaction times to a tactile stimulation on the neck, while task-irrelevant looming auditory stimuli were presented. Sounds more strongly affect tactile processing when located within a limited distance from the body. We measured spatially dependent audio-tactile interaction as a proxy of PPS representation before and after an echolocation training. We found a significant speeding effect on tactile RTs after echolocation, specifically when sounds where around the location where the echolocation task was performed. This effect could not be attributed to a task repetition effect nor to a shift of spatial attention, as no changes of PPS were found in two control groups of participants, who performed the PPS task after either a break or a temporal auditory task (with stimuli located at the same position of echolocation task). These findings show that echolocation affects multisensory processing inside PPS representation, likely to better represent the space where external stimuli, have to be localized.


Asunto(s)
Espacio Personal , Localización de Sonidos/fisiología , Percepción Espacial/fisiología , Percepción del Tacto/fisiología , Adulto , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
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