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1.
Med Lav ; 110(S1): 7-12, 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846442

RESUMEN

The author deals with the medical-surgical panorama in Milan at the turn of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. The advances in knowledge acquired from the mid-nineteenth century on led to the emergence of medical and surgical specializations, as well as of new tools for the prevention and treatment of diseases, and the creation of a health and care network, on which it was possible to graft highly developed training opportunities. The example of an institution set up in Milan at the beginning of the twentieth century to treat the results of traumatic events is emblematic, not only because it is related to occupational accidents, but also because it explains the need to have specialists from various medical and surgical disciplines at the service of the entire population.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Salud , Especialización , Accidentes de Trabajo , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Especialización/historia
3.
Actas urol. esp ; 42(9): 586-592, nov. 2018. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-174859

RESUMEN

Introducción y objetivos: Investigamos el comienzo de la especialización urológica en España, desde finales del siglo xix hasta la institución del sistema de formación (MIR), con el objetivo de dar a conocer los centros y las personas que crearon unidades docentes o escuelas de adiestramiento urológico en las que se especializaron los primeros urólogos españoles. Material y métodos: Extraemos las referencias de los libros de historia de urología, de las publicaciones periódicas urológicas y de los pósteres sobre historia presentados en los congresos de la Asociación Española de Urología, completamos los datos y las fechas con el diccionario histórico de urólogos españoles. Resultado: Son 30 los focos de especialización urológica, 8 contaron con acreditación oficial reconocida por el ministerio correspondiente; de los que no nos consta su oficialidad, son en los servicios de urología de los grandes hospitales del país, los hospitales clínicos universitarios y en escuelas privadas dirigidas por destacados urólogos. Catorce son los núcleos principales, que corresponden cronológicamente a las ciudades de: Madrid, Barcelona, Santiago de Compostela, Sevilla, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Cádiz, Santander, Valencia, Granada, Bilbao, San Sebastián, Oviedo, Zaragoza y Salamanca. Conclusión: La formación urológica en España desde finales del siglo xix y la primera mitad del xx estuvo bien establecida, tanto en centros acreditados oficialmente como en los servicios de urología de los principales hospitales, en los clínicos universitarios y en escuelas y clínicas privadas, dirigidas por urólogos bien preparados, que garantizaba una adecuada docencia y adiestramiento, método que persistió hasta la institución del sistema MIR en 1970


Introduction and objectives: We researched the start of urological specialisation in Spain, from the end of the 19th century to the institution of the education system (resident medical intern) to learn about the centres and individuals who created the urological teaching units and training schools in which the first Spanish urologists specialised their training. Material and methods: We extracted the references from books on the history of urology, from periodic urological publications and from the posters on history submitted to the congresses of the Spanish Urological Association and filled in the data and dates with the Historical Dictionary of Spanish Urologists. Result: There are 30 urological specialization centres, 8 with official accreditation recognised by the corresponding ministry but whose official status is unknown. These centres are in the urology departments of large Spanish hospitals, university clinic hospitals and in private schools directed by notable urologists. There are 14 main centres, corresponding chronologically to the following cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Santiago de Compostela, Seville, Las Palmas of Gran Canaria, Cadiz, Santander, Valencia, Granada, Bilbao, San Sebastian, Oviedo, Zaragoza and Salamanca. Conclusion: Urological training in Spain from the end of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century was well-established, both in officially accredited centres and in the urology departments of the main hospitals, in university clinic hospitals and in private schools and clinics. The training was directed by experienced urologists who ensured proper teaching and training, a method that persisted until the institution of the resident medical intern system in 1970


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Urología/historia , Docentes Médicos/historia , Educación Médica/historia , Sociedades Médicas/historia , Carteles como Asunto , Especialización/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Sociedades Médicas/organización & administración , Urología/educación
4.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 46(6): 466-477, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371254

RESUMEN

50 years specialty for child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany. History, current situation, and future perspectives Abstract. Abstracts: Method: Review of the historical background and implementation of an independent medical specialty "child and adolescent psychiatry" (CAP) in Germany. Results: The implementation of an independent specialty for CAP in 1968 was crucial for the progressive further development of the discipline. The Enquête Commission "Psychiatry" of the Federal Government, followed by the Model Program "Psychiatry", the Staff Regulations for Psychiatry, the Agreement on the Social Psychiatry and the Psychotherapy Act have had significant impact on the care for psychiatrically ill children and adolescents and their families. This led to an institutional anchoring of new structures, covering three of the four leading principles of the Model Program, namely integration into medicine, community-based and appropriate care. Equality of psychiatric patients with other patient groups has, nevertheless, not yet been achieved and is still to be claimed. Current and future challenges are: (1) The realistic evaluation of new research methods and epochal trends and elimination of opposites, (2) the establishment of future-oriented research initiatives, (3) the intensive promotion of clinical and scientific staff members, and (4) a renewed attention for the subjective perspective of the illness. Conclusions: The implementation of an independent specialty "child and adolescent psychiatry" was an important stimulus for the further development of the discipline. Essential demands for the future will be: the integration of CAP into the curriculum for medical students and the promotion of young researchers within the scope of regional and supra-regional projects.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría del Adolescente/historia , Psiquiatría Infantil/historia , Adolescente , Psiquiatría del Adolescente/tendencias , Niño , Psiquiatría Infantil/tendencias , Predicción , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Especialización/historia , Especialización/tendencias
6.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 25(4): 1219-1237, 2018.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624487

RESUMEN

It analyzes the set-up of pediatrics as a specialized medical field in Buenos Aires, between 1890-1920. The article seeks to demonstrate this process as a result of two movements: the delimitation and characterization of children as a particular object of knowledge and intervention, and the institutionalization of some physicians as a professional group that sought to legitimate their specificity within the medicine field and beyond. After contextualizing socially and historically the concerns of medical knowledge on childhood, it explores with detail how the field was constructed, and the associative and academic movement that allowed pediatricians to constitute themselves as a group of specialists that bear a specific expertise.


Asunto(s)
Pediatría/historia , Especialización/historia , Argentina , Niño , Ciudades , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
9.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 55(2): 140-145, 2017.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296358

RESUMEN

It was at the beginning of the last century, in the hospitals where most of the attention was given, when it was established the habit of admitting apprentices as members of the medical team. However, it was not clearly established how aspirants were admitted, how their learning was to be developed, or what their functions were.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/historia , Internado y Residencia/historia , Especialización/historia , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/normas , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/métodos , Internado y Residencia/normas , México
11.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 77(10): 569-571, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723389

RESUMEN

The 1960s was a period of reform and innovation in the provision of care for people with mental health problems. The most important development was the move away from residential institutions and the development of community services based on district general hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental/historia , Institucionalización/historia , Psiquiatría/historia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/historia , Política de Salud/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Psiquiatría/educación , Especialización/historia , Suicidio/historia , Suicidio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reino Unido
12.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 77(10): 572-574, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723405

RESUMEN

The term 'obstetrics and gynaecology' now feels like an outmoded name for women's health care. Since the 1960s the specialty has been transformed by social change, technical innovation and medical subspecialization, although the core values of good clinical practice remain unchanged.


Asunto(s)
Ginecología/historia , Obstetricia/historia , Fertilización In Vitro/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos/historia , Perinatología/historia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Atención Prenatal/historia , Salud Reproductiva/historia , Especialización/historia , Reino Unido
13.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 119(6): 523-532, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27685872

RESUMEN

The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish healthcare system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees both in hospitals and in the primary sector. All clinical pharmacology centres offer a local medicines information service. Some centres have established an adverse drug effect manager function. Only one centre offers a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Clinical pharmacologists are responsible for the toxicological advice at the Danish Poison Information Centre at Bispebjerg University Hospital in the Capital Region. The Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Aarhus University Hospital works closely together with forensic toxicologists and pathologists, covering issues regarding illicit substances, forensic pharmacology, post-mortem toxicology, expert testimony and research. Therapeutic geriatric and psychiatric teach-inns for specialist and junior doctors are among the newest initiatives organized by clinical pharmacologists. Clinical pharmacologists work also in the Danish Medicines Agency and in the Danish pharmaceutical industry, and the latter has in particular a great growth potential for creating new jobs and career opportunities for clinical pharmacologists. As of July 2016, the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology has 175 members, and 70 of these are specialists in clinical pharmacology corresponding to approximately 2.5 specialists per 1000 doctors (Denmark has in total 28,000 doctors) or approximately 12 specialists per one million inhabitants.


Asunto(s)
Farmacología Clínica/historia , Sociedades Científicas/historia , Especialización/historia , Movilidad Laboral , Dinamarca , Industria Farmacéutica , Monitoreo de Drogas , Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/prevención & control , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/terapia , Toxicología Forense/educación , Toxicología Forense/historia , Toxicología Forense/tendencias , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Servicios de Información , Agencias Internacionales , Internacionalidad , Farmacología Clínica/educación , Farmacología Clínica/tendencias , Sociedades Científicas/tendencias , Especialización/tendencias , Recursos Humanos
15.
Ophthalmology ; 123(9 Suppl): S55-60, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550007

RESUMEN

The authors present snapshots of board certification in 1916, the year that the American Board of Ophthalmology was founded, 60 years later in 1976 as periodic recertification emerged, and speculation about what certification might look like in 2036. The concept of board certification and continuous certification in the medical specialties took shape at the beginning of the 20th century with the convergence of a new system of assessment, the emergence of certifying boards, and the creation of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). The importance of self-regulation is emphasized as are the principles underlying board certification and the standards that guide it to support its continued relevance as a valued credential and symbol of the highest standard in the practice of medicine.


Asunto(s)
Certificación/historia , Oftalmología/historia , Consejos de Especialidades/historia , Acreditación/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Especialización/historia , Especialización/normas , Consejos de Especialidades/organización & administración , Estados Unidos
16.
Harefuah ; 155(4): 238-40, 253-4, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Hebreo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27323542

RESUMEN

Although the inauguration of the new hospital in Zefat built by Baron Rothschild took place in 1910, the building was not used as a hospital until World War I when it was confiscated by the Turks for patients affected with typhus, and later it was converted into a military hospital. The second inauguration of the renewed hospital was in June 1919, and the medical activity was assigned to the American Zionist Medical Unit for Palestine' (AZMU), later - 'Hadassah Medical Organization'. Among the first doctors that were sent to Zefat by AZMU was Dr. Arieh Leib Shimoni-Mekler - Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat specialist. Dr. Shimoni-Mekler worked in the hospital during the years 1921-2.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales/historia , Otolaringología/historia , Médicos/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Israel , Especialización/historia
17.
Med Hist ; 60(2): 206-28, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26971597

RESUMEN

Demographic trends, and older people over 65 years disproportionately occupying beds in psychiatric hospitals, pointed to their increasing clinical needs. Clinical work with older people often required different skills from work with younger people. 'General psychiatrists', nominally working with adults of all ages, usually had little interest in working with older people. By 1977, it was clear to clinical leaders in the field of psychogeriatrics that official recognition of their specialty by the government was essential to ensure service development. Official recognition would provide the means to collect data to identify gaps in services, to obtain information on the implementation of government guidance and to advocate for resources, including ensuring high quality training posts for doctors wanting to specialise in the field. Doctors have traditionally taken the lead in creating new medical specialties, and psychogeriatrics was no exception. However, support fluctuated towards the specialty from the leadership of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Health service leaders who did not undertake work with older people, were incredulous that others wished to do so. Negotiations between the Royal College of Psychiatrists and the Department of Health and Social Security about recognising psychogeriatrics were convoluted and prolonged. Recognition was achieved in 1989, following intervention by the Royal College of Physicians of London.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría Geriátrica/historia , Anciano , Inglaterra , Agencias Gubernamentales/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas/historia , Especialización/historia , Medicina Estatal/historia
18.
J Clin Anesth ; 28: 47-55, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26349933

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The first academic departments of anesthesia were established in the United States at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1927, with Ralph M. Waters named as chairman, and in the UK at Oxford University in 1937, with Robert Macintosh as chairman. Compared to these early departments, more than 3 decades would pass before Harvard Medical School decided it was time to establish a department of anaesthesia, in 1969. We examine the forces on both sides of the issue, for and against, and how they played out in the late 1960s. METHODS: Published articles, books, interviews, and biographical and autobiographical notes as well as primary source documents such as reports of department and medical school committee meetings were examined to obtain information relevant to our investigation. RESULTS: The late 1960s were an ideal time for the chiefs of anesthesia at the various Harvard teaching hospitals to make a strong argument in favor of establishment of an independent department of anaesthesia. Although strongly opposed by Francis Daniels Moore, Chief of Surgery at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, an independent department at Harvard was established in 1969. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition of anesthesia as a distinctive specialty at universities across the country as well as the specific concerns over administration, hiring, and the future of the clinical service in the 1960s provided overwhelming support for the establishment of a separate, free-standing department of anaesthesia at one of the most tradition-bound universities in the United States-Harvard.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/educación , Anestesiología/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Boston , Cirugía General/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Hospitales de Enseñanza/historia , Especialización/historia
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