Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 204.461
Filtrar
2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(4): 1000-1004, 2022 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134162

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Islatravir (4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine; EFdA) is a first-in-class nucleoside reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) being investigated for HIV treatment and prevention. EFdA is intracellularly phosphorylated to EFdA-triphosphate (EFdA-tp), a competitive substrate of deoxyadenosine-triphosphate (dATP). Thus, translating safety and efficacy findings from preclinical studies relies on the assumption that EFdA's intracellular pharmacology can be extrapolated across species. OBJECTIVES: We investigated how EFdA is phosphorylated across animal species commonly used for preclinical models in drug development to identify those that most closely matched humans. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from whole blood of six species (human, rhesus macaque non-human primate (rmNHP), rat, minipig, dog, and rabbit) using Ficoll separation and counted on a haemocytometer by Trypan blue staining. One million live cells were cultured in media supplemented with 10 U/mL human IL-2, 10% FBS and 1% antibiotics and treated with 0, 17, 170, and 1700 nM EFdA (n = 3 replicates per concentration). After 24 h, representative cell counts were derived from untreated control wells (as above), cells were washed in PBS, and lysed with 70:30 methanol:water. EFdA-tp and dATP concentrations were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS and normalized to the representative live cell counts for each species. RESULTS: When compared to human values, EFdA-tp concentrations for each EFdA treatment concentration were lower in all species (rmNHP 1.5-2.1-fold, rat 4.5-15-fold, minipig 37-71-fold, dog and rabbit >100-fold). Additionally, rmNHP and dog PBMCs exhibited significantly higher (7-10-fold; P < 0.001) dATP when compared with human PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Given intracellular pharmacology differences, these preclinical models may be a conservative estimate of EFdA's intracellular pharmacokinetics and efficacy in humans.


Asunto(s)
Desoxiadenosinas , Modelos Biológicos , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa , Animales , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacología , Perros , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Macaca mulatta , Conejos , Ratas , Proyectos de Investigación , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/farmacología , Especificidad de la Especie , Porcinos , Porcinos Enanos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7534, 2022 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534513

RESUMEN

We used observational data collected during a mark-recapture study that generated a total of 7503 captures of 6108 unique individuals representing three endangered butterfly species to quantify inter-and intraindividual variation in temperature utilization and examine how activity patterns vary according to season, time of day, and ambient temperature. The Marsh Fritillary, the Apollo, and the Large Blue differed in utilized temperatures and phenology. Their daily activity patterns responded differently to temperature, in part depending on whether they were active in the beginning, middle or end of the season, in part reflecting interindividual variation and intraindividual flexibility, and in part owing to differences in ecology, morphology, and colouration. Activity temperatures varied over the season, and the Apollo and the Large Blue were primarily active at the highest available ambient temperatures (on the warmest days and during the warmest part of the day). The Marsh Fritillary was active early in the season and decreased activity during the highest temperatures. The relationship between individual lifespan and the average temperature was qualitatively different in the three species pointing to species-specific selection. Lifespan increased with an increasing range of utilized temperatures in all species, possibly reflecting that intra-individual flexibility comes with a general survival benefit.


Asunto(s)
Mariposas Diurnas , Animales , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Estaciones del Año , Especificidad de la Especie , Temperatura
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267547, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486575

RESUMEN

Temperature and competition are two of the main factors determining ant community assemblages. Temperature may allow species to forage more or less efficiently throughout the day (in accordance with the maximum activity temperature of each species). Competition can be observed and quantified from species replacements occurring during resource exploitation. We studied the interspecific competitive interactions of ant communities from the Doñana Biological Reserve (southern Spain). Ants were sampled from pitfall traps and baits in three habitats with contrasted vegetation physiognomy (savin forest, pine forest, and dry scrubland). We measured the temperature during the competitive interactions between species and created a thermal competition index (TCI) to assess the relative contribution of temperature and numerical dominance to the competitive outcomes. Temperature had unequal effects on ant activity in each type of habitat, and modulated competitive interactions. The TCI showed that a species' success during pair interactions (replacements at baits) was driven by the proportion of workers between the two competing species and by the species-specific effect of temperature (how advantageous the temperature change is for each species during bait replacement). During competitive interactions, the effect of temperature (higher values of TCI) and numeric supremacy (higher worker proportion) gave higher success probabilities. Interspecific competitive relationships in these Mediterranean ant communities are habitat dependent and greatly influenced by temperature.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Animales , Ecosistema , Bosques , Humanos , Especificidad de la Especie , Temperatura
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20200092, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442263

RESUMEN

Intending to increase the knowledge about cytogenetics of Physalaemus and the sparsely studied P. gracilis group, we analyzed the karyotypes of P. carrizorum, P. gracilis, P. lisei, and P. sp. aff. gracilis. We studied chromosome morphology, heterochromatin patterns, Ag-NORs location and mapped the repetitive DNA sequence PcP190. All species showed diploid karyotypes composed of 22 bi-armed chromosomes and similar C- bands and Ag-NOR patterns. C-bands were mainly centromeric and pericentromeric; non-centromeric C-bands were detected on the telomeres of pair 1 in P. lisei, although polymorphic, and interstitially on pair 10 of P. gracilis. This last character is useful to distinguish P. gracilis from its sibling species P. sp. aff. gracilis. The Ag-NOR sites were detected on the long arms of chromosome pair 8 but with a variable position among species. Clusters of PcP190 showed centromeric and pericentromeric positions coincident with conspicuous C-bands, on pairs 2 and 9 in P. gracilis and P. sp. aff. gracilis, pair 3 in P. carrizorum, and pair 7 in P. lisei. These results significantly increase the knowledge about Physalaemus cytogenetics and encourage further studies on the satellite PcP190 in other genera of Leiuperinae to better understand its taxonomic distribution and the evolutionary dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Animales , Anuros/genética , Análisis Citogenético , Citogenética , Cariotipo , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie
6.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 43, 2022 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410171

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The phylogenetic ecology of the Afro-Asian dragonfly genus Trithemis has been investigated previously by Damm et al. (in Mol Phylogenet Evol 54:870-882, 2010) and wing ecomorphology by Outomuro et al. (in J Evol Biol 26:1866-1874, 2013). However, the latter investigation employed a somewhat coarse sampling of forewing and hindwing outlines and reported results that were at odds in some ways with expectations given the mapping of landscape and water-body preference over the Trithemis cladogram produced by Damm et al. (in Mol Phylogenet Evol 54:870-882, 2010). To further explore the link between species-specific wing shape variation and habitat we studied a new sample of 27 Trithemis species employing a more robust statistical test for phylogenetic covariation, more comprehensive representations of Trithemis wing morphology and a wider range of morphometric data-analysis procedures. RESULTS: Contrary to the Outomuro et al. (in J Evol Biol 26:1866-1874, 2013) report, our results indicate that no statistically significant pattern of phylogenetic covariation exists in our Trithemis forewing and hindwing data and that both male and female wing datasets exhibit substantial shape differences between species that inhabit open and forested landscapes and species that hunt over temporary/standing or running water bodies. Among the morphometric analyses performed, landmark data and geometric morphometric data-analysis methods yielded the worst performance in identifying ecomorphometric shape distinctions between Trithemis habitat guilds. Direct analysis of wing images using an embedded convolution (deep learning) neural network delivered the best performance. Bootstrap and jackknife tests of group separations and discriminant-function stability confirm that our results are not artifacts of overtrained discriminant systems or the "curse of dimensionality" despite the modest size of our sample. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Trithemis wing morphology reflects the environment's "push" to a much greater extent than phylogeny's "pull". In addition, they indicate that close attention should be paid to the manner in which morphologies are sampled for morphometric analysis and, if no prior information is available to guide sampling strategy, the sample that most comprehensively represents the morphologies of interest should be obtained. In many cases this will be digital images (2D) or scans (3D) of the entire morphology or morphological feature rather than sparse sets of landmark/semilandmark point locations.


Asunto(s)
Odonata , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Odonata/anatomía & histología , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie , Agua , Alas de Animales/anatomía & histología
7.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210258, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416837

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Herpesvirus transmission between humans and non-human primate (NHP) can occur through contact scratches with lesions, infected saliva, and mainly through contaminated food. Therefore, cross-infection can lead to severe illness or even death for both the animal and human. In 2017, during the yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Brazil, species of the New World Primates (NWP) from Rio de Janeiro state, tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) detection. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate herpesvirus in the population NWP in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: To investigate, liver samples of 283 NWP, from several regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, were tested for the herpesvirus family using a Pan-polymerase chain reaction (Pan-PCR) and sequencing. FINDINGS: 34.6% (98/283) tested positive for at least one herpesvirus; 29.3% (83/283) tested positive to Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1), this virus from humans can be lethal to New World monkey; 13% (37/283) were detected Callitrichine gammaherpesvirus 3 (CalHV-3), responsible for lymphoproliferative disease that can be fatal in NWP. In addition, CalHV-3 / HSV-1 co-infection was in 11.6% (33/283) of the samples. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Pan-herpesvirus was useful to identify species-specific herpesviruses and virus from human that can infect animals. Furthermore, during an outbreak of YF other infections should be monitored.


Asunto(s)
Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Fiebre Amarilla , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Primates , Especificidad de la Especie , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/genética
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(16): e2110156119, 2022 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412904

RESUMEN

SignificanceConservation outreach has long depended on an intuitive sense of which species are more "charismatic" or engaging, for example, placing focus on certain charismatic megafauna in advertising materials. Online community science databases like eBird and iNaturalist provide records of how people engage with different birds under differing data collection protocols. Comparisons between the two databases reveal biases in bird reporting rates. Larger, more colorful, and rarer birds are preferentially engaged with opportunistically in iNaturalist records compared to more systematic eBird records. These relationships and the species-specific engagement indexes determined from these data can be applied to conservation and outreach efforts to help foster a public relationship with nature and can be used to improve models using these two databases.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Participación de la Comunidad , Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Fenotipo , Especificidad de la Especie
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5624, 2022 04 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379841

RESUMEN

Wildlife monitoring programs are instrumental for the assessment of species, habitat status, and for the management of factors affecting them. This is particularly important for species found in freshwater ecosystems, such as amphibians, as they have higher estimated extinction rates than terrestrial species. We developed and validated two species-specific environmental DNA (eDNA) protocols and applied them in the field to detect the Hazara Torrent Frog (Allopaa hazarensis) and Murree Hills Frog (Nanorana vicina). Additionally, we compared eDNA surveys with visual encounter surveys and estimated site occupancy. eDNA surveys resulted in higher occurrence probabilities for both A. hazarensis and N. vicina than for visual encounter surveys. Detection probability using eDNA was greater for both species, particularly for A. hazarensis. The top-ranked detection model for visual encounter surveys included effects of both year and temperature on both species, and the top-ranked occupancy model included effects of elevation and year. The top-ranked detection model for eDNA data was the null model, and the top-ranked occupancy model included effects of elevation, year, and wetland type. To our knowledge, this is the first time an eDNA survey has been used to monitor amphibian species in the Himalayan region.


Asunto(s)
/análisis , Ranidae/fisiología , Altitud , Animales , Ecosistema , Modelos Biológicos , Pakistán , Ranidae/genética , Especificidad de la Especie
10.
Syst Parasitol ; 99(3): 341-346, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394637

RESUMEN

Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) (Siluriformes, Doradidae) (the giant-talking catfish or the giant-raphael catfish), from the Peruvian Amazon, hosts a new species of Cosmetocleithrum described herein as Cosmetocleithrum falsunilatum sp. n. The male copulatory organ of the new species closely resembles that of Unilatus spp. - with multiple tight loops and non-articulated accessory piece - which reveals its morphological uniqueness among members of Cosmetocleithrum. A phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA of available sequences suggests that Cosmetocleithrum is composed by two basal clades, one of them composed by sequences of the new species and C. trachydorasi.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Enfermedades de los Peces , Parásitos , Trematodos , Infecciones por Trematodos , Animales , Bagres/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Branquias/parasitología , Masculino , Perú , Filogenia , Ríos , Especificidad de la Especie , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología
11.
Syst Parasitol ; 99(3): 375-397, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394638

RESUMEN

A new species of lepocreadiid, Opechonoides opisthoporus n. sp., is described infecting 12 pomacentrid fish species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with Abudefduf whitleyi Allen & Robertson as the type-host. This taxon differs from the only other known member of the genus, Opechonoides gure Yamaguti, 1940, in the sucker width ratio, cirrus-sac length, position of the testes, position of the pore of Laurer's canal, and relative post-testicular distance. The new species exhibits stenoxenic host-specificity, infecting pomacentrids from seven genera: Abudefduf Forsskål, Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, Neoglyphidodon Allen, Neopomacentrus Allen, Plectroglyphidodon Fowler & Ball, Pomacentrus Lacépède and Stegastes Jenyns. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA sequence data demonstrate that O. opisthoporus n. sp. forms a strongly supported clade with Prodistomum orientale (Layman, 1930) Bray & Gibson, 1990. The life cycle of this new species is partly elucidated on the basis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data; intermediate hosts are shown to be three species of Ctenophora. New host records and molecular data are reported for Lepocreadium oyabitcha Machida, 1984 and Lepotrema amblyglyphidodonis Bray, Cutmore & Cribb, 2018, and new molecular data are provided for Lepotrema acanthochromidis Bray, Cutmore & Cribb, 2018 and Lepotrema adlardi (Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1993) Bray & Cribb, 1996. Novel cox1 mtDNA sequence data showed intraspecific geographical structuring between Heron Island and Lizard Island for L. acanthochromidis but not for L. adlardi or O. opisthoporus n. sp.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Perciformes , Trematodos , Infecciones por Trematodos , Animales , Australia , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Peces/genética , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie , Trematodos/genética
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 840861, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359984

RESUMEN

Complement proteins emerged early in evolution but outside the vertebrate clade they are poorly characterized. An evolutionary model of C3 family members revealed that in contrast to vertebrates the evolutionary trajectory of C3-like genes in cnidarian, protostomes and invertebrate deuterostomes was highly divergent due to independent lineage and species-specific duplications. The deduced C3-like and vertebrate C3, C4 and C5 proteins had low sequence conservation, but extraordinarily high structural conservation and 2-chain and 3-chain protein isoforms repeatedly emerged. Functional characterization of three C3-like isoforms in a bivalve representative revealed that in common with vertebrates complement proteins they were cleaved into two subunits, b and a, and the latter regulated inflammation-related genes, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Changes within the thioester bond cleavage sites and the a-subunit protein (ANATO domain) explained the functional differentiation of bivalve C3-like. The emergence of domain-related functions early during evolution explains the overlapping functions of bivalve C3-like and vertebrate C3, C4 and C5, despite low sequence conservation and indicates that evolutionary pressure acted to conserve protein domain organization rather than the primary sequence.


Asunto(s)
Complemento C3 , Invertebrados , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(4)2022 04 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456514

RESUMEN

It is unknown what determines genetic diversity and how genetic diversity is associated with various biological traits. In this work, we provide insight into these issues. By comparing genetic variation of 14,671 mammalian gene trees with thousands of individual human, chimpanzee, gorilla, mouse, and dog/wolf genomes, we found that intraspecific genetic diversity can be predicted by long-term molecular evolutionary rates rather than de novo mutation rates. This relationship was established during the early stage of mammalian evolution. Moreover, we developed a method to detect fluctuations of species-specific selection on genes based on the deviations of intraspecific genetic diversity predicted from long-term rates. We showed that the evolution of epithelial cells, rather than connective tissue, mainly contributed to morphological evolution of different species. For humans, evolution of the immune system and selective sweeps caused by infectious diseases are the most representative examples of adaptive evolution.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Molecular , Hominidae , Animales , Perros , Mamíferos , Ratones , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Especificidad de la Especie
16.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 69(3): e12900, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229390

RESUMEN

The peritrichous genus Ophrydium is relatively distinctive since its colonies have a gelatinous lorica. In the present work, one morphologically well-described species, Ophrydium crassicaule, was collected from a freshwater habitat in China. Both morphological characters and sequence data for SSU rDNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and LSU rDNA were obtained. Morphologically, O. crassicaule is characterized by its elongated vase-shaped zooid, single-layered peristomial lip, dichotomously branched stalk, colony with gelatinous lorica, and infundibular polykinety 3 (P3) containing one short inner row and two long outer rows. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Ophrydium is monophyletic and nests within the family Vorticellidae. In addition, we briefly revise the nominal congeners for aiding the species identification in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Cilióforos , Oligohimenóforos , China , ADN Protozoario/genética , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie
17.
Parasitology ; 149(4): 534-541, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331349

RESUMEN

Environmental stability can have profound impacts on life history trait evolution in organisms, especially with respect to development and reproduction. In theory, free-living species, when subjected to relatively stable and predictable conditions over many generations, should evolve narrow niche breadths and become more specialized. In parasitic organisms, this level of specialization is reflected by their host specificity. Here, we tested how host specificity impacts the reproductive strategies of parasites, a subject seldomly addressed for this group. Through an extensive review of the literature, we collated a worldwide dataset to predict, through Bayesian multilevel modelling, the effect of host specificity on the reproductive strategies of parasitic copepods of fishes or corals. We found that copepods of fishes with low host specificity (generalists) invest more into reproductive output with larger clutch sizes, whereas generalist copepods of corals invest less into reproductive output with smaller clutch sizes. The differences in host turnover rates through an evolutionary timescale could explain the contrasting strategies across species observed here, which should still favour the odds of parasites encountering and infecting a host. Ultimately, the differences found in this study reflect the unique evolutionary history that parasites share both intrinsically and extrinsically with their hosts.


Asunto(s)
Parásitos , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Especificidad del Huésped , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Reproducción , Especificidad de la Especie
18.
J Exp Biol ; 225(6)2022 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285471

RESUMEN

Animals, including humans, detect odours and use this information to behave efficiently in the environment. Frequently, odours consist of complex mixtures of odorants rather than single odorants, and mixtures are often perceived as configural wholes, i.e. as odour objects (e.g. food, partners). The biological rules governing this 'configural perception' (as opposed to the elemental perception of mixtures through their components) remain weakly understood. Here, we first review examples of configural mixture processing in diverse species involving species-specific biological signals. Then, we present the original hypothesis that at least certain mixtures can be processed configurally across species. Indeed, experiments conducted in human adults, newborn rabbits and, more recently, in rodents and honeybees show that these species process some mixtures in a remarkably similar fashion. Strikingly, a mixture AB (A, ethyl isobutyrate; B, ethyl maltol) induces configural processing in humans, who perceive a mixture odour quality (pineapple) distinct from the component qualities (A, strawberry; B, caramel). The same mixture is weakly configurally processed in rabbit neonates, which perceive a particular odour for the mixture in addition to the component odours. Mice and honeybees also perceive the AB mixture configurally, as they respond differently to the mixture compared with its components. Based on these results and others, including neurophysiological approaches, we propose that certain mixtures are convergently perceived across various species of vertebrates/invertebrates, possibly as a result of a similar anatomical organization of their olfactory systems and the common necessity to simplify the environment's chemical complexity in order to display adaptive behaviours.


Asunto(s)
Odorantes , Percepción Olfatoria , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Ratones , Percepción Olfatoria/fisiología , Conejos , Roedores , Olfato , Especificidad de la Especie
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4510, 2022 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296695

RESUMEN

Tracking species with expanding ranges is crucial to conservation efforts and some typically temperate marine species are spreading northward into the Arctic Ocean. Risso's (Gg) and Pacific white-sided (Lo) dolphins have been documented spreading poleward. Further, they make very similar sounds, so it is difficult for both human analysts and classification algorithms to tell them apart. Using automatic detectors and classifiers on large acoustic datasets would improve the efficiency of monitoring these species. variational mode decomposition (VMD) provides both an easier visualization tool for human analysts and exhibited robustness to background noise while extracting features in pulsed signals with very similar spectral properties. The goal of this work was to develop a new visualization tool using VMD and a statistics-based classification algorithm to differentiate similar pulsed signals. The proposed VMD method achieved 81% accuracy, even when using audio files with low SNR that did not have concurrent visual survey data. While many dolphins whistle, pulsed signals are one of the more useful vocalizations to use in detection and classification because of their species-specific acoustic features. Automating the VMD method and expanding it to other dolphin species that have very similar pulsed signals would complement current detection and classification methods and lead to a more complete understanding of ecosystem dynamics under a changing climate.


Asunto(s)
Delfines , Acústica , Animales , Ecosistema , Ruido , Especificidad de la Especie
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...