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1.
Rev Infirm ; 69(257): 16-18, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146956

RESUMEN

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease whose most common symptoms are of respiratory nature. Mortality has been drastically reduced through better treatment of the various symptoms. Life expectancy at birth is currently over 50 years.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida
2.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119207

RESUMEN

The article elaborates on research tasks determining the vector trends and key risks of actual models of self-preserving behavior of population in Russia on scale of national security level and searching the means of increasing effectiveness of regional demographic policy in area of developing effective self-preserving choices of life-style strategies. The results of sociological survey of the aspects of self-preserving behavior of residents of the central regions of the Russian Federation (the study was carried out on a quota sample, n = 1060) are analyzed. The study made it possible to answer the questions about the importance of health and to assess it identifying the groups of relative and absolute risk. The study provided following results: the importance factors affecting development of self-preserving behavioral patterns and choice trajectories among respondents, as well as motivation for health protection and for refusal to live longer. The most important factors turned out to be personal resources and family upbringing. The most powerful motivation was the desire for well-being, participation in children's lives and self-fulfillment. The results of the study made it possible to identify self-preserving perimeter of residents of the central part of Russia. Though being aware of and understanding the importance and priority of health, almost half of the respondents waive their responsibility for their own well-being and life expectancy and at the same time displaying a clear distrust of medical institutions. Such a position of non-resource situation foregrounds all the possible risks associated with both loss of health and the failure to maintain it at satisfactory level. The results of study confirm the research hypothesis that the groups of relative and absolute risk correlate with the groups choosing external locus of control over their health. The obtained data is the basis for empirical verification of the indices of self-preserving strategies and the starting point for forecast calculations of possible risks of national demographic policy.


Asunto(s)
Esperanza de Vida , Estilo de Vida , Niño , Humanos , Motivación , Federación de Rusia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 143-151, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141591

RESUMEN

Background: It is important to identify variables that influence life expectancy in order to develop strategies to improve health care systems and thereby increase life expectancy. Aims: In this study, a decision tree was built using a chi-square automatic interaction detector technique in order to identify variables influencing life expectancy at birth. Methods: Data were taken from the databases of the World Bank, World Health Organization and World Life Expectancy. Data from 166 countries for the year 2013 were extracted for 25 selected input variables related to mortality, health and the environment, child health, economy and demography in order to build the decision tree. Results: Of the 25 variables, nine had a significant influence on life expectancy: percentage of the population using improved sanitation facilities; death rates per 100 000 population for HIV/AIDS, liver disease, stroke and coronary heart disease; percentage of the urban population using improved drinking-water sources; total fertility rate (births per woman); public health expenditure (percent of government expenditure); and health expenditure per capita. Conclusions: Improving these variables may result in significant increases in life expectancy and quality of life. At the country level, appropriate strategies can be developed to improve the quality and performance of health care systems.


Asunto(s)
Árboles de Decisión , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Esperanza de Vida , Salud Pública , Tasa de Natalidad , Causas de Muerte , Demografía , Predicción , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , Mortalidad , Factores Socioeconómicos
4.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 161-169, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141593

RESUMEN

Background: Child mortality rates are considered to be one of the key indicators of child health. Aims: The main objective of this research was to calculate child mortality rates (CMRs) indirectly, using census data, and to investigate using spatial pattern analysis the presence of any clustering patterns among provincial regions. Methods: The Trussell version of the Brass method and Coale-Demeny West model were used to estimate CMRs and life expectancy (LE) at birth. The analyses were performed using the QFive program of MORTPAK 4 software. For cluster analysis, local and global Moran's I indexes were measured. Results: Infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, 1-4 mortality rate and LE at birth were estimated as 21.9, 26, 4.1 (deaths per 1000 live births) and 72.1 years, respectively. Global Moran's I index was calculated as 0.09, 0.09, 0.08 and 0.12, respectively. Conclusion: Special attention must be paid in provinces with high clusters regarding the evaluation of public health programmes, and the cause of failure of these programmes in reduction of childhood mortality indices.


Asunto(s)
Censos , Mortalidad del Niño , Esperanza de Vida , Mortalidad/tendencias , Distribución por Edad , Niño , Mortalidad del Niño/tendencias , Preescolar , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Recién Nacido , Irán/epidemiología , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Masculino , Análisis Espacial
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 28, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215536

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the years of life lost due to premature death and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a result of chronic noncommunicable diseases attributable to occupational hazard factors, and to compare their position according to the risk ranking for chronic noncommunicable diseases in 1990 and 2016. METHODS: Data for the DALY indicator, estimated from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 (GBD 2016) study, were analyzed for noncommunicable chronic diseases attributable to occupational, and other risk factors, selected in Brazil. A descriptive analysis was performed comparing the proportion of DALY by sex and age group (15 to 49 and 50 to 69 years old), as well as the ranking of occupational hazard factors in 1990 and 2016. RESULTS: In 2016, ergonomic risk factors, carcinogenic agents, and noise in the workplace were among the 25 largest contributors to DALY for chronic noncommunicable diseases affecting the age group between 15 and 49 years. The contribution of all occupational hazard factors increased in 2016, except for occupational aerodispersoids affecting men. Concerning the age group between 50 and 69, occupational carcinogens stand out, with an increase of 26.0% for men, and 17.1% for women in 2016. Risk factors evaluated according to their 1990 and 2016 ranking show that occupational hazards have all scored higher on the second evaluation (2016), especially when compared with other risks. CONCLUSIONS: The global burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases attributed to occupational hazard factors has become increasingly important. We suggest the strengthening of the approach of occupational hazard factors in the agendas for tackling these diseases in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Esperanza de Vida , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 160-164, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074703

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the long-term trend of mortality and years of life lost (YLL) of gastric cancer in Tianjin from 1999 to 2015. Methods: From January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2015, the data of gastric cancer deaths was collected from the Tianjin death surveillance system. The inclusion criteria of death due to gastric cancer were coded by using 151 in the 9(th) edition of the international classification of diseases (ICD) (1999-2002) and C16 in the 10(th) edition of ICD (2003-2015). The crude and age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) of gastric cancer was calculated according to Segi's world standard population. YLL was calculated according to the standard method of the disease burden of WHO. The Joinpoint regression was used to calculate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) to indicate the trend of mortality and YLL of gastric cancer. Results: From 1999 to 2015, there were 20 000 deaths of gastric cancer in Tianjin. The proportion of gastric cancer death in the population aged 0-44 years old, 45-64 years old, and 65 years old and above was 4.9%, 30.4%, and 64.8%, respectively. The proportion of males and urban was 67.1% and 67.5%, respectively. From 1999 to 2015, the crude mortality rate was from 12.10/100 000 to 12.58/100 000. The ASR was from 11.04/100 000 to 7.24/100 000. The average annual YLL number was 29 625.83 person-years and the rate was 3.09 person-years per thousand people. From 1999 to 2015, the crude mortality rate and the PYLL of gastric cancer in Tianjin were stable (the AAPC was 0.34% and -0.24%, all P values >0.05). The ASR showed a downward trend (AAPC=-2.58%, P<0.001). Conclusion: From 1999 to 2015, the ASR of gastric cancer in Tianjin showed a downward trend, and the YLL of gastric cancer was stable.


Asunto(s)
Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Adulto Joven
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 104-107, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914577

RESUMEN

From 1987 to 2017, cardiovascular disease (CVD) had been ranking the first cause of death in Suzhou, and the mortality rate showed an upward trend annual percentage changes (APC=0.62%, P=0.001), while the standardized mortality rate showed a downward trend (APC=-2.65%, P<0.001). The probability of premature death of CVD declined consistently from 7.06% in 1987 to 2.00% in 2017 (APC=-4.45%, P<0.001). When the life expectancy was set at 70, the potential years of life lost rate (PYLLR) decreased from 6.35‰ in 1987 to 3.30‰ in 2017, and the standardized PYLLR decreased from 7.30‰ to 2.68‰. When the life expectancy was set at 75, the PYLLR decreased from 10.12‰ to 5.19‰, and the standardized PYLLR decreased from 11.44‰ to 3.88‰. With the increase of years, all PYLLR and standardized PYLLR showed a significantly downward trend (APC=-2.51%--3.89%, P<0.001).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Mortalidad Prematura/tendencias , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Probabilidad
9.
BMJ ; 368: l6669, 2020 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915124

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366). MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%). MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (≥15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index ≥30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (≤75%) of total life expectancy at age 50. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida Saludable/fisiología , Esperanza de Vida , Neoplasias , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicología , Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Neoplasias/psicología , Investigación en Enfermería , Estudios Prospectivos , Fumar
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 39, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924192

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Of all lifestyle behaviours, smoking caused the most deaths in the last century. Because of the time lag between the act of smoking and dying from smoking, and because males generally take up smoking before females do, male and female smoking epidemiology often follows a typical double wave pattern dubbed the 'smoking epidemic'. How are male and female deaths from this epidemic differentially progressing in high-income regions on a cohort-by-age basis? How have they affected male-female survival differences? METHODS: We used data for the period 1950-2015 from the WHO Mortality Database and the Human Mortality Database on three geographic regions that have progressed most into the smoking epidemic: high-income North America, high-income Europe and high-income Oceania. We examined changes in smoking-attributable mortality fractions as estimated by the Preston-Glei-Wilmoth method by age (ages 50-85) across birth cohorts 1870-1965. We used these to trace sex differences with and without smoking-attributable mortality in period life expectancy between ages 50 and 85. RESULTS: In all three high-income regions, smoking explained up to 50% of sex differences in period life expectancy between ages 50 and 85 over the study period. These sex differences have declined since at least 1980, driven by smoking-attributable mortality, which tended to decline in males and increase in females overall. Thus, there was a convergence between sexes across recent cohorts. While smoking-attributable mortality was still increasing for older female cohorts, it was declining for females in the more recent cohorts in the US and Europe, as well as for males in all three regions. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking epidemic contributed substantially to the male-female survival gap and to the recent narrowing of that gap in high-income North America, high-income Europe and high-income Oceania. The precipitous decline in smoking-attributable mortality in recent cohorts bodes somewhat hopeful. Yet, smoking-attributable mortality remains high, and therefore cause for concern.


Asunto(s)
Países Desarrollados/estadística & datos numéricos , Epidemias , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Fumar/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Factuales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , América del Norte/epidemiología , Oceanía/epidemiología , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/mortalidad , Análisis de Supervivencia
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(4): e27, 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997615

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of mortality and prevalence trends is important for health planning and priority decision-making in health policy. This study was performed to examine disease-specific mortality and prevalence trends for diseases in Korea from 2002 to 2015. METHODS: In this study, 206 mutually exclusive diseases and injuries were classified into 21 cause clusters, which were divided into three cause groups: 1) communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions; 2) non-communicable diseases (NCDs); and 3) injuries. Cause specific trends for age-standardized mortality and prevalence rates were analyzed by the joinpoint regression method. RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2015, the age-standardized mortality declined to about 177 per 100,000 population, while the age-standardized prevalence rate increased to approximately 68,065 per 100,000 population. Among the 21 cause clusters, most of the disease mortality rates showed decreasing trends. However, neurological disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence included periods during which the mortality rates increased in 2002-2015. In addition, the trends for prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tuberculosis, transport injuries, and self-harm, and interpersonal violence differed from the overall prevalence rates. The annual percent change in prevalence rates for transport injuries increased during 2004-2007, and then decreased. The self-harm and interpersonal violence prevalence rates decreased from 2004 to 2014. CONCLUSION: Between 2002 and 2015, overall decreasing trends in the mortality rate and increasing trends in the prevalence rate were observed for all causes in Korea. Especially, NCDs represented an important part of the increasing trends in Korea. For clusters of diseases with unusual trends, proper management must be considered.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Mortalidad Prematura , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causas de Muerte , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Esperanza de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/mortalidad , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva , Violencia , Adulto Joven
14.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(1): 13-25, 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465086

RESUMEN

Denmark experienced major socioeconomic changes, including overall population growth, during the Viking, medieval and post-medieval periods from ca. AD 800 to 1800. Archaeological skeletons provide a unique perspective on the population structure of Ribe, a Danish town in Jutland, during the millennium that immediately precedes the industrialization of northern Europe. This skeletal study adds temporal depth to our understanding of an overall trend toward longer life as seen from historical records and in modern studies. Adult male and female mean age at death and mortality profiles during three time periods are based on 943 adult skeletons from three urban cemeteries that collectively represent a cross-section of this urban community. For both males and females, the mean age at death decreased slightly from the Viking (males 38.5 years, females 38.6 years) to the medieval (males 37.4 years, females 36.9 years) periods. This decline was followed by an increase in mean age at death for both sexes from the medieval to post-medieval (males 40.4 years, females 43.2 years) periods, a notable gain of 3.0 and 6.3 years for men and women, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Cementerios , Esperanza de Vida , Adulto , Arqueología , Dinamarca , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(3): 247-253, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858884

RESUMEN

The present review was conducted to describe current published risk scoring systems to predict late mortality after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The aim of the study is to identify simple, clinical, and reproducible tools to predict life expectancy in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis candidates to CEA and therefore which patients may benefit from surgery, reaching the goal of life expectancy >3 to 5 years, recommended by guidelines. Advantages, disadvantages, feasibility, simplicity, and reproducibility of each selected score were analyzed. Rigorous statistical analysis and validation of the score are essential components to produce a calibrated and usable score. Future studies should address the impact of using these tools in CEA candidates for asymptomatic disease.


Asunto(s)
Estenosis Carotídea/cirugía , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Endarterectomía Carotidea/mortalidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Estenosis Carotídea/diagnóstico por imagen , Estenosis Carotídea/mortalidad , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Endarterectomía Carotidea/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Maturitas ; 131: 21-27, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787143

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with healthy aging in a cohort of Mexican adults after a follow-up of 14 years. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were part of a prospective cohort of the Mexican Healthy Aging Study (MHAS), from which we included 5142 individuals aged 63 years or more. MAIN OUTCOME: Healthy aging, defined as reaching age 77 or 90 without major chronic conditions or physical limitations. MEASURES: Information on age, education, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, self-perceived depression, health conditions and history of age-related diseases was collected at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Among the overall cohort, 57.8% experienced healthy survival to age 77 and 42.2% had died before age 77 or were undergoing normal aging. Participants with long-lived parents and who exercised had a lower risk of being non-healthy agers. Being overweight, obese or a smoker increased the risk of being a non-healthy ager. Physically active participants had increased odds of healthy aging at age 77 (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.46) and at age 90 (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.01-2.24). Depression had a negative relationship with healthy aging at age 90 (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45- 0.97). Maternal longevity was associated with healthy aging only at age 77 (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.04-1.72). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the view that a combination of genetic and behavioral factors is associated with healthy aging. In accordance with findings in Caucasian populations, our data suggest for the first time that there might also be a genetic determinant for healthy ageing in Latin Americans.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Estado de Salud , Envejecimiento Saludable , Esperanza de Vida , Longevidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Fumar , Delgadez/epidemiología
19.
J Surg Res ; 245: 587-592, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Surgical disease increasingly contributes to global mortality and morbidity. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery found that global cost-effectiveness data are lacking for a wide range of essential surgical procedures. This study helps to address this gap by defining the cost-effectiveness of exploratory laparotomies in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A time-and-motion analysis was utilized to calculate operating theater personnel costs per case. Ward personnel, administrative, medication, and supply costs were recorded and calculated using a microcosting approach. The cost in 2018 US Dollars (USD, $) per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted was calculated based on age-specific life expectancies for otherwise fatal cases. RESULTS: Data for 103 surgical patients requiring exploratory laparotomy at the Soroti Regional Referral Hospital were collected over 8 mo. The most common cause for laparotomy was small bowel obstruction (32% of total cases). The average cost per patient was $75.50. The postoperative mortality was 11.7%, and 7.8% of patients had complications. The average number of DALYs averted per patient was 18.51. The cost in USD per DALY averted was $4.08. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation provides evidence that exploratory laparotomy is cost-effective compared with other public health interventions. Relative cost-effectiveness includes a comparison with bed nets for malaria prevention ($6.48-22.04/DALY averted), tuberculosis, tetanus, measles, and polio vaccines ($12.96-25.93/DALY averted), and HIV treatment with multidrug antiretroviral therapy ($453.74-648.20/DALY averted). Given that the total burden of surgically treatable conditions in DALYs is more than that of malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV combined, our findings strengthen the argument for greater investment in primary surgical capacity in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Laparotomía/economía , Centros de Atención Terciaria/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Equipos y Suministros de Hospitales/economía , Femenino , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/economía , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Laparotomía/estadística & datos numéricos , Esperanza de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Regionalización/economía , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Joven
20.
Med J Aust ; 212(4): 183-188, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886526

RESUMEN

Frailty describes an individual's vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and is a useful construct that assists health professionals to understand the heterogeneity of the ageing population. While the pathophysiological pathways that lead to frailty are not well defined, an individual's sex appears to be a key factor influencing the ageing trajectory. Compared with age-matched men, women tend to have poorer health status (ie, they are more frail) but longer life expectancy (ie, they are more resilient). It seems likely that a combination of biological, behavioural and social factors underpin this male-female health-survival paradox. Randomised controlled trial data for frailty interventions in older adults are emerging, with multicomponent programs incorporating exercise and nutrition-based strategies showing promise. Pharmaceutical and other innovative therapeutic strategies for frailty are highly anticipated. Sex differences in the effectiveness of frailty interventions have not been addressed in the research literature to date. In the future, successful interventions may target many (if not all) biopsychosocial domains, with careful consideration of issues relevant to each sex.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Anciano Frágil , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Esperanza de Vida , Anciano , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores Sexuales
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