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1.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 304-311, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687979

RESUMEN

Semen is crucial evidence for some sex crimes, with its sole confirmation being sperm detection. The success of sperm detection is dependent on all levels of preanalytic and analytic procedures. Specimen collection must be performed by well-trained and competent forensic physicians as well as forensic nurses, with preservation done properly before laboratory transfer. Laboratory procedures should consider archival sperm identification, by visualization, with adequate amounts separated from other cells to obtain male DNA profiles. Differential extraction is robust and accepted as the forensic standard but is time consuming and may result in male DNA loss. Thus, alternative methods and microdevices have been developed. Challenges in sperm isolation from vaginal or buccal epithelium mixes and discrimination in multiperpetrator cases have been overcome by single-cell profiling; however, problems inherent in identical twin discrimination and azoospermia have yet to be solved. Epigenetics and future molecular biomarkers may hold the key; therefore, all laboratory processes must consider DNA and RNA protection. Long-term specimen preservation should be done when possible in light of future confirmatory tests.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes , Espermatozoides/citología , Separación Celular , Dermatoglifia del ADN , Metilación de ADN , Femenino , Humanos , Captura por Microdisección con Láser , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Mensajero/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas de Secreción de la Vesícula Seminal/aislamiento & purificación , Delitos Sexuales , Coloración y Etiquetado , Factores de Tiempo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17494, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infertility has troubled the world's 186 million people, and male infertility accounts for more than half. The literature of physical exercise related to semen quality has shown inconsistent results, and there is currently no systematic review to evaluate the effects of exercise on reproductive outcomes in male infertility patients. This study aims to assessing the effects of exercise interventions based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on semen quality and reproductive outcomes in male infertility. METHODS: English and Chinese literature about physical exercise treatment for male infertility published before July 31, 2019 will be systematic searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Open Grey, Clinicaltrials.gov, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, WANFANG, VIP Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database, CNKI, Chinese biomedical document service system (SinoMed). Only RCTs of patients with male infertility will be included. Literature screening, data extraction, and the assessment of risk of bias will be independently conducted by 2 reviewers, and the 3rd reviewer will be consulted if any different opinions existed. Live-birth rate, pregnancy rate, adverse events (including miscarriage), sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation will be evaluated. Systematic review and meta-analysis will be produced by RevMan 5.3 and Stata 14.0. This protocol reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement, and we will report the systematic review by following the PRISMA statement. CONCLUSION AND DISSEMINATION: We will assess the efficacy and safety of physical exercise on semen quality and reproductive outcomes in infertile men. The findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal to provide evidence-based medical evidence for clinical decision making and the patient's lifestyle guidance. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: PROSPERO CRD42019140294.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio/fisiología , Infertilidad Masculina/epidemiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Espermatozoides/citología , Adolescente , Adulto , Fragmentación del ADN , Femenino , Humanos , Nacimiento Vivo/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo/tendencias , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Análisis de Semen/estadística & datos numéricos , Recuento de Espermatozoides/estadística & datos numéricos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
3.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113097, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520908

RESUMEN

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is commonly used as a flame retardant, usually in products that were utilized in electronic equipment, plastics, furniture and textiles. To identify the impacts of BDE-209 on the male reproductive system and the underlying toxicological mechanisms, 40 male ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups, which were then exposed to BDE-209 at 0, 7.5, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 d-1 for four weeks, respectively. With regard to the in vitro study, GC-2spd cells were treated with BDE-209 at 0, 2, 8 and 32 µg mL-1 for 24 h, respectively. The results from the in vivo experiments showed that BDE-209 resulted in damage to the testis structure, led to cell apoptosis in testis and decreased sperm number and motility, while sperm malformation rates were significantly increased. Moreover, BDE-209 could induce oxidative stress with decreased testosterone levels, result in DNA damage and activate DNA damage response signaling pathways (ATM/Chk2, ATR/Chk1 and DNA-PKcs/XRCC4/DNA ligase Ⅳ). The data from the in vitro experiments showed that BDE-209 led to cytotoxicity by reducing cell viability and increasing LDH release as well. BDE-209 also induced DNA strand breaks, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in GC-2 cells. These results suggested that BDE-209 could lead to male reproductive toxicity by inducing DNA damage and failure of DNA damage repair which resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of spermatogenic cell. The present study provided new evidence to elucidate the potential mechanism of male reproductive toxicity induced by BDE-209.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Daño del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Retardadores de Llama/toxicidad , Puntos de Control de la Fase G1 del Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/toxicidad , Espermatozoides/patología , Animales , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Reparación del ADN/genética , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Recuento de Espermatozoides , Motilidad Espermática/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/citología , Testículo/citología , Testículo/patología , Testosterona/sangre
4.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 43: 102153, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505370

RESUMEN

Data from all sexual assault cases analysed at the Section of Forensic Biology at Oslo University Hospital in the period 2013-2015 were reviewed to study transfer and persistence of cells deposited on the body. Data were recorded on detection of both sperm and epithelial cells. The final dataset consist of 2141 samples from 765 cases. In this study "positive findings" refer to evidence to support the proposition that the DNA profile was contributed by the POI and do not only correspond to detection of cell type, e.g. sperm cells. Positive findings from analysis of sperm cells could be detected in samples collected up to 72 h after deposition, and was less frequently detected in oral swabs were the longest observed persistence time was 12 h. Positive findings from analysis of epithelial cells were observed up to 43 h after deposition. A high success rate was observed from penile swabs collected within 24 h of the incidence demonstrating the importance of collecting and analysing such samples in cases where no semen is detected.


Asunto(s)
Dermatoglifia del ADN , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Células Epiteliales/citología , Delitos Sexuales , Espermatozoides/citología , Células Epiteliales/química , Femenino , Genética Forense/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/citología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Recto/citología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Piel/citología , Manejo de Especímenes , Espermatozoides/química , Factores de Tiempo , Vagina/citología , Vulva/citología
5.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54 Suppl 3: 22-28, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512320

RESUMEN

The biological nature of age-related declines in fertility in males of any species, including stallions, has been elusive. In horses, the economic costs to the breeding industry are frequently extensive. Mitochondrial function in ejaculated sperm, which is essential for sperm motility, is reflected by adenosine triphosphate production, mitochondrial oxidative efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species, and that this balance may become compromised in ageing stallions and during the process of cryopreservation. This presentation will focus on mitochondrial integrity and function as an avenue for understanding the pathophysiology of sperm when undergoing cryopreservation and male ageing. We discuss the importance of understanding the differences and similarities of sperm mitochondria to that of somatic cells regarding structure and mitochondrial biochemistry relating to sperm function. The roles of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in sperm mitochondria are outlined as is the method of determining oxygen consumption and calcium homoeostasis in sperm mitochondria. Further, we outline the role of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species.


Asunto(s)
Caballos/fisiología , Mitocondrias/fisiología , Espermatozoides/fisiología , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Animales , Criopreservación/veterinaria , Fertilidad/fisiología , Glucólisis , Masculino , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Fosforilación Oxidativa , Técnicas Reproductivas Asistidas/veterinaria , Motilidad Espermática/fisiología , Espermatozoides/citología , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
6.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 714, 2019 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533629

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Subfertility decreases the efficiency of the cattle industry because artificial insemination employs spermatozoa from a single bull to inseminate thousands of cows. Variation in bull fertility has been demonstrated even among those animals exhibiting normal sperm numbers, motility, and morphology. Despite advances in research, molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the causes of low fertility in some bulls have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the metabolic profile of bull spermatozoa using non-targeted metabolomics. Statistical analysis and bioinformatic tools were employed to evaluate the metabolic profiles high and low fertility groups. Metabolic pathways associated with the sperm metabolome were also reported. RESULTS: A total of 22 distinct metabolites were detected in spermatozoa from bulls with high fertility (HF) or low fertility (LF) phenotype. The major metabolite classes of bovine sperm were organic acids/derivatives and fatty acids/conjugates. We demonstrated that the abundance ratios of five sperm metabolites were statistically different between HF and LF groups including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), carbamate, benzoic acid, lactic acid, and palmitic acid. Metabolites with different abundances in HF and LF bulls had also VIP scores of greater than 1.5 and AUC- ROC curves of more than 80%. In addition, four metabolic pathways associated with differential metabolites namely alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, ß-alanine metabolism, glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, and pyruvate metabolism were also explored. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study aimed at ascertaining the metabolome of spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility phenotype using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified five metabolites in the two groups of sires and such molecules can be used, in the future, as key indicators of bull fertility.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Metaboloma , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Masculino , Espermatozoides/citología , Espermatozoides/fisiología
7.
Dev Genes Evol ; 229(5-6): 161-181, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486889

RESUMEN

KIF3A and KIF3B are homologous motor subunits of the Kinesin II protein family. KIF3A, KIF3B, and KAP3 form a heterotrimeric complex and play a significant role in spermatogenesis. Here, we first cloned full-length kif3a/3b cDNAs from Larimichthys polyactis. Lp-kif3a/3b are highly related to their homologs in other animals. The proteins are composed of three domains, an N-terminal head domain, a central stalk domain, and a C-terminus tail domain. Lp-kif3a/3b mRNAs were found to be ubiquitously expressed in the examined tissues, with high expression in the testis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze the expression of Lp-kif3a/3b mRNAs during spermiogenesis. The results showed that Lp-kif3a/3b mRNAs had similar expression pattern and were continuously expressed during spermiogenesis. From middle spermatid to mature sperm, Lp-kif3a/3b mRNAs gradually localized to the side of the spermatid where the midpiece and tail form. In addition, we used immunofluorescence (IF) to observe that Lp-KIF3A protein co-localizes with tubulin during spermiogenesis. In early spermatid, Lp-KIF3A protein and microtubule signals were randomly distributed in the cytoplasm. In middle spermatid, however, the protein was detected primarily around the nucleus. In late spermatid, the protein migrated primarily to one side of the nucleus where the tail forms. In mature sperm, Lp-KIF3A and microtubules accumulated in the midpiece. Moreover, Lp-KIF3A co-localized with the mitochondria. In mature sperm, Lp-KIF3A and mitochondria were present in the midpiece. Therefore, Lp-KIF3A/KIF3B may be involved in spermiogenesis in L. polyactis, particularly during nuclear reshaping and tail formation.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Peces/metabolismo , Peces/fisiología , Cinesina/metabolismo , Espermatogénesis , Espermatozoides/citología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Clonación Molecular , Proteínas de Peces/química , Proteínas de Peces/genética , Humanos , Cinesina/química , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Alineación de Secuencia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
8.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113079, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473390

RESUMEN

Frequent exposure to arsenic is well documented to impair reproductive function in humans and animals. Biological significance of inorganic selenium and organoselenium, diphenyl diselenide (DPDS), has been attributed to their pharmacological activities. However, their roles in arsenic-mediated reproductive toxicity is lacking in literature. The present study evaluated the protective effects elicited by selenium and DPDS in arsenic-induced reproductive deficits in rats. Animals were either exposed to arsenic alone in drinking water at 60 µg AsO2Na L-1 or co-treated with selenium at 0.25 mg kg-1 or DPDS at 2.5 mg kg-1 body weight for 45 consecutive days. Results indicated that arsenic-mediated deficits in spermatogenic indices and marker enzymes of testicular function were significantly abrogated in rats co-treated with selenium or DPDS. Additionally, selenium or DPDS co-treatment prevented arsenic-mediated elevation in oxidative stress indices and significantly suppressed arsenic-mediated inflammation evidenced by diminished myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels in hypothalamus, testes and epididymis of the rats. Moreover, selenium or DPDS abrogated arsenic mediated activation of caspase-3 activity and histological lesions in the treated rats. Taken together, selenium or DPDS improved reproductive function in arsenic-exposed rats via suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress and caspase-3 activation in rats.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/toxicidad , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Arsénico/metabolismo , Derivados del Benceno/administración & dosificación , Caspasa 3/genética , Humanos , Inflamación/inducido químicamente , Inflamación/genética , Inflamación/metabolismo , Masculino , Compuestos de Organoselenio/administración & dosificación , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Espermatogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/citología , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/inmunología , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409031

RESUMEN

Little information is available regarding the effect of melatonin on the quality and fertilization capability of sex-sorted bull sperm, and even less about the associated mechanism. Sex-sorted sperm from three individual bulls were washed twice in wash medium and incubated in a fertilization medium for 1.5 h, and each was supplemented with melatonin (0, 10-3 M, 10-5 M, 10-7 M, and 10-9 M). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endogenous antioxidant activity (glutathione peroxidase (GPx); superoxide dismutase (SOD); catalase (CAT)), apoptosis (phosphatidylserine [PS] externalization; mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm)), acrosomal integrity events (malondialdehyde (MDA) level; acrosomal integrity), capacitation (calcium ion [Ca2+]i level; cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); capacitation level), and fertilization ability of the sperm were assessed. Melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) and 2 (MT2) expression were examined to investigate the involvement of melatonin receptors on sex-sorted bull sperm capacitation. Our results show that treatment with 10-5 M melatonin significantly decreased the ROS level and increased the GPx, SOD, and CAT activities of sex-sorted bull sperm, which inhibited PS externalization and MDA levels, and improved Δψm, acrosomal integrity, and fertilization ability. Further experiments showed that melatonin regulates sperm capacitation via MT1. These findings contribute to improving the fertilization capacity of sex-sorted bull sperm and exploring the associated mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Melatonina/metabolismo , Receptor de Melatonina MT1/metabolismo , Capacitación Espermática , Animales , Apoptosis , Femenino , Fertilización In Vitro/veterinaria , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/citología , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
10.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 253-276, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435799

RESUMEN

'Does the geometric design of centrioles imply their function? Several principles of construction of a microscopically small device for locating the directions of signal sources in microscopic dimensions: it appears that the simplest and smallest device that is compatible with the scrambling influence of thermal fluctuations, as are demonstrated by Brownian motion, is a pair of cylinders oriented at right angles to each other. Centrioles locate the direction of hypothetical signals inside cells' (Albrecht-Buehler G, Cell Motil, 1:237-245; 1981).Despite a century of devoted efforts (articles on the centrosome always begin like this) its role remains vague and nebulous: does the centrosome suffer from bad press? Likely it does, it has an unfair image problem. It is dispensable in mitosis, but a fly zygote, artificially deprived of centrosomes, cannot start its development; its sophisticated architecture (200 protein types, highly conserved during evolution) constitutes an enigmatic puzzle; centrosome reduction in gametogenesis is a challenging brainteaser; its duplication cycle (only one centrosome per cell) is more complicated than chromosomes. Its striking geometric design (two ninefold symmetric orthogonal centrioles) shows an interesting correspondence with the requirements of a cellular compass: a reference system organizer based on a pair of orthogonal goniometers; through its two orthogonal centrioles, the centrosome may play the role of a cell geometry organizer: it can establish a finely tuned geometry, inherited and shared by all cells. Indeed, a geometrical and informational primary role for the centrosome has been ascertained in Caenorhabditis elegans zygote: the sperm centrosome locates its polarity factors. The centrosome, through its aster of microtubules, possesses all the characteristics necessary to operate as a biophysical geometric compass: it could recognize cargoes equipped with topogenic sequences and drive them precisely to where they are addressed (as hypothesized by Albrecht-Buehler nearly 40 years ago). Recently, this geometric role of the centrosome has been rediscovered by two important findings; in the Kupffer's vesicle (the laterality organ of zebrafish), chiral cilia orientation and rotational movement have been described: primary cilia, in left and right halves of the Kupffer's vesicle, are symmetrically oriented relative to the midline and rotate in reverse direction. In mice node (laterality organ) left and right perinodal cells can distinguish flow directionality through their primary cilia: primary cilium, ninefold symmetric, is strictly connected to the centrosome that is located immediately under it (basal body). Kupffer's vesicle histology and mirror behaviour of mice perinodal cells suggest primary cilia are enantiomeric geometric organelles. What is the meaning of the geometric design of centrioles and centrosomes? Does it imply their function?


Asunto(s)
Centrosoma/metabolismo , Animales , Centriolos/metabolismo , Cilios , Masculino , Espermatozoides/citología , Pez Cebra
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 507-520, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468427

RESUMEN

Asthenospermia has been considered as one of the crucial causes of male infertility, which was closely related to epididymal dysfunction. Lots of documents have revealed that taurine palys an important role in male reproduction, including antioxidation, membrane stabilization, stimulation of sexual hormone secretion and elevation of sperm quality. The objective of this study was to expose the effect of taurine on spermatozoa quality and function in ornidazole-induced asthenospermia rats. We found that taurine treatment could obviously recover the decline of cauda epididymal sperm count, viability and motility, and the elevation of sperm abnormality in asthenospermia animals. Spermatozoa acrosin, LDH-X, SDH and CCO activities of model rats also were notably increased by taurine administration. The present data indicated that taurine could raise spermatozoa quality and function by elevating mitochondrial energy metabolism. Notably, taurine supplementation markedly raised serum GnRH, LH and T levels in asthenospermia rays, suggesting taurine rescued asthenosperm by means of stimulating hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis secretion. We also found that concentrations of asthenospermia epididymal carnitine, SA, α-Glu and ACP, and mRNA expression levels of MMP7 and IDO2 were significantly rised by taurine administration, indicating taurine may protect epididymal epithelium structure, improve secretion activity, and maintain intraluminal microenvironment homeostasis. Finally, the present results showed taurine effectively increased cauda epididymal SOD, GSH and γ-GT levels in model rats, reduced ROS and MDA production, suggesting epididymal antioxidant ability of asthenospermia rats could be elevated by taurine treatment. To sum up, our results indicated that taurine can promote spermatozoa quality and function in ornidazole-induced asthenospermia rats by facilitating epididymal epithelium secretion and luminal microenvironment homeostasis.


Asunto(s)
Astenozoospermia/tratamiento farmacológico , Ornidazol/efectos adversos , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Taurina/farmacología , Animales , Astenozoospermia/inducido químicamente , Epidídimo/efectos de los fármacos , Epidídimo/fisiopatología , Masculino , Ratas , Motilidad Espermática , Espermatozoides/citología
12.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 47(6): 708-711, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469506

RESUMEN

The laboratory exercise described here aims to provide a relevant context for learning basic DNA techniques in an introductory animal science course at tertiary level. In two 4-hr laboratory sessions, students assess the suitability of bulls for inclusion in a gene-assisted selection program for A2 ß-casein by genotyping commercial bull sperm. Sperm cells are lysed to extract the genomic DNA, and PCR with primers for the ß-casein gene is performed. Using the principle of amplification-created restriction sites, restriction digestion with TaqI can be used to distinguish between the A1 allele and the A2 allele of the gene. Cut PCR amplicons are separated by gel electrophoresis to evaluate the genotype of each bull. Students then write a diagnostic report with accompanying letter to their fictional client, explaining the DNA test, and interpreting the results. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(6):708-711, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Genotipo , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Biología Molecular/educación , Biología Molecular/métodos , Ciencia/educación , Espermatozoides/citología , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animales , Caseínas/genética , Curriculum , ADN/genética , Humanos , Laboratorios , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Estudiantes
13.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 20(1): 41, 2019 08 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464580

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Microtubule proteins are able to produce electromagnetic fields and have an important role in memory formation, and learning. Therefore, microtubules have the potential to be affected by exogenous electromagnetic fields. This study aimed to examine the comparison of microtubule polymerization and its structural behavior in brain and sperm affected by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELEF). RESULTS: Twenties adult male rats were randomly and equally divided into control and experimental groups, to evaluate the effect of 50 Hz ELEF on the sperm and brain functions. Plus-maze, serum testosterone and corticosterone, and sperm evaluation were performed. Next, the semen and brain samples were obtained, and they were divided into four experimental groups for investigation of microtubule polymerization. There was no significant difference in testosterone and, corticosterone levels, anxiety behaviors, and sperm morphology between control and ELEF-exposure groups. The sperm viability, total and progressive motility were significantly higher in the ELEF-exposed group than that of the control group. The microtubule polymerization in sperm ELEF was significantly higher than in other groups. The secondary and tertiary structures of tubulins were significantly affected in the brain, and sperm ELEF groups. CONCLUSION: It seems that the polymerization of microtubules and conformational changes of tubulin dimers are improved by ELEF application.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Campos Electromagnéticos , Microtúbulos/química , Polimerizacion , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animales , Ansiedad/metabolismo , Conducta Animal , Peso Corporal , Forma de la Célula , Supervivencia Celular , Corticosterona/sangre , Fluorescencia , Masculino , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Multimerización de Proteína , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Estructura Terciaria de Proteína , Ratas Wistar , Espermatozoides/citología , Testosterona/sangre , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
14.
Eur Biophys J ; 48(7): 659-671, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392382

RESUMEN

Human semen contains a large number of macromolecules, including proteins/enzymes and carbohydrates, regulating and protecting sperm cells. Proteomic analysis of human seminal fluid led to the discovery of semen amyloids derived from short peptide fragments of the proteins prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and semenogelin (SG) which are known to play a crucial role in enhancing HIV infection. However, the relevance of their existence in human semen and role in maintaining sperm behavior remains unclear. Distinct physiological, biochemical, and biophysical attributes might cause these amyloids to influence sperm behavior positively or negatively, affecting fertilization or other reproductive processes. We assessed the direct effect of amyloids derived from a PAP248-286 fragment, on sperm motility and viability, which are crucial parameters for assessment of sperm quality in semen. Co-incubation of human sperm with PAP248-286 amyloids at normal physiological concentrations formed in buffer led to significant reduction in sperm viability, though approximately a 10× higher concentration was needed to show a similar effect with amyloid formed in seminal fluid. Both forms of PAP248-286 amyloid also had a significant impact on sperm motility at physiological levels, in agreement with a previous report. Our study suggests that PAP248-286 amyloids can directly influence sperm motility and viability in a concentration-dependent manner. We hypothesise that the direct toxic effect of PAP248-286 amyloid is normally mitigated by other seminal fluid ingredients, but that in pathological conditions, where PAP248-286 concentrations are elevated and it plays a role in determining sperm health and viability, with relevance for male fertility as well as sterility.


Asunto(s)
Amiloide/farmacología , Reproducción/fisiología , Semen/metabolismo , Motilidad Espermática/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/citología , Supervivencia Tisular/efectos de los fármacos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Amiloide/química , Humanos , Masculino , Agregado de Proteínas , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1285-1290, 2019 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341134

RESUMEN

In the testes of the Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica), the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and steroidogenic enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc), 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (P450c17) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom), was immunohistochemically examined to clarify the location of steroidogenesis. In this study, complete spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) was observed in the testes of the examined Sunda porcupine, and spermatozoa of the Sunda porcupine had a spatulate sperm head unlike that of rats and mice which has an apical hook. On immunostaining of StAR, P450scc, 3ß-HSD, P450c17 and P450arom, immunoreactivity for all proteins was only detected in the Leydig cells and not observed within the seminiferous tubules, suggesting that the Leydig cells can synthesize both androgen and estrogen from cholesterol in the Sunda porcupine testes.


Asunto(s)
Puercoespines/fisiología , Espermatogénesis/fisiología , Testículo/metabolismo , Animales , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Inmunohistoquímica , Células Intersticiales del Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/citología , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilasa/metabolismo , Testículo/enzimología
16.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(10): 1802-1809, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313452

RESUMEN

Mature spermatozoa traits and morphology of endangered Albanian water frog, Pelophylax shqipericus, have been characterized for the first time through phase contrast microscopy, as part of successful implementation of in vitro fertilization technique for this species. The basic morphology of P. shqipericus spermatozoa consists of an elongated, thick, smooth-edged, and solid-staining head, continuing with a thin and long tail which usually extends 2.48 times the head length. The acrosome was not clearly discernible so the measurements were done on the head as a whole, while the middle section was better visible. Average length of head, including the acrosome and midsection was estimated to be 11.78 µm ± 0.32, while the tail length resulted 29.24 ± 1.75 µm. The average thickness of the head was shown to be 3.45 µm. The total sperm length resulted to be 41.02 ± 1.83 µm. The average sperm concentration was estimated of 25.5 × 106 /ml. Sperm amount, survival rate and motility were also measured. The sperm survival rate was maximal immediately after preparation of the suspension and tended to decrease over time of storage, reaching 50% after 72 hr. Decreased sperm motility seemed to follow the same trend as sperm viability. Sperm traits resulted to be very similar both in size and in shape with those of "Lessonae" frog group, one of the lineages of Western Palearctic species complex, suggesting a strong phylogenetic relationship among these species.


Asunto(s)
Microscopía de Contraste de Fase , Ranidae , Espermatozoides/citología , Espermatozoides/fisiología , Animales , Biometría , Supervivencia Celular , Locomoción , Masculino
17.
Cryo Letters ; 40(4): 219-225, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278402

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (Rom) has been reported recently to be of interest for use in sperm cryopreservation. However, related to its lipophilic characteristics, encapsulation in cyclodextrin could enhance Rom positive effects by increasing its solubility in sperm extenders. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of Rom preloaded in hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (Rom-cd) to Rom alone (Rom) on ram sperm conserved at 4°C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ram epididymal sperm was collected from six testes. Each collected sperm was split into four equal aliquots. The control aliquot was diluted with Tris extender (Tris + citric acid + fructose + penicillin), two aliquots were treated with Rom at 0.5µl ml-1 and 1µl ml-1 respectively, and one aliquot treated with Rom-cd at 1µl ml-1. All sperm aliquots were analyzed for motility after 0, 2, 4, 24 and 48 h of storage at 4°C using a Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA). Membrane integrity and oxidative stress status were measured after 48 h of storage. RESULTS: The results indicated that motility parameters were best preserved in the extender containing Rom-cd compared to the groups treated by Rom without cyclodextrin. Rom alone resulted to higher sperm motility than the control group. Lower oxidative stress and more cell membrane protection were observed in Rom treated samples, especially when using Rom-cd. CONCLUSION: The ability of Rom to protect ram sperm against cryopreservation damages was improved after encapsulation in hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD).


Asunto(s)
Aceites Volátiles/química , Rosmarinus/química , Preservación de Semen/veterinaria , Motilidad Espermática , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animales , Membrana Celular , Criopreservación/veterinaria , Masculino , Estrés Oxidativo , Ovinos , Espermatozoides/citología
19.
Nanotechnology ; 30(45): 455101, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362276

RESUMEN

Zinc-based nanoparticles are promising materials for various applications, including in biomedicine. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of fluorescent europium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO:Eu NPs) on sperm parameters, cell apoptosis and integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in mice. Nanostructures were orally administered to adult mice (n = 34). Animals were sacrificed after 3 h, 24 h, 7 d and 14 d following oral administration. Sperm was collected and analysed for viability and kinetic parameters. Collected testes were quantitatively analysed for accumulation of ZnO:Eu NPs. Microscopic evaluation based on immunofluorescence and histopathological studies were also conducted. Results showed that ZnO:Eu NPs were able to overcome the BTB with their subsequent accumulation in the testis. No toxic or pro-apoptotic effects of nanoparticles on the male reproductive system were observed. The results suggested that ZnO:Eu NPs were able to accumulate in the testis with no negative impact on sperm parameters, tissue architecture or the integrity of the BTB.


Asunto(s)
Barrera Hematotesticular/efectos de los fármacos , Espermatozoides/citología , Óxido de Zinc/administración & dosificación , Administración Oral , Animales , Apoptosis , Europio/administración & dosificación , Europio/química , Masculino , Ratones , Nanopartículas , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Óxido de Zinc/química , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología
20.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(5-6): 30, 2019 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147792

RESUMEN

Fishes show a great diversity of mating systems and fertilization mechanisms. This diversity creates an enormous potential for sperm competition. Typically, monogamous species face a low risk of sperm competition and invest less into sperm, and thus show smaller relative testis mass compared to polygamous species with high sperm competition. In cichlids, sperm competition risk is very variable. In lacustrine East African cichlids, large sperm are interpreted as an adaptation to sperm competition, as in those species sperm length correlates with sperm swimming speed. The aim of the present study was to examine variation in sperm and testis traits of substrate breeding cichlids from West African river systems and its relationship to sperm competition. Therefore, sperm traits (total sperm size, flagellum-, midpiece-, and head size) and sperm number were related to the gonadosomatic index (GSI), an indicator of sperm competition, in eight species of two large informal tribes, the chromidotilapiines and the haplotilapiines. We found significant differences between species in all examined sperm traits, sperm number, and GSI with pronounced differences between chromidotilapiines and haplotilapiines. We used a generalized least-squares approach to control for non-independence of data. GSI was positively correlated with sperm number but negatively correlated with total sperm size (also negatively with the flagellum and head size but not significantly with midpiece size). Sperm number and sperm size were negatively correlated suggesting a trade-off between sperm size and quality. Our results suggest that large sperm can evolve in species with relatively low sperm expenditure and probably in absence of high sperm competition between males.


Asunto(s)
Cíclidos/anatomía & histología , Cíclidos/fisiología , Espermatozoides/citología , Testículo/anatomía & histología , África Occidental , Animales , Masculino , Ríos , Recuento de Espermatozoides
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