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2.
J Water Health ; 18(6): 946-955, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328366

RESUMEN

One major risk factor common to individuals in schistosomiasis endemic areas is water contact patterns. Effort to determine the dynamics in water contact patterns in different regions needs utmost attention in order to suggest a better control strategy for schistosome infection. Quantitative observations on human water contact activities were recorded in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State for a period of two years. Frequency and duration of observed water contact activities were recorded. Males had the highest water contact during the rainy season with 51.1% compared to females with 48.9%. Females had the highest water contact with 51.0% while males had 49.0% during the dry season. The age group 10-19 years had the highest water contact with 27.1%, this was followed by 20-29 years and 30-39 years age groups with 23.6% and 22.1%, respectively, during the rainy season. Our results showed that water contact activities differ with respect to different communities, sex and age groups. Previous high prevalence of schistosome infection in the study areas could be attributed to high water contact activities. Therefore, provision of adequate pipe-borne water, good sanitation and improved knowledge on schistosome life cycle among the community members will reduce the high rate of human water contacts.


Asunto(s)
Esquistosomiasis , Agua , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Estaciones del Año
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e01452020, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338108

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms in exon 1 (A/O alleles) and promoter regions at positions -550 (H/L variant, rs11003125) and -221 (X/Y variant, rs7096206) MBL2 and periportal fibrosis regression. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving 114 Brazilians infected with Schistosoma mansoni, who were subjected to follow-up for three years after specific treatment for schistosomiasis to estimate the probability of periportal fibrosis regression. RESULTS: A risk association was observed between polymorphism at the exon 1 MBL2 and periportal fibrosis regression. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the polymorphism of exon 1 MBL2 may potentially be used to predict periportal fibrosis regression in this population.


Asunto(s)
Lectina de Unión a Manosa , Esquistosomiasis , Animales , Brasil , Exones/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/genética , Lectina de Unión a Manosa/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esquistosomiasis/genética
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(6): 551-558, 2020 Nov 19.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325187

RESUMEN

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were seropositive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person-times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd-times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas , Esquistosomiasis Japónica , Esquistosomiasis , Animales , Bovinos/parasitología , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Esquistosomiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/veterinaria , Caracoles/parasitología
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(6): 565-568, 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325189

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changing tendency in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in the national surveillance sites of Hubei Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for facilitating the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis in the province. METHODS: According to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Scheme (2014 version), a total of 65 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Hubei Province, and the Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, domestic animals, snails and wild feces were monitored in these national surveillance sites from 2015 to 2019. All data pertaining to the surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: There were 151 159 person-time local residents and 70 928 person-time mobile populations screened for S. japonicum infections in the 65 national surveillance sites of Hubei Province from 2015 to 2019, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.45% (1 077/31 197) in 2015 to 1.57% (431/27 371) in 2019 among local residents and from 1.06% (98/9 249) in 2015 to 0.81% (116/14 318) in 2019 among mobile populations. During the period from 2015 through 2019, there were 22 egg-positive local residents and 2 egg-positive mobile populations identified in 2015, with 0.07% and 0.02% prevalence rates of S. japonicum infections, respectively. During the 5-year period, a total of 7 025 herd-time domestic animals examined for S. japonicum infections, with no infections detected, and a total of 2 035 wild feces were tested, with no egg-positives identified in the 65 national surveillance sites of Hubei Province. Snail survey was conducted covering 28 767.35 hm2 during the 5-year period, and the area of snail habitats ranged from 1 609.82 to 2 119.81 hm2. The mean density of living snails and occurrence of frames with snails reduced from 0.360 5 snails/0.1 m2 and 11.26% in 2015 to 0.175 9 snails/0.1 m2 and 8.43% in 2019, respectively, and no S. japonicum infection was found in snails during the 5-year period. In addition, no snails were found in the potential schistosomiasis transmission foci in the two national surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Dam. CONCLUSIONS: The overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a decline in Hubei Province during the period from 2015 through 2019; however, the schistosomiasis transmission risk remains. Improving the surveillance system of schistosomiasis and increasing the sensitivity and performance of the surveillance system are required to provide insights into the implementation of precision control strategy and interventions in Hubei Province.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas , Esquistosomiasis , Animales , China/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Humanos , Ganado , Prevalencia , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/veterinaria , Esquistosomiasis Japónica , Caracoles/parasitología
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(6): 623-626, 2020 Jun 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325198

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influencing factors of health-related behaviors for schistosomiasis prevention and control among primary and secondary school students in Sichuan Province using a multilevel and multivariate logistic model, so as to provide the theoretical evidence for developing the schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy among primary and secondary school students in Sichuan Province. METHODS: A multi-stage sampling was conducted among 63 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (districts) in Sichuan Province. Five endemic townships were sampled from each county (district), and 100 Grade 4 to 6 students in each primary school and 100 Grade 1 to 3 students in each secondary school were sampled from each township as the study subjects. The health-related behaviors for schistosomiasis prevention and control were investigated using a questionnaire survey, and factors affecting infested water contact behaviors were identified using univariate and multilevel logistic analyses. RESULTS: Among the 62 200 questionnaires distributed, there were 59 134 recovered, and 56 510 were qualified. The qualified 56 510 respondents included 22 955 secondary school students and 33 555 primary school students, and 28 297 male students and 28 213 females. A higher proportion of infested water contacts was seen in male students than in females (P < 0.001), and the students living in heavily endemic areas had a higher proportion of infested water contacts than those in mildly endemic areas (P < 0.001). In addition, there was no significant difference in the proportion of infested water contacts between primary and secondary school students (P >0.05). Multilevel and multivariate logistic analyses revealed a lower proportion of infested water contacts with the increase of knowledge, belief and self-efficacy levels (P < 0.001), and there was a cluster of infested water contacts among students at a county scale (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is a cluster of infested-water contact behaviors among primary and secondary school students at a county scale in Sichuan Province. Individual and environmental factors should be considered during the formulation of health education strategy and interventions for schistosomiasis among primary and secondary school students.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Esquistosomiasis , Adolescente , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(6): 640-642, 2020 Aug 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325202

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Oncomelania snails control following the implementation of integrated schistosomiasis control measures in river channels connecting the Yangtze River in endemic areas of Nanjing City. METHODS: The river channels connecting the Yangtze River with snails in Nanjing City were selected as the study pilots. The integrated schistosomiasis control measures implemented in the study pilots were investigated by means of retrospective analyses and field surveys from 1998 to 2019, and the effectiveness of snail control was evaluated. RESULTS: Integrated control measures with emphases on environmental improvements including water resource projects for schistosomiasis control were implemented in the study pilots during the period from 1998 to 2019, including river bank concretion with 84.51 km in length, marshland cutting and dredging with 50.41 km in length, building 2 sluices and 3 overflow dams, digging one floodway and snail control with chemical treatment that covered an area of 3 370.80 hm2. No Schistosoma japonicum infection had been detected in snails since the completion of the integrated control measures. In addition, snails had been eliminated in 6 river channels connecting the Yangtze River until 2019, with the snail habitats reducing from 214.33 hm2 to 52.22 hm2 in 10 river channels connecting the Yangtze River and the snail density reducing to below 0.1 snails/0.1 m2 in snail-breeding river channels connecting the Yangtze River. CONCLUSIONS: The integrated schistosomiasis control measures with emphases on environmental improvements may effectively control snail breeding and spread in rivers connecting the Yangtze River in endemic areas of schistosomiasis; however, the maintenance of the project and snail surveillance and control should be intensified following the completion of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures.


Asunto(s)
Ríos/parasitología , Esquistosomiasis , Caracoles/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/parasitología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Esquistosomiasis Japónica
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(6): 646-648, 2020 Oct 26.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325204

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Zhenjiang City from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide the scientific basis for the consolidation of schistosomiasis control achievements and timely treatment of risk factors. METHODS: A total of 7 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Zhenjiang City from 2015 to 2019. According to the National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance (2014 version), Schistosoma japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, floating populations and livestock, and snail habitats were surveyed in Zhenjiang City from 2015 to 2019. The results of schistosomaisis surveillance in Zhenjiang City from 2015 to 2019 were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 15 848 and 7 779 person-times of local residents and floating populations receiving serological screening of schistosomiasis in 7 national surveillance sites of Zhenjiang City from 2015 to 2019, and the seroprevalence rates were 0.95% to 1.75% and 0.14% to 0.91% among local residents and floating populations, respectively; however, no egg-positives were identified. A total of 1 885 herd-times of livestock were detected, and no egg-positives were found. During the 5-year period, snail survey was conducted in snail habitats and suspected snail habitats covering 3 333.79 hm2, and there were 108.71 hm2 snail habitats identified, including 50.97 hm2 re-emerging snail habitats. The density of living snails was 0.007 to 0.125 snails/0.1 m2 from 2015 to 2019, which showed a trend for a rise year by year (χ2 = 2 732.626, P < 0.01); however, no S. japonicum infections were detected in snails. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis has been maintained at a low level in Zhenjiang City, and schistosomiasis control achievements are consolidated. However, snails are widely distributed in the city, and there are still risk factors associated with schistosomiasis transmission. Further integrated interventions require to be reinforced to timely manage the risk of transmission of schistosomiasis and promote the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis.


Asunto(s)
Vigilancia de la Población , Esquistosomiasis , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Animales , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Ganado/parasitología , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Caracoles/parasitología
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 441-447, 2020 Jun 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185052

RESUMEN

Before and after the construction of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, a number of studies have been conducted to assess the possibility of the northward spread of Oncomelania snails and schistosomiasis caused by the construction of the project, the survival and reproduction of snails moved north of their natural distribution, and the transmission of schistosomiasis by the survival snails moved north of their natural distribution. The effect of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the transmission of schistosomiasis is restricted along the Jiangsu section of the eastern route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and the Water Transfer Project from the Yangtze River to Han River of the middle route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. It has been demonstrated the water diversion pattern via the pump stations and the ecological conditions in the water transfusion channels of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project are unlikely to result in the northward spread of Oncomelania snails or schistosomiasis, and no snails or schistosomiasis spread was found during the surveillance before and after the operation of the eastern route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and the Water Transfer Project from the Yangtze River to Han River of the middle route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Nevertheless, sustainable surveillance of Oncomelania snails along the South-to-North Water Diversion Project will provide scientific support and safety guarantee for the construction and operation of the subsequent projects.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Esquistosomiasis , Abastecimiento de Agua , Animales , China/epidemiología , Ríos , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Agua
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 506-510, 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185063

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of Oncomelania snails in Four-Lake Basin of Hubei Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for the development of snail control interventions. METHODS: The snail distribution was surveyed by means of the retrospective study and cross-sectional survey in the Four-Lake Basin in Spring of 2016. The data pertaining to the endemic situation of schistosomiasis were collected and analyzed in the Four-Lake Basin from 2008 to 2018, and the associations of snail habitat areas with the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans and bovines were examined. RESULTS: There were 16 003 snail habitats in the 9 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (districts) in the Four-Lake Basin in 2016, covering an area of 246 million m2. The mean density of living snails was 0.622 5 snails/0.1 m2, which was relatively high in weed-type settings (0.688 0 snails/0.1 m2) and ditches (0.706 4 snails/0.1 m2). Type I (current snail habitats, 53.03%) and Ⅱ- Ⅳ (historical snail habitats, 46.97%) settings were predominant snail habitats. A big change was seen in snail habitats in dry farmland, marshland and paddy farmland, and environmental modification resulted in satisfactory snail control effectiveness. In addition, the area of snail habitats positively correlated with the changes in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans (r = 0.842, P < 0.01) and livestock (r = 0.695, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The integrate strategy with an emphasis on the control of the source of S. japonicum infections results in remarkable snail control effectiveness in the Four-Lake Basin; however, there is a risk of re-emerging snail habitats.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Lagos , Esquistosomiasis , Caracoles , Animales , Bovinos , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ecosistema , Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Helmintiasis Animal/prevención & control , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Caracoles/parasitología , Caracoles/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 511-516, 2020 Oct 19.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185064

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. METHODS: On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. RESULTS: Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Animales , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Caracoles/parasitología
13.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200411, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027417

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Brazil's southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul (RGS), was considered schistosomiasis-free until 1998 when a low endemic focus was identified in Esteio, a city located next to the capital of RGS. In the last two decades, the control interventions applied in the region have been apparently successful, and the absence of new cases indicated the possibility of interrupted schistosomiasis transmission. The objective of this study was to update the clinical and epidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Esteio. METHODS: We reviewed all 28 individuals diagnosed with the infection since 1997 and a survey was applied to a group of 29 school-aged children residing in Vila Pedreira, one of the most affected neighborhoods. RESULTS: No eggs were detected in fecal samples using the Helmintex method, and all samples were negative for serum antibodies on examination by the western blot technique using the Schistosoma mansoni microsomal antigen (MAMA- WB). In contrast, 23 individuals (79%) tested positive for the cathodic circulating antigen with the point-of-care immunochromatographic test (POC-CCA) on urine samples. Of the 28 formerly infected individuals, only eight were located, of which four tested positive, and four tested negative for serum antibodies using the MAMA-WB technique. CONCLUSIONS: Current adverse conditions for S. mansoni transmission in Esteio and the absence of a confirmed diagnosis suggests that there is (i) a lack of specificity of the POC-CCA test in low endemic settings, and (ii) a high probability that interruption of schistosomiasis has been achieved in Esteio.


Asunto(s)
Esquistosomiasis , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos , Brasil , Niño , Humanos
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23174-23181, 2020 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868437

RESUMEN

Schistosomiasis is among the most common parasitic diseases in the world, with over 142 million people infected in low- and middle-income countries. Measuring population-level transmission is centrally important in guiding schistosomiasis control programs. Traditionally, human Schistosoma mansoni infections have been detected using stool microscopy, which is logistically difficult at program scale and has low sensitivity when people have low infection burdens. We compared serological measures of transmission based on antibody response to S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) with stool-based measures of infection among 3,663 preschool-age children in an area endemic for S. mansoni in western Kenya. We estimated force of infection among children using the seroconversion rate and examined how it varied geographically and by age. At the community level, serological measures of transmission aligned with stool-based measures of infection (ρ = 0.94), and serological measures provided more resolution for between-community differences at lower levels of infection. Force of infection showed a clear gradient of transmission with distance from Lake Victoria, with 94% of infections and 93% of seropositive children in communities <1.5 km from the lake. Force of infection increased through age 3 y, by which time 65% (95% CI: 53%, 75%) of children were SEA positive in high-transmission communities-2 y before they would be reached by school-based deworming programs. Our results show that serologic surveillance platforms represent an important opportunity to guide and monitor schistosomiasis control programs, and that in high-transmission settings preschool-age children represent a key population missed by school-based deworming programs.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Anticuerpos/inmunología , Schistosoma mansoni/inmunología , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/inmunología , Esquistosomiasis/inmunología , Animales , Preescolar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Kenia , Masculino , Prevalencia , Esquistosomiasis/parasitología , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/parasitología
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008618, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986706

RESUMEN

Schistosomes are the causative agent of schistosomiasis, which affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Unlike other trematode parasites, schistosomes (along with the Didymozoidae) have evolved separate sexes. Pairing of males and females is a prerequisite for female sexual development and subsequent egg production. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes remain poorly understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to play important roles in many biological processes. In the present study, we characterized EVs isolated from adult male and female Schistosoma japonicum. Proteomic analyses of the isolated EVs revealed that some proteins are significantly enriched in male or female EVs. RNA-sequencing analysis of a small RNA population associated with EVs identified 18 miRNAs enriched in male and female S. japonicum EVs. Among these, miR-750 was specifically enriched in female EVs. Additionally, the inhibition of miR-750 by a miRNA inhibitor led to decreased egg production in female schistosomes cultured in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-750 within female EV cargo may be involved in regulating ovary development and egg production in S. japonicum females.


Asunto(s)
Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , MicroARNs/genética , Proteínas Protozoarias/genética , Proteínas Protozoarias/aislamiento & purificación , Schistosoma japonicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , MicroARNs/antagonistas & inhibidores , Óvulo/efectos de los fármacos , Óvulo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteoma/genética , Conejos , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Esquistosomiasis/parasitología
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008649, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976496

RESUMEN

Schistosomiasis control is heavily reliant on the drug praziquantel (PZQ), which is used as preventive chemotherapy as part of national helminth control strategies. Given the heavy reliance on PZQ for mass drug administration, there has been considerable research on the potential of parasites developing resistance to the drug, resulting in decreased drug efficacy. However, there have been comparatively fewer studies of other factors that can potentially alter PZQ efficacy. Here, we investigate whether host PZQ metabolism contributes towards variable cure rates. We evaluate factors that can influence the metabolism of PZQ and the resultant effect on the efficacy of PZQ treatment to determine factors that potentially influence an individual's response to the drug. The literature search was directed at published studies from three online databases: Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE. The search terms for the review comprised of ([praziquantel OR PZQ] AND [schistosom* OR bilharzia] AND [pharmaco*]) and included studies evaluating PZQ metabolism. Publications were categorised into pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, and metabolite analysis. Forty publications describing human and experimental studies fitted the inclusion criteria and were subjected to data extraction and analysis. The analyses showed that variable exposure to PZQ was associated with alterations in the liver's capacity to metabolise PZQ and observed drug-drug interactions. Other factors influencing the efficacy of PZQ were brand, formulation, and co-administered food. Although some work has been performed on metabolite identification, there was minimal information on PZQ's metabolic pathway, and no pharmacogenetics studies were identified. The study indicated that in both human and experimental studies alterations in the liver's capacity to metabolise PZQ as well as drug-drug interactions affected systemic levels of PZQ that could result in variable cure rates. The study confirmed previous findings of higher antischistosomal activity of (R)-PZQ enantiomer when administered alone compared to the racemate at the same dose as well as improved efficacy when the drug is administered with food. The study also highlighted the need for more comprehensive studies of the PZQ metabolic pathway and PZQ pharmacogenetic studies in humans.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Esquistosomiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antihelmínticos/farmacocinética , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Praziquantel/farmacocinética , Schistosoma mansoni/efectos de los fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiología , Esquistosomiasis/parasitología
17.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 384-388, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935513

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of various agroforestry systems for snail control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the construction of agroforestry schistosomiasis control projects in plateau hilly regions. METHODS: The pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built in snail-breeding farmlands in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province in 2010, and the economic benefits and snail control effect were investigated in 2018. In addition, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was created to screen the agroforestry system with high comprehensive benefits. RESULTS: A total of 14 types of pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built. Economic benefit analysis showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best economic benefit, with annual economic benefits of 270 000 Yuan/hm2, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern (annual economic benefits of 120 000 Yuan/hm2) and the "walnut + vegetables"pattern (annual economic benefits of 105 000 Yuan/hm2). No snails were detected in 8 types of the agroforestry systems, including the"walnut + chili"pattern, the"walnut + tobacco"pattern and the"walnut + garlic"pattern; however, there were snail found with various densities in other types of systems. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best comprehensive control effect, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern and the"walnut + tobacco" pattern, while the pure grassland pattern showed no effect on snail control. CONCLUSIONS: The agroforestry system is a preferential approach of forestry schistosomiasis control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas, which not only achieves snail control effects, but also promotes economic development and ecological construction in poor hilly areas.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura Forestal , Control de Plagas , Caracoles , Animales , China , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Bosques , Humanos , Control de Plagas/economía , Control de Plagas/métodos , Control de Plagas/normas , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Caracoles/fisiología
18.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 405-408, 2020 Jun 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935518

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of shear-wave elastography (SWE) of the liver and spleen for predicting the risk of esophageal-gastric varices (EGV) and the bleeding from EGV (EGVB) in patients with advanced schistosomiasis. METHODS: The medical records of 90 patients with definitive diagnosis of advanced schistosomiasis in Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from January 2017 through January 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The severity of EGV was graded in the 90 patients with advanced schistosomiasis using gastroscopic findings as a golden standard. Then, the subjects were assigned to the non-EGV and EGV groups, and the low- and high-risk EGVB groups according to the grading. The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were measured and compared between groups. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen for predicting the high risk of EGV and EGVB. RESULTS: The 90 patients with advanced schistosomiasis included 61 men and 29 women, and had a mean age of (74.3 ± 8.6) years (range, 62 to 83 years). If gastroscopic findings were employed as a golden standard, there were 32 cases with grade 0 (35.5%), 17 cases with grade 1 (18.9%), 15 cases with grade 2 (16.7%) and 26 cases with grade 3 EGV (28.9%). There were 32 cases in the non-EGV group (35.6%) and 58 cases in the EGV group (64.4%), and 41 cases in the high-risk EGV group (45.6%) and 49 cases in the low-risk EGV group (54.4%), respectively. The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were both significantly greater in the EGV group than in the non-EGV group (t = 5.73 and 7.26, both P values < 0.05). The SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen had AUCs of 0.70 and 0.75, optimal cut-off of 16.1 kPa and 22.6 kPa, sensitivities of 80.6% and 83.9% and specificities of 71.4% and 78.6% for the prediction of EGV, respectively. In addition, the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen were significantly greater in the high-risk EGVB groups than in the low-risk EGVB group (t = 7.35 and 9.61, both P values < 0.05), and the SWE elastic moduli of the liver and spleen had AUCs of 0.68 and 0.71, optimal cut-off of 22.7 kPa and 33.8 kPa, sensitivities of 70.4% and 73.6% and specificities of 89.3% and 93.1% for the prediction of high-risk EGV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SWE is useful to predict the risk of EGV and EGVB in patients with advanced schistosomiasis.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas , Hemorragia , Esquistosomiasis , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad/normas , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagen , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/etiología , Femenino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagen , Hemorragia/etiología , Humanos , Hígado/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esquistosomiasis/complicaciones , Esquistosomiasis/diagnóstico por imagen , Bazo/diagnóstico por imagen
19.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 414-418, 2020 Jun 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935520

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos, so as to propose the corresponding healthy policies and suggestions. METHODS: A SWOT analysis was performed to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat for the schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, and the corresponding policy suggestions were proposed. RESULTS: The national schistosomiasis elimination program of Laos receives governmental emphases and great supports. A strategy based on mass drug administration was proposed and a sentinel site-bases surveillance system has been built for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos; however, there are several challenges for the national schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, including insufficient financial supports, inadequate professional capability, weak schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations and difficulty in vector control. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent governmental leadership, increasing financial supports, strengthening professional team building and improving schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations are required to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in Laos.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Esquistosomiasis , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/normas , Humanos , Laos , Programas Nacionales de Salud/economía , Programas Nacionales de Salud/normas , Control de Plagas , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control
20.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 419-422, 2020 Jun 29.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935521

RESUMEN

This paper summarizes the changes in the policy associated with schistosmiasis control in the new era, analyzes the background of Health China Strategy and its association with the current schistosomiasis control program in China, describes several schistosomiasis control models and proposes some suggestions responding to the challenges in current schistosomiasis control program of China, so as to provide insights into the development of the effective control strategy for schistosomiasis.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Políticas , Esquistosomiasis , China , Humanos , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control
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