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1.
Chin J Physiol ; 63(1): 21-26, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056983

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aerobic training performed indoors and outdoors on irisin, adropin, and cholesterol levels in winter. Thirty-two healthy males participated in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: outdoor group (n = 16) and indoor group (n = 16). They then performed 40-min aerobic running exercises 4 days/week for 18 weeks. The outdoor group trained at -5°C-5°C environmental temperature, while the indoor group trained at 21°C-25°C. Blood samples were collected before and after the 18-week training period and immediately after the first training. The results showed that single aerobic exercise induced minimal increase in serum irisin concentrations in both groups. In addition, irisin levels did not change in the outdoor group but significantly decreased in the indoor group after the 18-week training period. Aerobic exercise had no acute or chronic effects on serum adropin levels in the indoor group. However, the aerobic training caused a decrease in adropin levels chronically, but there was no acute effect after single aerobic exercise in the outdoor group. Furthermore, there was no acute effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol after single aerobic exercise in both groups. However, after the 18-week training period, there was a significant increase in HDL-C levels in both groups. Moreover, the increase in HDL-C in the outdoor group was higher than in the indoor group. Thus, this study provides evidence for the beneficial chronic effects of aerobic exercise and cold on HDL-C levels as well as the beneficial acute effects on irisin concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Masculino , Estaciones del Año
2.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109875, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063321

RESUMEN

Countries share responsibility for the management and conservation of migratory bird species. However, a limited understanding of population dynamics hampers the implementation of harvest and transboundary management. Age-ratios and population density can be useful indicators to assess population dynamics to improve management and conservation actions. Here, the dynamics of an Atlantic population of Common quail Coturnix coturnix, using 32,508 quail samples and 4814 hunter questionnaires over a 20-year period (1996-2016) served as a comparative study for examining age-ratio patterns related to different geographic zones, population density and weather parameters. Results show that age-ratios varied over zones and years, specifically age-ratio 1 (AR1), used as an index of late breeding attempts, varied from 0.1 to 0.21. Age-ratio 2 (AR2), a surrogate of central recruitment, varied from 0.16 to 0.66. Finally, age-ratio 3 (AR3), used as an indicator of the population's annual breeding success, varied from 3.69 to 6.68. Age-ratio is linked to internal and external factors (i.e. effect of rainfall, variations over time and density-dependent relationships) depicting how quail age groups make segregated migration in time and space. Quail age groups perform a complex pattern of migration because of entwined changes in abundance, migration routes and timing, influencing population connectivity and dynamics. Our findings highlight the relevance of citizen science and transboundary agreements to improve management and conservation measures of migrant species. Administrations and policy-makers in developed and developing countries must coordinate efforts to engage hunters in a participatory management systems to achieve sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Migración Animal , Coturnix , Animales , Ecología , Dinámica Poblacional , Estaciones del Año
3.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 6, 2020 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013942

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Assessing wildlife movements and habitat use is important for species conservation and management and can be informative for understanding population dynamics. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania has been declining, and little was known about the movement, habitat selection, and space use of the population, which is important for understanding possible reasons behind the decline. A total of 12 African buffalo cows from four different herds were collared with satellite transmitters. Movements were assessed over 2 years from 11 animals. RESULTS: The space use of the individual collared buffaloes as an approximation of the 95% home range size estimated using Brownian bridge models, ranged from 73 to 601 km2. The estimated home ranges were larger in the wet season than in the dry season. With the exception of one buffalo all collared animals completed a wet season migration of varying distances. A consistent pattern of seasonal movement was observed with one herd, whereas the other herds did not behave the same way in the two wet seasons that they were tracked. Herd splitting and herd switching occurred on multiple occasions. Buffaloes strongly associated with habitats near the Great Ruaha River in the dry season and had little association to permanent water sources in the wet season. Daily movements averaged 4.6 km (standard deviation, SD = 2.6 km), with the longest distances traveled during November (mean 6.9 km, SD = 3.6 km) at the end of the dry season and beginning of the wet season. The shortest daily distances traveled occurred in the wet season in April-June (mean 3.6 km, SD = 1.6-1.8 km). CONCLUSION: The Great Ruaha River has experienced significant drying in the last decades due to water diversions upstream, which likely has reduced the suitable range for buffaloes. The loss of dry season habitat due to water scarcity has likely contributed to the population decline of the Ruaha buffaloes.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos , Parques Recreativos , Animales , Bovinos , Ecosistema , Femenino , Estaciones del Año , Tanzanía
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(5): 2229-2241, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915903

RESUMEN

The aquatic microbial community is sensitive to environmental change; however, the impacts of those changes combined with disease outbreaks affecting S. paramamosain are unknown. Thus, from March to October, we explored the interaction between aquacultural environmental conditions and microbial composition and function in open-air aquaculture ponds containing S. paramamosain in Southern China. The microbial community structure was significantly positively correlated with microbial community function. The environment variables such as temperature and salinity during May and June changed more quickly compared with other periods, resulting changes in the structure and function of the microbial community affected S. paramamosain survivability, with higher crab mortality observed from May to June compared with other periods. These included changes in the relative abundance of Microtrichales, Synechococcales, Rhodobacterales, Chitinophagales, and SAR11_clade, and corresponding functions associated with glycolysis and/or gluconeogenesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthetic proteins, and transcription factors. These changes could impact S. paramamosain mortality and be used to evaluate the health status of the ponds. Though the environment variables during July~October changed slowly comparing to May and June, the ponds microflora changed which benefit S. paramamosain survivability with correspondingly low S. paramamosain mortality. Therefore, rapid environmental change alters the structure and function of the aquatic microflora, increasing S. paramamosain mortality.


Asunto(s)
Braquiuros/fisiología , Microbiota , Estanques/microbiología , Microbiología del Agua , Animales , Acuicultura , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microbiota/genética , Nutrientes/análisis , Estanques/química , Salinidad , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura Ambiental
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 55-64, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957380

RESUMEN

The remotely sensed burned area (BA) products can provide continuous and spatiotemporally explicit characteristics of fire patches, which are critical data sources for understanding regional fire regimes. However, their accuracy remains to be improved. In this study, a global BA product (i.e., CCI_Fire) at 250 m resolution was integrated with global forest change (GFC) product at 30 m to generate a refined BA product, named CCI_GFC product, whose accuracy was evaluated through comparing the BA with pre-existing fire patches data. To reveal the characteristics of forest fire in China between 2001 and 2017, we conducted a grid analysis at 0.05°×0.05° spatial resolution based on the refined BA product and the spatial pattern of eco-regions at the macro scale. The results showed that the accuracy metrics including the recognition rate (RR), variance explained (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the CCI_GFC product (i.e., 83%, 0.91, 0.28, and 8.5% respectively) were all superior to the CCI_Fire product (i.e., 74%, 0.86, 0.36, and 11.8% respectively) and the MCD64A1 product (i.e., 35%, 0.78, 0.48, and 17.3% respectively). The total burned area of forest was approximately 12.11 million hm2 for the whole country from 2001 to 2017, while the annual burned area temporally decreased. Forest fires in China were dominated by the low-frequency [0

Asunto(s)
Fuego , Incendios Forestales , China , Bosques , Estaciones del Año , Árboles
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 72-82, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957382

RESUMEN

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is a key environmental factor affecting the change of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) during the daytime. However, the coordinate system of PAR measured by horizontal radiometers over sloping terrain does not match that of NEE after tilt-corrected of the ultrasonic anemometer. Using the temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest at the Maoershan site with an average slope of 9° and a azimuth of 296° as a case, we investigated the diurnal variations in NEE and its driving factors in the growing season (May to September) of 2016. We assessed the differences in estimating light response parameters and the explanations of NEE by other environmental factors between the PAR measured by horizontal and slope-parallel radiometers. The results showed that the diurnal change of NEE in each month of the growing season presented a morning-afternoon asymmetrically unimodal curve: the value was negative (net carbon absorption) about 2.5 h after sunrise, reached the peak around 12:00, then approached zero again at two hours before sunset. The daily net uptake maximized in July and minimized in May. During the whole growing season, the time-lag and difference in the PAR measured by the horizontal versus slope-parallel radiometers led to that the PAR values measured by the horizontal radiometer increased photosynthetic quantum yield (α) and daytime respiration rate (Rd) by 13.3% and 11.5%, respectively, and decreased the maximum photosynthetic efficiency (Amax) by 7.7%. The light response curves of NEE were asymmetrical in the morning and afternoon, with Rd and Amax in the afternoon being greater than that in the morning. Weather conditions affected light response parameters: on cloudy days, Amax was higher than that in sunny days, the α and Rd were lower versus those in sunny days for most conditions. However, the monthly Amax and Rd were generally higher for horizontally measured PAR than for slope-parallelly measured PAR, especially for Amax in the cloudy afternoon. The radiometer-orientation affected the explanation of daytime NEE by air temperature (Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The correlation of NEE residual based on the slope-parallel radiometer with Ta and VPD (r ranged: 0.013 to 0.197, 0.098 to 0.224) was tighter than that based on the horizontal radiometer (r ranged: 0.082 to 0.219, 0.162 to 0.282) when the negative correlations with Ta for September was excluded. Our results indicated that the measurements of PAR on the inclined terrains could cause errors in the environmental interpretations of NEE. Such findings had implications for the radiometric measurement of mountain vegetation and the reasonable interpretation of carbon exchange in terrestrial ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Ecosistema , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Bosques , Fotosíntesis , Estaciones del Año
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 83-88, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957383

RESUMEN

The perennial clonal grasses rely mainly on vegetative reproduction to achieve continuous regeneration. Buds and juvenile tillers formed by buds are potential populations for vegetative reproduction. We compared the composition and size of potential population of Leymus chinensis in the enclosure meadow, long-term mowing meadow, enclosing sand-covered meadow, and forest-grassland, with excavation sampling by unit area and using vegetative reproduction generations to classify the age of tillers, rhizomes and various types of buds and juvenile tillers. The results showed that at the end of the growing season, potential population of L. chinensis was composed of rhizome buds and buds of tiller growing upwards at different ages, as well as juvenile tillers on the tillers and rhizomes. Across the four habitats, the potential population of tillers of L. chinensis was composed of 3-4 age classes, and the rhizomes' potential population consisted of four age classes, of which the potential population formed by rhizomes accounted for 68.3% of the total potential population. The potential population produced by 1st age class tillers and rhizomes accounted for 60.2% of the total, which was the main part of the potential population composition and the main source of population renewal. The potential population of tillers was the most abundant in long-term mowing meadow. The potential population of rhizomes was the most abundant in enclosing sand-covered meadow. The vegetative fertility of tillers and rhizomes was the highest in young age. The vegetative fertility of rhizomes was 10.0 times as that of tillers, which dominated the vegetative reproduction of L. chinensis. The potential population composition of L. chinensis varied greatly across different habitats, reflecting the divergent adaptation to habitat variation.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Poaceae , China , Reproducción , Estaciones del Año
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 165-172, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957393

RESUMEN

The unreasonable resource allocation and lower resource use efficiency for rice-wheat double cropping system in Jianghuai region resulted from climate change severely limit the coordinated development of annually high yield and high efficiency crops. Optimizing seasonal resource allocation through sowing date adjustment is an important way to tap the annual high-yield potential and improve resource use efficiency. To quantify the effects of sowing date of rice and wheat on annual yield and resource allocation and utilization efficiency, field experiments were conducted in 2013-2015. Results showed that compared with the conventional rice-wheat cropping system (T2), the two seasons appropriate late-cast cropping system (T3) could coordinate resource allocation in the two seasons through the sowing date adjustment, and transfer the redundant radiation and heat resources in the wheat season to the rice. The distribution rate of accumulated temperature, radiation and rainfall resources for T3 were: rice season accounted for 60.5%, 46.5% and 56.7%, wheat season accounted for 36.3%, 50.0% and 40.9%, and the ratio between two seasons was 1.67, 0.94 and 1.39, respectively. Rice yield and its proportion of annual production were significantly increased. The wheat yield was significantly decreased, with the variation range being smaller than that of rice. The total annual yield was increased by 336.3 kg·hm-2 as compared with T2. The temperature, radiation and rainfall production efficiency for rice in T3 were increased by 9.8%, 5.6% and 8.3% in compared to T2, respectively. There was no significant difference in the climate resource utilization efficiency of wheat season. The annual resource production efficiency of T3 was increased by 4.8%, 3.1% and 6.0% over the T2, respectively. Earlier (T1) or latest sowing (T4) of two seasons cropping system was not appropriate for annual yield formation and resource utilization. In summary, improving resource utilization efficiency in rice season is the key way to increase annual grain yield potential in Jianghuai region. The results provided theoretical and practical bases for the excavation of yield potential of the regional annual cropping system and the adjustment of planting structure.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Triticum , Agricultura , Productos Agrícolas , Grano Comestible , Estaciones del Año
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 293-300, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957407

RESUMEN

It is important to reveal the interspecific association and correlation of main species for deep understanding of fish community structure and function. Based on data collected from the bottom trawl surveys from 2013 to 2017 in the Haizhou Bay and the adjacent waters, we analyzed interspecific association of main species using Chi-square test, Jaccard index, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. There were consistent results from χ2-test, Jaccard index, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The proportion of positively correlated species pairs was high in different years, whereas the number of significant or extremely significant species pairs was low. There were 9, 6, 7, 1, 0 significant or extremely significant species pairs over different years based on Jaccard index. There were 12, 20, 13, 5, 6 significant or extremely significant species pairs over different years based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. While there were inter-annual changes in related species pairs, the relationship between significant species pairs was relatively stable, indicating a relatively stable interspecific association in the main fish communities. The species within the same ecological type could replace each other in the niche, which have adapted to environmental changes in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters.


Asunto(s)
Bahías , Peces , Animales , Ecología , Estaciones del Año
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 40-43, 2020 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945035

RESUMEN

Multiple genetically distinct influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses have cocirculated in the United States recently, circulating sporadically during the 2018-19 season and more frequently early during the 2019-20 season (1). The beginning of the 2019-20 influenza season in Louisiana was unusually early and intense, with infections primarily caused by influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses. One large pediatric health care facility in New Orleans (facility A) reported 1,268 laboratory-confirmed influenza B virus infections, including 23 hospitalizations from July 31 to November 21, 2019, a time when influenza activity is typically low. During this period, Louisiana also reported one pediatric death associated with influenza B virus infection. An investigation of the influenza B virus infections in Louisiana, including medical and vaccine record abstraction on 198 patients, primarily from facility A, with sporadic cases from other facilities in the state, found that none of the patients had received 2019-20 seasonal influenza vaccine, in part because influenza activity began before influenza vaccination typically occurs. Among 83 influenza B viruses sequenced from 198 patients in Louisiana, 81 (98%) belonged to the recently emerged B/Victoria V1A.3 genetic subclade. Nationally, to date, B/Victoria viruses are the most commonly reported influenza viruses among persons aged <25 years (2). Of the 198 patients in the investigation, 95% were aged <18 years. Although most illnesses were uncomplicated, the number of hospitalizations, clinical complications, and the reported pediatric death in Louisiana serve as a reminder that, even though influenza B viruses are less common than influenza A viruses in most seasons, influenza B virus infection can be severe in children. All persons aged ≥6 months should receive an annual influenza vaccination if they have not already received it (3). Antiviral treatment of influenza is recommended as soon as possible for all hospitalized patients and for outpatients at high risk for influenza complications (including children aged <2 years and persons with underlying medical conditions) (4).


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Influenza B/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Louisiana/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Adulto Joven
11.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 545-550, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892610

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Many studies have shown an antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenetic, and apoptosis-inducing effect of Vitamin D. A vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk for different types of cancer. This study examined vitamin D 25(OH)D levels in gynaecological cancers in comparison with benign gynaecological diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D levels in 688 gynaecological patients (488 with malignant, 200 with a benign gynaecological disease) were assayed between 2009 and 2015 using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: In total, the 25(OH)D levels in cancer patients were lower, but not significantly lower than those in cancer-free patients. Significant results were shown regarding seasonal effects for patients with breast-, endometrial and ovarian cancer. No significant effects occurred with regard to menopause status, nicotine, or grade in relation to 25(OH)D levels. CONCLUSION: 25(OH)D levels seem to influence gynaecological cancers.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Genitales Femeninos/sangre , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Menopausia/sangre , Estaciones del Año , Vitamina D/sangre
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18727, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914089

RESUMEN

The current study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and to explore the risk factors of critical patients. From 2016 to 2018, we collected the hospitalized diagnosed cases with SFTS in Jinan infectious disease hospital of Shandong University and analyzed by the descriptive epidemiological method. According to the prognosis, they were divided into general group and severe group. The epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, and laboratory indexes of these 2 groups of patients were compared and analyzed at the first visit. The risk factors related to the severity of the disease were analyzed by univariate Logistic regression. In total, 189 cases of SFTS were treated during the period and 33 deaths occurred in the severe group, with the fatality rate of 17.46%. The patients' age (χ = 8.864, P < .01), ALT (Z = -2.304, P = .03), AST (Z = -3.361, P < .01), GLU (t = -4.115, P < .01), CK (Z = -3.964, P < .01), CK-MB (Z = -2.225, P = .03), LDH (Z = -3.655, P < .01), α-HBDH (Z = -2.040, P = .04), APTT (t = -3.355, P < .01), BUN (Z = -2.040, P = .04), Cr (Z = -3.071, P = .01), and D-dimer (Z = -2.026, P = .04) in the severe group were higher than that in the normal group, but the blood platelet (PLT) counts were significantly lower (Z = -2.778, P < .01) than that in the normal group. With the neuropsychiatric symptoms (OR = 24.083, 95% CI = 6.064-95.642), skin bleeding point (OR = 30.000, 95% CI = 6.936-129.764), multiple organ dysfunction (OR = 34.048, 95% CI = 7.740-149.782), past medical history (OR = 3.792, 95% CI = 1.284-11.200), and fasting glucose elevation (OR = 1.359, 95% CI = 1.106-1.668) could predict the severity of the SFTS. In summary, the abnormality of the laboratory index, the special clinical manifestations, and the past medical history of SFTS patients were the important basis for judging the patient's serious condition.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre/epidemiología , Fiebre/fisiopatología , Trombocitopenia/epidemiología , Trombocitopenia/fisiopatología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Glucemia , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Insuficiencia Multiorgánica/epidemiología , Recuento de Plaquetas , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Trombocitopenia/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 21-36, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914565

RESUMEN

Influenza virus infection is a respiratory infectious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that seasonal influenza epidemics have caused an annual 3 to 5 million severe cases, and 290 000 to 650 000 deaths globally. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from infection. Currently, China has licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4). In 2018, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention issued the "Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China (2018-2019)" ( "Guide 2018" for short). To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccination Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2018 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2019-2020)" . The main updates in this version include the following: First, new research evidences especially studies of China, including disease burden, effectiveness, Vaccine-avoidable disease burden, vaccine safety monitoring, and cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. Second, policies and measures for influenza prevention and control issued by National Health Commission (PRC) in the past year. Thirdly, new type seasonal influenza vaccine licensed and issued in 2019-2020 in China. Fourth, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2019-2020 season which included trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccine. The recommendations described in this report include the following: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate product is available. To decrease the risk of severe infections and complications due to influenza virus infection among high risk groups, the recommendations prioritize seasonal influenza vaccination for children aged 6-59 months, adults ≥60 years of age, persons with specific chronic diseases, healthcare workers, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months through 8 years require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. If they were vaccinated in 2018-2019 influenza season or a prior season, 1 dose is recommended. People more than 8 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. For the people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccination will continue to be offered for the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for use by staff members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention, PoVs staff members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and staff members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels. These guidelines will be updated periodically as new evidence becomes available.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Vacunación/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , China , Femenino , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Estaciones del Año , Adulto Joven
14.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 110052, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929078

RESUMEN

The atmospheric pollution has been the public attention in recent years. In order to better coordinate economic development and atmospheric environmental management, China introduced the concept of atmospheric environmental capacity (AEC). The remaining atmospheric environmental capacity (RAEC) calculated by existing atmospheric pollution sources and AEC is an important basis for regional development and environmental protection. The RAEC of the high-pollution risk suburb of Chengdu in 2015 was estimated by the single-box model and analyzed on multiple time scales. The results show that the RAEC of SO2 and NO2 in this region is 3299 t/a and 2849 t/a, respectively under the annual time scale. However, in the daily time scale, the RAEC of NO2 is negative for 3 days, that is, there are 3 days with serious air pollution. Therefore, it is not appropriate to plan the industrial area only by relying on annual RAEC. Especially, RAEC displays inter-seasonal and monthly variability. On the one hand, in plain areas with low wind speed and little change in wind direction, achieving the prediction of atmospheric mixing layer height could give early warning of atmospheric pollution events. On the other hand, different management measures are taken on different time scales. On a long timescale, the regional energy structure should be optimized. On seasonal and monthly time scales, the production plans should be adapted to RAEC. On the daily time scale, it mainly deals with the serious atmospheric pollution accident timely.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado , Estaciones del Año
15.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125269, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896199

RESUMEN

The occurrence and distribution of 14 antibiotics in the surface water and sediment of Nansi Lake's inflowing rivers were studied. The concentrations of the antibiotics in the sediment and water were not detected (ND)-193,440 ng kg-1 and ND-694 ng L-1, respectively, and ofloxacin was identified as the main antibiotic. The target antibiotics were identified at decreased levels in the study area compared with the inflowing rivers of other lakes. The decreased antibiotic concentrations resulted from the dilution effect, strong biodegradation, and rapid photolysis during the wet season. The spatial variations were due to the differences in regional contributions; the concentrations of antibiotics from Jining and Peixian were the highest. Antibiotic pollution in different seasons originated from different sources; pollution levels were determined by water levels and rainfall as well as complicated runoff generation and confluence mechanisms. Based on the risk quotients, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine were identified as the main antibiotics that contributed to high ecological risks. Algae and aquatic plants were the main model organisms exposed to these risks. This study has great significance for environmental prevention and the control of antibiotic contamination in Nansi Lake, which is an important water transport channel and the main impounded lake for the eastern route of the south-to-north water diversion project.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Lagos/química , Ríos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , China , Modelos Lineales , Análisis de Componente Principal , Estaciones del Año
16.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 5, 2020 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The availability of preferred habitats determines the spatial and temporal distribution of herbivores in savanna ecosystems. Understanding habitat preference of a targeted wildlife species is crucial for developing effective conservation strategies. Habitat preference of large grazers in connection to grass height and post-fire effect has been debated for the last century. Here, we examined the effects of season, grass height and burning on the habitat preference on Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Maze National Park. Data for seasonal habitat selection were collected using both direct observation along established transect lines and pellet counting using permanently established plots. Every month, we measured grass height commonly preferred by Swayne's hartebeest in grassland habitat. Starting from the first week of burning, we recorded the abundance of Swayne's hartebeest in both burned and unburned grassland patches. RESULTS: From detected pellets, 94.3% were recorded in the grassland habitat indicating that other habitat types are less used despite their extensive cover > 50% of the Park. During wet and early dry seasons, Swayne's hartebeest exclusively preferred grassland habitat. We found that 85.2% (n = 1079) and 85.3% (n = 593) of individuals observed in areas with a grass height below 30 cm during wet and early-dry seasons, respectively; while 70.9% (n = 2288) preferred grass height below 30 cm during the dry season. The density of Swayne's hartebeest in burned grassland area was higher than unburned grassland areas up to 150 days since burning. However, in unburned grassland areas, the density was initially low but showed increasing trend for consecutive days, reaching similar density with burned areas after 150 days since burning. CONCLUSION: Swayne's hartebeest exclusively preferred grassland habitat, particularly during wet and early-dry seasons, shortest available grass height in all seasons and were attracted to burned grassland areas. Our results suggested that fire played an important role in maintaining habitat quality in grassland, and that management should continue using controlled burning as a tool for the conservation of Swayne's hartebeest. However, we remain cautious of our findings given the paucity of information regarding other confounding factors and the absence of long-term data on fire disturbance.


Asunto(s)
Antílopes , Ecosistema , Animales , Etiopía , Pradera , Parques Recreativos , Estaciones del Año
17.
Water Res ; 171: 115435, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927096

RESUMEN

Escherichia coli levels in recreational waters are often used to predict when fecal-associated pathogen levels are a human health risk. The reach of the Chattahoochee River that flows through the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area (CRNRA), located in the Atlanta-metropolitan area, is a popular recreation area that frequently exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency beach action value (BAV) for E. coli. A BacteriALERT program has been implemented to provide real-time E. coli estimates in the reach and notify the public of potentially harmful levels of fecal-associated pathogens as indicated by surrogate models based on real-time turbidity measurements from continuous water quality monitoring stations. However, E. coli does not provide information about the sources of fecal contamination and its accuracy as a human health indicator is questionable when sources of contamination are non-human. The objectives of our study were to investigate, within the Park and surrounding watersheds, seasonal and precipitation-related patterns in microbial source tracking marker concentrations of possible sources (human, dog, and ruminant), assess correlations between source contamination levels and culturable E. coli levels, determine which sources best explained model-based E. coli estimates above the BAV and detection of esp2 (a marker for the esp gene associated with pathogenic strains of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis), and investigate associations between source contamination levels and land use features. Three BacteriALERT sites on the Chattahoochee River were sampled six times per season in the winter and summer from December 2015 through September 2017, and 11 additional stream sites (synoptic sites) from the CRNRA watershed were sampled once per season. Samples were screened with microbial source tracking (MST) quantitative PCR (qPCR) markers for humans (HF183 Taqman), dogs (DogBact), and ruminants (Rum2Bac), the esp2 qPCR marker, and culturable E. coli. At the BacteriALERT sites, HF183 Taqman concentrations were higher under wet conditions DogBact concentrations were greater in the winter and under wet conditions, and Rum2Bac concentrations were comparatively low throughout the study with no difference across seasons or precipitation conditions. Concentrations of HF183 Taqman, DogBact, and Rum2Bac were positively correlated with culturable E. coli concentrations; however, DogBact had the largest R2 value among the three markers, and the forward stepwise regression indicated it was the best predictor of culturable E. coli concentrations at the BacteriALERT sites. Recursive partitioning indicated that BAV exceedances of model-based E. coli estimates were best explained by DogBact concentrations ≥3 gene copies per mL (CN/mL). Detections of esp2 at BacteriALERT sites were best explained by DogBact concentrations ≥11 CN/mL, while detections of esp2 at synoptic sites were best explained by HF183 Taqman ≥29 CN/mL. At the synoptic sites, HF183 Taqman levels were associated with wastewater treatment plant density. However, this relationship was driven primarily by a single site, suggesting possible conveyance issues in that catchment. esp2 detections at synoptic sites were positively associated with development within a 2-km radius and negatively associated with development within the catchment, suggesting multiple sources of esp2 in the watershed. DogBact and Rum2Bac were not associated with the land use features included in our analyses. Implications for Park management include: 1) fecal contamination levels were highest during wet conditions and in the off season when fewer visitors are expected to be participating in water-based recreation, 2) dogs are likely contributors to fecal contamination in the CRNRA and may be sources of pathogenic bacteria indicating further investigation of the origins of this contamination may be warranted as would be research to understand the human health risks from exposure to dog fecal contamination, and 3) high levels of the human marker at one site in the CRNRA watershed suggests more extensive monitoring in that catchment may locate the origin of human fecal contamination detected during this study.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Ríos , Animales , Perros , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Heces , Humanos , Recreación , Estaciones del Año , Microbiología del Agua , Contaminación del Agua
18.
Water Res ; 171: 115457, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931377

RESUMEN

Although estimates of total CO2 emissions from global estuaries are gradually decreasing, current numbers are based on limited data and the impacts of anthropogenic and seasonal disturbances have not been studied extensively. Our study estimates annual and seasonal CO2 fluxes in China's Yellow River Estuary (YRE) which incorporated spatiotemporal variations and the effects of water and sediment regulation (WSR). Aquatic metabolism was estimated using Odum's open water dissolved oxygen methods and used to represent the production and assimilation of CO2. Net ecosystem production (NEP) was used to represent the CO2 flux from biological activities and estimate the major CO2 emitters in the YRE. According to our measurements, the annual CO2 release was 6.14 ± 33.63 mol C m-2 yr-1 from 2009 to 2013 and the annual CO2 efflux from the 1521.3 km2 of estuarine surface area was 0.11 ± 0.61 Tg C yr-1 in the YRE. High CO2 emissions in autumn were balanced by high CO2 sequestration in summer, leading to a lower than expected annual net CO2 efflux. The system is an atmospheric CO2 source in spring and winter, near neutral in early summer, a large sink in late summer after WSR, and finally a large atmospheric CO2 source in autumn. Discharge events and seasonality jointly affect estuarine CO2 flux. High CO2 sequestration in summer is due mainly to a combination of high water temperature, chlorophyll a levels, dissolved inorganic carbon, and solar radiation and low turbidity, discharge, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) after WSR. WSR supports the high gross primary productivity rate which exceeds the increase in ecosystem respiration. Although the YRE, as a whole, is a source of atmospheric CO2, the amount of CO2 released is lower than the average estuarine value of mid-latitude regions. Our findings therefore suggest that global CO2 release from estuarine systems is overestimated if spatiotemporal variations and the effects of anthropogenic disturbance are excluded. The NEP method is effective for estimating the CO2 flux, especially in estuaries where CO2 variation is mainly due to biological processes.


Asunto(s)
Estuarios , Ríos , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Clorofila A , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Procesos Heterotróficos , Estaciones del Año
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 879-890, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926519

RESUMEN

Between July 2007 and June 2017 there were 86 deaths in the populations of eight caecilian species at the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) London Zoo. The mortality rate (deaths per animal-year at risk) ranged from 0.03 in the Congo caecilian (Herpele squalostoma) to 0.85 in Kaup's caecilian (Potomotyphlus kaupii). Among the 73 individuals examined post mortem, no cause of death or primary diagnosis could be established in 35 cases, but of the others the most common cause of death was dermatitis (22 cases). When all significant pathological findings were considered, skin lesions of varying types were again the commonest (56 cases), particularly among the aquatic species: Typhlonectes compressicauda (18 out of 21 cases), T. natans (8/10) and P. kaupii (12/14). Other common findings were poor gut-fill (35 cases), kidney and gastrointestinal lesions (10 cases each), generalized congestion (8 cases) and poor body condition (6 cases). This review adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding the presentations and causes of disease in captive caecilians.


Asunto(s)
Anfibios/clasificación , Animales de Zoológico , Animales , Estaciones del Año , Especificidad de la Especie
20.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 927-936, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926525

RESUMEN

Seabirds have been widely used for monitoring the health of the oceans in diverse marine regions. Among low-cost survey strategies, systematic surveys of seabirds beached on coasts have been developed since the 20th century. However, these studies do not always address blood aspects. The assessment of the health status of birds based on the analysis of hematological and plasma chemistry is crucial to evaluate the overall health status profile of live organisms. Here, the authors study the variability of blood parameters by sex, age class, and year of beached Magellanic Penguin during the nonreproductive period in northern Argentina. Of 44 penguins, 77% were categorized as younger juveniles and the rest as older juveniles, and were captured and studied in coastal areas of Buenos Aires Province during the summers of 2017 and 2018. The mean body weight of beached penguins was affected by the age class of the individuals; most of the younger juveniles showed poor condition in terms of body mass (1,761 ± 235 g). No significant differences were observed in body weight between years and sex. Still, there were significant differences between years for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values. Twelve of the 20 blood parameters analyzed differ significantly with the age class of the beached penguins; younger juveniles were in a state of inanition. Our results may serve as a necessary first step in improving the conservation status of the Magellanic Penguin in nonbreeding grounds of Argentina, and call for a better knowledge of the health status of the species along its annual cycle.


Asunto(s)
Recuento de Eritrocitos/veterinaria , Hematócrito , Recuento de Leucocitos/veterinaria , Estaciones del Año , Spheniscidae/sangre , Envejecimiento , Fosfatasa Alcalina/sangre , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Anticuerpos Heterófilos , Argentina , Glucemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Colesterol/sangre , Creatina Quinasa/sangre , Femenino , Hemoglobinas , Recuento de Linfocitos/veterinaria , Masculino , Fósforo/sangre , Transaminasas/sangre , Urea/sangre , Ácido Úrico/sangre
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