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1.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106727, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273538

RESUMEN

Autogeny, the ability to develop eggs without a meal in the adult stage, has been described in several groups of arthropods, especially hematophagous Diptera Nematocera. In obligate hematophagous hemimetabolous insects that feed on blood in all their instars, such as Triatominae, this concept gives rise to species with apparently facultative autogeny, such as Triatoma infestans. Generalized linear models were applied to explain egg production by the predictor variables molting weight as a proxy of nymphal accumulated reserves and digested blood weight as an indicator of adult reserve in fasted, incompletely fed and engorged at repletion females. The relationship between these indicators of nutritional status and egg development turned out to be a continuous function in which, with molting weights greater than 254 mg, the insects are autogenic, but for the first batch of eggs with molting weights between 132 and 253 mg, they require one adult meal of at least 202 mg, and with molting weights less than 131 mg at least two meals are required. Both molting weight and blood intake could determine oocyte production in an additive manner, thus the concept of autogeny as a switch on-off phenomenon is not directly applicable to Triatominae. Nevertheless, autogenic ability would allow Triatominae with relatively long cycles to accelerate population growth under favorable or low competition conditions during colonization or recovery after a control intervention.


Asunto(s)
Triatoma , Triatominae , Animales , Femenino , Ninfa , Conducta Alimentaria , Estado Nutricional
2.
Theriogenology ; 195: 229-237, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370509

RESUMEN

Disturbances at the conceptus-maternal interface can have detrimental effects on pregnancy outcome. Additionally, changes in body condition and exogenously administered gonadotropins could affect ovarian and uterine function, including cell proliferation and ovulation rates, and alter endometrial receptivity. In ruminants, endometrial caruncles maintain placental function via interaction with fetal chorionic cotyledons. Here, the effects of feeding regimens on the expression of selected genes known to be involved in uterine receptivity were investigated in the caruncles of control and FSH-superovulated ewes. Sheep were grouped according to their diet: control fed (CF), overfed (OF) or underfed (UF), and were either superovulated with FSH (SOV) or untreated (CON, naturally cycling) (n = 3-5/group). Caruncular samples for the assessment of the transcript levels of 11 target genes were collected at either the early (day 5) or mid-luteal (day 10) phases of the luteal lifespan, resulting in 12 groups of animals. The day of the estrous cycle affected the expression of ITGAV, ITGB3, FGF10 and IGFBP3 mRNA. There was lower expression of MUC1, and higher expression of FGF10, ITGB3 and FN1, on day 10 in CF_SOV animals. Compared with CF, expression of integrins (ITGB3, ITGA5 and ITGA4) was higher in OF and UF, and higher transcript levels of HGF and IGFBP3 in UF animals on day 10. Expression of ITGA5, ITGB1, -3, -5 and MUC1 was greater in OF_SOV than CF_SOV at day 10. In conclusion, it appears that imbalanced nutrition, by altering the expression of genes responsible for intercellular communication, cell adhesion, and encoding for growth factors, could affect the uterine responsiveness to exogenously applied hormonal stimulation and, likely, uterine receptivity.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Ovinos , Femenino , Animales , Embarazo , Hormona Folículo Estimulante/farmacología , Placenta , Implantación del Embrión , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrición/veterinaria , Expresión Génica
3.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 38(1): 0, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125787

RESUMEN

"Precision nutrition" is an emerging area of nutrition research that focuses on understanding metabolic variability within and between individuals and helps develop customized dietary plans and interventions to maintain optimal individual health. It encompasses nutritional genomic (gene-nutrient interactions), epigenetic, microbiome, and environmental factors. Obesity is a complex disease that is affected by genetic and environmental factors and thus a relevant target of precision nutrition-based approaches. Recent studies have shown significant associations between obesity phenotypes (body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and central and regional adiposity) and genetic variants, epigenetic factors (DNA methylation and noncoding RNA), microbial species, and environment (sociodemographics and physical activity). Additionally, studies have also shown that the interactions between genetic variants, microbial metabolites, and epigenetic factors affect energy balance and adiposity. These include variants in FTO, MC4R, PPAR, APOA, and FADS genes, DNA methylation in CpG island regions, and specific miRNAs and microbial species such as Firmicutes, Bacteriodes, Clostridiales, etc. Similarly, studies have shown that microbial metabolites, folate, B-vitamins, and short-chain fatty acids interact with miRNAs to influence obesity phenotypes. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and analytical approaches, the advances in precision nutrition have the potential to lead to new paradigms, which can further lead to interventions or customized treatments specific to individuals or susceptible groups of individuals. This review highlights the recent advances in precision nutrition as applied to obesity and projects the importance of precision nutrition in obesity and weight management.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs , Obesidad , Humanos , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/metabolismo , Nutrigenómica , Estado Nutricional , Dieta , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato
4.
Urol Oncol ; 41(1): 49.e13-49.e22, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274030

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score on perioperative morbidity and oncological outcomes of bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a multi-institutional cohort of 347 patients treated with RC for clinical-localized BC between 2005 and 2019. The CONUT-score was defined as an algorithm including serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, and cholesterol. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of the CONUT-score to predict any-grade complications, major complications and 30 days readmission. Multivariable Cox' regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of the CONUT-score on recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RESULTS: A cut-off value to discriminate between low and high CONUT-score was determined by calculating the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The area under the curve was 0.72 hence high CONUT-score was defined as ≥3 points. Overall, 112 (32.3%) patients had a high CONUT. At multivariable logistic regression analyses, high CONUT was associated with any-grade complications (OR 3.58, P = 0.001), major complications (OR 2.56, P = 0.003) and 30 days readmission (OR 2.39, P = 0.01). On multivariable Cox' regression analyses, high CONUT remained associated with worse RFS (HR 2.57, P < 0.001), OS (HR 2.37, P < 0.001) and CSS (HR 3.52, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Poor nutritional status measured by the CONUT-score is independently associated with a poorer postoperative course after RC and is predictive of worse RFS, OS, and CSS. This simple index could serve as a comprehensive personalized risk-stratification tool identifying patients who may benefit from an intensified regimen of supportive cares.


Asunto(s)
Cistectomía , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/cirugía , Estado Nutricional , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pronóstico , Morbilidad
5.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(2): 1-12, dic. 2022.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, BNUY, BNUY-Enf | ID: biblio-1391808

RESUMEN

La alimentación adecuada es un derecho humano que contribuye a una buena calidad de vida de las personas y uno de sus componentes básicos es la accesibilidad. En el Plan de cuidados de Enfermería, se valora el proceso de envejecimiento y las modifi caciones que éste genera pudiendo contribuir a situaciones de vulnerabilidad desde el punto de vista nutricional. La accesibilidad a la alimentación se puede ver afectada por diferentes factores, como es el acceso físico, alimentos sufi cientes y adecuados, y las dificultades económicas. El objetivo fue conocer la accesibilidad en la alimentación de personas mayores (65 años y más) que residen en complejos habitacionales para jubilados y pensionistas. Se realizó un estudio de tipo cuantitativo de corte transversal. La recolección de los datos se llevó a cabo en tres complejos habitacionales para jubilados y pensionistas, seleccionados dos de ellos en la ciudad de Montevideo y uno en la ciudad de Rivera. La muestra estuvo conformada por 68 personas (69% de los residentes) que residen en los complejos.Los resultados demuestran que un 18% de esta población tiene dificultades en la accesibilidad en la alimentación, las causas fueron la falta de dinero en un 70% y un 30% por problema en la movilidad. Es reconocido en Uruguay el derecho a la alimentación y en generar políticas públicas y programas que contribuyan a satisfacer esta necesidad vital y garantizar el acceso a la misma, en grupos de población vulnerables como puede ser en las personas mayores.


Adequate food is a human right that contributes to a good quality of life for people and one of its basic components is accessibility. In the Nursing Care Plan, the aging process and the changes it generates are valued and may contribute to situations of vulnerability from the nutritional point of view. Accessibility to food can be affected by different factors, such as physical access, sufficient and adequate food, and economic difficulties. The objective was to know the accessibility in food of older people (65 years and over) who reside in housing complexes for retirees and pensioners. A quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out. Data collection was carried out in three housing complexes for retirees and pensioners, two of them selected in the city of Montevideo and one in the city of Rivera. The sample consisted of 68 people (69% of the residents) who reside in the complexes. The results show that 18% of this population has difficulties in food accessibility, the causes were lack of money in 70% and 30% due to mobility problems. The right to food is recognized in Uruguay and to generate public policies and programs that contribute to satisfying this vital need and guaranteeing access to it, in vulnerable population groups such as the elderly.


A alimentação adequada é um direito humano que contribui para uma boa qualidade de vida das pessoas e um de seus componentes básicos é a acessibilidade. No Plano de Assistência de Enfermagem, o processo de envelhecimento e as mudanças que ele gera são valorizados e podem contribuir para situações de vulnerabilidade do ponto de vista nutricional. A acessibilidade aos alimentos pode ser afetada por diversos fatores, como acesso físico, alimentação suficiente e adequada e dificuldades econômicas. O objetivo foi conhecer a acessibilidade na alimentação de pessoas idosas (65 anos ou mais) que residem em conjuntos habitacionais para aposentados e pensionistas. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo transversal. A coleta de dados foi realizada em três conjuntos habitacionais para aposentados e pensionistas, dois deles selecionados na cidade de Montevidéu e um nacidade de Rivera. A amostra foi composta por 68 pessoas (69% dos moradores) que residem nos complexos. Os resultados mostram que 18% dessa população tem dificuldades na acessibilidade alimentar, as causas foram falta de dinheiro em 70% e 30% por problemas de locomoção. O direito à alimentação é reconhecido no Uruguai e para gerar políticas e programas públicos que contribuam para satisfazer esta necessidade vital e garantir o acesso a ela, em grupos populacionais vulneráveis como os idosos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Salud del Anciano Institucionalizado , Nutricion del Anciano , Acceso a Alimentos Saludables , Factores Socioeconómicos , Uruguay , Envejecimiento , Promoción de Salud Alimentaria y Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Estudios Transversales , Cognición , Vulnerabilidad en Salud , Limitación de la Movilidad
6.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 50(6): 10-16, 01 nov. 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-211504

RESUMEN

Our objective was to describe the serum vitamin D concentrations of children and adolescents with food allergy (FA) and to verify the association between the number of food allergens involved, length of sun exposure, and nutritional status. Through a cross-sectional study, 79 patients with FA, from ages 2 to 15 years, were assessed and followed up in a reference outpatient clinic, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and biochemical data were collected for analysis of 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus, phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The cut-off point used for vitamin D deficiency was 25(OH)D ≤ 20 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 45.6% of patients with a median age of 6.9 years (Interquartile range [IQR] 4.7; 10.2). The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 21.1 ng/mL (IQR 17.8; 26.0). Multivariate linear regression was performed considering serum vitamin D level as a dependent variable. Allergy to multiple foods (inverse) and length of sun exposure (direct), but not nutritional status, were independently associated with serum 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.034 and P = 0.014, respectively). Patients with cow’s milk allergy also showed lower vitamin D concentrations in comparison with other FA (19.1 ng/mL [IQR 16.6; 24.4] vs 22.2 ng/mL [IQR 18.1; 27.1] [P = 0.056]). Vitamin D deficiency affected about half of individuals with FA. Multiple food allergy was associated with lower vitamin D concentrations, reinforcing the importance of monitoring vitamin D status in patients with FA (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Hipersensibilidad a la Leche , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Alérgenos , Estudios Transversales , Brasil/epidemiología , Luz Solar
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18557, 2022 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329131

RESUMEN

Evidence regarding the possible influence of nutritional status on the facial morphology has thus far been insufficient. We examined whether or not the physical body compositions and dietary behaviors were correlated with any morphological characteristics of the face. One hundred and fifteen young Japanese women participated. Variables representing the dietary behaviors were extracted from self-reported survey data, and corresponding three-dimensional (3D) facial images and body compositions were examined. Multivariate analyses identified significant relationships between the nutritional status and facial topography (p < 0.05). The clustering method revealed the existence of three dietary condition patterns ("balanced diet", "high-calorie-diet" with obesity tendency, and "imbalanced low-calorie-diet" with sarcopenic obesity tendency). Among these three patterns, a round face (increased facial width; analysis of variance [ANOVA], p < 0.05) was observed in the high-calorie-diet pattern, while the imbalanced low-calorie-diet pattern showed a more masculine face (increased face height, decreased eye height, increased non-allometric sexual shape differences; ANOVA, p < 0.05), thus suggesting the possibility of sex-hormonal influences. In summary, the body composition and dietary behaviors were found to influence the facial morphology, and potential biological influences were discussed.


Asunto(s)
Cara , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Femenino , Cara/anatomía & histología , Japón , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Obesidad
8.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15324, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The incidences of pediatric scurvy has decreased substantially, particularly in developed countries, but there are still reports of it from developing countries. Unusual manifestations have led to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, there are few publications regarding misdiagnosis of scurvy. The objective is to determine dietary factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiologic findings, treatment, and outcomes of scurvy cases. The occurrence of misdiagnosis and its associated factors are also explored. METHOD: The medical records of 0-18 year-old children from 2003 to 2016, diagnosed with scurvy, were included and reviewed. Clinical data, and data regarding feeding history, nutritional status, laboratory and radiologic findings, and misdiagnosis were collected. Univariate and logistic regression analysis were used for identification of the independent associated factors. RESULTS: The study consisted of 106 children. The boys-to-girls ratio was 2.2:1, and their mean age was 44.65 months ± 30.50 months. The common manifestations were refusal to walk, tenderness, and swelling at the lower extremities. Four participants had unusual manifestations including proptosis and scalp hematoma. Low serum vitamin C level and abnormal radiologic findings were detected in most patients. All of them fully recovered after receiving vitamin C supplementation. Misdiagnosis was identified in 74 cases (69%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that temperature higher than or equal to 38 °C, participants aged 3 years or below, and swelling at lower extremities were independently associated with misdiagnosis (adjusted OR 5.91, 3.78, and 3.56 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Scurvy still exists, and misdiagnosis often occurs. Taking a careful medical history and conducting a physical examination are still the best way to diagnose scurvy.


Asunto(s)
Escorbuto , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Niño , Preescolar , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Adolescente , Escorbuto/complicaciones , Escorbuto/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Desatendidas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Desatendidas/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapéutico , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Estado Nutricional
9.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e92, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36337985

RESUMEN

Little is known about the relation between the women empowerment in agriculture index, and health and nutrition outcomes among under-five children in Ethiopia. The study's objective was to examine women's empowerment in agriculture and its association with the nutritional status of children (6-59 months) in rural, cash crop producing, and resource-limited settings of Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted employing 422 households; having women of reproductive age group and children under-five. Stratified simple random sampling was used to identify households; a simple random sampling was used to select villages and households. Women empowerment in agriculture was measured by the abbreviated women empowerment in agriculture index. Even if the overall multi-dimensional five domains of empowerment index (5DE) was not a significant predictor of nutritional status in children (P > 0⋅05), sub-indicators had a pivotal role in child nutritional status. Disempowerment in decisions about input into production [AOR = 8⋅85], empowerment on control of income [AOR = 0⋅35] and availability of livestock [AOR = 0⋅38] were predictors of child stunting, whereas women's disempowerment in production decisions seems beneficiary for wasting, disempowered women have 84 % less likely to have wasted child than empowered women [AOR = 0⋅16]. Dietary and agricultural diversity [particularly livestock farming], and women's empowerment in production decisions were predictors of better nutritional outcomes in children. Therefore, a concentrated effort is needed towards strengthening the multi-dimensional empowerment of women in agriculture emphasising women's input into production decisions, dietary and agricultural diversification, mainly livestock farming.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Estado Nutricional , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Agricultura
10.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(6): 1257-1271, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346091

RESUMEN

To expand the clinical practice of nutrition, the influence of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) must reach an audience outside the nutrition community, must be relevant and meaningful to clinicians, and must meet the needs of specific patient populations throughout medical and surgical specialties. Individual members of our society need to share their enthusiasm and expertise with youth through conscious, intentional mentorship. Efforts should be made to promote advanced practice, increasing the skill set of the individual nutritionist. Nutrition research should be of the highest quality, matching that of any current medical or surgical discipline. Members of a nutrition consult service should speak the same language as the physicians they work with, through discussions on rounds and in communication through their charting and consult notes. Our societal guidelines should define clinical practice. Relationships with other societies should be cultivated through these guidelines, position papers, and public health initiatives to increase the relevance and impact of our society. To position itself for future generations, the role of ASPEN should be expanded to be more comprehensive and involve all nutrition aspects of patient care.


Asunto(s)
Nutricionistas , Médicos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Nutrición Parenteral , Nutrición Enteral , Estado Nutricional
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 934806, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339158

RESUMEN

Background: One in five young children globally suffer the consequences of stunted growth and development and millions experience deficiencies in zinc, iron, iodine, vitamins A and B12, nutrients found bioavailable in fish foods. Small-scale fisheries have the potential to generate income and augment fish consumption while being environmentally sustainable if appropriately managed. However, those engaged in small-scale fisheries are often marginalized, poor, and malnourished. The Samaki Salama project seeks to better understand and address these challenges through a three-arm, longitudinal matched cluster study which evaluates the impact of an integrated nutrition social marketing and modified fishing trap intervention. Methods: There will be 400 small-scale fisher households enrolled from Kilifi County, Kenya and residing in communities matched on location (rural), livelihoods, and child nutritional status. The sample will include mothers and other caregivers, children 6-60 months, and fishers in the family. Applying a cluster design, the matched communities will be divided into three groups: (1) control (n = 200); (2) multi-component nutrition social marketing intervention to fishers, mothers, and health workers (n = 100); and (3) multi-component nutrition social marketing intervention plus modified fishing traps and training (n = 100). Primary outcomes include child growth, fish food intakes, and fisheries yield of mature fish. Secondary outcomes are diet diversity, child diarrheal morbidity, and fisheries revenue. A process evaluation will be used to monitor and ensure fidelity of intervention delivery. Discussion: This study builds on a growing body of literature illustrating the effectiveness of nutrition focused social marketing campaigns to promote active engagement of participants, high compliance to the intervention, and sustained behavior change. The second intervention element of modified fishing traps that allow immature fish to escape enables participants to act on the messaging they receive and promotes sustainable fishing through increased harvest efficiency and reduced catch of immature fish. The integrated approach of the Samaki Salama intervention provides an example of how to leverage multiple disciplines to address key challenges to human and environmental health and illustrates a pathway for scaling study innovations to other small-scale fisheries systems. Trial registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT05254444).


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Estado Nutricional , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Dieta , Kenia , Población Rural , Peces
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0273360, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413518

RESUMEN

The nitrogen nutrition status affects the main factors of rice yield. In traditional rice nitrogen nutrition monitoring methods, most experts enter the farmland to observe leaf color and growth and apply an appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer according to the results. However, this method is labor- and time-consuming. To realize automatic rice nitrogen nutrition monitoring, we constructed the Jiangxi rice nitrogen nutrition monitoring model based on a convolution neural network (CNN) using the same region rice canopy image in different generation periods. Our CNN model was evaluated using multiple evaluation criteria (Accuracy, Recall, Precision, and F1 score). The results show that the same CNN model could distinguish the rice nitrogen nutrition status in different periods, which can completely realize the automatic discrimination of nitrogen nutrition status so as to guide the scientific nitrogen application of rice in this area. This will greatly improve the discrimination efficiency of the nitrogen nutrition status and reduce the time and labor cost. The application of the proposed method also proved that the CNN model can be applied in the discrimination of the nitrogen nutrition status. Among CNN models, GoogleNet model proposed a CNN architecture named Inception which can improve the depth of the network and extract higher-level features without changing the amount of calculation of the model. The GoogleNet model achieved the highest accuracy, 95.7%.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Nitrógeno , Estado Nutricional , Fertilizantes , Redes Neurales de la Computación
13.
Br Dent J ; 233(9): 757-764, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369557

RESUMEN

Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) at diagnosis but can occur at any stage of the treatment pathway. The impact of disease burden and treatment side effects can lead to altered anatomy, compromised quality and quantity of saliva and impaired swallowing function, which can result in deleterious effects on nutritional status. Optimising nutrition status is critical, as malnutrition is adversely associated with treatment tolerance and outcomes, wound healing, morbidity, mortality, quality of life and survival. Dietitians are integral members of the HNC multidisciplinary team and are uniquely qualified in the assessment, management and optimisation of nutritional status across the care pathway. This includes providing informational counselling to patients and carers on the short- and long-term nutritional impact of planned treatments alongside multidisciplinary members. Dietitians lead on the recommendation, provision and monitoring of nutrition support, which can be via the oral, enteral or parenteral route. Oral nutrition support includes dietary counselling, nourishing dietary, food fortification advice and high energy/protein oral nutritional supplements. Enteral nutrition support, or tube feeding, can be required on a short- and/or long-term basis and dietitians support appropriate decision-making for the type of tube and timing of placement across the care pathway.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Desnutrición , Nutricionistas , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Apoyo Nutricional , Desnutrición/etiología , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/complicaciones , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/terapia , Estado Nutricional
14.
Br J Nurs ; 31(21): S3, 2022 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416624
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 393, 2022 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416995

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was the formation of prediction equations of the degradability and digestibility parameters of protein supplements used in sheep nutrition by the use of their chemical composition. Four trials were conducted (one in situ degradability trial, using 3 × 9 incomplete Latin square experimental design and three in vivo digestibility trials using 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design, respectively). The nine tested feeds were soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), lupin seeds (LS), faba bean seeds (FBS), Vetch seeds (VS), pea seeds (PS), chickpea seeds (CS) and flax seeds (FS). Incubation in the rumen of the three ruminally cannulated indigenous Chios breed rams lasted 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h in order to measure dry matter and crude protein degradability parameters ("a", "b", "degradability-D", "effective degradability-ED" and "c" for 0-48 h). Additionally, three in vivo digestibility trials were conducted in order to measure digestibility coefficients of nutrients of these nine protein supplements. The best fit equation for CP effective degradability was ED (g/100 gDM) = 100.757 + 0.182 × ADF + 0.042 × ADF2 - 4.351 × ADL + 0.036 × ADL2 (adjusted R2 = 0.90). In conclusion, it can be said that prediction equations can be constructed to estimate nutritional parameters for different feeds.


Asunto(s)
Nutrientes , Fitomejoramiento , Ovinos , Animales , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Oveja Doméstica , Rumen
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278097, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417416

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Wasting is perhaps one of the signs of malnutrition that has been linked to the deaths of children suffering from malnutrition. As a result, understanding its correlations and drivers is critical. Using quantile regression analysis, this research aims to contribute to the discussion on under-5 malnutrition by analyzing the predictors of wasting in Bangladesh. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The dataset was extracted from the 2017-18 Bangladesh demographic and health survey (BDHS) data. The weight-for-height (WHZ) z-score based anthropometric indicator was used in the study as the target variable. The weighted sample constitutes 8,334 children of under-5 years. However, after cleaning the missing values, the analysis is based on 8,321 children. Sequential quantile regression was used for finding the contributing factors. RESULTS: The findings of this study depict that the prevalence of wasting in children is about 8 percent and only approximately one percent of children are severely wasted in Bangladesh. Age, mother's BMI, and parental educational qualification, are all major factors of the WHZ score of a child. The coefficient of the female child increased from 0.1 to 0.2 quantiles before dropping to 0.75 quantile. For a child aged up to three years, the coefficients have a declining tendency up to the 0.5 quantile, then an increasing trend. Children who come from the richest households had 16.3%, 3.6%, and 15.7% higher WHZ scores respectively than children come from the poorest households suggesting that the risk of severe wasting in children under the age of five was lower in children from the wealthiest families than in children from the poorest families. The long-term malnutrition indicator (wasting) will be influenced by the presence of various childhood infections and vaccinations. Furthermore, a family's economic position is a key determinant in influencing a child's WHZ score. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that socioeconomic characteristics are correlated with the wasting status of a child. Maternal characteristics also played an important role to reduce the burden of malnutrition. Thus, maternal nutritional awareness might reduce the risk of malnutrition in children. Moreover, the findings disclose that to enrich the nutritional status of children along with achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-3 by 2030, a collaborative approach should necessarily be taken by the government of Bangladesh, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the community level in Bangladesh.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Prevalencia , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Caquexia , Estado Nutricional
17.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 12(4): 388-402, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418033

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current evidence of the effect of specialised nutritional interventions on nutritional status, survival, quality of life and measures of functionality in patients with incurable cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. Clinical studies that evaluated different specialised nutritional interventions, such as nutritional counselling, oral nutritional supplementation (ONS), enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN), were eligible. Only studies classified as being of high methodological quality (ie, low or moderate risk of bias) were included. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies reporting on 2448 patients were deemed eligible. Five types of specialised nutrition were observed: mixed (multimodal nature, ie, dietary counseling, ONS, physical activity and/or drugs) (n=12), ONS (n=5), PN (n=3), EN (n=1) and multidisciplinary team counselling (n=1). Benefits of any kind from the interventions were reported in 14 (63.6%) studies, mainly resulting from mixed intervention. Nutritional status improved in 12 (60.0%) of 20 studies and quality of life improved in eight (50.0%) of 16 studies. Few studies have evaluated the influence of nutritional interventions on survival and measure of functionality, and have not shown improvement in these outcomes. CONCLUSION: Despite the limited evidence, specialised nutritional interventions can yield positive effects for patients with incurable cancer, mainly in their nutritional status and quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Estado Nutricional , Nutrición Enteral
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1041232, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407304

RESUMEN

Background: Iodine is essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial for intrauterine growth and fetal neurocognitive development. Iodine requirements increase during pregnancy and lactation. The World Health Organization and the Swiss Confederation recommend a total daily iodine intake of 250 µg of iodine during preconception, pregnancy and lactation. To assure this goal, several professional organizations recommend complementing the nutritional iodine intake with supplements containing 150 µg of iodine daily. Methods: Prenatal and adult multivitamins widely available in Switzerland were compiled to determine their iodine content. Obstetricians verified that the list includes the most frequently prescribed supplements in Switzerland. Results: A total of 44 adult multivitamin supplements were identified, 23 of which are specifically intended for women planning pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding. Seven out of 23 (30.4%) prenatal multivitamins products, and 12/21 (57.1%) adult multivitamins contained no iodine. Among all the products, only 18/44 (40.9%) contain 150 µg of iodine or more. Conclusion: Several widely used products contain no or insufficient amounts (<150 ug) of iodine. Providers need to be informed about the variability in iodine content of supplements and established recommendations, and manufacturers of prenatal supplements should assure that their products contain iodine in adequate amounts.


Asunto(s)
Yodo , Humanos , Embarazo , Adulto , Femenino , Suiza , Vitaminas , Suplementos Dietéticos , Estado Nutricional
19.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(3): E435-E441, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415288

RESUMEN

Introduction: Behavioural and metabolic risk factors are responsible for the greatest burden of disease; an unhealthy diet, along with abdominal obesity, are risk factors related to Non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Methods: Data concerning food patterns were determined by the application of an interview-type instrument, used to assess the daily and weekly frequency of consumption; cardiovascular risk was assessed using waist circumference, and nutritional status via Body Mass Index. Student's t test was applied to evaluate the differences between variables and the Pearson's chi-square test for the association of variables. Results: Dietary energy intake (kcal/capita/day) was 3000 kcal, with an average distribution of 12.2% (proteins), 46.9% (carbohydrates), and 40.9% (total fats). The 78% of the sample suffered from malnutrition by excess. About 37.5% had Non-Communicable Diseases, with high blood pressure being the most frequent disease among both genders, with the highest prevalence among women, along with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Depending on the nutritional status, the presence of obesity is associated with high cardiovascular risk (p = 0.000), greater energy availability (p = 0.012), and an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Malnutrition by excess figures support the global alert for obesity and overweight, which are considered to be a pandemic; in addition, Chiloé is not immune to the increasing trend of processed and ultra-processed food consumption.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Desnutrición , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Ingestión de Energía , Dieta , Ingestión de Alimentos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Desnutrición/complicaciones
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7102, 2022 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402775

RESUMEN

An animal's daily use of time (their "diel activity") reflects their adaptations, requirements, and interactions, yet we know little about the underlying processes governing diel activity within and among communities. Here we examine whether community-level activity patterns differ among biogeographic regions, and explore the roles of top-down versus bottom-up processes and thermoregulatory constraints. Using data from systematic camera-trap networks in 16 protected forests across the tropics, we examine the relationships of mammals' diel activity to body mass and trophic guild. Also, we assess the activity relationships within and among guilds. Apart from Neotropical insectivores, guilds exhibited consistent cross-regional activity in relation to body mass. Results indicate that thermoregulation constrains herbivore and insectivore activity (e.g., larger Afrotropical herbivores are ~7 times more likely to be nocturnal than smaller herbivores), while bottom-up processes constrain the activity of carnivores in relation to herbivores, and top-down processes constrain the activity of small omnivores and insectivores in relation to large carnivores' activity. Overall, diel activity of tropical mammal communities appears shaped by similar processes and constraints among regions reflecting body mass and trophic guilds.


Asunto(s)
Carnívoros , Bosques , Animales , Herbivoria , Estado Nutricional
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