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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 527-534, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006371

RESUMEN

The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the latest research pertinent to nutritional management in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss the effectiveness of dietary interventions, nutritional approaches, and supplementation in ASD. To date, the best conventional treatments for autism have been based on a combination of pharmacotherapy, behavioral treatments, and nutritional/dietary therapy, leading many parents and caregivers to opt for specific dietary interventions in the hope of alleviating the symptoms of their children and helping them cope with this disorder. Thus, the role of a registered dietitian and a nutrition specialist is crucial in planning specific nutritional and dietary interventions tailored to individual needs, to make sure the child's nutritional needs for growth and development are being met. In addition, a careful monitoring of the nutritional status and the positive or negative outcomes pertinent to the planned intervention is a must. Furthermore, numerous studies have also discussed how the maternal diet and specific dietary supplements might affect the behavioral development of children in the first few years of life. A review of the abovementioned nutrition-related key points is discussed in this chapter.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Dieta , Apoyo Nutricional , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19069, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028430

RESUMEN

Nutritional assessment is feasible with computed tomography anthropometry. The abdominal muscle at the L3 vertebra is a well-known nutritional biomarker for predicting the prognosis of various diseases, especially sarcopenia. However, studies on nutritional assessment of the brain using computed tomography are still scarce. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of the masseter muscle as a nutritional biomarker.Patients who underwent simultaneous brain and abdominopelvic computed tomography in the emergency department was retrospectively analyzed. We assessed their masseter muscle 2 cm below the zygomatic arch and abdominal muscle at L3 via computed tomography anthropometry. The skeletal muscle index, prognostic nutritional index, and other nutritional biomarkers were assessed for sarcopenia using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.A total of 314 patients (240 men and 72 women) were analyzed (mean age, 50.24 years; mean areas of the masseter and abdominal muscles, 1039.6 and 13478.3 mm, respectively). Masseter muscle areas significantly differed in sarcopenic, obese, and geriatric patients (P < .001). The areas under the curve of the masseter muscle in sarcopenic, geriatric, and obese patients were 0.663, 0.686, and 0.602, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed a correlation with the abdominal muscle area, weight, and age.The masseter muscle, analyzed via computed tomography anthropometry, showed a statistically significant association with systemic nutritional biomarkers, and its use as a nutritional biomarker would be feasible.


Asunto(s)
Músculo Masetero/diagnóstico por imagen , Estado Nutricional , Biomarcadores , Composición Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Masetero/anatomía & histología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación Nutricional , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
3.
Nature ; 577(7791): 476, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949300
5.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 108-113, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940613

RESUMEN

The advent of the "genomic era" has allowed for nutrigenomics studies to be carried out, which aim to reveal whether there are interactions between the food we consume and our genetic make-up. In turn this information will provide the scientific basis for improved public health messages related to nutrition and diet. With the availability of high throughput, inexpensive and sometime "bed-side" technology, studies into the effect of diet on the aetiology of common oral diseases and oral conditions could now be easily carried out. It is becoming more and more convincing that interactions between genotype and diet are important in determining the risk of most if not all common complex diseases, and it is therefore highly probable that these interactions will be important in determining oral disease risk. A large body of data relating to nutritional genetic studies where the outcome measures have been markers of disease risk, provide proof of principle and highlight the importance of understanding these interactions, illustrating the potential impact dietary modification could have on oral health. These are areas of growth that need to be investigated further.


Asunto(s)
Nutrigenómica , Salud Bucal , Dieta , Alimentos , Estado Nutricional
6.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 114-124, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940618

RESUMEN

Malnutrition can significantly affect oral health, and poor oral health in turn can result in malnutrition. This co-dependent relationship, therefore, relies on good nutritional health promoting good oral health and vice versa. A diet lacking nutrients can lead to disease progression of the oral cavity through altered tissue homeostasis, reduced resistance to microbial biofilm, and a decrease in tissue healing. It may also affect the development of the oral cavity. In the absence of contributing factors, health professionals should consider poor nutritional status with periodontitis, poor healing response to surgical procedures, or recurrent oral disease. This is particularly evident amongst elderly patients and patients in long-stay care. The role of nutrition in oral health and its effects on the immune system and inflammatory pathways has attracted a recent increase in research. This chapter will explore the oral manifestations that can occur with nutritional deficiencies, the association of periodontitis with nutritional deficiencies in vitamins C and D, and the effect of vitamin D deficiency and tooth development.


Asunto(s)
Estado Nutricional , Salud Bucal , Anciano , Dieta , Humanos , Nutrientes , Vitaminas
7.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 1-13, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940634

RESUMEN

Diet and nutrition are fundamental in maintaining the general and oral health of populations. Diet refers to the total amount of food consumed by individuals; whereas nutrition is the process of utilising food for growth, metabolism and repair of tissues. The relationship between diet and nutrition and health is 2-way; health status can be affected by nutrient deficiency and vice versa. Dietary guidelines have been developed to provide evidence-based food and beverage recommendations for populations; aiming to promote a diet that meets the nutrient requirement, and to prevent diet-related diseases such as dental caries and obesity. Based on the amount required by the human body for normal metabolism, growth and physical well-being, nutrients are divided into 2 categories: macronutrients consisting of proteins, carbohydrates and fat; and micronutrients consisting of vitamins and minerals. Fats are the most energy-dense macronutrient; whereas carbohydrates are quantitatively the most important dietary energy source for most populations. Proteins are vital structural and functional components within every cell of the body and are essential for growth and repair and maintenance of health. Vitamins and minerals, which are found in small amounts in most foods, are essential for normal metabolic function. This chapter provides an overview of the impact of nutrients on general and oral health, with an emphasis on macronutrients.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Dieta , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1216: 21-27, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894543

RESUMEN

Frailty is a complex of symptoms that is characterized by impaired stress tolerance due to a decline in the functionality of different organs. Due to its multifactorial aetiology, several definitions and assessments of this symptom complex have been developed, of which the Fried Frailty Score (Phenotype Score) and the broader Frailty Index (Deficit Accumulation Index) are the most commonly used. The prevalence of frailty increases with age independently of the assessment instrument and ranges between 4 and 59% in community-dwelling elderly populations and is higher in women than in men. The actual prevalence rate in a population depends on the prevalence of chronic diseases including depression, nutritional status, and inherently socio-economic background and education. Frailty is, however, not a steady state and progression, but also reversion is common. Although numerous studies on the prevalence of frailty have been conducted, systematic assessments in different populations are rare, which reduces the comparability of results. Similarly heterogeneous, but less frequent are studies on the incidence and on trajectories and transitions of frailty, calling for further, more systematic studies on this topic.


Asunto(s)
Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia
9.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(1): 33-43, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960395

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Surgery, the primary treatment for oral cancer, results in oral and facial structural defects that may cause difficulties in swallowing or mastication and thereby affect nutrition status and quality of life. PURPOSE: This study was designed to understand nutritional status and quality of life in oral cancer patients who had undergone surgery and to examine the effects of a dietary education program on nutritional status and quality of life in these patients. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was conducted. Eligible patients were enrolled immediately after they could sip water after surgery. The participants were randomized into the experimental group (n = 42) and the control group (n = 42). Both groups were provided guidance for swallowing exercise and performed a pre-test (T0) and three post-tests (T1-T3) for a total of three months. The experimental group additionally received a diet assessment and dietary education program intervention. The outcome measures included the nursing nutritional risk screening tool (NNRST) and oral health impact profile (OHIP-14T). RESULTS: The level of malnutrition risk (T0 vs. T3) was 47.6% vs. 4.8% in the experimental group and 35.7% vs. 42.9 in the control group. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) statistics were used to assess the effects of the dietary education program on nutritional status. Quality of life was found to be significantly better in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: A dietary education program may be used to effectively improve the nutritional status and quality of life of patients after oral cancer surgery. We suggest that specialized nutritional support be provided during cancer treatment in order to achieve good nutritional status and improve quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Educación en Salud , Neoplasias de la Boca/cirugía , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Calidad de Vida
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(678): 156-157, 2020 Jan 22.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967765
11.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(679): 165, 2020 01 29.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995286
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(679): 166, 2020 01 29.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995287
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(679): 195-196, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995301
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(679): 218, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995312
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