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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297583, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319910

RESUMEN

European data suggests that over 30% of gastric cancer (GC) patients are diagnosed with sarcopenia before surgery, while unintentional weight loss occurs in approximately 30% of patients following gastrectomy. Preoperative sarcopenia significantly increases the risk of major postoperative complications, and preoperative body weight loss remains a superior predictor of outcome and an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in patients with GC. A standardized approach of nutritional risk screening of GC patients is yet to be established. Therefore, the MOONRISE study aims to prospectively analyze the changes in nutritional status and body composition at each stage of multimodal treatment among GC patients from five Western expert centers. Specifically, we seek to assess the association between nutritional status and body composition on tumor response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Secondary outcomes of the study are treatment toxicity, postoperative complications, quality of life (QoL), and OS. Patients with locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma scheduled for multimodal treatment will be included in the study. Four consecutive nutritional status assessments will be performed throughout the treatment. The following study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT05723718) and will be conducted in accordance with the STROBE statement. The anticipated duration of the study is 12-24 months, depending on the recruitment status. Results of this study will reveal whether nutritional status and body composition assessment based on BIA will become a validated and objective tool to support clinical decisions in GC patients undergoing multimodal treatment.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Sarcopenia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Calidad de Vida , Sarcopenia/etiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Impedancia Eléctrica , Estudios Transversales , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Gastrectomía/efectos adversos , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto
2.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 125, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321497

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The Systemic Immune-inflammatory Index (SII) and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) have undergone comprehensive examination and validation in forecasting the outcomes of diverse medical conditions. Nevertheless, the correlation between the combined use of GNRI and SII metrics and hip fractures has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether the amalgamation of SII and GNRI scores constitutes an independent prognostic factor for elderly patients with hip fractures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of elderly patients admitted to our facility with hip fractures, encompassing both femoral neck and intertrochanteric fractures. Demographic information, experimental parameters, and postoperative complications were systematically recorded. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and Systemic Immunoinflammatory Index (SII) were meticulously computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and optimal cutoff values for each parameter were determined. Subsequently, a multivariate Cox regression analysis was employed to assess the predictive utility of the SII-GNRI score in relation to 1-year postoperative mortality among elderly patients with hip fractures. RESULTS: In a study involving 597 patients, 90 of whom experienced mortality within 1 year, it was observed that the SII-GNRI score in the group of patients who passed away was significantly higher compared to the group that survived. Following a multifactorial adjustment, it was established that a high SII-GNRI score served as an independent predictor of 1-year all-cause mortality in older patients with hip fractures. In addition to the SII-GNRI score, factors such as length of hospital stay, CCI > 2, and blood transfusion were also identified as independent risk factors for survival. Notably, the incidence of postoperative complications in patients with high SII-GNRI scores was significantly greater than in patients with low scores. CONCLUSION: The SII-GNRI score proves valuable in predicting the 1-year survival rate for elderly patients with hip fractures who have undergone surgery.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas de Cadera , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Retrospectivos , Evaluación Nutricional , Factores de Riesgo , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Pronóstico
4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(1): e00070523, 2024.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324867

RESUMEN

The planning, monitoring, and evaluation of food and nutrition actions depend on reliable estimates based on adequate anthropometric data. The study aimed to analyze the quality of anthropometric data of children aged under 5 years in the Brazilian National Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN) from 2008 to 2020. The sample comprised 23,453,620 children aged under 5 years. Initially, we evaluated the distribution of missing values and values outside the spectrum of the instrument, and calculated the digit preference index for weight and height. The nutritional indexes height for age (HAZ), weight for age (WAZ), and body mass index for age (BAZ) were calculated according to the World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards. Then, we identified the biologically implausible values (BIV) and calculated the standard deviation (SD) of the nutritional indexes. For each municipality, we calculated the mean and SD of HAZ and WAZ; and plotted the SD values as a function of the mean. In all Federative Units, the digit preference index reached a minimum value of 80 for height and 20 for weight. For the three nutritional indexes, there was a reduction in the frequency of BIV in the 2008-2020 period. Even after the exclusion of BIV, we identified high variability for the three nutritional indexes. The indicators evaluated showed low quality of measurement, especially in the North and Northeast regions. Our results indicate insufficient quality of anthropometric data in children aged under 5 years, and reinforce the need to invest in actions to improve the collection and recording of anthropometric information.


O planejamento, o monitoramento e a avaliação das ações de alimentação e nutrição dependem de estimativas confiáveis realizadas a partir de dados antropométricos de qualidade adequada. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a qualidade de dados antropométricos de crianças menores de 5 anos no Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (SISVAN) no período de 2008 a 2020. A amostra compreendeu 23.453.620 crianças menores de 5 anos. Inicialmente, avaliamos a distribuição de valores faltantes e de valores fora do espectro do equipamento e calculamos o índice de preferência de dígito para peso e altura. Os índices nutricionais altura para idade (A-I), peso para idade (P-I) e índice de massa corporal para idade (IMC-I) foram calculados com a utilização do padrão de crescimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde, de 2006. Em seguida, sinalizamos os valores biologicamente implausíveis (VBI) e calculamos o desvio padrão (DP) dos índices nutricionais. Para cada município, calculamos a média e o DP de A-I e P-I e plotamos os valores de DP em função da média. Em todas as Unidades Federativas, o índice de preferência de dígito alcançou valor mínimo de 80 para altura e 20 para peso. Para os três índices nutricionais, houve redução da frequência de VBI no período de 2008 a 2020. Mesmo após a exclusão dos VBI, identificamos elevada variabilidade para os três índices nutricionais. Os indicadores avaliados demonstraram baixa qualidade da mensuração principalmente nas regiões Norte e Nordeste. Nossos resultados indicam qualidade insuficiente dos dados antropométricos em crianças menores de 5 anos e reforçam a necessidade de investimento em ações para o aprimoramento da coleta e do registro das informações antropométricas.


La planificación, monitoreo y evaluación de acciones de alimentación y nutrición dependen de estimaciones confiables realizadas a partir de datos antropométricos de calidad adecuada. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la calidad de datos antropométricos de niños menores de 5 años en el Sistema de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional (SISVAN) entre los años 2008 y 2020. La muestra se compuso de 23.453.620 niños menores de 5 años. Al principio, evaluamos la distribución de valores faltantes y de valores fueras del espectro del equipo, y calculamos el índice de preferencia de dígito para peso y altura. Los índices nutricionales altura para edad (A-E), peso para edad (P-E) e índice de masa corporal para edad (IMC-E) se calcularon utilizando el patrón de crecimiento de la Organización Mundial de la Salud de 2006. Luego, indicamos los valores biológicamente inverosímiles (VBI) y calculamos la desviación estándar (DE) de los índices nutricionales. Para cada municipio, calculamos la media y la DE de A-E y P-E; y representamos los valores de DE en función de la media. En todas las Unidades Federativas, el índice de preferencia de dígito alcanzó el valor mínimo de 80 para altura y 20 para peso. Para los tres índices nutricionales, hubo una disminución de la frecuencia de VBI entre los años de 2008 y 2020. Incluso tras excluir los VBI, identificamos una alta variabilidad para los tres índices nutricionales. Los indicadores evaluados demostraron una baja calidad de medición, sobre todo en las regiones Norte y Nordeste. Nuestros resultados indican una calidad insuficiente de datos antropométricos en niños menores de 5 años y fortalecen la necesidad de inversión en acciones para mejorar la recolección y registro de las informaciones antropométricas.


Asunto(s)
Estatura , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Niño , Preescolar , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Índice de Masa Corporal , Antropometría
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3189, 2024 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326435

RESUMEN

Feeding billions, a healthy and nutritious diet in the era of climate change is a major challenge before plant breeders, geneticists and agronomist. In this context, the continuous search for adaptive and nutritious crops could be a better alternative to combat the problems of hunger and malnutrition. The zombi pea, a nutritious and underutilized leguminous vegetable, is one of such better alternatives to feed billions a nutritious food besides being a potential gene source for breeding abiotic stress resistant varieties. To evaluate its potential as a wonder crop in the tropical and subtropical regions of India, the nutritional status of tubers, pods and pericarp were investigated under different treatments of plant spacings and deblossoming. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications and eight treatments during 2021-2022 in the coastal regions of India. The nutrient profiling in tubers and pericarp of pods in zombi pea revealed higher accumulation of nutrients viz. potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) with blossom retention. The zombi pea tubers reflected significantly high protein accumulation with the increase in plant spacing. The results pertaining to nutrient profiling in the pods of zombi pea indicated that the plant spacing has no significant effect on the accumulation of majority of nutrients under study. The above-mentioned findings are conspicuously novel and valuable. The present study would pave the way for understanding nutritional importance and breeding potential of this orphan crop. The blossom retention renders higher nutrient accumulation in tubers, pods and pericarp of zombi pea. Deblossoming has no significant influence on nutritional profile of this wonder crop but, wider spacing is effective in producing tubers with high protein content.


Asunto(s)
Estado Nutricional , Vigna , Vigna/genética , Fitomejoramiento , Productos Agrícolas/genética
6.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1682024 Jan 17.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319294

RESUMEN

The case description regards a nine-years old patient who, as a consequence of a very serious epilepsy syndrome, several forms of comorbidity, severe developmental impairments, and the absence of meaningful contact with relatives, is felt to be in very serious suffering. Parents and physicians decide to end the child's life by withholding nutrition and hydration. Based on this case description and on the parents' experiences, its authors argue in favour of a stately regulated procedure for active life termination. In this comment I argue that the regulation of life termination without a patient request should remain a no-go area. If we allow life termination in children, there is no reason why we should not also allow such requests on behalf of incompetent patients such as handicapped adults and elderly patients with advanced dementia who have not issued an advance directive. Let the very rare cases in which a doctor sees no other option than to terminate an infant's life, remain in the realm of the non-regulated.


Asunto(s)
Directivas Anticipadas , Muerte , Adulto , Niño , Anciano , Lactante , Humanos , Emociones , Estado Nutricional , Padres
7.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 17, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUNDS & AIMS: The nutritional evaluation of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients lacks a gold standard or scientific consensus, we aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate the prognostic value of nutritional screening and assessment tools used for PC patients. METHODS: Relevant studies were retrieved from major databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) and searched from January 2010 to December 2023. We performed meta-analyses with STATA 14.0 when three or more studies used the same tool. RESULTS: This analysis included 27 articles involving 6,060 PC patients. According to a meta-analysis of these studies, poor nutritional status evaluated using five nutritional screening tools Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Controlling Nutritional Status Score (CONUT), Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS2002) and Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) was associated with all-cause mortality in PC patients. But Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) did not. Of all tools analyzed, CONUT had the maximum HR for mortality (HR = 1.978, 95%CI 1.345-2.907, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: All-cause mortality in PC patients was predicted by poor nutritional status. CONUT may be the best nutritional assessment tool for PC patients. The clinical application value of Short Form Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF), Generated Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and Patient-generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in PC patients need to be confirmed. In order to improve patients' nutritional status and promote their recovery, nutritional screening tools can be used. REGISTRATION: This systematic review was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (number CRD42022376715).


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Anciano , Estado Nutricional , Evaluación Nutricional , Pronóstico , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2871, 2024 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311634

RESUMEN

The aftermath of dietary modifications made during pregnancy has the most substantial effects on nutritional status and birth results, despite the important influence of nutritional reserves. Numerous studies have been conducted on dietary practices and their determinants among pregnant women; however, there is a gap in evidence among pregnant adolescents. Therefore, this study sought to close this gap by examining dietary practices and associated factors among pregnant adolescents in the West Arsi Zone, Central Ethiopia. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 459 pregnant adolescents between February and March 2023. Cluster sampling was used for selecting pregnant adolescents. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were entered into the Kobo toolbox and exported to SPSS version 25 software for analysis. Dietary diversity was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of dietary practices. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to identify the factors associated with the outcome variables. A p value ≤ 0.05 indicated statistical significance. The prevalence of inadequate dietary practices among the pregnant adolescents was 78.4% (95% CI 74.3%, 82.8%), and a level of nutritional knowledge [AOR = 2.4, 95% CI (1.82-4.74]; an unfavorable attitude toward dietary diversity [AOR = 4.3, 95% CI 2.9-5.83]; a food insecurity status [AOR = 8.7, 95% CI 2.37-10.24]; and a low perceived severity of poor dietary practices [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI 3.26-5.47]. These factors were significantly associated with inadequate dietary practices among pregnant adolescents. The most frequently consumed foods were starchy foods (81.3%) and pulses (79%), and the least consumed foods were meat (2.8%) and fruits (3.48%). The magnitude of inadequate dietary practices was high, and it was significantly associated with educational, behavioral, and economic status. Nutritional interventions focused on communicating nutritional behavioral changes and strengthening sustainable income-generating strategies are recommended to improve the dietary practices of pregnant adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Mujeres Embarazadas , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(2): e19792022, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324842

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and to evaluate the association between body image perception and these patterns among schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 385 schoolchildren (both sexes, 10-17 years old) from four public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were applied, and the dietary pattern was determined by Exploratory Factor Analysis after adjustment of dietary data using the Multiple Source Method. To evaluate body image perception, the Brazilian body shape silhouette was used. The associations between body image perception and dietary patterns using the polytomous logistic regression model adjusted for covariables was assessed. Three dietary patterns were obtained: "Western standard," unhealthy, "healthy pattern" and "typical dishes/ junk food." After adjustment, adolescents who wished for a slimmer silhouette (2.48 [95%CI: 1.04-6.11], 3.49 [95%CI: 1.35-9.05] and 2.87 [95%CI: 1.13-7.26]) were more likely to adhere to the quintiles with the lowest consumption of the Western standard, compared to those satisfied with their body image. No associations were identified in the other two dietary patterns. Adolescents dissatisfied with their bodies tend to adhere less to unhealthy dietary patterns.


Este estudo objetivou identificar padrões alimentares e avaliar a associação entre percepção da imagem corporal e esses padrões em escolares. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido em 385 escolares (ambos os sexos, 10-17 anos de idade) de 4 escolas públicas de Salvador, Brasil. Dois recordatórios alimentares de 24h não consecutivos foram aplicados e o padrão alimentar foi determinado por Análise Fatorial Exploratória, após ajuste dos dados dietéticos pelo Multiple Source Method. Para avaliar percepção da imagem corporal, nós usamos uma escala brasileira de silhuetas. Avaliamos as associações entre percepção da imagem corporal e padrões alimentares usando o modelo de regressão logística politômica ajustado para covariáveis. Três padrões alimentares foram obtidos: "padrão ocidental", "padrão saudável" e "comidas típicas/junk food". Após ajuste, adolescentes que desejavam uma silhueta menor (2,48 [IC95%: 1,04-6,11], 3,49 [IC95%: 1,35-9,05] e 2,87 [IC95%: 1,13-7,26]) tinham mais chances de aderir aos quintis de menor consumo do padrão ocidental, comparados àqueles satisfeitos com sua imagem corporal. Nenhuma associação foi identificada nos outros dois padrões alimentares. Adolescentes insatisfeitos com seus corpos tendem a aderir menos a padrões alimentares não saudáveis.


Asunto(s)
Insatisfacción Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Imagen Corporal , Estado Nutricional , Brasil , Conducta Alimentaria
11.
J Frailty Aging ; 13(1): 10-20, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305438

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the association among nutritional status, Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and frailty, and to estimate the mediation effect of these conditions between age and frailty in a group of Mexico City nursing home residents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study. Fried's phenotype criteria, Full Mini Nutritional Assessment, and General Oral Health Assessment Index was applied. RESULTS: The participants (n = 286) mean age was 82.4 (± 9.2) years. The prevalence of frailty was 58%, and the prevalence of malnutrition and the risk of malnutrition were 22.7% and 59.5%, respectively. A higher risk of frailty was associated with older age (p = 0.015), sex (women) (p = 0.041), poor nutritional status (p <0.001) and compromised OHRQoL (p <0.001). Approximately 40% of the effect of age on frailty was mediated by nutritional status and OHRQoL (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: A strong association between nutritional status and frailty was observed. Additionally, OHRQoL was associated with frailty. The effect of age on frailty was mediated by OHRQoL and nutritional status. Interventions targeted to improve nutritional status and oral health may contribute to preventing or delaying the onset of frailty.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Desnutrición , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estado Nutricional , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Fragilidad/complicaciones , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , México/epidemiología , Evaluación Geriátrica , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Evaluación Nutricional , Casas de Salud
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(2): 709-720, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305613

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of a keto-supplemented low-protein diet (sLPD) in enhancing nutritional status among individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) compared to a low-protein diet (LPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched and reviewed up to January 2023. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were enrolled and analyzed using STATA MP 17. In this review, serum albumin (Alb), body mass index (BMI), and serum prealbumin (PA) were included for efficacy evaluation and serum calcium (CA) for safety evaluation. Potential heterogeneity was detected using subgroup analyses. RESULTS: 7 RCTs were included. Compared with LPD, sLPD can improve the Alb [Weighted Mean Difference (WMD)=4.16; 95% CI: 2.50, 5.83; p<0.0001), BMI [WMD=1.35; 95% CI: 0.59, 2.11; p<0.0001] and PA [WMD=0.07; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.10; p<0.0001] level of patients undergoing PD. Subgroup analyses showed that, although Alb had no difference with LPD within 12 months of PD duration, sLPD treatment could improve the levels of Alb and PA regardless of PD duration or course of treatment. sLPD can improve the BMI of patients with a PD duration of more than 24 months, regardless of the duration of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A sLPD is an effective intervention for improving the nutritional status of PD patients. It is suggested that patients undergoing PD should initiate sLPD at the beginning of PD to ensure sufficient nutritional intake.


Asunto(s)
Estado Nutricional , Diálisis Peritoneal , Humanos , Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas , Diálisis Renal , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Diálisis Peritoneal/efectos adversos
13.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 22, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308332

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Older adults are a vulnerable group that is at risk of poor nutritional status, which can lead to disease and increase their healthcare costs. Our study aimed to investigate the impact of a self-efficacy intervention on the nutritional status of older adults. METHODS: A controlled before and after study was conducted on 110 older adults in the Mashhad, Iran, from 2020 to 2022. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 55) and control groups (n = 55). Participants in the intervention group received educational training that was based on the self-efficacy theory. The control group received the routine care. Data collection tools included demographic information questionnaire, Mini Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, and standard self-efficacy questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed at baseline (before intervention), instantly after the intervention, and at 3-months follow-up by participants in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 and the significance level was considered less than 0.05. RESULTS: The Mean of nutritional status in the intervention group, at the baseline, immediately after intervention and 3 months of follow-up were 25.1 ± 2.3, 28.3 ± 5.2 and 27.6 ± 6., respectively. This increase was significant (p < 0.001). Our findings revealed that self-efficacy among participants in the intervention group significantly changed (P < 0.001) across time from baseline through follow-up. There was no significant difference in the mean of self-efficacy and nutritional status in the control group during the study period (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This current study provided a basis to examine in the effectiveness of such intervention using a properly powered randomized controlled study. Therefore, it can be concluded that self-efficacy interventions are a promising approach to improving the nutritional behaviors of the older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT20160619028529N9.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Anciano , Irán , Autoeficacia , Evaluación Nutricional
14.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 21, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As part of COVID-19 mitigation strategies, emergency nutrition program adaptations were implemented, but evidence of the effects is limited. Compared to the standard protocol, the full adapted protocol included adapted admissions criteria, simplified dosing, and reduced visit frequency; partially adapted protocols consisting of only some of these modifications were also implemented. To enable evidence-based nutrition program modifications as the context evolved, this study was conducted to characterize how protocol adaptations in South Sudan affected Outpatient Therapeutic Feeding Program outcomes. METHODS: A mixed methods approach consisting of secondary analysis of individual-level nutrition program data and key informant interviews was used. Analyses focused on program implementation and severe acute malnutrition treatment outcomes under the standard, full COVID-19 adapted, and partially adapted treatment protocols from 2019 through 2021. Analyses compared characteristics and outcomes by different admission types under the standard protocol and across four different treatment protocols. Regression models evaluated the odds of recovery and mean length of stay (LoS) under the four protocols. RESULTS: Very few (1.6%; n = 156) children admitted based on low weight-for-height alone under the standard protocol would not have been eligible for admission under the adapted protocol. Compared to the full standard protocol, the partially adapted (admission only) and partially adapted (admission and dosing) protocols had lower LoS of 28.4 days (CI - 30.2, - 26.5) and 5.1 days (CI - 6.2, - 4.0); the full adapted protocol had a decrease of 3.0 (CI - 5.1, - 1.0) days. All adapted protocols had significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for recovery compared to the full standard protocol: partially adapted (admission only) AOR = 2.56 (CI 2.18-3.01); partially adapted (admission + dosing) AOR = 1.78 (CI 1.45-2.19); and fully adapted protocol AOR = 2.41 (CI 1.69-3.45). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that few children were excluded when weight-for-height criteria were suspended. LoS was shortest when only MUAC was used for entry/exit but dosing and visit frequency were unchanged. Significantly shorter LoS with simplified dosing and visit frequency vs. under the standard protocol indicate that protocol adaptations may lead to shorter recovery and program enrollment times. Findings also suggest that good recovery is achievable with reduced visit frequency and simplified dosing.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Desnutrición , Desnutrición Aguda Severa , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Sudán del Sur , Desnutrición Aguda Severa/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Protocolos Clínicos , Desnutrición/terapia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 429, 2024 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341528

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic malnutrition is a condition associated with negative impacts on physical and cognitive development. It is multi-causal and can start very early in life, already in utero, thus it is especially challenging to find appropriate interventions to tackle it. The government of Angola is implementing a standard of care program with potential to prevent it, and the provision of cash transfers and the supplementation with small quantity lipid-based nutrients (SQ-LNS) are also promising interventions. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the standard of care program alone and of the standard of care plus a cash transfer intervention in the lineal growth of children less than 2 years old and compare it to the effectiveness of a nutrition supplementation plus standard of care program in Southern Angola. METHODS/DESIGN: The three-arm parallel cluster randomised controlled trial is set in four communes of Huila and Cunene provinces. Clusters are villages or neighbourhoods with a population around 1075 people. A total of twelve clusters were selected per arm and forty pregnant women are expected to be recruited in each cluster. Pregnant women receive the standard of care alone, or the standard of care plus unconditional cash transfer or plus nutritional supplementation during the first 1000 days, from pregnancy to the child reaching 24 months. The primary outcome is the prevalence of stunting measured as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) < -2 in children below 2 years. Impact will be assessed at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of children's age. Secondary outcomes include mortality, morbidity, caring, hygiene and nutrition behaviours and practices, and women and children's dietary diversity. Quantitative data are also collected on women's empowerment, household food security, expenditure and relevant clinical and social events at baseline, endline and intermediate time points. DISCUSSION: The results will provide valuable information on the impact of the standard of care intervention alone as well as combined with an unconditional cash transfer intervention compared to a nutrition supplementation plus standard of care intervention, carried out during the first 1000 days, in the children´s growth up to 2 years and related outcomes in Southern Angola. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT05571280. Registered 7 October 2022.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Nivel de Atención , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Lactante , Preescolar , Angola , Estado Nutricional , Suplementos Dietéticos , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 103, 2024 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341551

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The literature contains scarce data on inequalities in growth trajectories among children born to mothers of diverse ethnoracial background in the first 5 years of life. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate child growth according to maternal ethnoracial group using a nationwide Brazilian database. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study employed linked data from the CIDACS Birth Cohort and the Brazilian Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN). Children born at term, aged 5 years or younger who presented two or more measurements of length/height (cm) and weight (kg) were followed up between 2008 and 2017. Prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were estimated. Nonlinear mixed effect models were used to estimate childhood growth trajectories, among different maternal ethnoracial groups (White, Asian descent, Black, Pardo, and Indigenous), using the raw measures of weight (kg) and height (cm) and the length/height-for-age (L/HAZ) and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). The analyses were also adjusted for mother's age, educational level, and marital status. RESULTS: A total of 4,090,271 children were included in the study. Children of Indigenous mothers exhibited higher rates of stunting (26.74%) and underweight (5.90%). Wasting and thinness were more prevalent among children of Pardo, Asian, Black, and Indigenous mothers than those of White mothers. Regarding children's weight (kg) and length/height (cm), those of Indigenous, Pardo, Black, and Asian descent mothers were on average shorter and weighted less than White ones. Regarding WAZ and L/HAZ growth trajectories, a sharp decline in average z-scores was evidenced in the first weeks of life, followed by a period of recovery. Over time, z-scores for most of the subgroups analyzed trended below zero. Children of mother in greater social vulnerability showed less favorable growth. CONCLUSION: We observed racial disparities in nutritional status and childhood growth trajectories, with children of Indigenous mothers presenting less favorable outcomes compared to their White counterparts. The strengthening of policies aimed at protecting Indigenous children should be urgently undertaken to address systematic ethnoracial health inequalities.


Asunto(s)
Estado Nutricional , Delgadez , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Delgadez/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2676, 2024 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302630

RESUMEN

To determine the dietary structure and its associated factors of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the community. This cross-sectional study analysed the dietary intake of 300 TB patients in two impoverished counties in China. Food intake was collected by using food frequency and two consecutive 24-h dietary review (24hdr) methods. The dietary composition and dietary structure of TB patients were compared with China's 2022 Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs) and the average reference value of dietary composition (ARC) in China in 2013. Binary logistic regression models were used to explore the factors associated with inadequate intake of animal food, insufficient protein and fat energy supply in patients with TB. The daily intake of various foods in TB patients was measured and the results were as follows: staple foods-median 372.12 g (interquartile range [IQR] 315.87 g); vegetables-median 200.00 g (IQR 205.55 g); fruits-median 20.22 g (IQR 36.82 g); animal foods-median 100.82 g (IQR 180.74 g); dairy products-median 0.00 g (IQR 0.00 g); nuts-median 17.10 g (IQR 29.75 g). The average daily intakes of vegetables, fruits, animal food, dairy products, soy and nuts were lower than those recommended by the DRIs (P < 0.01). Compared to women, men consumed more whole grains and mixed legumes, but less fruit. The dietary structures, including food and nutrient supply for energy, protein and fat, were significantly different in 300 patients compared with DRIs or ARC values. Inadequate rates of animal food intake were observed in 54.85% of men and 59.57% of women. Protein undersupply rates were 66.02% in men and 56.38% in women, while fat undersupply rates were 52.91% in men and 52.13% in women. The study revealed that being 18-49 years old, being the Han nationality, having less than 2 h of physical activity per day on average, and eating twice a day were risk factors for inadequate animal protein intake, protein energy deficiency and fat energy deficiency. TB patients from impoverished counties in China have inadequate intake of several food categories and insufficient protein and fat energy supply, correlating with multiple factors in socio-demographics, behavioral practices, and TB disease. To improve the nutritional status of TB patients, urgent public health actions, especially carrying out nutritional screening and evaluation once diagnosed, developing individualized nutritional support treatment plans, strengthening dietary nutritional health education and intervention, and advocating for enhanced nutritional support, should be taken.


Asunto(s)
Estado Nutricional , Tuberculosis , Masculino , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , Evaluación Nutricional , Ingestión de Energía , Dieta , Frutas , Verduras , China/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria
20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 13, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303047

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a strong, bi-directional link between tuberculosis (TB) and undernutrition: TB often causes undernutrition, and undernourished people are more likely to contract TB and experience worse outcomes. Globally, several TB nutritional support programmes exist; however, evidence on their effectiveness is limited and contested. This study evaluates the effect of a nutritional support programme implemented for people with TB in the Atsimo-Andrefana region, Madagascar in 2022. Within this programme, undernourished people with TB [with a body mass index (BMI) of < 18.5 kg/m2] receive 0.6 L of vegetable oil and 6.0 kg of a soy-wheat blend per month throughout their TB treatment. METHODS: We analysed secondary non-governmental organisation data collected between January and November 2022 in the Atsimo-Andrefana region, Southern Madagascar, including information on an individual's medical conditions (e.g., type of TB, treatment outcomes) and nutritional status measured prior to, during, and after completion of treatment (e.g., height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference). We conducted descriptive analyses of patient baseline characteristics and outcomes to assess the impact of the provided nutritional support on the BMI of people with TB. RESULTS: A total of 1310 people with TB were included in the study [9.9% (130) children under the age of 5, 32.1% (420) children between 5 and 18 years, 58.0% (760) adults]. 55.4% of children under 5, 28.1% of children between ages 5 and 18, and 81.3% of adults were undernourished at treatment initiation. 42.3% (55/130) of children under 5 experienced severe acute malnutrition at treatment uptake. While the average BMI of adults with TB receiving food support increased over time, from 17.1 kg/m2 (interquartile range: 15.8-18.3, range: 10.3-22.5) to 17.9 kg/m2 (interquartile range: 16.6-19.1, range: 11.9-24.1), most adults remained undernourished even after completing TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The current TB nutritional support programme falls short of sufficiently increasing the BMI of people with TB to overcome malnutrition. There is an urgent need to revise the nutritional support available for people with TB, particularly for children under 5.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Tuberculosis , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Madagascar/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Desnutrición/terapia , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/terapia , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Apoyo Nutricional
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