Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45.188
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801645

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the COVID-19 disease, is posing unprecedent challenges. In the literature, increasing evidence highlights how malnutrition negatively affects the immune system functionality, impairing protection from infections. The current review aims to summarize the complex relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and nutritional status and the effects of malnutrition in terms of disease severity, patients' recovery time, incidence of complications and mortality rate. Current studies evaluating the possibility of modulating nutrition and supplementation in combination with pharmacological treatments in the clinical setting to prevent, support, and overcome infection are also described. The discussion of the most recent pertinent literature aims to lay the foundations for making reasonable assumptions and evaluations for a nutritional "best practice" against COVID-19 pandemic and for the definition of sound cost-effective strategies to assist healthcare systems in managing patients and individuals in their recovery from COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Estado Nutricional , /epidemiología , Humanos , Desnutrición/complicaciones , Obesidad/complicaciones
2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803015

RESUMEN

At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) appeared on the world scene, which mainly affects the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and multi-organ failure, and, although it starts with common symptoms such as shortness of breath and fever, in about 2-3% of cases it leads to death. Unfortunately, to date, no specific treatments have been found for the cure of this virus and, therefore, it is advisable to implement all possible strategies in order to prevent infection. In this context, it is important to better define the role of all behaviors, in particular nutrition, in order to establish whether these can both prevent infection and improve the outcome of the disease in patients with COVID-19. In the literature, it is widely shown that states of malnutrition, overweight, and obesity negatively affect the immune system, leading to viral infections, and several studies have shown that nutritional interventions can act as immunostimulators, helping to prevent viral infections. Even if several measures, such as the assumption of a specific diet regimen, the use of dietary supplements, and other similar interventions, are promising for the prevention, management, and recovery of COVID-19 patients, it is important to highlight that strong data from randomized clinical trials are needed to support any such assumption. Considering this particular scenario, we present a literature review addressing several important aspects related to diet and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to highlight the importance of diet and supplementation in prevention and management of, as well as recovery from COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Estado Nutricional , Dieta , Humanos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805263

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In older people with psychoneurological diseases, COVID-19 infection may be associated with a risk of developing or exacerbating dysphagia. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between eating/swallowing function and COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Subjects were 44 inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 infection being treated for schizophrenia in a psychiatric ward. Eating function was assessed using the Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) before and after infection. We also evaluated age, comorbidities, COVID-19 hospital stay, obesity index, weight loss rate, and chlorpromazine equivalent. RESULTS: Subjects had a mean age of 68.86 years. Pre-infection, 20 subjects had a FILS score of 7-9 (presence of eating/swallowing disorder) and 24 subjects had a score of 10 (normal). Eating function after infection resolution showed decreasing FILS score compared to that before infection in 14 subjects (74.14 years). Six subjects (79.3 years) transitioned from oral feeding to parenteral feeding. A ≥ 10% weight loss during infection treatment was significantly associated with decreased eating function and a transition to parenteral feeding. Chlorpromazine equivalents, comorbidities, and number of days of hospitalization showed no associations with decreased eating function. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing malnutrition during treatment for COVID-19 infection is important for improving post-infection life prognosis and maintaining quality of life (QOL).


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Trastornos de Deglución/etiología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/etiología , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones , Pérdida de Peso , Anciano , /psicología , Trastornos de Deglución/fisiopatología , Trastornos de Deglución/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiopatología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Esquizofrenia/virología
4.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810256

RESUMEN

Due to limited data about the impact of lockdown on health status, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on changes in dietary habits, physical activity and serum markers in healthy adults. A total of 38 asymptomatic adults aged from 23 to 59 with a normal BMI (22.5 kg/m2) participated in baseline and post-lockdown measurements that included dietary and physical activity assessment, anthropometric measurements and blood samples; and the lockdown survey which included dietary assessment and questionnaires about changes in lifestyle and physical activity. A decreased diet quality during lockdown was observed (Healthy Eating Index reduced from 64.59 to 61.08), which returned to near baseline post-lockdown. Energy intake decreased during lockdown (p = 0.002) and returned to baseline post-lockdown. Despite lower physical activity levels during lockdown (p = 0.035), we observed no significant changes in body composition. However, we observed a significant increase in serum glucose (p = 0.005), total cholesterol (p = 0.003), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p = 0.049) post-lockdown. Increase in serum glucose levels was pronounced in subjects with higher increase in energy intake (p = 0.039), increased omega-6 fatty acids intake (p = 0.016), those who were exposed to several risky contacts (p = 0.018, compared to those with less risky contacts) and those who were not active in nature (p = 0.008, compared to those active in nature). Increased serum LDL was correlated to decreased monounsaturated fatty acids intake (p = 0.028). Within the limits of this preliminary report, changes in serum markers observed among healthy subjects point to a possible impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on adults' health to be confirmed in larger groups.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Composición Corporal , /epidemiología , Dieta/psicología , Ingestión de Energía , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Eslovenia/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 387-394, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830118

RESUMEN

Undernutrition in children under five years remains a significant health problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although Bangladesh has made rapid progress over the last decade in the field of health and nutrition, there has been very slow progress in improving the state of child nutrition. Studies aiming at determination of interrelationship between child undernutrition and maternal undernutrition are to be scientifically established if appropriate intervention policy is to be introduced. This study was undertaken to see whether this assumption has a statistically proven basis that maternal undernutrition influences child undernutrition. The objective of this cross sectional analytical study was to evaluate the association between child undernutrition and their maternal undernutrition in child-mother pair in a tertiary care hospital and was conducted from July 2017 to April 2018 in the department of General Paediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study subjects were 196 children between the ages of six months to five years who were admitted in BSMMU and their accompanying mothers. Children who had any known chronic diseases or clinically obvious syndrome were excluded. Before enrollment, parents of all the patients were informed about the study & its objectives. Anthropometric measurements of children and mothers were done by standard procedure. Demographic profile and relevant maternal information were collected by interviewing the mothers. Among the undernourished children, 17.3% were found underweight, 7.1% stunted, 16.3% wasted. Combined underweight & wasted were 34.7%, underweight & stunted 9.2%, stunted & wasted 5.1%, underweight, stunted and wasted 10.2%. Maternal undernutrition was more common (95.7%) in undernourished children group. Undernutrition was significantly higher in mothers of children with undernutrition (OR=40.75, p<0.001). Children having a better nutrition were born from mothers who were well nourished, educated, had good childcare knowledge and higher family income. This emphasized the need to provide the guideline for appropriate measure to be taken to reduce child undernutrition.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Niño , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Madres , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia , Centros de Atención Terciaria
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 68-75, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831289

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Measuring malnutrition is difficult in all settings and confused with the signs of aging. Mini nutritional assessment is an effective tool designed to identify older adults who have a risk of developing malnutrition. METHODS: Three hundred and one free-living elderly who lived with their family or alone were included in the study. Nutritional screening was performed with mini nutritional assessment and mini nutritional assessment short form. Dietary intake was assessed by a 3-days weighted food record. RESULTS: According to mini nutritional assessment in the 65-74 years young-old group, malnutrition, risk of malnutrition, and normal nutrition was 2.4%, 39.5%, 58.2%, respectively, and in the 75-84 years old-old group it was 10.2%, 48.7%, 41.0%, respectively, and in the older than 85 years oldest-old group 92.3%, 7.7%, 0%, respectively. The lowest nutritional intake by recommended dietary allowance was zinc and the highest intake was sodium. Neither young-old group nor old-old group nor oldest-old group met the B12 and zinc requirements. CONCLUSIONS: The free-living elderly at an age of 85 years and above are, accompanied by the existence of factors which may mask their weight losses, under a severe risk of malnutrition unless they receive adequate medical care and attention.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Estado Nutricional , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Evaluación Nutricional
7.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 1): 492-497, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813456

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study the dietary peculiarities of Ukrainian adolescents with obesity and to identify the eating disorders on the background of metabolic syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A survey on the nutrition of Ukrainian adolescents was conducted at O. Yaremenko Ukrainian Institute for Social Research within the framework of the international project Health and Behavioral Orientations of Student Youth (HBSC), 2018. As a result, a sample of 200 adolescents with obesity (age 14-18 years: 100 boys and 100 girls) was formed, with the following examination by the Institute of Children and Adolescents Health Care of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine. RESULTS: Results: A survey conducted revealed the problem of irrational and unbalanced diet in Ukrainian adolescents. Thus, irregular and unbalanced diet naturally causes digestive disorders and contributes to the formation of comorbid pathologies such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. The general analysis of the DEBQ survey results revealed that patients with metabolic syndrome were twice as likely to have abnormalities in eating behavior (71.8 ± 3.7)% than in patients without them (39.4 ± 4.1)%, (φ < 0.05). Adolescents with obesity experienced significant zinc and magnesium deficiency in the body (φ < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Modification of eating behaviour through healthy balanced nutrition and psychological support is one of the most important tasks in the treatment of patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Síndrome Metabólico , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estado Nutricional , Obesidad/epidemiología , Ucrania
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803339

RESUMEN

Malnutrition is common among severe patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mainly elderly adults and patients with comorbidities. It is also associated with atypical presentation of the disease. Despite the possible contribution of malnutrition to the acquisition and severity of COVID-19, it is not clear which nutritional screening measures may best diagnose malnutrition in these patients at early stages. This is of crucial importance given the urgency and rapid progression of the disease in vulnerable groups. Accordingly, this review examines the available literature for different nutritional screening approaches implemented among COVID-19 patients, with a special focus on elderly adults. After a literature search, we selected and scrutinized 14 studies assessing malnutrition among COVID-19 patients. The Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) has demonstrated superior sensitivity to other traditional screening measures. The controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, which comprises serum albumin level, cholesterol level, and lymphocytes count, as well as a combined CONUT-lactate dehydrogenase-C-reactive protein score expressed a predictive capacity even superior to that of NRS-2002 (0.81% and 0.92% vs. 0.79%) in midlife and elder COVID-19 patients. Therefore, simple measures based on routinely conducted laboratory investigations such as the CONUT score may be timely, cheap, and valuable alternatives for identifying COVID-19 patients with high nutritional risk. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was the only measure used to detect residual malnutrition and high malnutrition risk in remitting patients-MNA scores correlated with hypoalbuminemia, hypercytokinemia, and weight loss. Older males with severe inflammation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and pre-existing comorbidities (diabetes, obesity, or hypertension) are more prone to malnutrition and subsequently poor COVID-19 prognosis both during the acute phase and during convalescence. Thus, they are in need of frequent nutritional monitoring and support while detecting and treating malnutrition in the general public might be necessary to increase resilience against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Desnutrición , Adulto , Anciano , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Evaluación Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Medición de Riesgo
9.
Anticancer Res ; 41(4): 1727-1732, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813376

RESUMEN

The standard treatment for gastrointestinal cancer is surgical resection and perioperative adjuvant treatment. Multidisciplinary treatment for gastrointestinal cancer leads to body composition changes. Body composition changes, such as skeletal muscle loss and body weight loss, during multidisciplinary treatment result in poor physical activity, severe toxicity of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, and poor oncological outcomes. Therefore, the hypothesis is that minimization of body composition changes during multidisciplinary treatment in gastrointestinal cancer patients, the continuation of postoperative adjuvant treatment in these patients might improve, thereby improving the oncological outcomes. Given this hypothesis, recent studies have focused on introducing perioperative oral nutritional treatment for gastrointestinal cancer patients. Thus far, oral nutritional treatment has proven promising and showed some clinical benefits for gastrointestinal cancer patients during the perioperative period. However, whether or not oral nutritional treatment has clinical benefits on the long-term oncological outcomes in gastrointestinal cancer remains unclear. To optimize oral nutritional treatment for gastrointestinal cancer patients, it is necessary to clarify the benefits of oral nutritional treatment on the long-term oncological outcomes in gastric cancer patients and establish the optimal approach to oral nutritional treatment.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos del Sistema Digestivo , Nutrición Enteral , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Atención Perioperativa , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos del Sistema Digestivo/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos del Sistema Digestivo/mortalidad , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/mortalidad , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/fisiopatología , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Pérdida de Peso
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1285: 81-107, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770404

RESUMEN

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins in animals, including swine. With the development of new analytical methods and biochemical research, there is a growing interest in fundamental and applied studies to reexamine the roles and usage of amino acids (AAs) in swine production. In animal nutrition, AAs have been traditionally classified as nutritionally essential (EAAs) or nutritionally nonessential (NEAAs). AAs that are not synthesized de novo must be provided in diets. However, NEAAs synthesized by cells of animals are more abundant than EAAs in the body, but are not synthesized de novo in sufficient amounts for the maximal productivity or optimal health (including resistance to infectious diseases) of swine. This underscores the conceptual limitations of NEAAs in swine protein nutrition. Notably, the National Research Council (NRC 2012) has recognized both arginine and glutamine as conditionally essential AAs for pigs to improve their growth, development, reproduction, and lactation. Results of recent work have also provided compelling evidence for the nutritional essentiality of glutamate, glycine, and proline for young pigs. The inclusion of so-called NEAAs in diets can help balance AAs in diets, reduce the dietary levels of EAAs, and protect the small intestine from oxidative stress, while enhancing the growth performance, feed efficiency, and health of pigs. Thus, both EAAs and NEAAs are needed in diets to meet the requirements of pigs. This notion represents a new paradigm shift in our understanding of swine protein nutrition and is transforming pork production worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta , Femenino , Lactancia , Estado Nutricional , Porcinos
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1285: 109-131, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770405

RESUMEN

Both poultry meat and eggs provide high-quality animal protein [containing sufficient amounts and proper ratios of amino acids (AAs)] for human consumption and, therefore, play an important role in the growth, development, and health of all individuals. Because there are growing concerns about the suboptimal efficiencies of poultry production and its impact on environmental sustainability, much attention has been paid to the formulation of low-protein diets and precision nutrition through the addition of low-cost crystalline AAs or alternative sources of animal-protein feedstuffs. This necessitates a better understanding of AA nutrition and metabolism in chickens. Although historic nutrition research has focused on nutritionally essential amino acids (EAAs) that are not synthesized or are inadequately synthesized in the body, increasing evidence shows that the traditionally classified nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), such as glutamine and glutamate, have physiological and regulatory roles other than protein synthesis in chicken growth and egg production. In addition, like other avian species, chickens do not synthesize adequately glycine or proline (the most abundant AAs in the body but present in plant-source feedstuffs at low content) relative to their nutritional and physiological needs. Therefore, these two AAs must be sufficient in poultry diets. Animal proteins (including ruminant meat & bone meal and hydrolyzed feather meal) are abundant sources of both glycine and proline in chicken nutrition. Clearly, chickens (including broilers and laying hens) have dietary requirements for all proteinogenic AAs to achieve their maximum productivity and maintain optimum health particularly under adverse conditions such as heat stress and disease. This is a paradigm shift in poultry nutrition from the 70-year-old "ideal protein" concept that concerned only about EAAs to the focus of functional AAs that include both EAAs and NEAAs.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Pollos , Anciano , Animales , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Necesidades Nutricionales , Estado Nutricional
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1285: 133-168, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770406

RESUMEN

Aquaculture is increasingly important for providing humans with high-quality animal protein to improve growth, development and health. Farm-raised fish and shellfish now exceed captured fisheries for foods. More than 70% of the production cost is dependent on the supply of compound feeds. A public debate or concern over aquaculture is its environmental sustainability as many fish species have high requirements for dietary protein and fishmeal. Protein or amino acids (AAs), which are the major component of tissue growth, are generally the most expensive nutrients in animal production and, therefore, are crucial for aquatic feed development. There is compelling evidence that an adequate supply of both traditionally classified nutritionally essential amino acids (EAAs) and non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) in diets improve the growth, development and production performance of aquatic animals (e.g., larval metamorphosis). The processes for the utilization of dietary AAs or protein utilization by animals include digestion, absorption and metabolism. The digestibility and bioavailability of AAs should be carefully evaluated because feed production processes and AA degradation in the gut affect the amounts of dietary AAs that enter the blood circulation. Absorbed AAs are utilized for the syntheses of protein, peptides, AAs, and other metabolites (including nucleotides); biological oxidation and ATP production; gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis; and the regulation of acid-base balance, anti-oxidative reactions, and immune responses. Fish producers usually focus on the content or digestibility of dietary crude protein without considering the supply of AAs in the diet. In experiments involving dietary supplementation with AAs, inappropriate AAs (e.g., glycine and glutamate) are often used as the isonitrogenous control. At present, limited knowledge is available about either the cell- and tissue-specific metabolism of AAs or the effects of feed processing methods on the digestion and utilization of AAs in different fish species. These issues should be addressed to develop environment-friendly aquafeeds and reduce feed costs to sustain the global aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Estado Nutricional , Animales , Dieta , Proteínas en la Dieta , Peces , Humanos
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1285: 169-198, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770407

RESUMEN

Crustaceans (e.g., shrimp and crabs) are a good source of protein-rich foods for human consumption. They are the second largest aquaculture species worldwide. Understanding the digestion of dietary protein, as well as the absorption, metabolism and functions of amino acids (AAs) and small peptides is essential to produce cost-effective and sustainable aquafeeds. Hepatopancreas (the midgut gland) is the main site for the digestion of dietary protein as well as the absorption of small peptides and AAs into the hemolymph. Besides serving as the building blocks of protein, AAs (particularly aspartate, glutamate, glutamine and alanine) are the primary metabolic fuels for the gut and extra-hepatopancreas tissues (e.g., kidneys and skeletal muscle) of crustaceans. In addition, AAs are precursors for the syntheses of glucose, lipids, H2S, and low-molecular-weight molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, glutathione, polyamines, histamine, and hormones) with enormous biological importance, such as physical barrier, immunological and antioxidant defenses. Therefore, both nutritionally essential and nonessential AAs are needed in diets to improve the growth, development, molt rate, survival, and reproduction of crustaceans. There are technical difficulties and challenges in the use of crystalline AAs for research and practical production due to the loss of free AAs during feed processing, the leaching of in-feed free AAs to the surrounding water environment, and asynchronous absorption with peptide-bounded AAs. At present, much knowledge about AA metabolism and functions in crustaceans is based on studies of mammals and fish species. Basic research in this area is necessary to lay a solid foundation for improving the balances and bioavailability of AAs in the diets for optimum growth, health and wellbeing of crustaceans, while preventing and treating their metabolic diseases. This review highlights recent advances in AA nutrition and metabolism in aquatic crustacean species at their different life stages. The new knowledge is expected to guide the development of the next generation of their improved diets.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Estado Nutricional , Animales , Dieta , Ácido Glutámico , Glutamina , Humanos
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1285: 199-216, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770408

RESUMEN

The dog has assumed a prominent role in human society. Associated with that status, diet choices for companion dogs have begun to reflect the personal preferences of the owners, with greater emphasis on specialty diets such as organic, vegan/vegetarian, and omission or inclusion of specific ingredients. Despite consumer preferences and many marketing strategies employed, the diets must ensure nutritional adequacy for the dog; if not, health becomes compromised, sometimes severely. The most frequent consideration of consumers and dog food manufacturers is protein source and concentration with a growing emphasis on amino acid composition and bioavailability. Amino acids in general play diverse and critical roles in the dog, with specific amino acids being essential. This review covers what is known regarding amino acids in dog nutrition.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Alimentación Animal , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Dieta/veterinaria , Perros , Estado Nutricional
16.
Value Health ; 24(3): 317-324, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641764

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of public health insurance coverage, specifically the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), on childhood nutrition in poor rural households in China, and to identify the mechanisms through which health insurance coverage affects nutritional intake. METHODS: Longitudinal data on 3291 children were taken from four time periods (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Panel data analysis was performed with the fixed-effect model and the propensity score matching with difference-in-differences (PSM-DID) approach. RESULTS: The introduction of the NCMS was associated with a decline in calories, fat, and protein intake, and an increase in the intake of carbohydrates. The NCMS had the greatest negative effect on children aged 0 to 5 years, particularly girls. Out-of-pocket medical expenses were identified as the main channel through which the NCMS affected the nutritional intake of children. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the NCMS neither significantly improved the nutritional status of children nor enhanced intake of high-quality nutrients among rural poor households. These findings were attributed to the way in which health-seeking behavior was modified in the light of NCMS coverage. Specifically, NCMS coverage tended to increase healthcare utilization, which in turn increased out-of-pocket medical expenditures. This encouraged savings to aid financial risk protection and resulted in less disposable income for food consumption.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Financiación Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Niño , Preescolar , China , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Encuestas Nutricionales , Puntaje de Propensión , Salud Pública , Factores Sexuales
17.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-01/02/03): 133-136, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666926

RESUMEN

Consuming a diet meeting energy demands and providing essential nutrients promotes a healthy immune system. Suboptimal nutritional status, resulting from either under- or overnutrition, disrupts immune health and compromises resistance to, and recovery from, infections. Multiple micronutrients contribute to immune health, for example vitamin D, iron, selenium and zinc. Inadequate intake and suboptimal micronutrient status have been observed in military personnel, which potentially increases the risk of acquiring, and recovering from, infectious diseases and may compromise readiness and lethality. This manuscript briefly reviews the relationship between nutrition, immune function, and infectious disease, and provides resources and future research directions.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Inmunidad/fisiología , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 32, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777300

RESUMEN

Introduction: there is an existing variability in eating patterns between adolescents and children. Consequently, with the adoption of westernised way of life, this translates to a change in eating habits and food choices. This study was designed to investigate the dietary patterns and nutritional status of the female adolescents in Amai Secondary Commercial School, Delta State, Nigeria. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among 201 adolescent female students (12-18 years) using simple random sampling techniques. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the information while anthropometric measurement was carried out to obtain the height and weight of the respondents. Data generated were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: majority of the respondents 129 (64.20%) were between the ages of 16-18 years. Measurement of nutritional status confirmed that 46.80% and 31.80% of the respondents were underweight and healthy weight respectively. In addition, the dietary pattern of the respondents demonstrated that they consumed proteinous, carbohydrate, and snacks occasionally. Factors that motivated respondents for good food choices include; nutritional status 71 (35.30%), taste 54 (26.90%), and popularity 15 (7.50%). Conclusion: under nutrition remains a challenge among rural adolescent girls in Amai community. Therefore sustained strategic nutritional campaigns should be carried out among female adolescents in Amai community in order to improve their nutritional status.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Alimentaria , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Nigeria , Población Rural , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Delgadez/epidemiología
19.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 30(1): 15-21, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is spreading all over the world. With the number of cases increasing rapidly, the epidemiological data on the nutritional practice is scarce. In this study, we aim to describe the clinical characteristics and nutritional practice in a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This is a multicenter, ambidirectional cohort study conducted at 11 hospitals in Hubei Province, China. All eligible critical COVID-19 patients in the study hospital intensive care units at 00:00, March 6th, 2020, were included. Data collection was performed via written case report forms. RESULTS: A total of 44 patients were identified and enrolled, of whom eight died during the 28-day outcome follow- up period. The median interval between hospital admission and the study day was 24 (interquartile range, 13- 26) days and 52.2% (23 of 44) of patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation. The median nutrition risk in critically ill (mNUTRIC) score was 3 (interquartile range, 2-5) on the study day. During the enrolment day, 68.2% (30 of 44) of patients received enteral nutrition (EN), while 6.8% (3 of 44) received parenteral nutrition (PN) alone. Nausea and aspiration were uncommon, with a prevalence of 11.4% (5 of 44) and 6.8% (3 of 44), respectively. As for energy delivery, 69.7% (23 of 33) of patients receiving EN and/or PN were achieving their prescribed targets. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that EN was frequently applied in critical COVID-19 patients. Energy delivery may be suboptimal in this study requiring more attention.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crítica/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Apoyo Nutricional , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Nutrición Enteral/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nutrición Parenteral/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e25127, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725913

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Prognostic nutritional index (PNI) could reflect the nutrition and inflammation status in cancer patients. This study aims to identify the prognostic significance of PNI in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).A total of 694 RCC patients from our institution were included in this study. The prognostic correlation between PNI and overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was analyzed respectively using Kaplan-Meier method and univariate and multivariate Cox model. Studies about the association between pretreatment or preoperative PNI and prognosis of RCC were systemically reviewed and a meta-analysis method was performed to further evaluate the pooled prognostic value of PNI in RCC.267 (38.47%) RCC patients had low PNI according to the cut off value (49.08). Low PNI was associated with poor OS (P < .001) and RFS (P < .001), respectively. In the multivariate Cox analysis, PNI was identified to be an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.13, 95%CI: 1.25-3.62, P = .005). Compared to other nutritional indexes, this risk correlation of PNI is better than that of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI; HR = 1.19; P = .531), while is no better than that of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; 1/HR = 2.56; P < .001) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR; 1/HR = 2.85; P < .001) respectively. Meanwhile, additional 4785 patients from 6 studies were included into pooled analysis. For RCC patients who underwent surgery, low preoperative PNI was significantly associated with worse OS (pooled HR = 1.57, 95%CI: 1.37-1.80, P < .001) and worse RFS (pooled HR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.45-1.96, P < .001). Furthermore, low PNI (<41-51) was also significantly associated with poor OS (HR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.26-2.53 P < .05) and poor RFS (HR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.40-2.95, P < .05) in advanced cases treated with targeted therapies.The present evidences show that PNI is an independent prognostic factor in RCC. Low PNI is significant associated with poor prognosis of RCC patients.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Renales/mortalidad , Inflamación/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renales/mortalidad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/epidemiología , Evaluación Nutricional , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Renales/complicaciones , Carcinoma de Células Renales/inmunología , Carcinoma de Células Renales/cirugía , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Inflamación/inmunología , Neoplasias Renales/complicaciones , Neoplasias Renales/inmunología , Neoplasias Renales/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/inmunología , Nefrectomía , Estado Nutricional/inmunología , Periodo Preoperatorio , Pronóstico , Valores de Referencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...