Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 88.287
Filtrar
1.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. ilus, tab, mapas
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193594

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: el modelo de los activos comunitarios se caracteriza por fomentar condiciones de salud que potencian las capacidades y habilidades individuales y colectivas. El objetivo de este proyecto ha sido identificar el mapa de activos en salud del barrio Arturo Eyries de Valladolid, para promover la prescripción social por parte del personal sanitario y hacer más visibles los recursos de los que dispone la comunidad. METODOLOGÍA: se han utilizado diferentes técnicas de mapeo: búsqueda de datos en internet, redes sociales, periódicos, paseos por el barrio, entrevistas, mapas mudos y fotovoz. Se incluyeron pacientes y profesionales sanitarios del Centro de Salud Arturo Eyries. RESULTADOS: se ha recogido información de un total de 40 participantes: 10 profesionales sanitarios y 30 pacientes del centro de salud. El resultado de esta investigación fueron 37 activos clasificados en seis categorías: sanidad, ocio y cultura, apoyo social, educación, ejercicio físico y transporte. Con todo esto se ha creado un fichero de activos, un mapa del barrio, una página web, un tríptico y una sesión clínica para los profesionales del centro. CONCLUSIONES: este proyecto de mapeo constituye el punto de partida para mejorar el conocimiento que los profesionales sanitarios y los pacientes tienen sobre los recursos de salud de su entorno. Este trabajo representa el inicio de una red para la promoción de la salud, dirigida a implicar a instituciones y responsables políticos en la creación de una cartografía común, a nivel ciudad o incluso comunidad autónoma, de activos para la salud


INTRODUCTION: The community assets model is characterized by fostering health conditions that enhance individual and collective capacities and abilities. The aim of this project has been to identify the map of health assets in the Arturo Eyries neighbourhood of Valladolid to promote social prescription by health personnel, and to make the resources available to the community more visible. METHODOLOGY: Different mapping techniques have been used: internet data search, social networks, newspapers, walks around the neighbourhood, interviews, silent maps and photovoice. Patients and health professionals from the Arturo Eyries health centre were included in this study. RESULTS: Information was collected from a total of 40 participants: 10 health professionals and 30 health centre patients. The result of this research was 37 assets classified into six categories: health, leisure and culture, social support, education, physical exercise and transport. With all this, an asset file, a map of the neighbourhood, a web page, a leaflet and a clinical session for the centre's professionals were created. CONCLUSIONS: This mapping project is the starting point for improving the knowledge that health professionals and patients have about the health resources of their environment. This work represents the beginning of a network for health promotion, and we would like to involve institutions and the politicians in the creation of common mapping, at local or regional level, of health assets


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Medicina Comunitaria , Personal de Salud , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Características de la Residencia , Estado de Salud , España
2.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(S 03): S184-S195, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984942

RESUMEN

Regular physical activity contributes to both maintaining and improving health, and is important for human development throughout the entire lifespan of a person. There is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on health, in the areas of all-cause mortality, cancer, cardiovascular health, musculoskeletal health, metabolic health, and neurocognitive health. Physical activity includes any form of movement in which the contraction of skeletal muscles results in an increase in energy consumption. It is quantified and controlled via the frequency, duration, intensity, and weekly extent. All those forms of movement that improve health and in which the risk of injury is low are defined as health-enhancing physical activity. The Austrian recommendations for health-enhancing physical activity include endurance-oriented movement, plus strength and coordination training. Exercise is aimed at initiating adaptation processes, in order to improve functionality. Therefore, it has to be adapted to the different levels of individual performance ability, activity levels, and age, and should be carried out according to certain principles. Exercise leads to a positive change in physiological parameters, which in turn are closely linked to an improvement in the state of health. Through regular endurance-oriented and muscle-strengthening physical activity, far-reaching health effects can be achieved. Nevertheless, undesirable events can occur during activity, and the musculoskeletal and circulatory systems can be particularly affected. However, through adequate preparation, suitable equipment, and appropriate exercise, the personal and also the public health benefits of physical activity and sport can be increased.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Ejercicio , Ejercicio Físico , Estado de Salud , Austria , Alemania , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Aptitud Física
3.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 217, 2020 09 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967717

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has resulted in an increased demand for eHealth services globally. There is emerging evidence for the efficacy for group eHealth interventions that support population-based mental health and wellbeing, but a systematic review is lacking. The primary objective of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for eHealth group counseling and coaching programs for adults. A second objective is to assess, within studies selected for our primary objective, the impact of programs that encourage PA on outcomes compared to those that do not. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials that assess the impact of eHealth group counseling or coaching programs on mental health, health behavior, or physical health activity among community-dwelling adults will be included. We will search the following electronic databases (from January 2005 onwards): MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINHAL, and the Central Register of Controlled Trials. The primary outcomes will be changes in mental health conditions (e.g., depression, anxiety, stress, quality of life), behavioral health conditions (e.g., substance use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating behavior, medication adherence), and physical health conditions (e.g., coping with cancer, menopausal symptoms, arthritis pain). Secondary outcomes will be changes in physical activity. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. A narrative synthesis without meta-analysis will be conducted. The strength of the body of evidence will be assessed using GRADE. The risk of bias in individual studies will be appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. Potential sources of gender bias in included studies will be considered at all stages of the planned review. DISCUSSION: This review will contribute to the literature by providing evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth counseling and coaching programs delivered to adults in a group format. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The protocol has been registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42020187551 ).


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Ejercicio Físico , Estado de Salud , Salud Mental , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Consejo/métodos , Humanos , Tutoría/métodos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos
5.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 633-640, 2020 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879119

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the psychological status of medical staff in the epidemic period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to analyze its influential factors. METHODS: A total of 373 medical staff from Xiangya Hospital and the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled for this study. The General Sociological Data Questionnaire, Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90), and self-designed public opinion response questionnaire were used to assess general sociological data, mental health scores, and ability to respond to COVID-19 related public opinion information of medical staff. The mental health scores of medical staff with different general sociological data and public opinion information coping abilities were compared. Influential factors of mental health were analyzed. RESULTS: The average score of 10 factors in SCL-90 of 373 medical staff was less than 2 points. 14.21% medical staff had one or more factor scores more than two points, including 11.26% with terror symptoms, 7.77% with compulsive symptoms, and 5.63% with anxiety. The main sources of COVID-19 information for medical staff included WeChat, microblog, Jinri toutiao, TV and radio. 66.22% medical staff regularly verified information about COVID-19 through official websites or formal channels. A great deal of COVID-19 information in WeChat could make medical staff nervous (34.05%), anxious (30.29%), and insecure (29.22%). 68.63% medical staff sometimes were worried about getting infected because they knew information about COVID-19. Different departments of medical staff, getting cough or having a fever recently, and the degree of fear of infection had an impact on the SCL-90 score of medical staff, the differences were all statistically significant (all P<0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the impact of COVID-19 information on their life in WeChat, getting cough or having a fever recently, insomnia-early caused by COVID-19 information in WeChat, different departments, and the degree of fear of infection COVID-19 were the influential factors for the mental health of medical staff (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the epidemic of COVID-19, medical staff suffered from psychological problems to various degrees. It is necessary to establish a psychological assistance platform and guide the direction of public opinion correctly to promote the mental health of medical staff.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estado de Salud , Cuerpo Médico/psicología , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Ansiedad , Betacoronavirus , China , Conducta Compulsiva , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Miedo , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 657-664, 2020 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879122

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) brought psychological stress to the public, especially to patients. This study aims to investigate the mental health of patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. METHODS: We took cross-section investigation for the mental health of 112 patients with COVID-19 via questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were performed to compare general and clinical data between the slight-ordinary patients and severe patients. Single sample t-tests were used to compare the difference between the factor scores of the Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90) in COVID-19 patients with the norm of 2015 and factor scores of SCL-90 in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). RESULTS: The obsessive-compulsive, depression, sleep and eating disorders had the highest frequency among the positive symptoms of SCL-90 in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. The factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 were higher than those of the norm (P≤0.001 or P<0.05). Slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 in Changsha showed lower factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility compared with the patients with SARS (P<0.001 or P<0.05). There was no difference in factor scores of SCL-90 between the patients with severe COVID-19 and those with SARS(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The levels of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha are higher than those of the norm. However, the mental health of slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 is better than that of patients with SARS. It needs to provide targeting psychological interventions depending on the severity of patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estado de Salud , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Ansiedad , Betacoronavirus , China , Depresión , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104949, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927523

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the latest evidence on the association between cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular diseases and poor outcome in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, EuropePMC, and Cochrane Central Database. The outcome of interest was composite poor outcome that comprised of mortality and severe COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 4448 patients were obtained from 16 studies. Cerebrovascular disease was associated with an increased composite poor outcome (RR 2.04 [1.43,2.91], p<0.001; I2: 77%). Subgroup analysis revealed that cerebrovascular disease was associated with mortality (RR 2.38 [1.92,2.96], p<0.001; I2: 0%) and showed borderline significance for severe COVID-19 (RR 1.88 [1.00,3.51], p = 0.05; I2: 87%). Cardiovascular disease was associated with increased composite poor outcome (RR 2.23 [1.71,2.91], p<0.001; I2: 60%), mortality (RR 2.25 [1.53,3.29], p<0.001; I2: 33%) and severe COVID-19 (RR 2.25 [1.51,3.36], p<0.001; I2: 76%). Meta-regression demonstrate that the association was not influenced by gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory comorbidities. Furthermore, the association between cerebrovascular disease and poor outcome was not affected by cardiovascular diseases and vice versa. CONCLUSION: Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases were associated with an increased risk for poor outcome in patients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Trastornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Causas de Muerte , Trastornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/virología , Pronóstico , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Tiempo
9.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 69-81, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920608

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in periodontal status and maxillary buccal bone by considering clinical and tomographic parameters during the first year of orthodontic expansion with Invisalign® aligners. Upper first (1PM) and upper second (2PM) premolars of 19 patients with orthodontic expansion requirement treated with Invisalign® aligners were evaluated. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and cone beam tomographic (CBCT) records were collected at 76 sites before starting treatment (T0) and at 12 months (T1). Bone height was measured from cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to the crest cortical bone (CC). Bone thickness was measured at two levels: 4 mm (CEJ+4) and 6 mm (CEJ+6) apical to the CEJ. A descriptive analysis was made of the variations of bone thickness and height in a series of cases. The average expansion was 1.93 mm for 1PM and 167 mm for 2PM. Arithmetic mean of distance CEJ-CC in 1PM was 3.05 mm at T0, and remained at 3.05 mm at T1. Arithmetic mean of distance CEJ-CC in 2PM was 2.06 mm at T0 and 2.31 at T1. Post-expansion, most of the analyzed sites (86%) exhibited a bone thickness of ≥0.5 mm. The greatest variations between T0 and T1 were observed at the level of 1PM CEJ+ 4 and 2PM CEJ+ 6. The minimal changes in the clinical records (GI, PI, PPD and CAL) between T0 and T1 were compatible with the maintenance of gingivalperiodontal health. Invisalign® for expansion movements did not produce substantial changes in the evaluated periodontal clinical parameters or in the bone measurements. Removable appliances reduce plaque retentive factors and favor adequate oral hygiene.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental/etiología , Maloclusión/terapia , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Salud Bucal , Aparatos Ortodóncicos Removibles/efectos adversos , Técnicas de Movimiento Dental/efectos adversos , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Placa Dental/microbiología , Índice de Placa Dental , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Técnicas de Movimiento Dental/instrumentación
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4635, 2020 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934239

RESUMEN

Providing insight into one's health status from a gut microbiome sample is an important clinical goal in current human microbiome research. Herein, we introduce the Gut Microbiome Health Index (GMHI), a biologically-interpretable mathematical formula for predicting the likelihood of disease independent of the clinical diagnosis. GMHI is formulated upon 50 microbial species associated with healthy gut ecosystems. These species are identified through a multi-study, integrative analysis on 4347 human stool metagenomes from 34 published studies across healthy and 12 different nonhealthy conditions, i.e., disease or abnormal bodyweight. When demonstrated on our population-scale meta-dataset, GMHI is the most robust and consistent predictor of disease presence (or absence) compared to α-diversity indices. Validation on 679 samples from 9 additional studies results in a balanced accuracy of 73.7% in distinguishing healthy from non-healthy groups. Our findings suggest that gut taxonomic signatures can predict health status, and highlight how data sharing efforts can provide broadly applicable discoveries.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estado de Salud , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Heces/microbiología , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota
11.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 64, 2020 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892749

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer survivors are at increased risk of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Reduced peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) is associated with impaired cardiac reserve (defined as the increase in cardiac function from rest to peak exercise) and heart failure risk, but it is unclear whether this relationship exists in pediatric cancer survivors. This study sought to investigate the presence of reduced peak VO2 in pediatric cancer survivors with increased risk of heart failure, and to assess its relationship with resting cardiac function and cardiac haemodynamics and systolic function during exercise. METHODS: Twenty pediatric cancer survivors (8-24 years; 10 male) treated with anthracycline chemotherapy ± radiation underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing to quantify peak VO2, with a value < 85% of predicted defined as impaired peak VO2. Resting cardiac function was assessed using 2- and 3-dimensional echocardiography, with cardiac reserve quantified from resting and peak exercise heart rate, stroke volume index (SVI) and cardiac index (CI) using exercise cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). RESULTS: Twelve of 20 survivors (60%) had reduced peak VO2 (70 ± 16% vs. 97 ± 14% of age and gender predicted). There were no differences in echocardiographic or CMR measurements of resting cardiac function between survivors with normal or impaired peak VO2. However, those with reduced peak VO2 had diminished cardiac reserve, with a lesser increase in CI and SVI during exercise (Interaction P < 0.01 for both), whilst the heart rate response was similar (P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst exercise intolerance is common among pediatric cancer survivors, it is poorly explained by resting measures of cardiac function. In contrast, impaired exercise capacity is associated with impaired haemodynamics and systolic functional reserve measured during exercise. Consequently, measures of cardiopulmonary fitness and cardiac reserve may aid in early identification of survivors with heightened risk of long-term heart failure.


Asunto(s)
Antraciclinas/efectos adversos , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Supervivientes de Cáncer , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Tolerancia al Ejercicio , Cardiopatías/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Cinemagnética , Traumatismos por Radiación/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Cardiotoxicidad , Niño , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Cardiopatías/inducido químicamente , Cardiopatías/fisiopatología , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Traumatismos por Radiación/etiología , Traumatismos por Radiación/fisiopatología , Radioterapia/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
12.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 193-197, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997474

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine subjective sensitivity to noise of the citizens of Nis and its impact on their non-auditory health effects. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 908 adult residents of Nis, Serbia, of whom 387 were men (42.6%) and 521 women (57.4%). Streets with day Leq ≥ 55 dB(A) and night Leq ≥ 45 dB(A) were regarded as noisy and those with day Leq ≤ 55 dB(A) and night Leq ≤ 45 dB(A) were regarded as quiet, in accordance with WHO recommendations. Noise sensitivity was measured with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the impact of noise sensitivity on non-auditory health effects. RESULTS: The study showed that the values of the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale were significantly higher for those surveyed in the noisy zone. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant impact of noise sensitivity on night-sleep duration (p = 0.04), subjective assessment of sleep quality (p < 0.01) and daily rest disruption (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Based on the study results, it can be confirmed that noise sensitivity has an important role in causing non-auditory health effects among adults.


Asunto(s)
Umbral Auditivo , Estado de Salud , Ruido/efectos adversos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Serbia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 237-244, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997481

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Period of elderly age preordains the occurrence of many health issues. People deported during World War II to concentration camps suffered from malnutrition, lack of sleep, physical and mental exhaustion. Recently, the health condition of Holocaust survivors is often complicated as a result of physical punishments and different torture methods as well as mental hardships which they had suffered during deportation. The consequences often have psychosomatic nature thus the survivors are often receivers of health care. The topic of bibliography review is based on the need to objectivize and systematically evaluate subjective health issues of Holocaust survivors in connection with trauma related to the stay in a concentration camp. The aim is to offer a review of effects of the Holocaust on health of different body systems for survivors in concentration camps and Jewish ghettos in the course of World War II. METHODS: To map the subjective problems of Holocaust survivors, evidence-based medicine (EBM) method has been used with the help of scientific database PubMed, CINAHL Plus with full text, ProQuest and other sources with specific key words and Boole operators. Prognostic type of clinical/review questions has been selected for the bibliography review, which is trying to predict the probability of relation or output of illness/condition and based on diseases or symptoms seriousness to find out expectancy for treatment/improvement of care. RESULTS: 175 studies have been found in basic search with the use of key words both in English and in Czech language. The search has not been time-limited. The advanced search has focused on different body systems and health damage due to Nazi experiments. Fourteen studies have been used to complete the study. The research results have confirmed the significant effect of Holocaust trauma on body condition of the survivors. The reasons of this condition were insufficient nutrition, unsuitable and harmful hygienic, living and working conditions and brutality of the guards. According to the research, these factors have impacted all organ systems, mainly locomotion and cardiovascular ones. The results have shown a more frequent occurrence of osteoporosis, fractures of long bones and corresponding chronical pain of people of Jewish origin who had gone through different forms of torture during World War II. Other present symptoms include gastrointestinal problems, tumors mainly in the area of colorectum and lungs. Moreover, the stay in concentration camps had influence on women's menstrual cycle. CONCLUSION: The studies of Holocaust effects are an example of the influence of an extreme mental and physical burden on the body condition of the survivors' health. The results of the studies have shown a wide range of the effects also in mental and social areas.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Holocausto , Sobrevivientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Bibliografías como Asunto , Humanos , Judíos
14.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 267-274, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879191

RESUMEN

International immigration into Japan is increasing. It would make sense that investigating the health status of immigrants would be associated with improvements in their health and would be beneficial in building a complete social security system in which minorities can live safely and securely. The objective of this study is to describe the health status of immigrants in Japan and to explore the association between self-rated health status and employment status. As a result, half of those surveyed had some health problem, particularly a lot of mental stress. We did not find a significant relationship between self-rated health status and employment status, but it seems that people who stay in Japan 5 years or more tend to have poor self-rated health status. The factors associated with poor self-rated mental health status were being a non-employee, and having visited a hospital 1 time or more during the past 12 months. A system of mental stress care would be the most necessary health care for international students in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Empleo , Estado de Salud , Salud Laboral , Autoevaluación , Adulto , Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Salud Mental , Servicios de Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estrés Fisiológico , Adulto Joven
15.
Rev Prat ; 70(4): 379-384, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877089

RESUMEN

Medical specific approach of persons in social deprivation. Many social situations interfere with medical care. This consideration is an integral part of the physician mission. The evaluation is based on housing and feeding conditions, financial and job situation, relationship environment, social integration and access to care. The identification of these insecurity areas enables to assess the impact on the health status, to adapt the medical care and to choose reasonable therapeutic targets. The first medical consultation is decisive and sufficient time should be taken. The physician must ensure to create a caring and non-binding environment and must know the suffering caused by the social deprivation. His support position makes the adherence and the continuation of care easier. He can direct the patient towards institutional or associative social assistance organisations, which requires knowledge of local network. These patients, who may be confusing for the practitioners, require patience, perseverance, collaborative work and humanity, essential keys for helping those most in need.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1235-1245, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940242

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The wording of the Hungarian EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L descriptive systems differ a great deal. This study aimed to (1) develop EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L value sets for Hungary from a common sample, and (2) compare how level wording affected valuations. METHODS: In 2018 to 2019, 1000 respondents, representative of the Hungarian general population, completed composite time trade-off tasks. Pooled heteroscedastic Tobit models were used to estimate value sets. Value set characteristics, single-level transition utilities from adjacent corner health states, and mean transition utilities for all possible health states were compared between the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L. RESULTS: Health utilities ranged from -0.865 to 1 for the EQ-5D-3L and -0.848 to 1 for the EQ-5D-5L. The relative importance of the 5 EQ-5D-5L dimensions was as follows: mobility, pain/discomfort, self-care, anxiety/depression, and usual activities. A similar preference ranking was observed for the EQ-5D-3L with self-care being more important than pain/discomfort. The EQ-5D-5L demonstrated lower ceiling effects (range of utilities for the mildest states: 0.900-0.958 [3L] vs 0.955-0.965 [5L]) and better consistency of mean transition utilities across the range of scale. Changing "confined to bed" (3L) to "unable to walk" (5L) had a large positive impact on utilities. Smaller changes with more negative wording in the other dimensions (eg, "very much anxious/feeling down a lot" [3L] vs "extremely anxious/depressed" [5L]) had a modest negative impact on utilities. CONCLUSION: This study developed value sets of the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L for Hungary. Our findings contribute to the understanding of how the wording of descriptive systems affects the estimates of utilities.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Limitación de la Movilidad , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22036, 2020 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957321

RESUMEN

Studies about the effects of metabolically healthy obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) have yielded conflicting results. These heterogeneous results could be due to the limited usefulness of BMI in measuring general adiposity, as body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect body composition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body shape on CVD outcomes across different obesity phenotypes, and to provide an explanation for the heterogeneous effects of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype on CVD.We analyzed data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a population-based cohort study conducted between 2001 and 2012. We divided the participants into 4 groups: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), MHO, metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). To assess body shape, we calculated the z-score of the log-transformed a body shape index (LBSIZ). We computed Pearson correlation coefficients to examine the association of LBSIZ with muscle mass index, percentage of total fat mass (%Total FM), and percentage of abdominal fat mass (%Abdominal FM). We also used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the effect of LBSIZ on CVD events according to the obesity phenotypes.A total of 9460 participants were assessed in this study. The incidence of CVD was 8.53 cases per 1000 person-year. LBSIZ showed strong positive correlation with %Total FM and %Abdominal FM, but negative correlation with muscle mass index. In Cox regression, MHO individuals did not show increased risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.73). However, MHO individuals in the 3rd (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.28-4.51) and 4th (HR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.99-6.74) quarters of LBSIZ showed significantly higher risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals in the 1st quarter of LBSIZ. Moreover, LBSIZ showed a linear relationship with CVD among MHO individuals.While the MHO individuals showed similar CVD risk to the MHNO individuals, CVD risk increases with LBSIZ among the MHO individuals. LBSIZ appears to be a useful measure for CVD risk assessment in clinical practice and epidemiologic studies, especially for MHO patients.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Obesidad Metabólica Benigna/epidemiología , Obesidad Metabólica Benigna/patología , Adiposidad , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Pesos y Medidas Corporales , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
Rev Infirm ; 69(263): 24-25, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993899

RESUMEN

Illness and grieving the loss of a healthy body. Grief is a phenomenon which is part of the normal and the pathological. In the case of illness, it is felt for a body which is lost, different, becoming something other. This article studies the notions of grief, body schema and body image.


Asunto(s)
Pesar , Estado de Salud , Cuerpo Humano , Humanos , Autoimagen
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1472, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urban-rural disparity in mortality at older ages is well documented in China. However, surprisingly few studies have systemically investigated factors that contribute to such disparity. This study examined the extent to which individual-level socioeconomic conditions, family/social support, health behaviors, and baseline health status contributed to the urban-rural difference in mortality among older adults in China. METHODS: This research used the five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2014, a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 65 years or older in China (n = 28,235). A series of hazard regression models by gender and age group examined the association between urban-rural residence and mortality and how this association was modified by a wide range of individual-level factors. RESULTS: Older adults in urban areas had 11% (relative hazard ratio (HR) = 0.89, p < 0.01) lower risks of mortality than their rural counterparts when only demographic factors were taken into account. Further adjustments for family/social support, health behaviors, and health-related factors individually or jointly had a limited influence on the mortality differential between urban and rural older adults (HRs = 0.89-0.92, p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). However, we found no urban-rural difference in mortality (HR = 0.97, p > 0.10) after adjusting for individual socioeconomic factors. Similar results were found in women and men, and among the young-old and the oldest-old populations. CONCLUSIONS: The urban-rural disparity in mortality among older adults in China was largely attributable to differences in individual socioeconomic resources (i.e., education, income, and access to healthcare) regardless of gender and age group.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estado de Salud , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Longevidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Riesgo , Percepción Social , Apoyo Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA