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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e57581, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224578

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever as características sociodemográficas e de saúde de mulheres e homens com 75 anos ou mais de idade, no baseline e follow-up de quatro anos e verificar para mulheres e homens as mudanças nas condições de saúde. Métodos: estudo longitudinal com 109 idosos de 75 anos ou mais de idade de um município no Triângulo Mineiro. A coleta dos dados, realizada em dois momentos (2014-2018), ocorreu no domicílio com a aplicação de instrumentos validados no Brasil. Procederam-se às análises descritiva e teste t pareado (p<0,05). Os projetos foram aprovados pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa com Seres Humanos. Resultados: verificaram-se, em ambos os sexos, aumento do número de morbidades e diminuição do escore total das atividades instrumentais da vida diária. Entre as mulheres observou-se, ainda, aumento do número de quedas e do escore de fragilidade. Conclusão: ao longo do seguimento houve piora nas condições de saúde dos idosos, sendo mais expressiva entre as mulheres.


Objective: to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of women and men aged 75 or over, at baseline and after four years of follow-up, and to ascertain changes in their health status. Methods: in this longitudinal study of 109 elderly people aged 75 or over from a city in the Triângulo Mineiro, data were collected at two points (2014 and 2018), at home, by applying instruments validated for use in Brazil. Descriptive analysis and paired t-tests were performed (p < 0.05). The projects were approved by the human research ethics committee. Results: in both genders, the number of morbidities increased and the total score for instrumental activities of daily living decreased. Among women, the number of falls and frailty score also increased. Conclusion: the older people's health status worsened over the course of follow-up, more so among the women.


Objetivo: describir las características sociodemográficas y de salud de mujeres y hombres de 75 años o más, en la base de referencia y el seguimiento durante cuatro años, y verificar los cambios en las condiciones de salud de mujeres y hombres. Métodos: estudio longitudinal con 109 personas mayores, de 75 años o más, de un municipio del Triângulo Mineiro. La recolección de datos, realizada en dos momentos (2014-2018), se realizó en sus domicilios aplicando instrumentos validados en Brasil. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y prueba t pareada (p <0.05). Los proyectos fueron aprobados por el Comité de Ética en Investigación con Humanos. Resultados: en ambos os sexos, hubo un aumento en el número de morbilidades y una disminución en la puntuación total de las actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria. Entre las mujeres, se observó asimismo un aumento en el número de caídas y la puntuación de fragilidad. Conclusión: a lo largo del seguimiento, las condiciones de salud de las personas mayores empeoraron, más expresivamente entre las mujeres.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Estado de Salud , Enfermería Geriátrica , Estudios Longitudinales , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 572415, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485206

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the mental health status of intensive care unit (ICU) practitioners in China, and to explore the relevant factors that may affect the mental health status of front-line medical workers so as to adopt efficient and comprehensive measures in a timely manner to protect the mental health of medical staff. Methods: The study covered most of the provinces in China, and a questionnaire survey was conducted based on the WeChat platform and the Wenjuanxing online survey tool. With the method of anonymous investigation, we chose ICU practitioners to participate in the investigation from April 5, 2020 to April 7, 2020. The respondents were divided into two groups according to strict criteria of inclusion and exclusion, those who participated in the rescue work of COVID-19 (COVID-19 group) and those who did not (non-COVID-19 group). The SCL-90 self-evaluation scale was used for the evaluation of mental health status of the subjects. Results: A total of 3,851 respondents completed the questionnaire. First, the overall mental health status of the targeted population, compared with the Chinese norm (n = 1,388), was reflected in nine related factor groups of the SCL-90 scale, and significant differences were found in every factor in both men and women, except for the interpersonal sensitivity in men. Second, the overall mental health of the non-COVID-19 group was worse than that of the COVID-19 group by the SCL-90 scale (OR = 1.98, 95% CI, 1.682-2.331). Third, we have revealed several influencing factors for their mental health in the COVID-19 group, current working status (P < 0.001), satisfaction of diet and accommodation (P < 0.05), occupational exposure (P = 0.005), views on the risk of infection (P = 0.034), and support of training (P = 0.01). Conclusion: The mental health status of the ICU practitioners in the COVID-19 group is better than that of the non-COVID-19 group, which could be attributed to a strengthened mentality and awareness of risks related to occupational exposure and enforced education on preventive measures for infectious diseases, before being on duty.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemias , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488264

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the mental health status and influencing factors of geriatric nurses after workplace violence. Methods: From February 2019 to January 2020, 102 geriatric nurses who suffered workplace violence in three hospitals in Shaoxing were collected as the observation group and 100 geriatric nurses who did not suffer workplace violence in the same period as the control group. The general data of nurses in the two groups were investigated, the workplace violence was investigated with the hospital workplace violence questionnaire, the mental disorders and mental diseases were investigated with the symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) , the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder were investigated with the symptom checklist of post-traumatic stress disorder (pcl-c) , and the psychological elasticity was investigated with the psychological elasticity scale, Social support was investigated with social support scale (SSRs) . Results: The total average score of symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) of nurses with workplace violence was (1.49 ± 0.48) . Compared with the control group, the total average score of SCL-90, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, anxiety and fear factors in the observation group were significantly increased (P<0.05) . The total score of post-traumatic stress disorder symptom list (pcl-c) in the observation group was (34.51±9.87) . Compared with the control group, the total average score of pcl-c, re experience, avoidance and vigilance factors in the observation group were significantly increased (P<0.05) . The total average score of SCL-90 of nurses with workplace violence was positively correlated with psychological elasticity and social support (P<0.05) . Multivariate linear analysis showed that psychological elasticity, tenacity and control, optimism, social support and subjective support were the main factors affecting nurses'mental health. Conclusion: Geriatric nurses suffering from workplace violence are prone to mental health problems and post-traumatic stress disorder, which should be improved by improving their psychological elasticity and social support.


Asunto(s)
Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Violencia Laboral , Anciano , Ansiedad , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1645, 2021 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503462

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the increasing rates of childhood obesity in Alaska Native children and the understanding that the most effective interventions are informed by and reflect the cultural knowledge of the community in which they are implemented, this project sought to gather the wisdom of local Yup'ik and Cup'ik Elders in the Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska around how to maintain a healthy diet and active lifestyle. METHODS: Perspectives were sought through the use of semi-structured focus groups, which were completed in person in twelve communities. All conversations were recorded, translated, transcribed, and analyzed using a qualitative approach, where key themes were identified. RESULTS: Elders provided a clear and consistent recollection of what their life looked like when they were young and expressed their perspectives related to maintaining a healthy and traditional lifestyle. The key themes the Elders discussed included an emphasis on the nutritional and cultural benefits of traditional foods; concerns around changing dietary patterns such as the consumption of processed foods and sugar sweetened beverages; and concerns on the time and use of screens. Elders also expressed a desire to help younger generations learn traditional subsistence practices. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of obesity in Alaska Native children is high and intervention efforts should be grounded in local knowledge and values. The perspectives from Yup'ik and Cup'ik Elders in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta area of Alaska provide a better understanding on local views of how to maintain a healthy diet, physical activities, and traditional values.


Asunto(s)
Nativos Alasqueños , Obesidad Pediátrica , Anciano , Niño , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Población Rural
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1646, 2021 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503468

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The long-term growth and sustained high prevalence of obesity in the US is likely to increase the burden of Type 2 diabetes. Hispanic individuals are particularly burdened by a larger share of diabetes than non-Hispanic White individuals. Given the existing health disparities facing this population, we aimed to examine the effectiveness and potential cost savings of the Diabetes Education Program (DEP) offered as part of Healthy South Texas, a state-legislated initiative to reduce health disparities in 27 counties in South Texas with a high proportion of Hispanic adults. METHODS: DEP is an 8-h interactive workshop taught in English and Spanish. After the workshop, participants receive quarterly biometric screenings and continuing education with a health educator for one year. Data were analyzed from 3859 DEP participants with Type 2 diabetes living in South Texas at five time points (baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 9-months, 12-months). The primary outcome variable of interest for study analyses was A1c. A series of independent sample t-tests and linear mixed-model regression analyses were used to identify changes over time. Two methods were then applied to estimate healthcare costs savings associated with A1c reductions among participants. RESULTS: The majority of participants were ages 45-64 years (58%), female (60%), Hispanic (66%), and had a high school education or less (75%). At baseline, the average hemoglobin A1c was 8.57%. The most substantial reductions in hemoglobin A1c were identified from baseline to 3-month follow-up (P < 0.001); however, the reduction in A1c remained significant from baseline to 12-month follow-up (P < 0.001). The healthcare cost savings associated with improved A1c for the program was estimated to be between $5.3 to $5.6 million over a two to three year period. CONCLUSION: Findings support the effectiveness of DEP with ongoing follow-up for sustained diabetes risk management. While such interventions foster clinical-community collaboration and can improve patient adherence to recommended lifestyle behaviors, opportunities exist to complement DEP with other resources and services to enhance program benefits. Policy makers and other key stakeholders can assess the lessons learned in this effort to tailor and expand similar initiatives to potentially at-risk populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This community-based intervention is not considered a trial by ICMJE definitions, and has not be registered as such.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Texas/epidemiología
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 356, 2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507606

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: While there is evidence on the short-term effects of unilateral balance training (BT) on bipedal balance performance, less is known on the acute effects of unilateral BT on unilateral (i.e., ipsi- and contralateral) balance performance. Thus, the present study examined the acute effects of a single unilateral BT session conducted with the non-dominant, left leg or the dominant, right leg on ipsilateral (i.e. retention) and contralateral (i.e., inter-limb transfer) balance performance in healthy young adults (N = 28). RESULTS: Irrespective of practice condition, significant improvements (p < 0.001, d = 1.27) in balance performance following a single session of unilateral BT were observed for both legs. Further, significant performance differences at the pretest (p = 0.002, d = 0.44) to the detriment of the non-dominant, left leg diminished immediately and 30 min after the single unilateral BT session but occurred again 24 h following training (p = 0.030, d = 0.36). These findings indicate that a single session of unilateral BT is effective to reduced side-to-side differences in balance performance, but this impact is only temporary.


Asunto(s)
Pierna , Equilibrio Postural , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior , Adulto Joven
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 561-565, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495061

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the relationship between periodontal health status and coronary slow flow phenomenon. METHODS: One hundred and two patients who underwent coronary angiography with the diagnosis of stable angina pectoris were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with coronary slow flow (Test group) (n=51), and patients with normal coronary angiography (Control group) (n=51). Diagnosis of slow coronary flow was made according to Beltrame criteria by coronary angiography. Demographic characteristics of the participants were recorded. The periodontal health was assessed by clinical periodontal parameters such as probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, plaque index, and bleeding on probing. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups as regards the frequencies of hypertension, smoking (p>0.05). As for the periodontal parameters of the study groups, probing depth, gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, and clinical attachment level values were statistically higher in the test group compared to the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis might be accepted as one of the underlying causes of coronary slow flow. Patients with coronary slow flow should be evaluated for an underlying periodontal disease, and treatment of periodontal disease can protect against future cardiovascular events.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales , Periodontitis , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Enfermedades Periodontales/diagnóstico por imagen , Índice Periodontal , Fumar
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(1): e20201277, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495133

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To understand the differences of physicians, nurses, and social workers in the evaluation of the health status of the elderly. METHODS: A cross-sectional quantitative study, using descriptive statistics. Non-probabilistic sample, consisting of 291 participants from three professional categories: 71 (24.4%) physicians, 192 (66%) nurses, and 28 (9.6%) social workers. We used a questionnaire including the variables: sociodemographic characteristics and instruments used for evaluation. RESULTS: Instruments with greater utility for the evaluation of the elderly: for physicians, Mini Mental State Examination; for nurses, Braden scale; and for social workers, genogram. In the physical examination, the data most collected by physicians and nurses are the vital signs; and by social workers, the condition for performing the Activities of Daily Living. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the elderly is based on a diversity of instruments and is an area in which health and social professionals need to share information.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Estado de Salud , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1325: 321-339, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495543

RESUMEN

WHO defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." We coined and defined suboptimal health status (SHS) as a subclinical, reversible stage of the pre-chronic disease. SHS is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue, and low energy levels. We have developed an instrument to measure SHS, Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25), a self-reported survey assessing five health components that has been validated in various ethnical populations. Our studies suggest that SHS is associated with the major components of cardiovascular health and the early onset of metabolic diseases. Besides subjective measure of health (SHS), glycans are conceived as objective biomarkers of SHS. Glycans are complex and branching carbohydrate moieties attached to proteins, participating in inflammatory regulation and chronic disease pathogenesis. We have been investigating the role of glycans and SHS in multiple cardiometabolic diseases in different ethnical populations (African, Chinese, and Caucasian). Here we present case studies to prove that a combination of subjective health measure (SHS) with objective health measure (glycans) represents a window of opportunity to halt or reverse the progression of chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Biomarcadores , Enfermedad Crónica , Glicosilación , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 382, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479539

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Modifiable lifestyle factors and body composition can affect the attainment of peak bone mass during childhood. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis of the determinants of bone health among pre-adolescent (N = 243) Malaysian children with habitually low calcium intakes and vitamin D status in Kuala Lumpur (PREBONE-Kids Study). METHODS: Body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) at the lumbar spine (LS) and total body (TB) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Calcium intake was assessed using 1-week diet history, MET (metabolic equivalent of task) score using cPAQ physical activity questionnaire, and serum 25(OH) vitamin D using LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: The mean calcium intake was 349 ± 180 mg/day and mean serum 25(OH)D level was 43.9 ± 14.5 nmol/L. In boys, lean mass (LM) was a significant predictor of LSBMC (ß = 0.539, p < 0.001), LSBMD (ß = 0.607, p < 0.001), TBBMC (ß = 0.675, p < 0.001) and TBBMD (ß = 0.481, p < 0.01). Height was a significant predictor of LSBMC (ß = 0.346, p < 0.001) and TBBMC (ß = 0.282, p < 0.001) while fat mass (FM) (ß = 0.261, p = 0.034) and physical activity measured as MET scores (ß = 0.163, p = 0.026) were significant predictors of TBBMD in boys. Among girls, LM was also a significant predictor of LSBMC (ß = 0.620, p < 0.001), LSBMD (ß = 0.700, p < 0.001), TBBMC (ß = 0.542, p < 0.001) and TBBMD (ß = 0.747, p < 0.001). Calcium intake was a significant predictor of LSBMC (ß = 0.102, p = 0.034), TBBMC (ß = 0.122, p < 0.001) and TBBMD (ß = 0.196, p = 0.002) in girls. CONCLUSIONS: LM was the major determinant of BMC and BMD among pre-adolescent Malaysian children alongside other modifiable lifestyle factors such as physical activity and calcium intake.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adolescente , Niño , Cromatografía Liquida , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 479, 2021 09 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The happiness of older adults living alone warrants attention because they are more vulnerable to unhappiness than those living with families. The present study aimed to construct and test a structural equation model to elucidate the relationship among participation in social activities, satisfaction with the neighborhood environment, subjective health status, and happiness in older adults living alone in South Korea. METHODS: Secondary data of 2768 older adults (605 males and 2163 females) living on their own were extracted from the 2017 Korean Community Health Survey and used in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected via self-reported questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and AMOS version 20.0. RESULTS: The hypothetical model exhibited a good fit: χ2 = 342.06 (df = 58, p < .001), goodness-of-fit index = .98, adjected goodness-of-fit index = .97, root mean square error of approximation = .04, and nonstandard fit index = .92. Participation in social activities had a significant effect on participants' subjective health status (path coefficient = .45, p = .001) and happiness (path coefficient = .20, p = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to improve the health and happiness of older adults living alone should aim to enhance their social and physical environmental dimensions based on the participants' various social activities and their neighborhoods' characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Estado de Salud , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Satisfacción Personal
12.
Chin J Dent Res ; 24(3): 167-175, 2021 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491011

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the subgingival microbiota of Stage I/II periodontitis, gingivitis with different degrees of severity, and periodontal health in subjects in a Chinese young adult population. METHODS: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 15 Stage I/II periodontitis patients, 38 gingivitis patients and 15 periodontally healthy individuals, all aged from 18 to 21 years. Gingivitis patients were divided into two subgroups according to the Bleeding Index (BI) of their sampled teeth: gingivitis with above median BI (G-HBI) and below median BI (G-LBI). The subgingival plaque samples were collected from teeth 16, 26, 36, 46, 11 and 31 according to FDI notation. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of all the samples was sequenced and analysed. RESULTS: The Stage I/II periodontitis, gingivitis and periodontal health groups showed distinct subgingival microbiota profiles. When the gingivitis patients were stratified into two subgroups, the community structure of G-HBI showed no significant difference from early-stage periodontitis, but differed from G-LBI and the healthy group. Most periodontitis-related taxa were most abundant in Stage I/II periodontitis, followed by G-HBI, G-LBI and the periodontally healthy group. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia, Saccharibacteria TM7 G-5 356, Lachnospiraceae G-8 500, Peptostreptococcaceae spp. and Syntrophomonadaceae VIIIG-1 435 were associated with Stage I/II periodontitis. Porphyromonas 275, Leptotrichia 417 and Saccharibacteria TM7 G-2 350 were associated with gingivitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly more abundant in G-HBI than in G-LBI. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this preliminary study, gingivitis and early-stage periodontitis were associated with an increased degree of dysbiosis in the subgingival microbiota in a Chinese young adult population.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Periodontitis , China , Clostridiales , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2129041, 2021 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459904

RESUMEN

Importance: Housing insecurity induced by evictions may increase the risk of contracting COVID-19. Objective: To estimate the association of lifting state-level eviction moratoria, which increased housing insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the risk of being diagnosed with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included individuals with commercial insurance or Medicare Advantage who lived in a state that issued an eviction moratorium and were diagnosed with COVID-19 as well as a control group comprising an equal number of randomly selected individuals in these states who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. Data were collected from OptumLabs Data Warehouse, a database of deidentified administrative claims. The study used a difference-in-differences analysis among states that implemented an eviction moratorium between March 13, 2020, and September 4, 2020. Exposures: Time since state-level eviction moratoria were lifted. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was a binary variable indicating whether an individual was diagnosed with COVID-19 for the first time in a given week with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision code U07.1. The study analyzed changes in COVID-19 diagnosis before vs after a state lifted its moratorium compared with changes in states that did not lift it. For sensitivity analyses, models were reestimated on a 2% random sample of all individuals in the claims database during this period in these states. Results: The cohort consisted of 509 694 individuals (254 847 [50.0%] diagnosed with COVID-19; mean [SD] age, 47.0 [23.6] years; 239 056 [53.3%] men). During the study period, 43 states and the District of Columbia implemented an eviction moratorium and 7 did not. Among the states that implemented a moratorium, 26 (59.1%) lifted their moratorium before the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued their national moratorium, while 18 (40.1%) maintained theirs. In a Cox difference-in-differences regression model, individuals living in a state that lifted its eviction moratorium experienced higher hazards of a COVID-19 diagnosis beginning 5 weeks after the moratorium was lifted (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.11-1.76; P = .004), reaching an HR of 1.83 (95% CI, 1.36-2.46; P < .001) 12 weeks after. Hazards increased in magnitude among individuals with preexisting comorbidities and those living in nonaffluent and rent-burdened areas. Individuals with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 3 or greater had an HR of 2.37 (95% CI, 1.67-3.36; P < .001) at the end of the study period. Those living in nonaffluent areas had an HR of 2.14 (95% CI, 1.51-3.05; P < .001), while those living in areas with a high rent burden had an HR of 2.31 (95% CI, 1.64-3.26; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this difference-in-differences analysis suggest that eviction-led housing insecurity may have exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/etiología , Estado de Salud , Vivienda , Pandemias , Pobreza , Política Pública , Clase Social , Adulto , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Personas sin Hogar , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26893, 2021 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414944

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: A high homocysteine level is known to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; however, whether or not low homocysteine level contributes to any damage to the body has not been extensively studied. Furthermore, acquiring healthy subject databases from domestic studies on homocysteine is not trivial. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the causality between serum homocysteine levels and health status and lifestyle factors, particularly with a focus on low serum homocysteine levels. Additionally, we discussed a systematic methodical platform for data collection and statistical analysis, using the descriptive analysis of the chi-square test, t test, multivariate analysis of variance, and logistic regression.This study was a cross-sectional analysis of 5864 subjects (i.e., clients of a health examination clinic) in Taipei, Taiwan during a general health check-up in 2017. The patients' personal information and associated links were excluded. A sample group was selected as per the health criteria defined for this research whose data were processed using SPSS for descriptive statistical analysis using chi-square test, t test, multivariate analysis of variance, and logistic regression analysis.Those working for >12 hours/day had a higher homocysteine level than those working for <12 hours/day (P < .001). The average serum homocysteine level was 7.9 and 8.6 mol/L for people with poor sleep quality and good sleep quality, respectively (P = .003). The homocysteine value of people known to have cancer was analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, revealing a Δodds value of 0.898. The percentage of subjects with a homocysteine value of ≤6.3 µmol/L, who perceived their health status as "not very good" or "very bad," was higher than those with a higher homocysteine level. The number of subjects who perceived their health as poor was higher than expected.The results suggest that the homocysteine level could be an effective health management indicator. We conclude that normal homocysteine level should not be ≤6.3 µmol/L. Moreover, homocysteine should not be considered as harmful and its fluctuations from the normal range could be utilized to infer a person's physical status for health management.


Asunto(s)
Minería de Datos , Estado de Salud , Homocisteína/sangre , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444130

RESUMEN

(1) Objectives: Using cross-sectional datasets, we investigated whether better self-perceived physical and social neighborhood environment was associated with perceived health status and health-related behaviors among Chinese rural residents. (2) Study Design: The study was based on the 2016 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) survey. The sample consisted of 7191 rural residents over 18 in China. (3) Methods: The article measured physical neighborhood environment from the two aspects of dwelling environment (DE) and public facilities convenience (PFC), and social neighborhood environment from public security (PS) and neighborhood relationship (NR). Associations between health status/health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical/social neighborhood environment were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. (4) Results: The results suggested that rural residents who live in a good neighborhood environment reported having a better health status. Specifically, rural residents who reported living in good DE were less likely to have a depressive mood and poor health conditions. Those who reported good PFC were less likely to have depressive mood, poor self-rated health and chronic diseases. Rural residents who reported having good PS were less likely to have a depressive mood. Those who reported good NR were less likely to have a depressive mood, poor self-rated health, chronic diseases and obesity. Regarding neighborhood environment and health-related behaviors, the results showed that rural residents who reported good PFC were more likely to do physical exercise. Notably, the regression results of the education level variable showed that education level significantly promoted the health-related behaviors (time sleeping weekday, physical exercise and smoking) of rural residents. (5) Conclusions: This article suggested that there was strong evidence for a relationship between physical and social neighborhood environment and the general health of rural residents due to all causes. According to the conclusion of this article, in order to improve the health of rural residents, policy interventions should give priority to improving the neighborhood environment. In addition, the improvement in the degree that rural residents are exposed to education is of the same importance, which helps more rural residents to maintain good health-related behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Características de la Residencia , Medio Social , China , Estudios Transversales , Estado de Salud , Humanos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444153

RESUMEN

We aimed to assess the self-perceived health status and the presence of chronic diseases of adult Roma living in settlements in Greece, and to explore associated social determinants of health. Data were derived from the Hprolipsis Health Survey. Multivariable regression models were applied. In total, 534 adults, 287 women, and 247 men were recruited from twelve Roma settlements in four prefectures. Although 62% of the participants perceived their health status as good/very good, about half of them had been diagnosed with at least one chronic disease. Several structural and intermediary social determinants of health were found to be significantly associated with the health outcomes; prefecture, settlement type, sex, age group, living with a partner, presence of depression symptoms, food insecurity, and alcohol consumption were associated with self-perceived health status; settlement type, sex, age group, presence of anxiety symptoms, food insecurity and number of persons living in the house with the presence of a chronic disease. This is one of the few studies assessing the self-perceived health status and presence of chronic diseases in Roma settlements in Greece and investigating the associated social determinants of health in the world. Community-based participatory action research and health literacy programs are needed to mitigate health inequalities in Roma settlements.


Asunto(s)
Romaní , Adulto , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Grecia/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Características de la Residencia , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
18.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(17): 1165-1171, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334684

RESUMEN

STUDY DESIGN: General population utility valuation study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for calculating utilities from the Spine Oncology Study Group Outcomes Questionnaire v2.0 (SOSGOQ2.0). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ability to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for metastatic spine disease would enhance treatment decision-making and facilitate economic analysis. QALYs are calculated using utilities. METHODS: Using a hybrid concept-retention and factorial analysis shortening approach, we first shortened the SOSGOQ2.0 to eight items (SOSGOQ-8D). This was done to lessen the cognitive burden of the utility valuation exercise. A general population sample of 2730 adults was then asked to evaluate 12 choice sets based on SOSGOQ-8D health states in a Discrete Choice Experiment. A utility scoring rubric was then developed using a mixed multinomial-logit regression model. RESULTS: We were able to reduce the SOSGOQ2.0 to an SOSGOQ-8D with a mean error of 0.003 and mean absolute error of 3.078 compared to the full questionnaire. The regression model demonstrated good predictive performance and was used to develop a utility scoring rubric. Regression results revealed that participants did not regard all SOSGOQ-8D items as equally important. CONCLUSION: We provide a simple technique for converting the SOSGOQ2.0 to utilities. The ability to evaluate QALYs in metastatic spine disease will facilitate economic analysis and patient counseling. We also quantify the importance of individual SOSGOQ-8D items. Clinicians should heed these findings and offer treatments that maximize function in the most important items.Level of Evidence: 3.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Columna Vertebral , Adulto , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048019, 2021 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362803

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Health professionals are often involved in the process of breaking bad news (BBN), which remains a difficult challenge, as it requires not only theoretical knowledge, but also the development of humanistic, emotional and communication skills. Therefore, optimal BBN assessment is essential. In this regard, sound measurement instruments are needed to evaluate BBN properly in research, teaching and clinical settings. Several instruments have been designed and validated to assess BBN. In this context, choosing the most appropriate instrument for assessing health professionals' skills in BBN is essential. The aims of this systematic review are to: (1) identify all the instruments used for assessing health professionals' skills in BBN; and (2) critically appraise their measurement properties. METHODS: A systematic review will be undertaken according to the most up-to-date COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments' (COSMIN) methodology. The protocol of this systematic review was developed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The search strategy will be performed following the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies. The search strategy will be conducted in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SciELO and Open Grey. Two review authors will independently appraise the full-text articles according to the COSMIN Risk of Bias checklist. Quality ratings and evidence synthesis will be performed using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary for systematic review protocols. The results will be disseminated by publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020207586.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Estado de Salud , Lista de Verificación , Consenso , Humanos , Psicometría , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 321, 2021 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419167

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare an objective with a subjective numeracy assessment for association with self-reported health status, where numeracy refers to "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to access, process, interpret, communicate, and act on numerical, quantitative, graphical, biostatistical, and probabilistic health information needed to make effective health decisions" RESULTS: We completed a secondary analysis of two population-based surveys, the Empire State Poll (n = 763) and the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC; n = 2609). The first survey assessed numeracy with a 3-item subjective instrument. The second assessed numeracy with more than 20 math problems. Both used the same measure for self-reported health status. Lower numeracy, whether subjectively or objectively assessed, was associated with worse self-reported health, even after controlling for education and other sociodemographic confounders. The odds ratios for the association were very similar (0.91 and 0.90 respectively). A lengthy objective numeracy assessment and a brief self-report assessment had similar associations with health status. A brief self-report measure of numeracy has similar properties to a lengthy objective assessment and is likely to be more feasible to use to screen patients in practice.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Adulto , Escolaridad , Humanos , Matemática , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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