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J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e19301, 2020 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343669


BACKGROUND: Stigma is the deleterious, structural force that devalues members of groups that hold undesirable characteristics. Since stigma is created and reinforced by society-through in-person and online social interactions-referencing the novel coronavirus as the "Chinese virus" or "China virus" has the potential to create and perpetuate stigma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if there was an increase in the prevalence and frequency of the phrases "Chinese virus" and "China virus" on Twitter after the March 16, 2020, US presidential reference of this term. METHODS: Using the Sysomos software (Sysomos, Inc), we extracted tweets from the United States using a list of keywords that were derivatives of "Chinese virus." We compared tweets at the national and state levels posted between March 9 and March 15 (preperiod) with those posted between March 19 and March 25 (postperiod). We used Stata 16 (StataCorp) for quantitative analysis, and Python (Python Software Foundation) to plot a state-level heat map. RESULTS: A total of 16,535 "Chinese virus" or "China virus" tweets were identified in the preperiod, and 177,327 tweets were identified in the postperiod, illustrating a nearly ten-fold increase at the national level. All 50 states witnessed an increase in the number of tweets exclusively mentioning "Chinese virus" or "China virus" instead of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) or coronavirus. On average, 0.38 tweets referencing "Chinese virus" or "China virus" were posted per 10,000 people at the state level in the preperiod, and 4.08 of these stigmatizing tweets were posted in the postperiod, also indicating a ten-fold increase. The 5 states with the highest number of postperiod "Chinese virus" tweets were Pennsylvania (n=5249), New York (n=11,754), Florida (n=13,070), Texas (n=14,861), and California (n=19,442). Adjusting for population size, the 5 states with the highest prevalence of postperiod "Chinese virus" tweets were Arizona (5.85), New York (6.04), Florida (6.09), Nevada (7.72), and Wyoming (8.76). The 5 states with the largest increase in pre- to postperiod "Chinese virus" tweets were Kansas (n=697/58, 1202%), South Dakota (n=185/15, 1233%), Mississippi (n=749/54, 1387%), New Hampshire (n=582/41, 1420%), and Idaho (n=670/46, 1457%). CONCLUSIONS: The rise in tweets referencing "Chinese virus" or "China virus," along with the content of these tweets, indicate that knowledge translation may be occurring online and COVID-19 stigma is likely being perpetuated on Twitter.

Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estigma Social , Estereotipo , Terminología como Asunto , China/etnología , Gobierno Federal , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , Estados Unidos
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228471, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023310


BACKGROUND: Stigma around hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important and understudied barrier to HCV prevention, treatment, and elimination. To date, no validated instrument exists to measure patients' experiences of HCV stigma. This study aimed to revise the Berger (2001) HIV stigma scale and evaluate its psychometric properties among patients with HCV infection. METHODS: The Berger HIV stigma scale was revised to ask about HCV and administered to patients with HCV (n = 270) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Scale reliability was evaluated as internal consistency by calculating Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to evaluate construct validity by comparing item clustering to the Berger HIV stigma scale subscales. Item response theory was employed to further evaluate individual items and to calibrate items for simulated computer adaptive testing sessions in order to identify potential shortened instruments. RESULTS: The revised HCV Stigma Scale was found to have good reliability (α = 0.957). After excluding items for low loadings, the exploratory factor analysis indicated good construct validity with 85% of items loading on pre-defined factors. Analyses strongly suggested the predominance of an underlying unidimensional factor solution, which yielded a 33-item scale after items were removed for low loading and differential item functioning. Adaptive simulations indicated that the scale could be substantially shortened without detectable information loss. CONCLUSIONS: The 33-item HCV Stigma Scale showed sufficient reliability and construct validity. We also conducted computer adaptive testing simulations and identified shortened six- and three-item scale alternatives that performed comparably to the original 40-item scale.

Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hepatitis C/psicología , Psicometría , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Philadelphia/epidemiología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estereotipo , Adulto Joven
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e148-e154, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000976


Modern healthcare is delivered by interprofessional teams, and good leadership of these teams is integral to safe patient care. Good leadership in the operating theatre has traditionally been considered as authoritative, confident and directive, and stereotypically associated with men. We argue that this may not be the best model for team-based patient care and promote the concept of inclusive leadership as a valid alternative. Inclusive leadership encourages all team members to contribute to decision-making, thus engendering more team cohesion, information sharing and speaking up, and ultimately enhancing team effectiveness. However, the relational behaviours associated with inclusive leadership are stereotypically associated with women and may not in fact be recognised as leadership. In this article we provide evidence on the advantages of inclusive leadership over authoritative leadership and explore gender stereotypes and obstacles that limit the recognition of inclusive leadership. We propose that operating teams rise above gender stereotypes of leadership. Inclusive leadership can elicit maximum performance of every team member, thus realising the full potential of interprofessional healthcare teams to provide the best care for patients.

Liderazgo , Quirófanos , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Estereotipo , Humanos , Incertidumbre
Nat Immunol ; 21(3): 236, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094648
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227399, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995576


Genetic ancestry testing is a billion-dollar industry, with more than 26 million tests sold by 2018, which raises concerns over how it might influence test-takers' understandings of race. While social scientists argue that genetic ancestry tests may promote an essentialist view of race as fixed and determining innate abilities, others suggest it could reduce essentialist views by reinforcing a view of race as socially constructed. Essentialist views are a concern because of their association with racism, particularly in its most extreme forms. Here we report the first randomized controlled trial of genetic ancestry testing conducted to examine potential causal relationships between taking the tests and essentialist views of race. Native-born White Americans were randomly assigned to receive Admixture and mtDNA tests or no tests. While we find no significant average effect of genetic ancestry testing on essentialism, secondary analyses reveal that the impact of these tests on racial essentialism varies by type of genetic knowledge. Within the treatment arm, essentialist beliefs significantly declined after testing among individuals with high genetic knowledge, but increased among those with the least genetic knowledge. Additional secondary analysis show that essentialist beliefs do not change based on the specific ancestries reported in test-takers' results. These results indicate that individuals' interpretations of genetic ancestry testing results, and the links between genes and race, may depend on their understanding of genetics.

Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/educación , Genoma Humano , Racismo , Identificación Social , Estereotipo , Adulto , Cultura , Pruebas Dirigidas al Consumidor , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto Joven
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(1): 38-50, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944852


Stigma and judgment by health workers toward people living with HIV (PLHIV) and key populations can undermine the uptake of HIV services. In 2014, we recruited health workers delivering HIV services from 21 urban communities in South Africa and Zambia participating in the first year of the HPTN 071 (PopART) cluster-randomized trial. We analyzed self-reported levels of stigma and judgment toward (1) PLHIV, (2) women who sell sex, (3) men who have sex with men (MSM), and (4) young women who become pregnant before marriage. Using logistic regression, we compared responses between three health worker cadres and explored risk factors for stigmatizing attitudes. Highest levels of stigma and judgment were in relation to women who sell sex and MSM, especially in Zambia. Heath workers did not generally think that clients should be denied services, although this was reported slightly more commonly by community health workers. Higher education levels were associated with lower judgmental beliefs, whereas higher perceptions of coworker stigmatizing behaviors toward PLHIV and each key population were associated with holding judgmental beliefs. Training experience was not associated with judgmental attitudes for any of the key populations. Our findings confirm a high prevalence of judgmental attitudes toward key population groups but lower levels in relation to PLHIV, among all cadres of health workers in both countries. Planning and implementing targeted stigma reduction interventions within health settings are critical to meet the needs of vulnerable populations that face more stigmatizing attitudes from health workers.

Actitud del Personal de Salud/etnología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Estigma Social , Estereotipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Juicio , Masculino , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Zambia/epidemiología
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148 Suppl 2: 20-28, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975400


OBJECTIVE: To describe the repercussions, from the perspectives of caregiver mothers, of confirmed congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in their offspring. METHODS: A descriptive-exploratory study with a qualitative approach was carried out in the state of Espírito Santo in southeastern Brazil, with 25 women who had a child diagnosed with CZS. RESULTS: Emerging themes from the content analysis were grouped into two categories: (1) inequalities experienced by mothers, including social inequality, poverty, and gender inequality; (2) the impact of a child with CZS on mothering, including feelings at the time of diagnosis, maternal isolation and mental health, experiences of stigma and prejudice, and exhausting itineraries searching for therapeutic care. CONCLUSION: The repercussions of CZS were a huge burden on already vulnerable women, and social inequalities and poverty were important markers in the mothers' reports. Many of the families affected by CZS already lived in precarious social conditions and these conditions were exacerbated further. Robust public and social policies to support these mothers need effective implementation given that babies born with CZS need long-term care and support.

Madres/psicología , Infección por el Virus Zika/psicología , Adulto , Brasil , Niño , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Microcefalia/psicología , Microcefalia/virología , Pobreza , Investigación Cualitativa , Aislamiento Social , Estereotipo , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico
J Homosex ; 67(1): 58-78, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307840


Masculine overcompensation-a phenomenon where men react to masculinity threats by endorsing hypermasculine ideals-has been demonstrated among straight men but has yet to be examined among gay men. The current study therefore proposed to examine whether gay men overcompensate similarly to their straight counterparts by providing participants with randomized feedback that threatened their masculinity. Overcompensation was measured in 867 online respondents by administering a series of questionnaires regarding views of pornography, rape, sex roles, and political orientation. Although our hypothesis was not confirmed, results revealed the intersectionality of both sexual orientation and self-reported gender expression regarding the formation of different views and beliefs. Specifically, masculinity was differentially related to homophobic attitudes, more callous views toward victims of sexual assault, and various components of attitudes toward pornography in gay and straight men. Masculine gay males held stereotypically masculine views less strongly than their masculine straight counterparts, providing evidence that gay males adopt a different type of masculinity than straight males-something of a "masculinity lite." Such findings point to the converging influence of sexual orientation and gender expression as contributors relevant to the attitudes of gay and straight men. This information adds to a growing body of literature on differences between gay and straight men and can be used to inform theory, education, and clinical practice, particularly in settings where men grapple with the implications of their masculinity.

Identidad de Género , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Masculinidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estereotipo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e82, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839013


AIMS: This review aims to understand the scope of the literature regarding mental health-related microaggressions towards people affected by mental health problems. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to explore this question. Four electronic health-oriented databases were searched alongside Google Scholar. As per scoping review principles, the inclusion criteria were developed iteratively. The results of included studies were synthesised using a basic narrative synthesis approach, utilising principles of thematic analysis and thematic synthesis where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1196 records were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 were peer-reviewed journal articles, three were research degree theses and two were book chapters. Six included empirical studies were qualitative, four were quantitative and two employed a mixed-methods design. Within these, five qualitative studies aimed to describe the nature of mental health microaggressions experienced by people with mental health problems. Themes identified in a thematic synthesis of these five studies included stereotypes about mental illness, invalidating peoples' experience and blaming people with mental illness for their condition. The included publications informed on the perpetration of mental health microaggressions by family, friends, health professionals and social workers. In addition, two studies created scales, which were then used in cross-sectional surveys of the general public and community members to assess characteristics, such as right-wing political views, associated with endorsement of mental health microaggressions. A consensus definition of microaggressions emerged from the included studies: microaggressions are brief, everyday slights, snubs or insults, that may be subtle or ambiguous, but communicate a negative message to a target person based on their membership of a marginalised group, in this case, people affected by mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: The study of mental health microaggressions is an emerging, heterogeneous field, embedded in the wider stigma and discrimination literature. It has been influenced by earlier work on racial microaggressions. Both can be ambiguous and contradictory, which creates difficulty defining the boundaries of the concept, but also underpins the key theoretical basis for the negative impact of microaggressions. Mental illness is a more concealable potential type of identity, so it follows that the reported perpetrators of microaggressions are largely friends, family and professionals. This has implications for intervening to reduce the impact of microaggressions. There are several challenges facing research in this area, and further work is needed to understand the impact of mental health microaggressions on people affected by mental health problems.

Agresión/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Enfermos Mentales/psicología , Prejuicio/psicología , Discriminación Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Humanos , Salud Mental , Estereotipo
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 71(3): 137-151, set./dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1094913


Este trabalho objetiva verificar o poder preditivo dos valores humanos na explicação dos estereótipos sobre a criança adotada e da intenção de adotar. Participaram 245 pessoas, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino (59,2%), com idade média de 25,5 anos (DP = 7,10). Estas responderam a Escala de Estereótipos sobre a Criança Adotada, a Escala de Intenção Comportamental de Adotar, o Questionário de Valores Básicos e um questionário sociodemográfico. Os resultados foram consistentes com o modelo teórico adotado. Os valores normativos e de realização atuaram como bons preditores dos estereótipos da criança adotada. Ademais, os valores interativos e de realização foram capazes de predizer a intenção de adotar. Conclui-se que os valores humanos se constituem como uma variável importante na explicação dos estereótipos e na intenção de adotar, possibilitando, assim, a desconstrução de estereótipos negativos e de preconceitos que envolvem a criança adotada, bem como incentivando a prática da adoção

This work aims to check the predictive power of human values in explaining the stereotypes of the adopted child and the intention to adopt. 245 people participated, most of them male (59.2%), with an average age of 25.5 years (SD = 7.10). They answered the Stereotypes of the Adopted Child Scale, the Scale behavioral intention to adopt, the Basic Values Questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The results were consistent with the theoretical model adopted. The normative and achievement values served as good predictors of the adopted child's stereotypes. In addition, the interactive and achievement values were able to predict the intention to adopt. It is concluded that human values constitute an important variable in the explanation of stereotypes and the intention to adopt, enabling the deconstruction of negative stereotypes and prejudices involving the adopted child, as well as encouraging the practice of adoption

Este documento tiene como objetivo verificar el poder predictivo de los valores humanos al explicar los estereotipos sobre el niño adoptado y la intención de adoptar. Participaron 245 personas, la mayoría hombres (59,2%), con una edad promedio de 25,5 años (DP = 7,10). Éstas respondieron a la Escala de Estereotipos sobre el Niño Adoptado, la Escala de Intención de Comportamiento para Adoptar, el Cuestionario de Valores Básicos y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. Los resultados fueron consistentes con el modelo teórico adoptado. Además, los valores interactivos y de rendimiento fueron capaces de predecir la intención de adoptar. Se concluye que los valores humanos constituyen una variable importante en la explicación de los estereotipos y en la intención de adoptar, permitiendo así la deconstrucción de estereotipos negativos y prejuicios que involucran al niño adoptado, así como incentiva la práctica de la adopción

Psicología Social , Estereotipo , Adopción/psicología , Brasil