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1.
Psicol. conduct ; 30(2): 465-481, Sept. 2022. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-208439

RESUMEN

Los trastornos mentales son una de las condiciones más estigmatizadas ennuestra sociedad, lo que supone un obstáculo para la recuperación de estaspersonas. Sin embargo, las actitudes estigmatizantes pueden cambiar, y laeducación y la experiencia personal con personas que tienen un trastorno mentalpueden reducir las actitudes estigmatizantes. El presente estudio evaluó el estigmade 111 estudiantes de educación social hacia las personas con trastornos mentalesy los conocimientos sobre los trastornos mentales antes y después de unaintervención educativa que incluía estudios de casos activos y metodologías deaprendizaje basado en problemas. Se utilizaron autoinformes para medir lasactitudes hacia el trastorno mental y conocimientos sobre salud mental. Lasactitudes negativas hacia los trastornos mentales se redujeron y los conocimientosaumentaron tras la intervención (p< 0,05). Estos resultados demuestran la eficaciade este tipo de intervenciones educativas activas en la reducción del estigma hacialas personas con trastornos mentales. Sin embargo, es importante seguir realizandoestudios de este tipo para aumentar las pruebas científicas


Mental disorders are one of the most stigmatized conditions in our society,which is a barrier to recovery for these individuals. However, stigmatizing attitudescan change, and education and personal experience with people who have amental disorder can reduce stigmatizing attitudes. The present study assessed 111social education students' stigma toward people with mental disorders andknowledge about mental disorders before and after an educational interventioninvolving active case studies and problem-based learning methodologies. Selfreports were used to measure attitudes toward mental disorder and knowledgeabout mental health. Negative attitudes towards mental disorders were reducedand knowledge increased after the intervention (p< .05). These results demonstratethe effectiveness of this type of active educational interventions in reducing stigma towards people with mental disorders. However, it is important to continueconducting studies of this type to increase the scientific evidence. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto Joven , Trastornos Mentales , Estereotipo , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Am J Addict ; 31(5): 474, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071585
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(796): 1749-1752, 2022 Sep 21.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134629

RESUMEN

Stigmatization and self-stigmatization of people suffering from mental disorders have been denounced for several years, however they still impact treatment and identity construction. Education, social sharing, and institutional engagement are interventions that challenge public stigma. Interventions based on individual or group therapies that oppose self-stigma proved effective. Questions regarding the effects of media coverage or the intersectionality of stigmatized identities remain open. In this article, we made a summary of the current situation based on recent literature.


Bien que dénoncées depuis plusieurs années, la stigmatisation et l'autostigmatisation des personnes souffrant de troubles psychiques ont un impact toujours très négatif, tant en termes de soins que de construction identitaire. Différents types d'interventions ont été élaborés pour lutter contre la stigmatisation publique, tels les interventions éducationnelles, le partage du vécu ou l'engagement institutionnel. Quant à la prise en charge de l'autostigmatisation, elle repose sur des thérapies individuelles ou groupales dont l'efficacité est de mieux en mieux étayée. Néanmoins, d'autres questionnements persistent comme les effets de la médiatisation ou l'intersectionnalité des identités stigmatisées. Dans cet article, nous proposons un bref résumé de la situation actuelle à partir de la littérature récente.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Estigma Social , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Estereotipo
4.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 109-114, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064233

RESUMEN

AIM: The study was conducted to determine the prejudice and stigmatization levels of nursing students towards obese individuals. DESIGN AND METHODS: This descriptive and correlational study was conducted in Turkey in 2021 with 233 students in the nursing department of a state university. The data were collected using the Information Form, GAMS-27 Obesity Prejudice Scale, and the Stigma Scale. Independent sample t-test, One-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The findings suggest that the students are prone to prejudice and their tendency to stigmatize is high. It was found that the difference between the student's year of study and obesity prejudices, and between family types and stigmatization levels was significant. It was determined that the stigmatization levels of the students were a determining factor on the obesity prejudice levels and there was a weak positive correlation between them. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing students are prone to showing prejudice towards obese individuals and their stigmatization levels are high. In this respect, it is recommended that prejudice and stigmatization issues regarding obesity should be included in the nursing curriculum before students start their professional life.


Asunto(s)
Estereotipo , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Humanos , Obesidad , Prejuicio , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 132-136, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064236

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a program designed to reduce nursing students' social distancing from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHOD: This experimental study was designed using a pretest, a posttest, and a control group. All participants were nursing students, of which 25 were included in the intervention group and 23 were placed in the control group. A 13-week program was offered to the intervention group. The measuring instruments consisted of a personal information form and the Social Distance Scale. Data were analyzed using the two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. FINDINGS: A significant difference was found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The Education Program on Stigmatization in Schizophrenia is an effective intervention that reduces the social distance of nursing students from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería , Esquizofrenia , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Humanos , Distanciamiento Físico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Estereotipo
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): 1344, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122395
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271396, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921291

RESUMEN

Implicit math = male stereotypes have been found in early childhood and are linked to girls' disproportionate disengagement from math-related activities and later careers. Yet, little is known about how malleable children's automatic stereotypes are, especially in response to brief interventions. In a sample of 336 six- to eleven-year-olds, we experimentally tested whether exposure to a brief story vignette intervention with either stereotypical, neutral, or counter-stereotypical content (three conditions: math = boy vs. neutral vs. math = girl) could change implicit math-gender stereotypes. Results suggested that children's implicit math = male stereotypes were indeed responsive to brief stories that either reinforced or countered the widespread math = male stereotype. Children exposed to the counter-stereotypical stories showed significantly lower (and non-significant) stereotypes compared to children exposed to the stereotypical stories. Critically, exposure to stories that perpetuated math = male stereotypes significantly increased math-gender stereotypes over and above baseline, underscoring that implicit gender biases that are readily formed during this period in childhood and even brief exposure to stereotypical content can strengthen them. As a secondary question, we also examined whether changes in stereotypes might also lead to changes in implicit math self-concept. Evidence for effects on implicit self-concept were not statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Autoimagen , Estereotipo , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Conducta Estereotipada
8.
Nature ; 609(7925): 109-118, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002572

RESUMEN

Individual differences in brain functional organization track a range of traits, symptoms and behaviours1-12. So far, work modelling linear brain-phenotype relationships has assumed that a single such relationship generalizes across all individuals, but models do not work equally well in all participants13,14. A better understanding of in whom models fail and why is crucial to revealing robust, useful and unbiased brain-phenotype relationships. To this end, here we related brain activity to phenotype using predictive models-trained and tested on independent data to ensure generalizability15-and examined model failure. We applied this data-driven approach to a range of neurocognitive measures in a new, clinically and demographically heterogeneous dataset, with the results replicated in two independent, publicly available datasets16,17. Across all three datasets, we find that models reflect not unitary cognitive constructs, but rather neurocognitive scores intertwined with sociodemographic and clinical covariates; that is, models reflect stereotypical profiles, and fail when applied to individuals who defy them. Model failure is reliable, phenotype specific and generalizable across datasets. Together, these results highlight the pitfalls of a one-size-fits-all modelling approach and the effect of biased phenotypic measures18-20 on the interpretation and utility of resulting brain-phenotype models. We present a framework to address these issues so that such models may reveal the neural circuits that underlie specific phenotypes and ultimately identify individualized neural targets for clinical intervention.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Simulación por Computador , Individualidad , Fenotipo , Estereotipo , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Humanos , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Modelos Biológicos
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271376, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930551

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze the relationship among different evaluative reactions of the intergroup attitudes and contact in Spanish adolescents evaluating different ethnic minorities and in immigrant-background adolescents evaluating Spanish youth. This study was based on psychosocial models of great impact in the study of intergroup relations such as the Stereotype Content Model and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes Map, and incorporated a new approach to the study of attitudes: psychological networks. In total, 1122 Spanish adolescents and 683 adolescents with an immigrant background (Moroccan, Romanian or Ecuadorian origin) participated in the study, aged from 12 to 19 years. They answered a questionnaire with measures of stereotype dimensions (morality, immorality, sociability and competence), emotions (positives and negative), behavioral tendencies (facilitation and harm) and contact (quantity and quality). The results show similar structural patterns in the six studied groups, with emotions acting as links between stereotypes and behavioral tendencies. Moreover, positive and negative stereotype dimensions appeared as independent dimensions that were part of different processes: sociability and morality, and competence to a lesser extent, were related to facilitation behaviors through positive emotions, while immorality was related to harm behaviors through negative emotions. This could indicate that, to achieve successful intergroup relations involving cooperation and the development of friendly relationships, it would be appropriate to intervene in parallel in these two pathways. Due to the centrality of positive emotions (and sociability and immorality) and, therefore, their capacity to affect the entire network, focusing interventions on these variables could be an appropriate strategy to achieve overall positive attitudes.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Adolescente , Emociones , Humanos , Principios Morales , Estereotipo
10.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272726, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951499

RESUMEN

Evolutionary theories of disease avoidance propose that humans have a set of universal psychological processes to detect environmental cues indicative of infectious disease. These processes then initiate cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses that function to limit contact with harmful pathogens. Here, we study the conditions under which people exhibit behavioral avoidance of others with a contagious illness or a physical injury (i.e., a broken leg), and the potential mechanisms that underlie this behavior. Across three studies, participants were given the option of sitting at one of two workstations previously occupied by two confederates, one of whom either showed visible symptoms of a cold (contagion condition), wore a lower-leg orthopedic boot and used crutches (broken leg condition), or showed no signs of illness or physical injury (control). We found strong evidence that adults explicitly avoid contact with individuals who show symptoms of a contagious illness. Further, we provide some evidence that adults also avoid individuals with a physical injury, but that this behavior might be driven by implicit, unconscious processes. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for the healthy avoidance of contagion, and the risk for potential stigmatization of non-contagious groups.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Emociones , Adulto , Enfermedades Transmisibles/psicología , Señales (Psicología) , Emociones/fisiología , Humanos , Estereotipo
11.
J Fam Psychol ; 36(7): 1205-1215, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862080

RESUMEN

Helicopter parents are highly involved parents who hover over and around their child, applying developmentally inappropriate levels of control and tangible assistance. Previous research with different-sex parent families indicates that helicopter parenting is particularly problematic in emerging adulthood as it may indirectly affect the offspring's mental health through their use of emotional avoidant coping. Knowledge is lacking, however, on the antecedents and consequences of helicopter parenting in lesbian-parent families. The present longitudinal, questionnaire-based study investigated the effect of homophobic stigmatization in adolescence on mental health via helicopter parenting and emotional avoidant coping among 76 (37 females and 39 males) National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study 25-year-old offspring of lesbian parents. All participants were cisgender, born in the USA, and conceived through donor sperm, with the majority being White, heterosexual, highly educated, and no longer living with their parents. Parents who reported that their offspring experienced homophobic stigmatization in adolescence were likely to enact higher helicopter parenting in emerging adulthood. Then, higher scores on helicopter parenting were associated with offspring's greater use of emotional avoidant coping, which in turn negatively affected the mental health of emerging adult offspring. Discussed in light of Bowen's family differentiation theory, the results suggest that clinicians should examine helicopter parenting in the context of lesbian parents' developmental history and potential tendency to project their own concerns about safety onto their child in order to reduce the distress of experienced homophobic stigmatization. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Responsabilidad Parental , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Niños Adultos , Aeronaves , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Semen , Estereotipo
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 307: 115121, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843180

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Stigmatization contributes to health inequalities, impacting the wellbeing of children and adolescents negatively. Addressing stigmatization requires adequate measurement. Our systematic review synthesizes the content of scales used with children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) across stigmas, and examines their comparability and level of cultural adaptation. METHODS: Ten databases were systematically searched combining three sets of search terms: (i) stigma, (ii) scales, and (iii) LMICs. Studies conducted in LMICs, with a sample with mean age below 18 and reporting a minimum of one stigma scale, were eligible. We allocated scale items to four frameworks: (i) dimensions, or drivers of stigmatization; (ii) target variants, or types of stigmatization; (iii) socio-ecological levels, and (iv) cross-cultural equivalence, or scale adaptation to context/population. Based on percentages, we compared scale content per age cohort, stigma status, region, and stigma category. RESULTS: Out of 14,348 records, we included 93 articles (112 scales). Most studies focused on adolescents (12-18 years). Twelve scales were used more than once, seven were used across regions, and four were employed for multiple stigmas. Physical health stigma, and HIV/AIDS-related stigma in particular, was measured most; mental health and multiple/generic stigmas least. Physical and mental health scales were generally more comprehensive, i.e., measuring more stigma facets. In general, scales consistently measured two of the 21 included stigma facets, namely the disruptiveness dimension and the community level. Cross-cultural equivalence was moderate; conceptual and measurement equivalence were high. DISCUSSION: Although scales were largely comparable in how they measure stigma, they failed to reflect the complexity of the stigmatization process and fell short of existing stigma frameworks and qualitative research. Stigma research with children should work towards cross-culturally validated stigma scale sets which incorporate more facets of existing stigma frameworks, thus facilitating comparability across cultural contexts and informing intervention development and evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Países en Desarrollo , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Pobreza , Estigma Social , Estereotipo
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 456, 2022 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799165

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stigma is a major factor that inhibits Mental Health Nurses work, especially Community Psychiatric Nurses, in terms of productivity. Even though mental health services have improved drastically, because of decentralization of mental health care, a lot more people still have reservations when it comes to mental health nurses particularly Community Psychiatric Nurses. The purpose of the study was to explore the professed effects of stigma on CPNs in the Southern part of Ghana. METHODS: The study was carried out in three district hospitals (Ga South, Ga Central and Okaikoi) all in the Accra Metropolis. The aim of the study was to describe how stigma affects Community Psychiatric Nurses. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was adopted for the study. The purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants. Data was saturated with 12 participants, aged between 25 and 40 years. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed verbatim and afterwards analyzed using thematic and content analysis. RESULTS: The findings gathered from participants revealed that Community Psychiatric Nurses experienced various effects of stigma, such as low productivity, depression, and anger. Most of the participants recounted how stigmatization had affected their work both in the hospital setting and in their communities. CONCLUSION: The study showed that Community Psychiatric Nurses carried out their activities with much difficulty, because of their poor image. They stressed the need for recognition and support from employers, stakeholders and the general community so as to boost confidence and morale with the resultant effect of better healthcare delivery.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Mental , Estigma Social , Adulto , Ghana , Humanos , Salud Mental , Investigación Cualitativa , Estereotipo
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897433

RESUMEN

In the face of unknown risks, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we tend to have stigmatized perceptions. The current study aimed to examine the association of social engagements with the level of stigmatization of COVID-19 infection among the general population. The data of 429 participants of the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seroprevalence neighborhood association (U-CORONA) study, a population-based cohort study conducted in Utsunomiya City, Japan, were analyzed. Their stigmatized perception of people with COVID-19 infection was evaluated via a questionnaire for the situation if they or others in their community were to get infected. The association between social engagements (community social capital, social network diversity, and social network size) and stigmatization were analyzed by a multiple linear regression model with generalized estimating equations. Overall, females reported a higher stigmatized perception of people with COVID-19 than males. Lower education and depressive symptoms were also positively associated with higher stigmatization, while age, household income, and comorbidities were not. People with higher community social capital reported lower stigmatization (B = -0.69, 95% CI = -1.23 to -0.16), while social network diversity and social network size did not show an association with stigmatization. We found an association between community social capital and stigmatization, suggesting that enhancing their community social capital, but not social network diversity and size, has the potential to mitigate the levels of stigmatization.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Capital Social , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Participación Social , Estereotipo
15.
J Bioeth Inq ; 19(3): 511-520, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857213

RESUMEN

We examine stigma and how it operates, then develop a novel framework to classify the range of positions that are conceptually possible regarding how stigma ought to be handled from a public health perspective. In the case of weight stigma, the possible positions range from encouraging the intentional use of weight stigma as an obesity prevention and reduction strategy to arguing not only that this is harmful but that weight stigma, independent of obesity, needs to be actively challenged and reduced. Using weight stigma as an illustrative example, we draw on prior theoretical work on stigma mechanisms and intervention strategies to develop a framework for improving the understanding, evaluation, and planning of anti-stigma interventions. This framework has the potential to help public health actors to map out how protest, contact, education, and regulation strategies can be used to reduce direct discrimination, structural discrimination, and internalized stigma (self-stigma).


Asunto(s)
Estereotipo , Prejuicio de Peso , Humanos , Obesidad/prevención & control , Prejuicio , Salud Pública , Estigma Social
17.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221114797, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850610

RESUMEN

Background: HIV-stigma can influence engagement in care and viral suppression rates among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Understanding HIV-provider level stigma and its associated factors may aid in development of interventions to improve engagement in care. Methods: We assessed HIV-related stigma, provider knowledge, and practices and beliefs among healthcare providers using an online survey tool. Generalized linear modeling was used to determine factors associated with HIV-stigma score. Results: Among 436 participants, the mean age was 42.3 (SD 12.3), 70% female, 62% white, 65% physicians, and 44% worked at an academic center. The mean HIV Health Care Provider Stigma Scale (HPASS) score was 150.5 (SD 18.9, total = 180 [higher score = less stigma]) with factor subscale scores of 67.1 (SD 8.2, total = 78) prejudice, 51.3 (SD 9.7, total = 66) stereotyping, and 32.1 (SD 5, total = 36) discrimination. Female sex and comfort with talking about sex and drug use had 4.97 (95% CI 0.61, 9.32) and 1.99 (95% CI 0.88, 3.10) estimated higher HPASS scores. Disagreement/strong disagreement versus strong agreement with the statement that PLWH should be allowed to have babies and feeling responsible for talking about HIV prevention associated with -17.05 (95% CI -25.96, -8.15) and -2.16 (95% CI -3.43, -0.88) estimated lower HPASS scores. Conclusions: The modifiable factors we identified as associated with higher HIV related stigma may provide opportunities for education that may ameliorate these negative associations.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Prejuicio , Estigma Social , Estereotipo
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(790): 1398-1401, 2022 Jul 13.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822750

RESUMEN

Faced with the emergence of new pathologies and the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, public policies are using new tools, borrowed from social marketing, to increase the efficiency of their reach: Healthy Nudges. Within the architecture of choice, these nudges invite action to achieve the targeted public health objectives, without constraint. The flexibility of these instruments opens up new fields of intervention at all structural and institutional levels, adapting perfectly to Swiss federalism and supporting existing health policies. Opening the way to precision public health, these instruments of soft state intervention raise legal challenges such as the stigmatization of certain parts of the population and the transparency of state activity.


Face à l'émergence de nouvelles pathologies et la prévalence des maladies non transmissibles, les politiques publiques utilisent de nouveaux outils, empruntés au marketing social, pour renforcer l'efficience de leur portée : les Healthy Nudges. Au sein de l'architecture du choix, ces coups de pouce invitent au passage à l'action pour atteindre les objectifs de santé publique visés, et ce, sans contrainte. La flexibilité de ces instruments ouvre de nouveaux champs d'intervention à tous niveaux structurels et institutionnels, s'adaptant parfaitement au fédéralisme helvétique et se mettant au support des politiques de santé déjà existantes. Ouvrant la voie vers une santé publique de précision, ces instruments d'intervention étatique douce soulèvent des défis juridiques comme la stigmatisation de certaines parties de la population et la transparence de l'activité étatique.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Salud Pública , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Estereotipo
19.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0263217, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819934

RESUMEN

Gender stereotypes shape individuals' behaviors, expectations, and perceptions of others. However, little is known about the content of gender stereotypes about people of different ages (e.g., do gender stereotypes about 1-year-olds differ from those about older individuals?). In our pre-registered study, 4,598 adults rated either the typicality of characteristics (to assess descriptive stereotypes), or the desirability of characteristics (to assess prescriptive and proscriptive stereotypes) for targets who differed in gender and age. Between-subjects, we manipulated target gender (boy/man vs. girl/woman) and target age (1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, or 35). From this, we generated a normed list of descriptive, prescriptive, and proscriptive gender-stereotyped characteristics about people across the early developmental timespan. We make this archive, as well as our raw data, available to other researchers. We also present preliminary findings, demonstrating that some characteristics are consistently ungendered (e.g., challenges authority), others are gender-stereotypic across the early developmental timespan (e.g., males from age 1 to 35 tend to be dirty), and still others change over development (e.g., girls should be submissive, but only around age 10). Implications for gender stereotyping theory-as well as targets of gender stereotyping, across the lifespan-are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Procesos de Grupo , Estereotipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Adulto Joven
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2121798119, 2022 07 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787033

RESUMEN

Using word embeddings from 850 billion words in English-language Google Books, we provide an extensive analysis of historical change and stability in social group representations (stereotypes) across a long timeframe (from 1800 to 1999), for a large number of social group targets (Black, White, Asian, Irish, Hispanic, Native American, Man, Woman, Old, Young, Fat, Thin, Rich, Poor), and their emergent, bottom-up associations with 14,000 words and a subset of 600 traits. The results provide a nuanced picture of change and persistence in stereotypes across 200 y. Change was observed in the top-associated words and traits: Whether analyzing the top 10 or 50 associates, at least 50% of top associates changed across successive decades. Despite this changing content of top-associated words, the average valence (positivity/negativity) of these top stereotypes was generally persistent. Ultimately, through advances in the availability of historical word embeddings, this study offers a comprehensive characterization of both change and persistence in social group representations as revealed through books of the English-speaking world from 1800 to 1999.


Asunto(s)
Libros , Motor de Búsqueda , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Grupos de Población/historia , Estereotipo
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