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1.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901353

RESUMEN

At all levels of society, almost polarizing attitudes towards coronavirus are manifested, ranging from panic and empty store shelves to complete denying the existence of coronavirus problem. The wave of coronavirus parties and as well as demonstrations against restrictive measures related to infection swept the world. In addition, protests against arrivals from COVID risk areas are known. Stigma and fear can severely impede efforts to manage the spread of COVID outbreak. The predisposing factors in development of COVID stigma are lack of knowledge, rapid virus spreading, relatively higher mortality and absence of effective treatment. Meanwhile, at the level of society, particular processes are taking place, when not only infected ones, but also healthy members of society become subject to stigmatization, that can be determined as "probably" infected. The article supplements information to improve actual knowledge among specialists concerning various approaches and methods of preventing mental disorders due to stress epidemiological situation in the world.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Estereotipo
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808092

RESUMEN

The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) has been validated in multiple countries and regions. However, previous validation studies in China have been limited by small sample size. The current research increased the sample size (n = 184 in the pilot study; n1 = 1315 and n2 = 268 in the formal study) to validate the SCM in mainland China in study 1. Supporting the SCM, 41 social groups were clustered into four quadrants based on warmth and competence dimensions. 35 of the 41 target groups (85.37%) receive ambivalent stereotype. Perceived warmth and competence were positively correlated (r = 0.585, p < 0.001). Status and competence were positively related (r = 0.81, p < 0.001), and competition and warmth were negatively related (r = -0.77, p < 0.001). In addition, 24 typical social groups were selected and a list of stereotype words for these groups was developed in study 2 (n1 = 48, n2 = 52). The implications of the emerging social groups and the applications of this stereotype word list are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Social , Estereotipo , China , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Estudiantes
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807772

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify the relationships between gender role stereotypes (GRS), patriarchal family environment, and major satisfaction (MS) and their associated factors in nursing students. A total of 195 nursing students (154 women, 41 men) were surveyed online in South Korea from May to June 2020. The Gender Role Stereotype Inventory was used to assess gender role stereotypes, while patriarchal family environment and MS were evaluated using a 11-item instrument for testing patriarchal family environment and the Major Satisfaction Inventory, respectively. Men demonstrated stronger gender role stereotypes and patriarchal family culture than women. Patriarchal family culture was significantly correlated with gender role stereotypes and MS. A multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the effects of age, academic performance, motive for MS, intellectual GRS, social GRS, and patriarchal family environment on MS. The explanatory power of this model was 12.2%. Younger age, higher grade point average, voluntary selection of major, lower intellectual gender stereotypes, and higher social gender stereotypes predicted higher MS. Further studies on cultures in Asia and the world are needed to understand the impact of the patriarchal family culture and gender role stereotypes of nursing students on school adaptation.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Enfermería , Asia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfacción Personal , República de Corea , Estereotipo
4.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 4: 14-23, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682097

RESUMEN

In the UK, the proportion of female medical students has remained static over the last decade, at around 55%; however, at consultant level, only 36.6% of doctors are women. The reasons for this drop in numbers are not clear. Given the increase in number of female doctors in training, the proportion of female doctors at consultant level is lower than might be expected. This article discusses issues affecting the female medical workforce in anaesthesia, intensive care and pain medicine. It explores how gender stereotypes and implicit gender bias can affect the way women are perceived in the workplace, especially in leadership positions, and discusses health issues particular to the female medical workforce. While the issues in this article may not affect all women, the cumulative effect of being subject to gender stereotypes within a workplace not designed to accommodate the health needs of women may contribute to a work environment that may promote the attrition of women from our specialties.


Asunto(s)
Recursos Humanos , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Infertilidad/patología , Trastornos de la Menstruación/patología , Permiso Parental , Sexismo , Estereotipo
7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(3): e10, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610229
8.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(1): 1-15, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617319

RESUMEN

HIV discrimination has served as a barrier to addressing the HIV epidemic and providing effective HIV treatment and care. Measuring HIV discrimination, particularly covert HIV discrimination, has proven to be complex. Adapted from a previous scale, we developed a perpetuated HIV micro-aggressions scale to assess covert forms of discriminatory beliefs among HIV-negative/unknown HIV status individuals. Factor analysis resulted in three subscales, explaining 73.58% of the scale's variance. The new scale demonstrated both convergent validity (HIV prejudice, HIV stereotypes) and discriminant validity (alcohol use, depressive symptomology). Perpetuated HIV microaggressions were significantly associated with HIV conspiracy beliefs, HIV prejudice, and HIV stereotypes. This new scale can serve as an important tool in evaluating perpetuated HIV microaggressions among HIV-negative individuals.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Discriminación en Psicología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Prejuicio , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Apoyo Social , Estereotipo
9.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(1): 46-61, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617323

RESUMEN

Understanding how Chinese gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) cope with HIV care-related stressors could improve their care engagement. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 GBMSM living with HIV recruited through clinics and a community-based organization (CBO) in Chengdu, China. Interviews focused on treatment-related stress, coping strategies, social support, and well-being. Half reported symptoms consistent with mild or moderate depression as measured by the PHQ-9 scale. HIV care-related stressors included side effects, difficulty with adherence, and fear of drug resistance. Challenges to coping include navigating contradictory information about HIV and treatment, experiencing stigma and discrimination within medical and nonmedical settings, and managing financial concerns. CBOs, peer groups, and providers were salient sources of social support benefitting coping. To improve sustained HIV care that meets the needs of Chinese GBMSM living with HIV, tailored interventions that address the above-mentioned stressors and coping challenges are likely needed.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Estigma Social , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Bisexualidad , China , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupo Paritario , Investigación Cualitativa , Conducta Sexual , Apoyo Social , Estereotipo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
10.
Int J Palliat Nurs ; 27(1): 10-19, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629914

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children with life-limiting conditions have a high risk of colonisation with a multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO). To avoid the spread of hospital-aquired infections to other patients, children with a MDRO are moved to an isolated room or ward. However, such isolation prevents social participation, which may reduce the child's quality of life (QoL). To overcome this challenge of conflicting interests on a paediatric palliative care inpatient unit, a hygiene concept for patients colonised with MDRO, called PALLINI, was implemented. PALLINI advises that, instead of isolating the affected children, strict barrier nursing should be used. AIM: To identify the impact of a complex hygiene concept on children's and parents' QoL and social participation. METHODS: Cross-sectional mixed-methods research approach, comprising semi-structured interviews with parents and staff members, and a QoL-questionnaire focusing on the child which was completed by parents. FINDINGS: In paediatric patients with life-limiting conditions who have MDRO colonisation, using a complex hygiene protocol resulted in both benefits and barriers to social participation. However, the child's QoL did not appear to be affected. CONCLUSION: All staff members and families have to be familiar with the hygiene concept and the concept has to be self-explanatory and easy to apply.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Calidad de Vida , Participación Social , Enfermo Terminal , Niño , Preescolar , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Unidades Hospitalarias , Humanos , Lactante , Capacitación en Servicio , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Evaluación en Enfermería , Cuidados Paliativos , Padres , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Seguridad del Paciente , Estereotipo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(2): 47-55, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571046

RESUMEN

People living with HIV (PLHW) and other concealable stigmatized identities (CSIs) face continual decisions about the degree of openness they are willing to allow for their identities in different social contexts. Disclosing or concealment of CSIs describes potential stigma management strategies that may have distinct psychosocial consequences. This study aimed to examine disclosure processes in a sample of sexual minority men (SMM) with intersecting CSIs, who use substances and were suboptimally engaged in HIV care. Interviews (N = 33) were initially double coded following thematic analysis, which identified disclosure as a theme. Subsequently, content analysis and additional selective double coding were used to iteratively identify and refine subthemes related to disclosure decisions. Illustrative quotes and frequencies of the invoked subthemes and identities were recorded for each participant. The majority of participants discussed experiences of disclosure and nondisclosure (N = 31, 94%). Among these, a spectrum of related behaviors and preferences emerged, including active disclosure, passive disclosure, passive nondisclosure, and concealment. Across disclosure-related content, in addition to HIV status, the majority of participants also described navigating decisions about disclosure of sexual orientation (71%), substance use (61%), and multiple identities at once (55%). Findings from this study highlight the fluid and multi-dimensional nature of identity-related disclosure processes in SMM with multiple CSIs. Participants in this study possessed interlocking stigmatized identities and described being varying degrees of "out" across identities and time. Moreover, these findings challenge common beliefs that disclosure is a binary construct associated with positive gain.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estigma Social , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Revelación de la Verdad , Adulto , Anciano , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Estereotipo
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 297: 113714, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453497

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Currently, there is little data on the mental health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to examine the pooled and separate prevalence and determinants of depression during the pandemic in samples from four LMICs. METHODS: Participants (N= 1267, 40.9% women) were recruited from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti, Rwanda, and Togo. They completed an online cross-sectional survey on sociodemographics, exposure and stigmatization related to COVID-19, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression subscale, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence for depression symptoms was 24.3% (95% CI: 22.08-26.79%), with significant differences across countries. Younger age, gender (women), and high levels of exposure and stigmatization related to COVIID-19, and resilience were associated with depression in the pooled data. There were significant variations at the country level. Stigmatization (but not exposure to COVID-19 and resilience) was a strong predictor among the four countries. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression symptoms in the LMICs are similar to those reported in China and in most high-income countries during the pandemic. The findings emphasize the need for implementing non-fear-based education programs during epidemics to reduce stigmatization.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Estigma Social , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Femenino , Haití/epidemiología , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Rwanda/epidemiología , Estereotipo , Togo , Adulto Joven
15.
JAMA ; 325(4): 349-350, 2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496778
16.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(1): 26-30, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395128

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Persons with epilepsy have traditionally been restricted from physical exercise and sports participation because of misinformation and fear. The physical and psychosocial benefits of exercise on general health are well known and have been denied to persons with epilepsy because of these restrictions. Exercise has been shown to decrease seizure frequency and has even been assessed as a means to prevent epilepsy. The risk of injury is a commonly cited reason for restricting physical activity although the majority of these injuries are soft tissue injuries. Literature has shown that the benefits of sports participation for persons with epilepsy far outweigh the risk to the participant. While there are recommended contraindications to a small number of sports, persons with epilepsy can safely participate in the majority of sports with correct counseling and observation.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Epilepsia/rehabilitación , Ejercicio Físico , Deportes , Comunicación , Humanos , Seguridad del Paciente , Estereotipo
17.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(4): 1729-1736, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479790

RESUMEN

The enfacement illusion refers to the illusory perception that features of another face that moves in synchrony with one's own facial movements become part of one's own body. Here, we tested whether males whose facial movements are synchronized with a virtual female face exhibit a less pronounced implicit gender-science stereotype than males whose movements are not synchronized. Results show that illusory ownership and agency of the face with opposite gender was successfully induced, and that synchrony significantly reduced the implicit gender-science stereotype as compared with nonsynchrony. Our findings are in line with previous demonstrations about being synchronized with other individuals facilitates feature migration-that is, the integration of their features into one's self-representation.


Asunto(s)
Ilusiones , Imagen Corporal , Cara , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Estereotipo
18.
Nature ; 589(7843): 572-576, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473211

RESUMEN

Women (compared to men) and individuals from minority ethnic groups (compared to the majority group) face unfavourable labour market outcomes in many economies1,2, but the extent to which discrimination is responsible for these effects, and the channels through which they occur, remain unclear3,4. Although correspondence tests5-in which researchers send fictitious CVs that are identical except for the randomized minority trait to be tested (for example, names that are deemed to sound 'Black' versus those deemed to sound 'white')-are an increasingly popular method to quantify discrimination in hiring practices6,7, they can usually consider only a few applicant characteristics in select occupations at a particular point in time. To overcome these limitations, here we develop an approach to investigate hiring discrimination that combines tracking of the search behaviour of recruiters on employment websites and supervised machine learning to control for all relevant jobseeker characteristics that are visible to recruiters. We apply this methodology to the online recruitment platform of the Swiss public employment service and find that rates of contact by recruiters are 4-19% lower for individuals from immigrant and minority ethnic groups, depending on their country of origin, than for citizens from the majority group. Women experience a penalty of 7% in professions that are dominated by men, and the opposite pattern emerges for men in professions that are dominated by women. We find no evidence that recruiters spend less time evaluating the profiles of individuals from minority ethnic groups. Our methodology provides a widely applicable, non-intrusive and cost-efficient tool that researchers and policy-makers can use to continuously monitor hiring discrimination, to identify some of the drivers of discrimination and to inform approaches to counter it.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet , Selección de Personal/métodos , Selección de Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Prejuicio/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Prejuicio/prevención & control , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estereotipo , Aprendizaje Automático Supervisado , Suiza , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Ethn Health ; 26(1): 110-125, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307773

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus stigmatization may be disproportionately impacting ethnoracial minority groups in the US. We test three hypotheses: [H1] Asians in the US are more likely to report experiencing coronavirus stigmatization than non-Hispanic Whites; [H2] Coronavirus stigmatization is associated with psychological distress; [H3] Magnitude of association between coronavirus stigmatization and psychological distress is more pronounced among US-born Asians, compared to non-Hispanic Whites. DESIGN: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from the 10-31 March 2020 wave of the Understanding America Survey, a nationally representative survey of adults in the US. Psychological distress was assessed with the PHQ-4. Measures of association were estimated using multiple logistic regression and survey sampling weights. Predicted probabilities were calculated using marginal standardization ( n = 6707). RESULTS: [H1] The adjusted predicted probability of experiencing any coronavirus stigma among foreign-born Asians (11.2%, 95% CI: 5.5-17.0%; E-value = 4.52), US-born Asians (10.9%, 95% CI: 5.8-16.0%; E-value = 4.23), Blacks (8.0%, 95% CI: 5.3-10.7%; E-value = 2.92), and Hispanic Whites (7.3%, 95% CI: 4.6-9.9%; E-value = 2.58) was significantly greater than non-Hispanic Whites (4.5%, 95% CI: 3.7-5.4%). [H2] Individuals reporting any coronavirus stigma experience were significantly more likely to exhibit psychological distress (19.9%, 95% CI: 14.6-25.2% vs 10.6%, 9.6-11.6%; E-value = 3.16). [H3] The overall magnitude of association between experience of any coronavirus stigma and psychological distress was not significantly between US-born Asians and non-Hispanic Whites, though we found gender to mask this effect. US-born Asian females who experienced coronavirus stigmatization were more likely to exhibit psychological distress than non-Hispanic white females who experienced coronavirus stigmatization (relative risk (RR): 10.21, 95% CI: 2.69-38.74 vs 1.24, 95% CI: 0.76-2.01; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Comprehensive measures around care seeking, public awareness, and disaggregated data collection are needed to address ethnoracial coronavirus stigmatization and its impact on psychological health and well-being.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Coronavirus , Distrés Psicológico , Estereotipo , Adulto , Anciano , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
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