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2.
Nurs Open ; 8(3): 1089-1097, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482664

RESUMEN

AIM: To develop and initially validate the Diabetes Self-Stigma Scale for assessing self-stigma in people with diabetes. DESIGN: Scale development and evaluation. METHODS: Participants were 399 patients with diabetes. In phase 1, initial items were generated based on the concept analysis of diabetes self-stigma. Moreover, content validity was established by diabetes experts. Phase 2 evaluated structural validity through item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was evaluated by examining stability and internal consistency. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the self-stigma scale for patients with diabetes is a valid and reliable instrument. The Diabetes Self-Stigma Scale was confirmed with 16 items. It consists of four domains: comparative inability, social withdrawal, self-devaluation and apprehensive feeling. The scale developed in this study can measure self-stigma in diabetes patients and can be used as an intervention to reduce self-stigma.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Estigma Social , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1623, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488693

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social stigma against persons infected with COVID-19 is not uncommon. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of social stigma among COVID-19 positive patients and their family members. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted between April to June 2020 in Malaysia. Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 for at least 1 month and their family members who were tested with negative results, Malaysian and aged 18-65 years old were purposively sampled. Cold call method was employed to recruit patients while their family members were recruited by their recommendations. Telephone interviews were conducted with the participants after obtaining their verbal consent. RESULTS: A total of 18 participants took part in this study. Three themes emerged from the interviews: (Ι) experience of stigmatization, (ΙΙ) perspective on disease disclosure, and (ΙΙΙ) suggestion on coping and reducing stigma. The participants expressed their experiences of being isolated, labelled, and blamed by the people surrounding them including the health care providers, neighbours, and staff at the service counters. Some respondents expressed their willingness to share their experience with others by emphasizing the importance of taking preventive measure in order to stop the chain of virus transmission and some of them chose to disclose this medical history for official purpose because of fear and lack of understanding among the public. As suggested by the respondents, the approaches in addressing social stigma require the involvement of the government, the public, health care provider, and religious leader. CONCLUSION: Individuals recovered from COVID-19 and their families experienced social stigma. Fear and lack of public understanding of the COVID-19 disease were the key factors for non-disclosure. Some expressed their willingness to share their experience as they perceived it as method to increase public awareness and thereby reducing social stigma. Multifaceted approaches with the involvement of multiple parties including the government, non-governmental organization as well as the general public were recommended as important measures to address the issues of social stigma.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Familia , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
4.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604164, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475811

RESUMEN

Objectives: During the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States, we investigated the impact of digital interventions to reduce COVID-19 related fear, loneliness, and public stigma. Methods: We recruited and randomly assigned 988 United States residents to: 1) no intervention 2) informational sheet to learn about COVID-19, 3) (2) AND video encouraging digital social activity, 4) (2) AND video sensitizing to COVID-19 related stigma (registered in Clinicaltrials.gov). Surveys were conducted between April 2-16, 2020. We employed generalized linear mixed models to investigate intervention effects. Results: 10% of the participants reported not being afraid of people COVID-19+ and 32% reported not feeling lonely. Stigma and fear items reflected acute worries about the outbreak. Relative to the informational sheet only group, video groups led to greater reduction in perceptions of fear towards COVID-19+ (ORvideo.solo = 0.78, p-val<0.001; ORvideo.friend = 0.79, p-val<0.001) and of stigma (BETAvideo.solo = -0.50, p-val<0.001; BETAvideo.friend = -0.69, p-val<0.001). Conclusion: Video-based interventions lead to reductions in COVID-19-related fear and stigma. No difference in social activity among groups was found, potentially explaining lack of efficacy on loneliness.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Intervención Psicosocial , Grabación en Video , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Intervención Psicosocial/métodos , Estigma Social , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1595, 2021 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Experiences of HIV stigma remain prevalent across Canada, causing significant stress and negatively affecting the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV. While studies have consistently demonstrated that stigma negatively impacts health, there has been limited research on the mechanisms behind these effects. This study aims to identify which dimensions of stigma have significant relationships with self-rated health and examine the mechanisms by which those types of stigma impact self-rated health. METHODS: We recruited 724 participants to complete the People Living with HIV Stigma Index in Ontario, designed by people living with HIV to measure nuanced changes in stigma and discrimination. The present study utilizes data from externally validated measures of stigma and health risks that were included in the survey. First, we conducted multiple regression analyses to examine which variables had a significant impact on self-rated health. Results from the multiple regression guided the mediation analysis. A parallel mediation model was created with enacted stigma as the antecedent, internalized stigma and depression as the mediators, and self-rated health as the outcome. RESULTS: In the multiple regression analysis, internalized stigma (coefficient = -0.20, p < 0.01) and depression (coefficient = -0.07, p < 0.01) were both significant and independent predictors of health. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between enacted stigma and self-rated health is mediated in parallel by both internalized stigma [coefficient = -0.08, se = 0.03, 95% CI (-0.14, -0.02)] and depression [coefficient = -0.16, se = 0.03, 95% CI (-0.22, -0.11)]. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a mediation model to explain how HIV-related stigma negatively impacts health. We found that that enacted stigma, or experiences of prejudice or discrimination, can lead to internalized stigma, or internalization of negative thoughts regarding one's HIV status and/or increased depressive symptoms which then may lead to worse overall health. Highlighting the importance of internalized stigma and depression has the potential to shape the development of targeted intervention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of stigma and improving the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Infecciones por VIH , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Ontario/epidemiología , Prejuicio , Estigma Social
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 432, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479537

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The majority of people with mental illness do not seek help at all or only with significant delay. To reduce help-seeking barriers for people with mental illness, it is therefore important to understand factors predicting help-seeking. Thus, we prospectively examined potential predictors of help-seeking behaviour among people with mental health problems (N = 307) over 3 years. METHODS: Of the participants of a 3-year follow-up of a larger community study (response rate: 66.4%), data of 307 (56.6%) persons with any mental health problems (age-at-baseline: 16-40 years) entered a structural equation model of the influence of help-seeking, stigma, help-seeking attitudes, functional impairments, age and sex at baseline on subsequent help-seeking for mental health problems. RESULTS: Functional impairment at baseline was the strongest predictor of follow-up help-seeking in the model. Help-seeking at baseline was the second-strongest predictor of subsequent help-seeking, which was less likely when help-seeking for mental health problems was assumed to be embarrassing. Personal and perceived stigma, and help-seeking intentions had no direct effect on help-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: With only 22.5% of persons with mental health problems seeking any help for these, there was a clear treatment gap. Functional deficits were the strongest mediator of help-seeking, indicating that help is only sought when mental health problems have become more severe. Earlier help-seeking seemed to be mostly impeded by anticipated stigma towards help-seeking for mental health problems. Thus, factors or beliefs conveying such anticipated stigma should be studied longitudinally in more detail to be able to establish low-threshold services in future.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Salud Mental , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Estudios Prospectivos , Estigma Social
7.
J Adv Nurs ; 77(10): 4184-4194, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435701

RESUMEN

AIM: To describe the experiences of weight stigma in adolescents with severe obesity and their parents. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive secondary analysis. METHODS: A secondary analysis on 31 transcripts from a larger study of 46 transcripts conducted between February 2019 and June 2020. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 parents (n = 17 mothers, n = 2 fathers) and 12 adolescents (n = 7 male, n = 5 female). Interviews were digitally audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using conventional content analysis. RESULTS: Four common themes were identified reflecting experiences of weight stigma: weight-based teasing and bullying, interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs), family interactions and blame. Subthemes were fairness and impact on mental health. CONCLUSION: This secondary analysis adds to the sparse literature documenting the experiences of weight stigma from adolescents with severe obesity and their families. It is important to understand the experiences of weight stigma from the adolescent and parent perspective as it can inform healthcare, education and policies across communities and facilitate holistic health for this vulnerable population. IMPACT: The need for research to better understand how experiences of weight stigma correlate with physiological and psychological outcomes and inform innovative interventions are critical to improve treatment of severe obesity. Healthcare providers across disciplines are in a strategic position to change the paradigm through which we provide care to youth with severe obesity and guide families in supporting their children's weight management efforts without contributing to weight stigma.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Mórbida , Adolescente , Niño , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Padres , Investigación Cualitativa , Estigma Social
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444017

RESUMEN

Stigma is a negative feeling affecting many patients with various health conditions, especially the contagious ones such as COVID-19. The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) is one of the valid and reliable stigma-measuring tools; however, it has not been translated and validated in Arabic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and validate the EMIC in Arabic among a sample of Arabic-speaking adults who recently recovered from COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. The 12 items of the EMIC scale were forward- and backward-translated and reviewed by all authors to check the face and content validity prior to approving the final version of the Arabic 12-item EMIC. A total of 174 participants aged ≥18 years who contracted COVID-19 and recovered as of 29 July 2020 were interviewed. The Cronbach's alpha of the Arabic version of the 12-item EMIC was 0.79, indicating an acceptable level of internal consistency. Using principal component analysis with varimax rotation, two factors explained more than 60% of the variance of the translated EMIC scale. The mean EMIC score was 5.91, implying a low level of stigma among participants. Married participants (ß = 2.93; 95%CI 0.88 to 4.98, p = 0.005) and those with a family history of mental illness (ß = 2.38; 95%CI 0.29 to 4.46, p = 0.025) were more likely to have higher EMIC scores in comparison to their counterparts who were unmarried and had no family history of mental illness. On the contrary, older adults were less likely to have high EMIC scores (ß = -0.11; 95%CI -0.21 to -0.01, p = 0.03). Future studies with larger samples of patients with COVID-19 and various health conditions should be conducted to examine the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the EMIC among different patient populations and to unveil the factors that may play a role in patients' feelings of stigmatization in this part of the world.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estigma Social , Adulto , Cultura , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Arabia Saudita , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047280, 2021 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362801

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Research has established that various forms of stigma (HIV stigma, gender non-conforming stigma and same-gender sex stigma) exist across Sub-Saharan Africa and have consequences for the utilisation of HIV prevention and care services. Stigmas are typically investigated in HIV literature individually or through investigating individual populations and the various stigmas they may face. The concept of intersectionality highlights the interconnected nature of social categorisations and their ability to create interdependent systems of discrimination based on gender, race, sexuality and so on. Drawing from perspectives on intersectionality, intersectional stigma denotes the convergence of multiple marginalised identities within an individual or a group, the experiences of stigma associated with these identities as well as the synergistic impact of these experiences on health and well-being. With respect to HIV, public health scholars can examine the impacts of intersectional stigmas on HIV prevention and care utilisation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Reviewers will search systematically through MEDLINE, Global Health, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection and Africa Index Medicus and citations for quantitative studies, qualitative studies and grey literature that include data on stigma and HIV among men who have sex with men and women who have sex with women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Eligible studies will include primary or secondary data on stigma related to HIV risk factors experienced by this population. Studies will be written in French or English and be published between January 1991 and November 2020. All screening and data extraction will be performed in duplicate, and if discrepancies arise, they will be settled by GM'RA, LEN, DD or AO. Findings from this study will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required as there will be no human participants and no protected data will be used in this study. We will disseminate findings through peer-reviewed manuscripts, conferences and webinars.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , África del Sur del Sahara , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Estigma Social , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
10.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(4): 303-311, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370570

RESUMEN

HIV-related stigma is pervasive in the U.S. South and has potential negative effects on health outcomes and emotional well-being, and may act as a barrier to HIV-related advocacy among people living with HIV (PLWH). This article reports on the preliminary outcomes associated with participation in an HIV advocacy training for PLWH, LEAD, that included education and skills building for reducing HIV-related stigma. Fifty-seven PLWH at four sites in the U.S. South participated in the retreat-style training and completed a survey measuring stigma and comfort engaging in advocacy prior to and after the worshop. Participation was associated with statistically significant reduction in internalized HIV stigma and increase in comfort with participation in advocacy; however, participants reported a need for ongoing training and support to further increase comfort with advocacy participation. Although more research is needed on the LEAD Workshop, it shows promise as an option for reducing HIV-related stigma among PLWH.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(4): 290-302, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370569

RESUMEN

Lack of social support and sex work stigma may hinder STI/HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSW). We explored the associations between sex work stigma and social support with sexual behaviors in Malawi. In 2017, 150 HIV-negative, venue-based FSW completed a behavioral survey containing sex work stigma items and social support. Linear binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence differences of inconsistent condom use and substance use before sex by social support and stigma. A majority (93%) reported sex work-related internalized stigma. About 50% reported family or friend isolation. Social support was high (mean index: 86.53). Inconsistent condom use and substance use before sex had little to no association with stigma and social support. Malawian FSW largely internalize stigma and experience isolation from family and friends yet have high levels of social support. Large-scale evaluations should investigate the role of stigma and social support in STI/HIV prevention for FSW.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Trabajadores Sexuales , Condones , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual , Estigma Social , Apoyo Social
12.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(1): 32-38, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431817

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Fighting the global COVID-19 pandemic has shifted from immediate response efforts to recognition of the long-term effects on the mental health and well-being of the general population and healthcare workforce. Leaders need to understand the vital role of behavioral health services in a population-based, integrated healthcare framework and address the needs of the behavioral health workforce to successfully deploy services in their organizations and communities.During the ongoing national response to COVID-19, three major trends have emerged: (1) a shift to telehealth and digital care, (2) greater awareness of the impact on the workforce of the shift to digital care, and (3) an open dialogue to counteract the stigma and discrimination related to mental illness and to emphasize mental well-being instead. When they address stigma and discrimination, healthcare leaders embrace a more holistic approach that welcomes behavioral health professionals as equal, vital members of the care team. They help their organizations advance the mental well-being of all.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/terapia , Personal de Salud/psicología , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Estigma Social , Telemedicina/organización & administración , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Objetivos Organizacionales , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(9): 2277-2281, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427198

RESUMEN

Purpose: To explore all possible barriers faced by transgenders (TG) and commercial sex workers (CSW) in accessing eye care in Pune city in western India. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted at a tertiary eye care center in Pune. Interview topic guides for face-to-face interviews and focused group discussions were developed. Comprehensive eye check-up was organized in the residential localities of TG and CSW communities in Pune. Those with severe visual impairment or blindness were identified. A sample of TGs and CSWs from this group was purposively selected and invited to participate in this study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with each TG and CSW. A group of health care providers and NGO workers serving these communities were invited to participate in focused group discussions. All interviews/discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. A qualitative software (N vivo 12, QRS International, Australia) was used to identify various themes and subthemes under each domain of barriers. Results: A total of 24 people (6 each from TGs, CSWs, health care provider, and NGO worker groups) participated in this study. The most common barriers reported were social stigma, discrimination, poverty, financial exclusion, and mental health factors. Non availability of gender-neutral facilities in clinics was a unique barrier reported by TGs. Conclusion: Marginalized communities of TGs and CSWs in Pune face several previously unexplored and unique barriers for access to eye care despite the availability of services in the vicinity.


Asunto(s)
Trabajadores Sexuales , Personas Transgénero , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Estigma Social
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444384

RESUMEN

HIV-related stigma and discrimination are recognized barriers to HIV prevention, testing and treatment among people of Sub-Saharan African descent (SSA) origin living in Belgium, but insights into HIV related-stigma mechanisms and outcomes are lacking for this population with high HIV prevalence. Guided by Earnshaw and Chaudoir's stigma framework (2009), we conducted this qualitative study using 10 focus-groups with 76 SSA community members and 20 in-depth interviews with SSA descendants living with HIV to explore specific HIV-stigma mechanisms and outcomes and underlying drivers. Inductive and deductive thematic analysis showed high degrees of stigma among SSA communities driven by fear of HIV acquisition and misconceptions in a migration context, negatively affecting SSA descendants living with HIV. The results allowed for contextualization of the framework: At the community level, prejudices and stereotypes were major stigma mechanisms, while physical distancing, gossips, sexual rejection, violence and increased HIV prevalence emerged as stigma outcomes. Among SSA descendants living with HIV, enacted, anticipated and internalized stigmas were validated as stigma mechanisms, with witnessed stigma as an additional mechanism. Self-isolation, community avoidance and low utilization of non-HIV specialized healthcare were additional outcomes. These results are relevant for tailoring interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Bélgica/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Estigma Social
15.
Soins ; 66(858): 22-24, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462064

RESUMEN

Obese people are victims of hostile attitudes and behaviour that stigmatise them because of their physical appearance. If this grossophobia is already well described at the socio-professional level, it is also present in the world of health care, both by the inappropriate equipment and by the negative attitude of healthcare professionals. This tends to distance obese patients from care and isolate them further. However, solutions exist to combat this discrimination.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Obesidad , Humanos , Estigma Social
17.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(7): E530-536, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351262

RESUMEN

Ethical obligations to minimize harms and maximize benefits of diagnosis and treatment of disorders without biomarkers include navigating difficult-to-measure, perhaps clinically inexplicable, symptoms. Among potential harms are public stigma, self-stigma, label avoidance, and the negative influence these stigmas have on self-esteem, quality of life, employment, and housing. Among potential benefits are patients becoming active agents in managing their illnesses, social acceptance, and access to evidence-based treatments. Ethical complexities clinicians face when trying to develop treatment plans while heeding key details from patients' narrative accounts prompt questions about how to best adhere to evidence in understudied domains of medicine.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Estigma Social , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Autoimagen
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1524, 2021 08 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nepal has a high prevalence of hypertension which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases globally. It is inadequately controlled even after its diagnosis despite the availability of effective treatment of hypertension. There is a need for an in-depth understanding of the barriers and facilitators using theory to inform interventions to improve the control of hypertension. This formative study was conducted to address this gap by exploring the perceived facilitators and barriers to treatment and control of hypertension in Nepal. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) among hypertensive patients, their family members, healthcare providers and key informants at primary (health posts and primary health care center) and tertiary level (Kathmandu Medical College) facilities in Kathmandu, Nepal. Additionally, data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) with hypertensive patients. Recordings of IDIs and FGDs were transcribed, coded both inductively and deductively, and subthemes generated. The emerging subthemes were mapped to the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model using a deductive approach. RESULTS: Major uncovered themes as capability barriers were misconceptions about hypertension, its treatment and difficulties in modifying behaviour. Faith in alternative medicine and fear of the consequences of established treatment were identified as motivation barriers. A lack of communication between patients and providers, stigma related to hypertension and fear of its disclosure, and socio-cultural factors shaping health behaviour were identified as opportunity barriers in the COM-B model. The perceived threat of the disease, a reflective motivator, was a facilitator in adhering to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This formative study, using the COM-B model of behaviour change identified several known and unknown barriers and facilitators that influence poor control of blood pressure among people diagnosed with hypertension in Kathmandu, Nepal. These findings need to be considered when developing targeted interventions to improve treatment adherence and blood pressure control of hypertensive patients.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Motivación , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/terapia , Nepal , Investigación Cualitativa , Estigma Social
19.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 85, 2021 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Spotting is an informal practice among people who use drugs (PWUD) where they witness other people using drugs and respond if an overdose occurs. During COVID-19 restrictions, remote spotting (e.g., using a telephone, video call, and/or a social media app) emerged to address physical distancing requirements and reduced access to harm reduction and/or sexually transmitted blood borne infection (STBBI's) prevention services. We explored spotting implementation issues from the perspectives of spotters and spottees. METHODS: Research assistants with lived/living expertise of drug use used personal networks and word of mouth to recruit PWUD from Ontario and Nova Scotia who provided or used informal spotting. All participants completed a semi-structured, audio-recorded telephone interview about spotting service design, benefits, challenges, and recommendations. Recordings were transcribed and thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: We interviewed 20 individuals between 08/2020-11/2020 who were involved in informal spotting. Spotting was provided on various platforms (e.g., telephone, video calls, and through texts) and locations (e.g. home, car), offered connection and community support, and addressed barriers to the use of supervised consumption sites (e.g., location, stigma, confidentiality, safety, availability, COVID-19 related closures). Spotting calls often began with setting an overdose response plan (i.e., when and who to call). Many participants noted that, due to the criminalization of drug use and fear of arrest, they preferred that roommates/friends/family members be called instead of emergency services in case of an overdose. Both spotters and spottees raised concerns about the timeliness of overdose response, particularly in remote and rural settings. CONCLUSION: Spotting is a novel addition to, but not replacement for, existing harm reduction services. To optimize overdose/COVID-19/STBBI's prevention services, additional supports (e.g., changes to Good Samaritan Laws) are needed. The criminalization of drug use may limit uptake of formal spotting services.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Comunicación , Sobredosis de Droga/terapia , Pandemias , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Crimen , Tratamiento de Urgencia , Miedo , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Programas de Intercambio de Agujas , Nueva Escocia , Ontario , Estigma Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360266

RESUMEN

This study investigated the role of perceived stigmatization in the relationship between humor styles and coping with stress among young women suffering from stigma due to obesity. In the 21st century, obesity is an increasing global health issue with many physical and mental consequences for obese women. As a chronic stigmatizing disease, it requires that the affected individuals cope with social consequences; women with obesity are more prone to such consequences than men. Humor fosters the breaking of stereotypes and alleviating the consequences of stigmatization. A total of 127 young adult women (age M = 25.74, SD = 2.73) participated in the study (n = 54 with overfat and n = 73 with healthy fat). Participants filled out the Humor Styles Questionnaire, Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire, and the Brief COPE Scale. Anthropometric data were gathered using a body composition analyzer. Results indicate that, when perceiving hostile behaviors toward themselves and using humor as a coping strategy, women with overfat select maladaptive styles of humor (i.e., self-defeating and aggressive styles). Women with overfat were also more likely to use humor as a coping strategy in difficult situations. Furthermore, none of the participants were satisfied with their body mass. At the same time, among women without obesity, a lack of compliments was not treated as a problem, even if they had high body fat.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Estigma Social , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad , Estereotipo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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