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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e50189, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the significance of adopting healthy lifestyles to mitigate the risk of severe outcomes and long-term consequences. OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on assessing the prevalence and clustering of 5 unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among Vietnamese adults after recovering from COVID-19, with a specific emphasis on sex differences. METHODS: The cross-sectional data of 5890 survivors of COVID-19 in Vietnam were analyzed from December 2021 to October 2022. To examine the sex differences in 5 unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (smoking, drinking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and sedentary behavior), the percentages were plotted along with their corresponding 95% CI for each behavior. Latent class analysis was used to identify 2 distinct classes of individuals based on the clustering of these behaviors: the "less unhealthy" group and the "more unhealthy" group. We examined the sociodemographic characteristics associated with each identified class and used logistic regression to investigate the factors related to the "more unhealthy" group. RESULTS: The majority of individuals (male participants: 2432/2447, 99.4% and female participants: 3411/3443, 99.1%) exhibited at least 1 unhealthy behavior, with male participants being more susceptible to multiple unhealthy behaviors. The male-to-female ratio for having a single behavior was 1.003, but it escalated to 25 for individuals displaying all 5 behaviors. Male participants demonstrated a higher prevalence of combining alcohol intake with sedentary behavior (949/2447, 38.8%) or an unhealthy diet (861/2447, 35.2%), whereas female participants tended to exhibit physical inactivity combined with sedentary behavior (1305/3443, 37.9%) or an unhealthy diet (1260/3443, 36.6%). Married male participants had increased odds of falling into the "more unhealthy" group compared to their single counterparts (odds ratio [OR] 1.45, 95% CI 1.14-1.85), while female participants exhibited lower odds (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51-0.83). Female participants who are underweight showed a higher likelihood of belonging to the "more unhealthy" group (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.89-1.39), but this was not observed among male participants (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.41-0.89). In both sexes, older age, dependent employment, high education, and obesity were associated with higher odds of being in the "more unhealthy" group. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified notable sex differences in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among survivors of COVID-19. Male survivors are more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors compared to female survivors. These findings emphasize the importance of tailored public health interventions targeting sex-specific unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, addressing unhealthy habits is crucial for promoting post-COVID-19 health and well-being.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Caracteres Sexuales , Adulto , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Estilo de Vida
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1346084, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572478

RESUMEN

Objective: A Mediterranean dietary pattern, sleeping habits, physical activity, and lifestyle appear to affect reproductive health. There are few reports about whether fertility-specific quality of life (QOL) is linked to infertility treatment outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate when lifestyle factors and fertility-specific QOL are comprehensively considered, which factors influence assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Methods: This prospective cohort includes 291 women undergoing a first ART treatment at multiple centers in Japan and was designed to evaluate the influence of diet, physical activity, sleeping pattern, computer use duration, and fertility-specific quality of life tool (FertiQoL) score on ART treatment outcomes using a questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the good-quality blastocyst rate per oocyte retrieval and the secondary endpoints were a positive pregnancy test and gestational sac (GS) detection. Results: The good-quality blastocyst rate per oocyte retrieval tended to be negatively associated with frequent fish consumption. After all embryo transfer (ET) cycles, a positive pregnancy test tended to be positively associated with longer sleep and longer computer use (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.9-2.7 and OR = 1.7, CI = 1.0-2.8, respectively) and negatively associated with a smoking partner (OR = 0.6, CI = 0.3-1.0). GS detection was positively and significantly associated with frequent olive oil intake and longer computer use (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.0-3.0 and OR = 1.7, CI = 1.0-3.0, respectively). After ET cycles with a single blastocyst, a positive pregnancy test was positively and significantly associated with longer computer use (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.7), while GS detection was significantly more likely in women with longer computer use (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.1-3.8) and tended to be more likely in women with a higher FertiQoL Total scaled treatment score (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0-3.3). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant and 0.05 ≤ p <0.01 as tendency. Conclusions: Olive oil may be an important factor in dietary habits. Fertility-specific QOL and smoking cessation guidance for partners are important for infertile couples.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Estudios Prospectivos , Aceite de Oliva , Fertilidad , Fertilización In Vitro , Infertilidad/terapia , Estilo de Vida
3.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e12, 2024 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572876

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes reduction among older people aged more than 50 years living with HIV (PLWH) are pertinent as they face excess risks amid a growing population of ageing PLWH. AIM: To describe interventions for Type 2 Diabetes reduction among older people living with HIV in Harare Urban DistrictSetting: The study was conducted in a low socio-economic setting from five primary health care clinics in Harare urban District. METHODS: A qualitative multi-method approach was applied using an exploratory descriptive design and an integrative review literature. The exploratory descriptive study collected data from two purposively selected samples; (1) older PLWH and (2) nurses. Whittemore and Knafl's framework was used for the integrative literature review with articles from 2013 to 2023 selected. Data source triangulation was applied using Braun and Clark's content analysis framework. Ethical approval was obtained (14056739_CREC_CHS_2022). RESULTS: 23 older PLWH with mean age, 62 years, 9 nurses with an average of 6 years' experience and 12 articles comprised the three data sources.  Key themes that emerged were that, screening should include; assessment from a younger age; assessment of HIV and ART-specific risks; diagnostic testing of Type 2 diabetes tests at ART initiation and routinely. Health education should provide information on adequate physical activity parameters and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Metformin may be considered as a pharmacological intervention where lifestyle interventions fail. CONCLUSION: The proposed interventions suggest measures to reduce Type 2 Diabetes and mitigate excess risks faced by older PLWH.Contribution: Improved screening, health education and pharmacological interventions for older PLWH in primary health care settings enable Type 2 Diabetes reduction.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Zimbabwe , Estilo de Vida , Educación en Salud
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e51558, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578667

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) interventions, based on cognitive behavioral therapy principles, have been proven effective as complementary tools in managing obesity and have been associated with promoting healthy behaviors and addressing body image concerns. However, they have not fully addressed certain underlying causes of obesity, such as a lack of motivation to change, low self-efficacy, and the impact of weight stigma interiorization, which often impede treatment adherence and long-term lifestyle habit changes. To tackle these concerns, this study introduces the VR self-counseling paradigm, which incorporates embodiment and body-swapping techniques, along with motivational strategies, to help people living with obesity effectively address some of the root causes of their condition. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the clinical efficacy of ConVRself (Virtual Reality self-talk), a VR platform that allows participants to engage in motivational self-conversations. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 68 participants from the bariatric surgery waiting list from the obesity unit of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Participants were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a control group (CG), which only received treatment as usual from the obesity unit; experimental group 1 (EG1), which, after intensive motivational interviewing training, engaged in 4 sessions of VR-based self-conversations with ConVRself, and underwent embodiment and body-swapping techniques; and experimental group 2 (EG2), which engaged in 4 VR-based sessions led by a virtual counselor with a prerecorded discourse, and only underwent the embodiment technique. In the case of both EG1 and EG2, the VR interventions were assisted by a clinical researcher. Readiness to change habits, eating habits, and psychological variables, as well as adherence and satisfaction with ConVRself were measured at baseline, after the intervention, 1 week after the intervention, and 4 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: Regarding the primary outcomes, EG1 (24/68, 35%) and EG2 (22/68, 32%) showed significant improvements in confidence to lose weight compared to the CG (22/68, 32%) at all assessment points (ß=-.16; P=.02). Similarly, EG1 demonstrated a significant increase after the intervention in readiness to exercise more compared to the CG (ß=-.17; P=.03). Regarding the secondary outcomes, EG1 participants showed a significant reduction in uncontrolled eating (ß=.71; P=.01) and emotional eating (ß=.29; P=.03) compared to the CG participants, as well as in their anxiety levels compared to EG2 and CG participants (ß=.65; P=.01). In addition, participants from the experimental groups reported high adherence and satisfaction with the VR platform (EG1: mean 59.82, SD 4.00; EG2: mean 58.43, SD 5.22; d=0.30, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that using VR self-conversations, based on motivational interviewing principles, may have benefits in helping people with obesity to enhance their readiness to change habits and self-efficacy, as well as reduce dysfunctional eating behaviors and anxiety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05094557; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT05094557.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Realidad Virtual , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Obesidad/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Estilo de Vida
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e51581, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578687

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has emerged as a major health issue due to the rapid growth in the prevalence of obesity among young children worldwide. Establishing healthy eating habits and lifestyles in early childhood may help children gain appropriate weight and further improve their health outcomes later in life. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to classify clusters of young children according to their eating habits and identify the features of each cluster as they relate to childhood obesity. METHODS: A total of 1280 children were selected from the Panel Study on Korean Children. Data on their eating habits (eating speed, mealtime regularity, consistency of food amount, and balanced eating), sleep hours per day, outdoor activity hours per day, and BMI were obtained. We performed a cluster analysis on the children's eating habits using k-means methods. We conducted ANOVA and chi-square analyses to identify differences in the children's BMI, sleep hours, physical activity, and the characteristics of their parents and family by cluster. RESULTS: At both ages (ages 5 and 6 years), we identified 4 clusters based on the children's eating habits. Cluster 1 was characterized by a fast eating speed (fast eaters); cluster 2 by a slow eating speed (slow eaters); cluster 3 by irregular eating habits (poor eaters); and cluster 4 by a balanced diet, regular mealtimes, and consistent food amounts (healthy eaters). Slow eaters tended to have the lowest BMI (P<.001), and a low proportion had overweight and obesity at the age of 5 years (P=.03) and 1 year later (P=.005). There was a significant difference in sleep time (P=.01) and mother's education level (P=.03) at the age of 5 years. Moreover, there was a significant difference in sleep time (P=.03) and the father's education level (P=.02) at the age of 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to establish healthy eating habits in early childhood may contribute to the prevention of obesity in children. Specifically, providing dietary guidance on a child's eating speed can help prevent childhood obesity. This research suggests that lifestyle modification could be a viable target to decrease the risk of childhood obesity and promote the development of healthy children. Additionally, we propose that future studies examine long-term changes in obesity resulting from lifestyle modifications in children from families with low educational levels.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Pediátrica , Humanos , Niño , Preescolar , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Conducta Alimentaria , Análisis por Conglomerados , República de Corea/epidemiología
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298955, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578752

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A health and lifestyle advisor service embedded within primary care was piloted in Kingston-upon-Hull from January 2021. We aimed to evaluate the first two years of service delivery by identifying patient demographics referred to the service, reason for referral, determine uptake and retention rates, and monitor individual lifestyle-related risk factor changes following discharge. METHODS: Anonymised data were extracted from the SystmOne database for all patients referred to the service between January 2021 and January 2023. RESULTS: In the initial two years of the service, 705 unique patients were referred at a mean rate of ∼29 per month. Each unique patient received a median (robust median absolute deviation; [MAD]) of 3 (Steel N, et al 2018) planned consultations prior to discharge over this period. The majority of referrals were for symptom management and health promotion purposes (95%). Of those referred, 69% attended their appointments, and 14% did not attend. The majority of referrals were white British (55%), however, the service did receive a substantial number of referrals from minority ethnic groups, with only 67% of referrals speaking English as their main language. Eighteen distinct languages were spoken. Most referrals were classified as class I obese (59.4%). Across initial and final appointments, median (robust MAD) systolic blood pressure was 130 (15) mmHg and 130 (15) mmHg, and median (robust MAD) waist circumference was 103.0 (13.3) cm and 101.0 (13.3) cm. CONCLUSION: The evaluation highlighted the demand for this service embedded within primary care settings in Kingston-upon-Hull. Service engagement was evident, and a large proportion of those who engaged were from minority ethnic groups. A high proportion of referrals presented with obesity and/or hypertension which requires further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Estilo de Vida , Humanos , Promoción de la Salud , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/terapia , Atención Primaria de Salud , Derivación y Consulta
7.
West Afr J Med ; 41(2): 126-134, 2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581673

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Over a quarter of patients with hypertension have uncontrolled hypertension. Lifestyle modification has been shown to improve blood pressure control, thus measures that would help patients with hypertension achieve positive lifestyle modification would improve BP control. The study aims to determine the effect of motivational interviews on lifestyle modification and blood pressure control among patients with hypertension attending the Family Medicine Clinics of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Irrua, Nigeria. METHODS: The proposed study will be a randomised control trial (PACTR202301917477205). About 212 adults between 18 and 65 years with hypertension presenting to the Family Medicine Clinics of ISTH will be randomised into intervention and control groups. The intervention group will be given a motivational interview (MI) on lifestyle modification at the start of the study and monthly for 6 months in addition to standard care for the management of hypertension. The control group will be given standard care for the management of hypertension only without MI and seen monthly for 6 months. Both groups will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. At baseline, a qualitative technique will be used to determine the reason for not adopting lifestyle modification. STUDY OUTCOME: The primary outcome shall be lifestyle modification at 6 months while the secondary outcome shall be blood pressure control at 6 months. CONCLUSION: Findings from the study will provide cost-effective ways of blood pressure control and reduction in the disease burden of hypertension in Nigeria.


CONTEXTE: L'hypertension est l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité à l'échelle mondiale. Plus d'un quart des patients hypertendus ont une hypertension non contrôlée. La modification du mode de vie a été démontrée pour améliorer le contrôle de la pression artérielle, ainsi les mesures qui aideraient les patients hypertendus à réaliser une modification positive de leur mode de vie amélioreraient le contrôle de la PA. L'étude vise à déterminer l'effet des entretiens motivationnels sur la modification du mode de vie et le contrôle de la pression artérielle chez les patients hypertendus fréquentant les cliniques de médecine familiale de l'hôpital spécialisé d'enseignement d'Irrua (ISTH), Irrua, Nigeria. MÉTHODES: L'étude proposée sera un essai contrôlé randomisé (PACTR202301917477205). Environ 212 adultes âgés de 18 à 65 ans atteints d'hypertension se présentant aux cliniques de médecine familiale de l'ISTH seront randomisés en groupes d'intervention et de contrôle. Le groupe d'intervention recevra un entretien motivationnel (EM) sur la modification du mode de vie au début de l'étude et mensuellement pendant 6 mois en plus des soins standard pour la prise en charge de l'hypertension. Le groupe témoin recevra uniquement les soins standard pour la prise en charge de l'hypertension sans EM et sera vu mensuellement pendant 6 mois. Les deux groupes seront évalués au départ et à 6 mois. Au début, une technique qualitative sera utilisée pour déterminer la raison de la non-adoption de la modification du mode de vie. RÉSULTAT DE L'ÉTUDE: Le critère de jugement principal sera la modification du mode de vie à 6 mois, tandis que le critère de jugement secondaire sera le contrôle de la pression artérielle à 6 mois. CONCLUSION: Les résultats de l'étude fourniront des moyens rentables de contrôle de la pression artérielle et de réduction de la charge de morbidité de l'hypertension au Nigeria. MOTS-CLÉS: hypertension, entretien motivationnel, modification du mode de vie, contrôle de la pression artérielle, médecine familiale.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Entrevista Motivacional , Adulto , Humanos , Nigeria , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Hipertensión/terapia , Estilo de Vida , Presión Sanguínea , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 306, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565998

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly impacted older adults, resulting in many deaths. The impact of lifestyle and mental health on vulnerable groups, such as older adults, can be large and long lasting. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of COVID-19 confirmation on cognition, lifestyle, mental health, and quality of life in adults aged 55 years. METHODS: The sample consisted of 111 people in the COVID group and 189 people in the non-COVID group aged over 55 years in South Korea. An online survey was conducted between January and May 2022. Participants responded to the following assessment tools: Yonsei Lifestyle Profile, Prospective and Retrospective Memory (PRMQ), Subjective Memory Complaints Questionnaire (SMCQ), Visual Analogue Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19 S), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF). Differences in lifestyle, cognition, depression, anxiety, and quality of life were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were significant differences in physical activity, diet, the total score of the PRMQ, PM (a sub-score of the PRMQ), PHQ-9, Korean version of the ISI (ISI-K), and WHOQOL-BREF scores between the COVID and non-COVID groups. However, there were no significant differences in activity participation, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), or FCV-19 S between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms that COVID-19 negatively affects memory, physical activity, diet, quality of life, depression, and insomnia in the older adults. Therefore, this study implicated that prevention and intervention strategies required improving the memory, lifestyle, and mental health of older adults with COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Yonsei university in Korea (Registration number: 1041849-202112-SB-226-03, Date of registration: 01042022).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Humanos , Anciano , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estudios Transversales , COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Prospectivos , Cognición , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Estilo de Vida
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 235, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566046

RESUMEN

Family-based obesity management interventions targeting child, adolescent and parental lifestyle behaviour modifications have shown promising results. Further intervening on the family system may lead to greater improvements in obesity management outcomes due to the broader focus on family patterns and dynamics that shape behaviours and health. This review aimed to summarize the scope of pediatric obesity management interventions informed by family systems theory (FST). Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched for articles where FST was used to inform pediatric obesity management interventions published from January 1980 to October 2023. After removal of duplicates, 6053 records were screened to determine eligibility. Data were extracted from 50 articles which met inclusion criteria; these described 27 unique FST-informed interventions. Most interventions targeted adolescents (44%), were delivered in outpatient hospital settings (37%), and were delivered in person (81%) using group session modalities (44%). Professionals most often involved were dieticians and nutritionists (48%). We identified 11 FST-related concepts that guided intervention components, including parenting skills, family communication, and social/family support. Among included studies, 33 reported intervention effects on at least one outcome, including body mass index (BMI) (n = 24), lifestyle behaviours (physical activity, diet, and sedentary behaviours) (n = 18), mental health (n = 12), FST-related outcomes (n = 10), and other outcomes (e.g., adiposity, cardiometabolic health) (n = 18). BMI generally improved following interventions, however studies relied on a variety of comparison groups to evaluate intervention effects. This scoping review synthesises the characteristics and breadth of existing FST-informed pediatric obesity management interventions and provides considerations for future practice and research.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Pediátrica , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Obesidad Pediátrica/terapia , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ejercicio Físico
10.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 21: E21, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573796

RESUMEN

Introduction: Reaching, enrolling, and retaining participants in lengthy lifestyle change interventions for weight loss is a major challenge. The objective of our meta-analysis was to investigate whether lifestyle interventions addressing nutrition and physical activity lasting 6 months or less are effective for weight loss. Methods: We searched for peer-reviewed studies on lifestyle change interventions of 6 months or less published from 2012 through 2023. Studies were screened based on inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for adults with overweight or obesity. We used a random-effects model to pool the mean difference in weight loss between intervention and control groups. We also performed subgroup analyses by intervention length and control type. Results: Fourteen RCTs were identified and included in our review. Half had interventions lasting less than 13 weeks, and half lasted from 13 to 26 weeks. Seven were delivered remotely, 4 were delivered in person, and 3 used combined methods. The pooled mean difference in weight change was -2.59 kg (95% CI, -3.47 to -1.72). The pooled mean difference measured at the end of the intervention was -2.70 kg (95% CI, -3.69 to -1.71) among interventions lasting less than 13 weeks and -2.40 kg (95% CI, -4.44 to -0.37) among interventions of 13 to 26 weeks. Conclusion: Short-term multicomponent interventions involving physical activity and nutrition can achieve weight loss for adults with overweight or obesity. Offering short-term interventions as alternatives to long-term ones may reach people who otherwise would be unwilling or unable to enroll in or complete longer programs.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Humanos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidad/terapia , Ejercicio Físico , Pérdida de Peso , Estilo de Vida
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297545, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573898

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Periodontal disease is a risk factor for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and non-surgical periodontal treatment has been shown to help maintain stable blood sugar in diabetic patients. Determining the level of preventive scaling in patients with metabolic syndrome will help manage the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which people with metabolic syndrome or bad lifestyle performed scaling and the association between preventive scaling and metabolic syndrome or lifestyle in a large population. METHODS: This study was conducted on adults aged 20 years or older from January 2014 to December 2017 in the National Health Insurance System (NHIS) database. Among 558,067 people who underwent health checkups, 555,929 people were included. A total of 543,791 people were investigated for preventive scaling. Metabolic syndrome components were abdominal obesity, lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)-C, high triglycerides, high blood pressure and hyperglycemia. Unhealthy lifestyle score was calculated by assigning 1 point each for current smokers, drinkers, and no performing regular exercise. RESULTS: When multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for age, sex, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking and regular exercise, the Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the group with 5 metabolic syndrome components were 0.741 (0.710, 0.773) (p<0.0001). After adjustment for age, sex, income, BMI, smoking, drinking, regular exercise, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, the OR (95% CI) of the group with unhealthy lifestyle score = 3 was 0.612 (0.586, 0.640) (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The more metabolic syndrome components, and the higher unhealthy lifestyle score, the less scaling was performed.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión , Síndrome Metabólico , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Estilo de Vida , HDL-Colesterol , Índice de Masa Corporal , Raspado Dental
12.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14042, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576113

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals have an important role in advocating for the adoption of a brain-healthy lifestyle for optimal multiple sclerosis (MS) care. Nonetheless, studies to date have mainly focussed on the consumer perspective. Herein, we aimed to explore the current practices of how healthcare professionals support protective, lifestyle-related behaviour changes to optimise brain health among people living with MS (plwMS), and their perspectives of professional roles. METHODS: Australian healthcare professionals were recruited via study advertisements, purposive and snowball sampling, to participate in an online, semi-structured and audio-recorded interview. Clinicians were eligible if they had a minimum of a tertiary Bachelor's degree and 12-months experience working with plwMS, access to the Internet and sufficient time to participant. An inductive, data-driven form of reflexive thematic analysis was undertaken before thematic categorisation of the quotes from transcripts. Data analysis was guided by the methods of Braun and Clark and the study's underpinnings drew on the constructs of the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). RESULTS: Six physicians, 10 MS nurses, 18 allied health professionals, one exercise therapist and one alternative therapist were interviewed. Three primary themes encompassing the perceived role of healthcare professionals in supporting a brain-healthy lifestyle were identified: (1) the empowering role, (2) collaborative role and (3) communicative role. External factors/forces including time constraints, professional expertise, training and skill set, power dynamics, consumer readiness, health literacy, self-efficacy and motivation are at play, and affect how/when healthcare professionals may support behaviour change to optimise lifelong brain health for plwMS. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals recognise their critical role in encouraging and supporting the adoption of a brain-healthy lifestyle to optimise lifelong brain health for plwMS. However, discord is evident when they underestimate the complexity of translating knowledge of lifestyle-related behaviour change(s) into action. Greater awareness must be made in recognising and addressing the bidirectionality of external factors such as those in the SCT, that may influence how behaviour change occurs. PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Healthcare professionals volunteered to be interviewed as part of the data collection phase of this study.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Esclerosis Múltiple , Humanos , Australia , Estilo de Vida , Encéfalo , Esclerosis Múltiple/terapia , Investigación Cualitativa
13.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557664

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined longitudinal changes in lifestyle-related factors and frailty. METHODS: We examined the association between individual lifestyle factors (exercise, diet, sleep, alcohol, smoking and body composition), their sum at baseline, their change over the 17-year follow-up and the rate of change in frailty index values using linear mixed models in a cohort of 2,000 participants aged 57-69 years at baseline. RESULTS: A higher number of healthy lifestyle-related factors at baseline was associated with lower levels of frailty but not with its rate of change from late midlife into old age. Participants who stopped exercising regularly (adjusted ß × Time = 0.19, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.27) and who began experiencing sleeping difficulties (adjusted ß × Time = 0.20, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.31) experienced more rapid increases in frailty from late midlife into old age. Conversely, those whose sleep improved (adjusted ß × Time = -0.10, 95%CI = -0.23, -0.01) showed a slower increase in frailty from late midlife onwards. Participants letting go of lifestyle-related factors (decline by 3+ factors vs. no change) became more frail faster from late midlife into old age (adjusted ß × Time = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle-related differences in frailty were already evident in late midlife and persisted into old age. Adopting one new healthy lifestyle-related factor had a small impact on a slightly less steeply increasing level of frailty. Maintaining regular exercise and sleeping habits may help prevent more rapid increases in frailty.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estilo de Vida , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300812, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558099

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 outbreak has led to relevant changes in everyday life worldwide. One of these changes has been a rapid transition to and an increasing implementation of working from home (WH) modality. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of mandatory WH during the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle behaviors, Mediterranean diet adherence, body weight, and depression. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in the early 2022 at the National Research Council of Italy using ad hoc questions and validated scales collecting information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, hobbies/pastimes, dietary habits including adherence to the Mediterranean diet, body weight, and depression during WH compared with before WH. 748 respondents were included in the study. An increased sedentary lifetime was reported by 48% of respondents; however, the subsample of workers who previously performed moderate physical activity intensified this activity. Body weight gain during WH was self-reported in 39.9% of respondents. Mediterranean diet adherence increased (p≪0.001) during WH compared with before WH. The average level of mental health did not record an overall variation; however, the proportion of subjects with mild and moderate depression increased (p = 0.006), while workers who reported values indicative of depression before the transition declared an improvement. These findings highlight health-related impact of WH during the COVID-19 pandemic that may inform future strategies and policies to improve employees' health and well-being.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Mental , Estudios Transversales , Estilo de Vida , Peso Corporal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 91(4): 237-244, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561208

RESUMEN

Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are associated with adverse health consequences and can cause significant morbidity for postmenopausal women. Although hormone therapy remains the gold standard of VMS treatment in menopausal women, some women have contraindications to or may choose not to take hormone therapy. This article provides an up-to-date overview of the current evidence-based nonhormone therapies available for managing VMS. Evidence supporting various treatment options is reviewed, including lifestyle interventions, mind-body therapies, procedures, pharmacologic agents, and emerging therapies, such as neurokinin-receptor antagonists. The efficacy, safety, and clinical use of these treatments are detailed, offering insights for clinicians to make informed decisions in menopausal VMS management.


Asunto(s)
Sofocos , Menopausia , Femenino , Humanos , Sofocos/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia de Reemplazo de Estrógeno/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Hormonas/farmacología , Hormonas/uso terapéutico
16.
Int Wound J ; 21(4): e14865, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584345

RESUMEN

Keloid are a fibroproliferative disorder caused by abnormal healing of skin, specifically reticular dermis, when subjected to pathological or inflammatory scars demonstrating redness, elevation above the skin surface, extension beyond the original wound margins and resulting in an unappealing cosmetic appearance. The severity of keloids and risk of developing keloids scars are subjected to elevation by other contributing factors such as systemic diseases, general health conditions, genetic disorders, lifestyle and natural environment. In particular, recently, daily physical work interpreted into mechanical force as well as the interplay between mechanical factors such as stress, strain and stiffness have been reported to strongly modulate the cellular behaviour of keloid formation, affect their location and shape in keloids. Herein, we review the extensive literature on the effects of these factors on keloids and the contributing predisposing mechanisms. Early understanding of these participating factors and their effects in developing keloids may raise the patient awareness in preventing keloids incidence and controlling its severity. Moreover, further studies into their association with keloids as well as considering strategies to control such factors may help clinicians to prevent keloids and widen the therapeutic options.


Asunto(s)
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Queloide , Humanos , Queloide/etiología , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/terapia , Piel/patología , Dermis/patología , Estilo de Vida
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 599-601, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591311

RESUMEN

The past few decades have witnessed an unprecedented surge in health-related mobile applications. However, most of these applications primarily focus on lifestyle domains such as sleep, fitness, and nutrition. A notable stride in this landscape involves the emergence of applications catering specifically to rehabilitation needs. This expert review aims to provide an encompassing overview of the wide spectrum of apps available for both assessment and rehabilitation. It delves into the existing constraints associated with these tools and deliberates on the potential avenues for future advancements and integration for future advancements and integration. The transformative potential of this mobile, affordable, and user-friendly technology in reshaping the field of rehabilitation sciences will be highlighted. This article underscores how harnessing these innovations can elevate accessibility and effectiveness in the rehabilitation processes, leading to improved overall outcomes and wellbeing.


Asunto(s)
Aplicaciones Móviles , Telemedicina , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Estilo de Vida , Ejercicio Físico
18.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 75(1): 45-58, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586867

RESUMEN

Background: There is growing strong scientific evidence over the past few decades that the Mediterranean diet (MD) has protective effects on cardiometabolic health. Objective: This study aimed to assess MD adherence and its association with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors among women living in two Moroccan provinces, El Jadida and Tetouan, located at different distances from the Mediterranean Sea. Material and methods: It is a cross-sectional study involved 355 subjects of which 55.8% reside in the province of El Jadida, and data on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, cardiovascular risks, medical history and of food frequency consumption were collected. Compliance with the MD was assessed with a simplified MD adherence score based on the weekly frequency of consumption of eight food groups. Results: The overall mean Simplified Mediterranean Diet Score was 4.37 ± 1.47 with inadequate compliance in 55.2% of the sample. No significant association was found between adherence to MD and geographic, socio-demographic, lifestyle or the major cardiovascular risk factors. However, the participants do not comply with half of the recommendations based on the Mediterranean diet pyramid. The lowest level of compliance was observed for olive oil, followed by sweets, eggs, potatoes, fruits, red meat, vegetables, legumes, olives, nuts and seeds. The increased contribution of sugars, dairy products and meat to the overall food intake is significant in the category with high adherence to MD. Conclusion: The study data indicate that Mediterranean Diet is far from being a global pattern in this Moroccan population. The study draws attention to the need for a promoting intervention to maintain this pattern as the original diet in the region.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Mediterránea , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Mar Mediterráneo , Verduras , Estilo de Vida
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3042, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589358

RESUMEN

The development of an effective survival prediction tool is key for reducing colorectal cancer mortality. Here, we apply a three-stage study to devise a polygenic prognostic score (PPS) for stratifying colorectal cancer overall survival. Leveraging two cohorts of 3703 patients, we first perform a genome-wide survival association analysis to develop eight candidate PPSs. Further using an independent cohort with 470 patients, we identify the 287 variants-derived PPS (i.e., PPS287) achieving an optimal prediction performance [hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.99, P = 1.76 × 10-8], accompanied by additional tests in two external cohorts, with HRs per SD of 1.90 (P = 3.21 × 10-14; 543 patients) and 1.80 (P = 1.11 × 10-9; 713 patients). Notably, the detrimental impact of pathologic characteristics and genetic risk could be attenuated by a healthy lifestyle, yielding a 7.62% improvement in the 5-year overall survival rate. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the integrated contribution of pathologic characteristics, germline variants, and lifestyle exposure to the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Tasa de Supervivencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estilo de Vida
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(9): 1108-1120, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577179

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although chronic erosive gastritis (CEG) is common, its clinical characteristics have not been fully elucidated. The lack of consensus regarding its treatment has resulted in varied treatment regimens. AIM: To explore the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and short-term outcomes in CEG patients in China. METHODS: We recruited patients with chronic non-atrophic or mild-to-moderate atrophic gastritis with erosion based on endoscopy and pathology. Patients and treating physicians completed a questionnaire regarding history, endoscopic findings, and treatment plans as well as a follow-up questionnaire to investigate changes in symptoms after 4 wk of treatment. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred sixty-three patients from 42 centers across 24 cities in China were included. Epigastric pain (68.0%), abdominal distension (62.6%), and postprandial fullness (47.5%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Gastritis was classified as chronic non-atrophic in 69.9% of patients. Among those with erosive lesions, 72.1% of patients had lesions in the antrum, 51.0% had multiple lesions, and 67.3% had superficial flat lesions. In patients with epigastric pain, the combination of a mucosal protective agent (MPA) and proton pump inhibitor was more effective. For those with postprandial fullness, acid regurgitation, early satiety, or nausea, a MPA appeared more promising. CONCLUSION: CEG is a multifactorial disease which is common in Asian patients and has non-specific symptoms. Gastroscopy may play a major role in its detection and diagnosis. Treatment should be individualized based on symptom profile.


Asunto(s)
Gastritis Atrófica , Gastritis , Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Úlcera Gástrica , Humanos , Gastritis/diagnóstico , Gastritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gastritis/epidemiología , Gastritis Atrófica/diagnóstico , Gastritis Atrófica/epidemiología , Gastritis Atrófica/patología , Úlcera Gástrica/patología , Gastroscopía , Dolor , Estilo de Vida , Mucosa Gástrica/patología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/patología
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