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2.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020001, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028546

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of multimorbidity (MM) and its correlates among older adults remain poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with MM in New Zealand. METHODS: People aged 55-70 years were invited to participate in a population-based cohort study, the Health Work and Retirement Study, in 2006. Those who accepted the invitation and completed the baseline questionnaire were followed up on a biennial basis. Data on socio-demographic factors, health and lifestyle behaviours, and diagnoses of chronic diseases were obtained from baseline and 6 waves of follow-up. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) adjusted for both time-constant and time-varying factors were used to model factors associated with the onset of MM. RESULTS: A total of 1,673 participants (with 0 or 1 chronic condition) contributed to an overall 8,616 person-years of observation. There were 590 new cases of MM over 10 years of follow-up, corresponding to an overall incidence of 68.5 per 1,000 person-years. The results of the age- and sex-adjusted GEE analysis showed that age, ethnicity, living alone, obesity, hypertension, and having 1 chronic condition at baseline were significant predictors of MM onset. Higher education, income, physical activity, and regular alcohol consumption were protective factors. In a fully adjusted model, marital status (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.37; p=0.039), hypertension (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.48; p=0.032) and having 1 chronic condition at baseline (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.33 to 3.67; p<0.001) remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: The higher incidence of MM among Maori people, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, those with low physical activity, and obese individuals highlights the importance of targeted prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Multimorbilidad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18915, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000398

RESUMEN

To investigate the relationship between life style, medication adherence and the development of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention.A total of 230 patients with coronary heart disease were recruited and investigated with semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, international physical activity questionnaire, screening tool for psychological and Morisky questionnarie. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.Logistic regression analysis revealed that there was positive correlation between Morisky score (OR = 1.503), anger (OR = 1.135) and restenosis; and there was negative correlation between physical activity (OR = 0.346), folate intake (OR = 0.926), Vitamin C ingestion (OR = 0.881) and restenosis.The lifestyle and medication adherence of patients after percutaneous coronary intervention are predictors of restenosis, suggesting that it is necessary to strength intervention program to reduce restenosis.


Asunto(s)
Reestenosis Coronaria/etiología , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
4.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(1): 27-30, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910758

RESUMEN

GeoLaus, a Study on the Influence of Geo-Environmental Characteristics on Population Health Abstract. Geographic information on risk factors for health or disease is increasingly being used to understand the determinants of health. GeoLaus is a project initiated in 2015 that studies the impact of living spaces and socio-economic situation, on physical and mental health and on different lifestyle habits. This paper discusses and illustrates the use of spatial information in CoLaus to understand the determinants of obesity and daytime sleepiness. The first results of the GeoLaus study open new perspectives on population health.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida , Salud Mental , Obesidad , Geografía , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 177-182, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915355

RESUMEN

Global population is ageing and Bangladesh has one of the fastest growing ageing populations in this region. Growth in the elderly population relative to other age groups challenges existing health services, family relationships and social security. Combined with this, depression has become a major mental health problem for elderly people especially for urban elderly for nuclear family norm in urban areas. The study was descriptive type of cross-sectional in nature and was conducted in Rangpur Medical College Hospital, Rangpur & Prime Medical College Hospital, Rangpur, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to assess the lifestyle and level of depression in urban elderly. Depression was measured by questionnaire of geriatric depression scale among 254 respondents. 87.8% of the respondents were age between 60-70 years. Majorities (63%) of the respondents were male, 54% of the respondents lived in nuclear type family and the rest (46%) in joint type of family. Among respondents near half (47.2%) of the respondents found Mild depressive, around one third (32.7%) were severe depressive, and the rest (20.1%) were normal. There was significant association between occupational status of the respondents and depression (x² = 45.600, df=14, p=0.000). Farmers unemployed found severely depressive (52.1%) followed by day-labourer (50%) and businessmen (37.5%). There was significant association between financial self dependency and depression of the respondents (x²= 34.072, df=4, p=0.000). Severe depression (43.8%) was found among those who were not financially self dependent. There was also significant association between monthly income and depression of the respondents (x²= 67.327, df=8, p=0.000). The study also found that lower income group (

Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/etnología , Depresión/psicología , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18486, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895781

RESUMEN

We have been examining the Comprehensive Health Check of the Fukushima Health Management Survey of residents of 13 municipalities who were forced by the government to evacuate due to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). Our findings showed that evacuation is a risk factor for polycythemia and suggested that experiencing an unprecedented disaster and exposure to chronic stress due to evacuation might be a cause of polycythemia.We analyzed the relationship between the prevalence of polycythemia and the following factors observed in the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey in an observational study with a cross-sectional design: traumatic symptoms, depression status, socioeconomic factors such as residential environment, and working situation after the GEJE. Target population of the survey included men and women who were at least 15 years of age and who lived in the evacuation zones specified by the government. Participants analyzed consisted of 29,474 persons (12,379 men and 16,888 women) who had participated in both the 2011 Comprehensive Health Check and Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 through March 2012.The prevalence of polycythemia was not associated with mental states associated with traumatic symptoms (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale ≥ 44) and depression status (Kessler 6-item Scale ≥ 13). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that there was a tendency for males to develop polycythemia, with characteristics such as being aged 65 years and older, highly educated, obese (body mass index ≥ 25), hypertensive, diabetic, having liver dysfunction, and a smoker being significantly related to the prevalence of polycythemia.Our findings conclusively demonstrated that polycythemia was not significantly related to psychological factors, but was significantly related to the onset of lifestyle-related disease after the GEJE.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Policitemia/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causalidad , Comorbilidad , Terremotos , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Policitemia/etiología , Policitemia/psicología , Prevalencia , Tsunamis , Adulto Joven
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18753, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914097

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and explore the association between sleep duration and MetS. This study enrolled 8 272 adults aged 18 years and older from 6 urban and 8 rural areas during 2013 to 2014in Henan China. Participants were interviewed about demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and medical history, and physical measurements were performed. The relationships between sleep duration and MetS were evaluated and plotted by Restricted Cubic Spline Regression. The mean age was 51.5 years (SD 14.2) and 4 916 (59.4%) were female. The crude prevalence of MetS was 30.3% and the age-standardized rate was 23.6%. Men were more likely to have MetS than women (P = .01). MetS was positively associated with age, education, smoking, drinking, BMI and sleep duration, and seemed irrelevant to occupation and sedentary behavior. In terms of individual component of MetS, high blood pressure was the most prevalent component for both men and women, while the lowest prevalent was high triglycerides in men and for women was low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). There was a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and MetS and its components. Sleep duration <6 hours or >9 hours were associated with higher risk of MetS (OR from 1.10 to 2.15). The MetS was prevalent, and more than half of total adult population was suffering from high blood pressure. Sleep duration may be a determinant of metabolic health. Both short (<6 hours) and long sleep duration (>9 hours) was linked to an increased risk of MetS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Sueño/fisiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo
9.
Herz ; 45(1): 24-29, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970461

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Apart from a few exceptions heart attack, stroke and peripheral arterial occlusive disease first occur in later adulthood. The cornerstone for these diseases, however, is already laid by accelerated vascular aging in childhood. Apart from pediatric medical preventive check-ups, the medical care of the parents should also be a reason for taking action. A detailed family history enables many conclusions to be drawn about the cardiovascular risk of the next generation This requires targeted diagnostics and appropriate interventions in childhood ranging from lifestyle measures up to pharmaceutical therapy. In this context the current guidelines on the diagnostics and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension in children and adolescents are also presented.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Hipercolesterolemia , Hipertensión , Estilo de Vida , Infarto del Miocardio , Adolescente , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Niño , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicaciones , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Infarto del Miocardio/etiología , Infarto del Miocardio/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Herz ; 45(1): 30-38, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993680

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle lifelong is capable of significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk by up to 70% and is therefore a key component in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. According to the European and American guidelines lifestyle interventions include not smoking, daily physical activity of ≥150 min/week at moderate intensity or 75 min/week for higher intensity physical activity, a cardioprotective nutrition (high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, low amounts of saturated fatty acids and low salt intake), normal body weight (body mass index 20-25 kg/m2), arterial blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg (optimum <130/80 mm Hg), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol target values depending on the cardiovascular risk and a normal glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus with adjustment of a HbA1c to <7%. Lifestyle measures with weight reduction and intensification of physical activity can improve the cardiometabolic risk factors. In this way reduction of the systolic and diastolic blood pressures by approximately 10-15 mm Hg, reduction of HbA1c by approximately 1 % and reduction of triglycerides by ca. 30-40 % are possible. The LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) levels cannot be easily influenced. Beyond the recommendations for a cardioprotective lifestyle, additional pharmacological therapy may have to be added depending on the cardiovascular risk profile.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida , Prevención Primaria , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Gene ; 726: 144174, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647999

RESUMEN

At least 1/3 of all acquired solid cancers produce unusual cyst-like structures (CLSs, PGCCs) with simultaneous loss of p53 function. However, p53 deficiency or accumulated mutations are not the causes of aCLS cancers. The cause is the reversal, to unicellularity, of a metabolic stressed cell by activating silenced transition switches and ancestral gene networks inherited from early Metazoans. After reprogramming and transformation the cell-of-origin of cancer bypasses mitosis and forms the polyploid pCLS, the homemade pathogen of aCLS cancers. pCLS's daughter cells (microcells) generate the pretumorigenic cancer stem cell pool (pCSCs) that start in turn the unicellular cancer cell lineage containing reproductive and somatic sublines. While the reproductive subline gives rise to new autonomous aCLSs by asymmetric division and cyclic differentiation, the somatic subline grows aCLS free. In the course of cancer evolution, some of the somatic mutants convert to stem cell precursors (SCPs). Somatic SCPs transfer part of somatic mutations and epimutations to the genome of newly formed reproductive clones. In this way, subsequent generations of tumorigenic and metastatic CSCs are being produced. aCLS cancer development is neither chaotic nor deregulated it follows unicellular development patterns. The unicellular program is controlled by mechanisms from early eukaryotic evolution.


Asunto(s)
Carcinogénesis/genética , Epigénesis Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Animales , Diferenciación Celular/genética , Linaje de la Célula/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genómica/métodos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Mutación/genética , Células Madre Neoplásicas/patología , Poliploidía
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 58-65, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730884

RESUMEN

This study proposes the application of the comet assay for the evaluation of DNA damage from frozen human whole blood samples that could be readily used in human biomonitoring and epidemiological studies. It was done on simply frozen whole blood samples collected from male volunteers (N = 60) aliquoted in small volumes and stored at -80 °C without the addition of cryopreservatives for a period of 5 years. To test the applicability of the alkaline comet assay for the evaluation of DNA damage in frozen whole blood, samples were quickly thawed at 37 °C and immediately embedded in an agarose matrix followed by an alkaline comet assay procedure. We concluded that the whole blood freezing and prolonged storage do not severely affect comet assay values, although background values were higher compared to our historical control data from the fresh whole blood. Even the influence of the variables tested, such as age, body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption were in agreement with our previous data using fresh blood. The obtained results suggest that the comet assay could be applied to frozen blood samples, if properly stored, even for decades, which would certainly facilitate large-scale human biomonitoring and long-term epidemiological studies.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de la Sangre/efectos adversos , Sangre , Ensayo Cometa/métodos , Daño del ADN , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Criopreservación , Congelación , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Monitoreo Fisiológico , Adulto Joven
13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 861-873, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMEN

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/etiología , Etanol/efectos adversos , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
14.
BJOG ; 127(1): 39-45, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444892

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation between famine exposure in early life and subsequent pregnancy loss, including stillbirth, and spontaneous abortion in adulthood. DESIGN: A population-based, partly ecological study. SETTING AND POPULATION: Individual data of 58 601 females born around the time of the Great Chinese Famine in 1959-1961. METHODS: Associations between the famine exposure in early life and pregnancy loss (stillbirth and spontaneous abortion) in adulthood were analysed using negative binomial regression, with the non-exposure group as reference, adjusting for region, highest education, monthly income, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, body mass index in 25-year-olds and metabolic equivalent. Further analyses were stratified by rural versus urban region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Continuous variables of times of stillbirths and spontaneous abortions were used according to the individual self-reported reproductive history. RESULTS: No association was found between famine exposure and spontaneous abortion. In contrast, females experiencing the famine during their prenatal period (incidence rate ratio = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00-1.33) or infant period (incidence rate ratio = 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.44) were more likely to report stillbirth in later adult life. Such an association appeared stronger in women living in rural regions. CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure of famine was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth but not spontaneous abortion in adulthood. The strength of such an association appeared stronger in rural areas. Given the high potential for unmeasured confounding, these associations must be interpreted with caution. Regarding the potential implication that undernutrition in the fetal period is related to reproductive outcome in adulthood, fetal nutritional supply may play an important role in human reproduction. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Exposure to famine in early life was associated with increased pregnancy loss in adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Mortinato/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Salud Rural
15.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124898, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557644

RESUMEN

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, biomarkers of internal PAH exposure, are commonly used to explore the effects of PAH on human health. However, the correlation between environmental PAH exposure and the species or levels of urinary PAH metabolites remains unclear. We collected detailed information on PAH exposure sources, including cigarette smoking, cooking, traffic and diet habits via structured questionnaires, and determined 12 urinary monohydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) among 4092 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort. Linear mixed models and generalized linear models were conducted to explore the associations of urinary metabolite levels with single or multiple PAH exposure sources. We also calculated the standardized regression coefficients to further compare the contributions of different sources to urinary OH-PAH levels. Our results showed that increasing levels of urinary 1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (1-, 2- OHNa) and 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHFlu) were significantly correlated with tobacco smoking (all P < 0.01). The concentrations of 1-, 2- OHNa and 9-hydroxyfluorene (9-OHFlu) were positively correlated with dietary intake (all P < 0.05). Individuals who spent a long time in traffic showed elevated levels of 9-OHFlu and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPh) compared with individuals who spent a short time in traffic (all P < 0.05). Self-cooking was associated only with elevated 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Moreover, good kitchen ventilation resulted in significantly decreased urinary low-molecular-weight OH-PAH levels. These findings suggested that cigarette smoking, self-cooking, high dietary PAH intake and a long time spent in traffic were associated with increased levels of specific urinary PAH metabolites, and good kitchen ventilation effectively reduced the exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in self-cooking participants.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/orina , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/orina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/orina , China , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Fluorenos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineales , Pulmón/metabolismo , Masculino , Naftoles , Fenantrenos
16.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 29(2): 151-161, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847612

RESUMEN

Introduction: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading cause of liver disease in children and adults, a major contributor to health-care expenditures, and now a leading reason for liver transplantation. Adopting lifestyle modifications with regular exercise and a focus on healthy eating habits is the primary recommendation. However, patients are often unable to achieve and sustain such changes for a variety of social, physical, psychological and genetic reasons. Thus, treatments that can prevent and reverse NASH and its associated fibrosis are a major focus of current drug development.Areas covered: This review covers the current understanding of lipotoxic liver injury in the pathogenesis of NASH and how lifestyle modification and the spectrum of drugs currently in clinical trials address the many pathways leading to the phenotype of NASH.Expert opinion: Contrary to the frequently expressed nihilistic view of our understanding of NASH and disappointment with clinical trial results, much is known about the pathogenesis of NASH and there is much reason to be optimistic that effective therapies will be identified in the next 5-10 years. Achieving this will require continued refinement of clinical trial endpoints, continued engagement of trial sponsors and regulatory authorities, and continued participation of dedicated patients in clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo de Medicamentos , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Adulto , Animales , Niño , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Trasplante de Hígado , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/fisiopatología
17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 627-634, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868574

RESUMEN

Early detection of colorectal neoplasms can reduce the disease burden of colorectal cancer by timely intervention of individuals at high risk. Our aim was to evaluate a joint environmental-genetic risk score as a risk stratification tool for early detection of advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN). Known environmental risk factors and high-risk genetic loci were summarized into risk scores for ACRN in 1014 eligible participants of a screening study. The performances of single and joint environmental-genetic scores were evaluated with estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the absolute risk, relative risk and predictive ability using the area under the curve (AUC). Individuals with higher environmental risk scores showed increasing ACRN risk, with 3.1-fold for intermediate risk and 4.8-fold for very high risk, compared to the very low environmental risk group. Similarly, individuals with higher genetic risk scores showed increasing ACRN risk, with 2.2-fold for intermediate risk and 3.5-fold for very high risk, compared to the lowest genetic risk group. Moreover, the joint environmental-genetic score improved the ACRN risk stratification and showed higher predictive values (AUC = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.60-0.67) with substantial difference (p = 0.0002) compared to the single environmental score (0.58; 0.55-0.62). The integration of environmental and genetic factors looks promising for improving targeting individuals at high-risk of colorectal neoplasm. Applications in practical screening programs require optimization with additional genetic and other biomarkers involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Colonoscopía/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/etiología , Femenino , Sitios Genéticos/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Anamnesis , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 874-883, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107541

RESUMEN

Substantial changes in the prevalence of the principal kidney and bladder cancer risk factors, smoking (both cancers) and body fatness (kidney cancer), have occurred but the contemporary cancer burden attributable to these factors has not been evaluated. We quantified the kidney and bladder cancer burden attributable to individual and joint exposures and assessed whether these burdens differ between population subgroups. We linked pooled data from seven Australian cohorts (N = 367,058) to national cancer and death registries and estimated the strength of the associations between exposures and cancer using adjusted proportional hazards models. We estimated exposure prevalence from representative contemporaneous health surveys. We combined these estimates to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), accounting for competing risk of death, and compared PAFs for population subgroups. During the first 10-year follow-up, 550 kidney and 530 bladder cancers were diagnosed and over 21,000 people died from any cause. Current levels of overweight and obesity explain 28.8% (CI = 17.3-38.7%), current or past smoking 15.5% (CI = 6.0-24.1%) and these exposures jointly 39.6% (CI = 27.5-49.7%) of the kidney cancer burden. Current or past smoking explains 44.4% (CI = 35.4-52.1%) of the bladder cancer burden, with 24.4% attributable to current smoking. Ever smoking explains more than half (53.4%) of the bladder cancer burden in men, and the burden potentially preventable by quitting smoking is highest in men (30.4%), those aged <65 years (28.0%) and those consuming >2 standard alcoholic drinks/day (41.2%). In conclusion, large fractions of kidney and bladder cancers in Australia are preventable by behavior change.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista , Costo de Enfermedad , Neoplasias Renales/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Predicción , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renales/prevención & control , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/terapia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
19.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1851-1857, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792462

RESUMEN

Proteins are effector molecules that mediate the functions of genes1,2 and modulate comorbidities3-10, behaviors and drug treatments11. They represent an enormous potential resource for personalized, systemic and data-driven diagnosis, prevention, monitoring and treatment. However, the concept of using plasma proteins for individualized health assessment across many health conditions simultaneously has not been tested. Here, we show that plasma protein expression patterns strongly encode for multiple different health states, future disease risks and lifestyle behaviors. We developed and validated protein-phenotype models for 11 different health indicators: liver fat, kidney filtration, percentage body fat, visceral fat mass, lean body mass, cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, diabetes risk and primary cardiovascular event risk. The analyses were prospectively planned, documented and executed at scale on archived samples and clinical data, with a total of ~85 million protein measurements in 16,894 participants. Our proof-of-concept study demonstrates that protein expression patterns reliably encode for many different health issues, and that large-scale protein scanning12-16 coupled with machine learning is viable for the development and future simultaneous delivery of multiple measures of health. We anticipate that, with further validation and the addition of more protein-phenotype models, this approach could enable a single-source, individualized so-called liquid health check.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Composición Corporal/genética , Ejercicio , Medicina de Precisión , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Grasa Intraabdominal/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1685-1692, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793475

RESUMEN

Objectives: Obesity was previously seen as a problem in high-income countries. It is also a problem in low and middle-income countries today. The sedentary lifestyle has made this situation more pronounced. Childhood obesity continues in adulthood. Adequate and balanced nutrition and mobile lifestyle have a great role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among primary and secondary school students and related factors. Methods: The sample size was calculated as 1278 (213 × 6) for the gender distribution to be appropriate and for the primary and secondary school students to be included in the district center and villages. Considering 15% of the students' non-response rate, the number of students planned to be reached is 1500. Selection was made after the students were ranked by class, gender and place of residence. Of the 1500 students who were sampled, 1298 (86.53%) were evaluated. Results: There was no difference in body mass index between gender and place of residence. The prevalence of being overweight or obesity among secondary school students (25.2%) was significantly higher than primary school students (20.5%). Conclusion: In the childhood age group; sedentary lifestyle, having breakfast and obesity in parents had a significant effect on obesity. It is considered important for children and family members to have proper nutrition and mobile life behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas
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