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1.
N Z Med J ; 133(1527): 51-70, 2020 12 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332328

RESUMEN

AIM: To update data previously published on the health profile of the refugees resettling in New Zealand, and to draw attention to the change in health profile over time, with a decline of infectious disease/deficiencies, and a rise of non-communicable diseases, a worldwide phenomenon. METHOD: Comparative data was extracted from (1) written annual reports prepared by medical officers at the Mangere Refugee Resettlement Centre (1978-1991), (2) a Microsoft ACCESS patient management system between 1995 and 1999 and (3) a MEDTECH patient management system between 2010 and 2014. RESULTS: Over the period 1979-2014, the rate of infectious diseases has declined markedly in resettling refugees, and the rate of non-communicable diseases has increased. For example, the incidence of tuberculosis has decreased from 4% to 0.2%, gut parasites from more than 40% to, in some intakes, 15% and iron deficiency from 22% to 10%, while the diabetes rate has gone from 0.1% to 2.7%. CONCLUSION: While management of unfamiliar infectious diseases and deficiencies (especially vitamin D) still remains an important part of the management of refugee health, their management usually involves limited time and expense, and their burden is much less than before. However, refugees now resettling in New Zealand and the rest of the world often present with familiar non-communicable diseases that require long-term management.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/etnología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Asia Sudoriental/etnología , Bután/etnología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/etnología , Conducta Anticonceptiva/etnología , Conducta Anticonceptiva/tendencias , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/etnología , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/etnología , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/etnología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Parasitosis Intestinales/etnología , Irak/etnología , Masculino , Salud Mental/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/etnología , Uso de Tabaco/etnología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/etnología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/etnología , Adulto Joven
2.
Microbes Infect ; 22(9): 400-402, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653475

RESUMEN

In this commentary we argue that the hygiene hypothesis may apply to COVID-19 susceptibility and also that residence in low hygienic conditions acts to train innate immune defenses to minimize the severity of infection. We advocate that approaches, which elevate innate immune functions, should be used to minimize the consequences of COVID-19 infection at least until effective vaccines and antiviral therapies are developed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Hipótesis de la Higiene , Higiene/economía , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Alérgenos/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Países Desarrollados/economía , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Vacunas Virales/biosíntesis
4.
Orv Hetil ; 161(27): 1137-1145, 2020 07.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564005

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Population-specific obesity in different age groups and in the Roma population as well as the presence of noncommunicable diseases that are linked to obesity necessitate the development of ethnical-specific prevention and intervention programmes. AIM: Our goal is to model the effects on nutritional status of interventional programmes of different intensities carried out in various age groups of the Roma population. METHOD: We defined the effect of different public health interventions on the state of health of the Roma population by use of the Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment software. Two models of interventions were studied throughout our research: one that focuses on only one aspect of lifestyle changes; and one that includes radical prevention programmes that aim to change lifestyles as a whole and have an impact on nutritional status. RESULTS: Nearly 20% of Roma men and women are obese, and by 2070, one third of the Roma population will be overweight or obese without any public health intervention. Not even when the most efficient proceedings of the scientific literature are applied do prevention-intervention programmes of moderate-intensity offer a perceptible result about the incidence and prevalence of diseases linked to obesity. In the case of application of these programs, not more than a ten-person order of magnitude decrease can be achieved. This is not enough to prove a statistical detectability on the population level. Whereas, complex intervention programmes, based on a comprehensive transformation of lifestyle and food consumption patterns can present perceptible outcome primarily among the middle-aged and the elderly. CONCLUSION: The survey results direct attention to the fact that reducing the burden of disease in the Roma population caused by obesity is only to be achieved as a complex, all-councils act that requires resources much greater than what is available now. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(27): 1137-1145.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud/métodos , Obesidad/etnología , Calidad de Vida , Ciudad de Roma/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Costo de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/etnología
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233904, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479509

RESUMEN

Racial and ethnic minorities are at higher risk for a variety of diseases. While sociodemographic and lifestyle factors contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities, the biological processes underlying these associations remain poorly understood. Stress and its biological consequences through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) have been hypothesized to mediate adverse disease outcomes. In fasting morning samples of 503 control women from the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study, we used a sensitive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) assay to examine the association of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with plasma glucocorticogenic (G) activity in three racial/ethnic groups. The G activity is a sensitive measure that reflects biological activity of total plasma glucocorticoids including cortisol and glucocorticoid-like compounds. Associations between G activity and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were examined using multivariable linear regression models. Latina and non-Latina Black (NLB) women had 9% (P = 0.053) and 14% (P = 0.008) lower morning G activity than non-Latina White (NLW) women, respectively. Additionally, we replicated a previously reported association between G activity and alcohol intake (women who drank >10gms had 19% higher G activity than non-drinkers, P = 0.004) in Latina and NLB women. Further research should assess the association between G activity and health outcomes in a prospective cohort so as to characterize the relationship between total plasma G activity in pre-disease state and disease outcomes across different racial/ethnic populations.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/sangre , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Prospectivos , San Francisco/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 52, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthy Dads Healthy Kids (HDHK) is a unique lifestyle obesity intervention for fathers and children that demonstrated weight loss among the fathers and behavior change among fathers and children in Australia. The program is gender-tailored to specifically target fathers for weight loss and 5-12 year old children for obesity prevention. The aim of this formative study was to examine an Expert Panel's and Hispanic Family Panel's perceptions about the program and suggestions for the cultural adaptation of HDHK for Hispanic families in southwestern US. METHODS: Forty-four Hispanic participants (22 fathers, 13 mothers and 9 children) made up the Family Panel. They participated in 1-5 study contacts (focus groups, online survey, and/or interviews). The scripts and qualitative guides assessed participants' perceptions of the HDHK content and material using the Ecological Validity Model. Studies were conducted in English or Spanish, depending on the preference of the participant. Focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, and thematically coded. Findings were reviewed with the Expert Panel who helped inform the cultural adaptation. RESULTS: 80% of parents were foreign-born, 57% spoke only Spanish at home, and 60% did not graduate from high school. Several themes emerged to inform the cultural adaptation of the program. Parents agreed with the HDHK goals and recommended the program place greater emphasis on parenting and limiting children's screen time. Some mothers and fathers wanted greater mother engagement. Weekly videos and a Facebook group emerged as favorite alternative options to engage mothers. Greater promotion of familism (inclusion and impact on whole family) was recommended for the program goals and activities. Gender roles for mothers and fathers, and differences in how fathers interact with male and female children, emerged and should be considered in program activities. Several barriers to father engagement surfaced, including lack of time due to work schedules, physically demanding jobs, concerns of caring for children without mother, fathers' current fitness/weight, and lack of knowledge of how to eat more healthfully. The reading level of the HDHK materials was too high for some parents. CONCLUSION: Findings from these formative qualitative studies informed the cultural adaptation of HDHK for Hispanic families, to account for literacy level, cultural values, and barriers to participation and engagement.


Asunto(s)
Familia/etnología , Relaciones Padre-Hijo , Padre/psicología , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Alfabetización , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/etnología , Desarrollo de Programa , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Texas/epidemiología
7.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(3): 239-249, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266707

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study examined the prevalence of pre-hypertension (PHT) and hypertension (HT) in urban youth, and assessed the effects of sodium intake and obesity on blood pressure (BP) by ethnicity. METHODS: A convenience sample of 557 multiethnic youth, aged 11-23 years, was recruited from 12 schools and institutions in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Participants were divided by self-identified ethnicity into four groups (Indigenous, African and Middle Eastern (AME), Asian, and European). RESULTS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, one-on-one interviews were conducted to collect data on demographics, physical activity, diet, and Body Mass Index (BMI). BP was obtained at two different times during the interview and measured a third time in cases of high variability. The standard deviation scores (SDS) of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were used to estimate associations with sodium intake (per 1000 mg/day). Overall, 18.2% and 5.4% of the participants had PHT and HT, respectively. Indigenous and AME participants showed the highest rates of PHT (23.1%). Indigenous and European participants showed higher rates of HT (8.3% and 5.3%, respectively) than other ethnic groups (AME = 4.4%, Asian = 3.9%). There was a positive association between 1000 mg/day increase in sodium intake and SDS of SBP by 0.041 (95% CI 0.007-0.083; p = 0.04) among pre-hypertensive participants. Over 85% of participants exceeded the recommended dietary sodium intake. Mean BMI and dietary sodium intake were higher among pre-hypertensive participants (4219 mg/day) than normotensive (3475 mg/day). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HT varied by ethnicity. High dietary sodium intake was of concern. There is a need for culturally-tailored, population-based interventions to reduce sodium intake.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Hipertensión/etnología , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Prehipertensión/etnología , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Salud Urbana/etnología , Adolescente , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Factores de Edad , Alberta/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dieta Hiposódica/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Indios Norteamericanos , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidad Pediátrica/etnología , Prehipertensión/diagnóstico , Prehipertensión/fisiopatología , Prehipertensión/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Factores Raciales , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adulto Joven
8.
J Psychosom Res ; 132: 109973, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146250

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing psychosocial stress may underlie contemporary obesity trends. We investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between negative life events (NLEs) and anthropometric indicators, and whether these are explained by lifestyle, depression and sleeping problems. METHODS: Participants in the Swedish INTERGENE cohort answered questions about ten types of NLE, and indicated whether they occurred during the last year or earlier (2001-04, n = 2706). Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline, and at follow-up (2014-16, n = 974). Numbers of recent and distant NLE were related to anthropometric variables using linear models including age, sex, and education, and further adjusted for lifestyle, and psychological problems. Prospective models were adjusted for baseline anthropometric values. RESULTS: Participants reported on average 3.6 types of NLEs, of which 70% were experienced more than one year ago. At baseline, distant but not recent NLEs were associated with higher values of both BMI and WHR. These associations were explained in part by lifestyle and depression assessed at baseline. Recent but not distant NLEs predicted gain in BMI, 0.19 (0.07, 0.30) kg/m2, and WHR, 0.005 (0.002, 0.007), per event and independent of baseline covariates. The largest associations were seen for job insecurity and financial worries, with 0.35 (0.17, 0.52) kg/m2 increase in BMI corresponding to approximately 1.2 kg per event, in both sexes. CONCLUSION: We observed positive associations between NLEs and weight gain over 13 years including signs of latency and recovery regarding adverse weight development.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida/etnología , Aumento de Peso/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Suecia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0224054, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191727

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Literature shows a high prevalence of MetS among Malaysians, varying across the major ethnicities. Since sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and diet habits of such communities have been reported to be diverse, the objective of this study was to investigate the association of various sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and diet habits with MetS overall, as well as with the three major ethnic communities in Malaysia, specifically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 481 Malaysians of ages 18 years and above living in the state of Johor, Malaysia. Information on demographics, lifestyle and diet habits were collected using a structured questionnaire. Harmonized criteria were used to assess the status of MetS. Multiple logistic regression was employed to determine any associations between sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and dietary behaviours with MetS. RESULTS: MetS was found among 32.2% of the respondents and was more prevalent among the Indians (51.9%), followed by the Malays (36.7%) and the Chinese (20.2%). Overall, increasing age (AOR = 2.44[95%CI = 1.27-4.70] at 40-49 years vs. AOR = 4.14[95%CI = 1.97-8.69] at 60 years and above) and Indian ethnicity (AOR = 1.95[95%CI = 1.12-3.38)] increased the odds of MetS, while higher education (AOR = 0.44[95%CI = 0.20-0.94] decreased the odds of MetS in this population. Quick finishing of meals (AOR = 2.17[95%CI = 1.02-4.60]) and low physical activity (AOR = 4.76[95%CI = 1.49-15.26]) were associated with increased odds of MetS among the Malays and the Chinese, respectively. CONCLUSION: The population of Johor depicts a diverse lifestyle and diet behaviour, and some of these factors are associated with MetS in certain ethnic groups. In the light of such differences, ethnic specific measures would be needed to reduce the prevalence of MetS among those in this population.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos , Conducta Alimentaria/etnología , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Síndrome Metabólico/etnología , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/etnología , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Malasia/etnología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 82, 2020 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192497

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Poor oral hygiene can lead to serious diseases, such as periodontitis, tooth decay, pain and discomfort in teeth or gums, infections, and loss of teeth. In Iran, adults aged 50 y and older are a high-risk group for oral health problems, and this age group will grow in the coming decades. Despite increasing attention on healthy aging, there is relatively less emphasis on oral hygiene and health-related problems. The present study investigated the oral health status of Iranian adults using the oral health self-assessment questionnaire (OHQ) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: A population-based household survey of a sample of adults aged 18-65 y was conducted. In this study, the participants were recruited between May and October 2016 in Tabriz, Iran, and the study population was sampled using a multi-stage cluster sampling design. The WHO's OHQ for adults was used for measuring oral health status and oral hygiene behavior. RESULTS: In total, 2310 respondents completed the survey. The mean age (SD) of the participants was 41.6(23.4) y. Males accounted for 48.8% of the participants. Of the 2310 respondents,187 (8.1%) individuals were edentulous, 152(20.7%) of whom were aged 51-65 y. Furthermore, 72.3% of those aged 51-65 y were dentate, and 50% of adults aged 51-65 y said they had 20 or more teeth. About one-third of the participants reported that they did not brush their teeth daily (23% of those aged 18-35 y,35.9% of those aged 36-50 y, and 44.6% for those aged 51-65 y). In the sample, 39.4% of individuals aged 18-35 y,34.1% of individuals aged 36-50 y, and 26.6% of individuals aged 51-65 y had visited a dentist less than 6 month ago. One-third of the participants consumed sweets and sugary drinks daily. CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of Iranian adults considered their oral health status good, only a small percentage of the sample visited their dentist regularly. Furthermore, visits to the dentist declined in accordance with increasing age, a time when the incidence of oral health problems may increase. Poor oral health may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes, particularly among the aging population.


Asunto(s)
Atención Odontológica , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Salud Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(1): e434, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126682

RESUMEN

Introducción: Según la Organización Panamericana de Salud, la incidencia de cáncer va en aumento. Entre los cánceres más prevalentes en Antioquia (Colombia), se destacan el de pulmón, colorrectal, mama, próstata y estómago. Objetivo: Describir los cambios en el estilo de vida, de las personas que presentan recurrencia o un segundo diagnóstico de cáncer. Métodos: Se estudiaron datos sociodemográficos, tipo de cáncer, tanto primario como secundario, antecedentes personales y familiares, cambios en actividad física, horas de sueño, consumo de cigarrillo y licor. Resultados: El primer diagnóstico de "otros tipos de cáncer" fue el más común. El antecedente más frecuente fue la hipertensión arterial, en casi 50 por ciento de los sujetos. Tras un primer diagnóstico de cáncer, tanto la práctica de actividad física, como el hábito de fumar y el consumo de alcohol, se redujeron de manera notoria en ambos sexos. En relación a la presencia de cáncer y los hábitos poco saludables, 28,1 por ciento de los hombres que reportaron ser fumadores, presentaron cáncer de próstata, donde el 25,8 por ciento tomaba licor. Conclusiones: Se observaron cambios destacados en los estilos de vida, en lo relacionado con el hábito de fumar, el cual disminuyó, al igual que el consumo de licor. Como aspecto negativo se observa la reducción en la práctica de actividad física y las horas dedicadas al sueño(AU)


Introduction: According to the Pan American Health Organization, the incidence of cancer is increasing. Among the most prevalent cancers in Antioquia (Colombia), there are lung, colorectal, breast, prostate and stomach. Objective: Describe the changes in lifestyle of people who have recurrence or a second diagnosis of cancer. Methods: Sociodemographic data, type of cancer, both primary and secondary, personal and family history, changes in physical activity, sleep hours, cigarette consumption and liquor were studied. Results: The first diagnosis of "other types of cancer" was the most common. Arterial hypertension was reported in almost 50 percent of the subjects. After a first diagnosis of cancer, both the practice of physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, were significantly reduced in both sexes. In relation to the presence of cancer and unhealthy habits, 28.1 percent of the men who reported being smokers had prostate cancer, where 25.8 percent consumed liquor. Conclusions: Notable changes in lifestyle were observed, in relation to the decrease in smoking, as well as the consumption of liquor. The negative aspect is the reduction in the practice of physical activity and the hours dedicated to sleep(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Próstata/prevención & control , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 27(2): 87-94, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073427

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is only over the last few decades that the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young South Asian population has been recognized. There has been a tremendous interest in elucidating the causes behind this phenomenon and these efforts have uncovered several mechanisms that might explain the early onset of CAD in this population. The complete risk profile of very young South Asians being affected by premature CAD still remains unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: The existing data fail to completely explain the burden of premature occurrence of CAD in South Asians especially in very young individuals. Results from some studies identified nine risk factors, including low consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking, alcohol, diabetes, psychosocial factors, sedentary lifestyle, abdominal obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia as the cause of myocardial infarction in 90% of the patients in this population. Recent large genome-wide association studies have discovered the association of several novel genetic loci with CAD in South Asians. Nonetheless, continued scientific efforts are required to further our understanding of the causal risk factors of CAD in South Asians to address the rising burden of CVD in this vulnerable population. SUMMARY: In this review, we discuss established and emerging risk factors of CAD in this population.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio/etnología , Infarto del Miocardio/etiología , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Asia/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/epidemiología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/etnología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/etiología , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/etnología
13.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 25(1): 20-27, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914332

RESUMEN

Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate foreign-born women's lifestyle and health before and during early pregnancy and compare them with those of Nordic-born women.Methods: Women recruited at antenatal clinics in Sweden answered a questionnaire in Swedish, English or Arabic or by telephone interview with an interpreter. Questions covered pregnancy planning and periconceptional lifestyle and health. The responses of women born in or outside Europe were compared with those of Nordic-born women. The impact of religiousness and integration on periconceptional lifestyle and health was also investigated.Results: Twelve percent of participants (N = 3389) were foreign-born (n = 414). Compared with Nordic women, European and non-European women consumed less alcohol before conception (respectively, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24, 0.58 and aOR 0.14; 95% CI 0.10, 0.19) and during early pregnancy (respectively, aOR 0.61; 95% CI 0.40, 0.91 and aOR 0.20; 95% CI 0.14, 0.29). Non-European women used less tobacco and were less physically active, but body mass index (BMI) did not differ between groups. Self-perceived health, stress and anxiety during early pregnancy did not differ, but non-European women more often had depressive symptoms (aOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.12, 2.51). Non-European women's healthy lifestyle was associated with religiousness but not with the level of integration.Conclusions: Non-European women were overall less likely to engage in harmful lifestyle habits before and during early pregnancy but were more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms in comparison with Nordic women.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Planificación Familiar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Atención Preconceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Mujeres Embarazadas/etnología , Salud de la Mujer/etnología , Adulto , Comparación Transcultural , Europa (Continente)/etnología , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Atención Preconceptiva/métodos , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suecia/etnología
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 171(3): 496-508, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930493

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The Sahel belt is occupied by populations who use two types of subsistence strategy, nomadic pastoralism and sedentary farming, and who belong to three linguistic families, Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, and Afro-Asiatic. Little is known, however, about the origins of these two populations and their mutual genetic relationships. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have built a large dataset of mitochondrial DNA sequences and Y chromosomal STR haplotypes of pastoralists and farmers belonging to all three linguistic phyla in the western, central, and eastern parts of the Sahel. We calculated pairwise genetic, geographic, and linguistic distances between populations and analyzed the effects of geography, language, and subsistence on population genetic structure. RESULTS: We found that subsistence mode significantly contributed to the generally low population structure in the Sahel and that language affiliation plays a more important role for pastoralists than for farmers. We also demonstrated that geographic isolation significantly influenced the population structure of sedentary farmers but not of nomadic pastoralists. Finally, we found haplotypes shared between the Fulani and Arabic-speaking Baggara, supporting the theory of Baggarization, which explains the recent adaptation of Arabic-speaking nomads in the Sahel region through contact with autochthonous sub-Saharan populations. CONCLUSIONS: Based on various genetic and archaeological evidence pertaining to the Sahel, we suggest that the idea of a bidirectional Sahelian corridor is valid, but that pastoralists made a more important contribution to its population structure. It is also possible that agropastoralists diverged into farmers and pastoralists in the early stages of formation of the Sahelian gene pool.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos Y , ADN Mitocondrial/análisis , Variación Genética , Estilo de Vida , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , África Central , África Oriental , África Occidental , Agricultura/clasificación , Evolución Cultural , Migración Humana , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Masculino
15.
Scand J Public Health ; 48(6): 583-593, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060480

RESUMEN

Background Globally, there is a huge lack of relevant research about widespread lifestyle diseases and living conditions in indigenous communities. Northern and Middle Norway have a history of multiple ethnic groups and the Sami has been acknowledged as the indigenous people of Norway by the Norwegian State. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, a part of the SAMINOR Study, was carried out to provide health information about the Sami population in Norway. Methods The cross-sectional population-based SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey consists of both questionnaires and a clinical examination performed in 10 municipalities during 2012-2014. Results In total, 6004 men and women (participation rate 48%) aged 40-79 years took part in this study. In inland Finnmark, the Sami are in the majority (80-90%) as opposed to the coastline of Troms and Nordland, where the Sami population form a minority (20%). More women than men participated (54% versus 43%, respectively). Obesity was prevalent in this sample and a high mean glycated haemoglobin was observed. Conclusions: This article describes the methods and data collection of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey and presents some characteristics of the sample. The definition of ethnic groups is a core question in the survey and includes several criteria. To ensure that indigenous values and priorities are reflected in the research themes, we recommend that future research projects be directed in close collaboration with the Sami Parliament and the local communities.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos de Población/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Obesidad/etnología , Condiciones Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Women Health ; 60(5): 487-501, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488046

RESUMEN

The present study investigated factors associated with health literacy in community-dwelling Taiwanese women, particularly focusing on those associated with prevalent unhealthy behaviors. This cross-sectional study recruited 353 community-dwelling women aged 39-89 years from February to October 2015 in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Variables investigated included physical activity, community activity, tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, and betel-nut chewing. Degree of health literacy was evaluated using the Chinese-language version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire. Most respondents had inadequate (17.6%), or problematic (49.3%), general health literacy. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that low educational attainment was closely associated with inadequate or problematic general health literacy. Women who did not engage in regular physical activity or direct community activity were more likely to have inadequate and problematic general health literacy, respectively. Selected unhealthy behaviors (tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, betel-nut chewing) were not associated with health literacy. Low health literacy was prevalent among participants. Lower educational attainment and a lack of physical or community activity were associated with low health literacy. Health literacy should be considered during the process of delivering health information, and health education programs must enhance health literacy tailored to address individuals' lifestyles.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Vida Independiente , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Características Culturales , Escolaridad , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1632, 2019 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801498

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies have assessed dietary behaviors in the rural multiethnic population of Northern Norway. The present study determined dietary patterns and investigated their association with Sami ethnicity, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle factors in a multiethnic population in rural Northern Norway. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 4504 participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey (2012-2014) aged 40-69 years. All participants completed a lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. Associations between food patterns and ethnicity, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle factors were examined by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Six dietary patterns were identified that accounted for 28% of the variability in food intake in the study sample: 'processed meat/westernized', 'fish/traditional', 'fruit/vegetables', 'reindeer/traditional', 'bread and sandwich spreads', and 'sweets and bakery goods'. The 'reindeer/traditional' pattern was most common among the inland Sami population. The 'fish/traditional' pattern was most common among costal multiethnic Sami and least common among inland Sami and among women independent of ethnicity. The 'fish/traditional' pattern was also positively associated with older age, high education level, small household size, and smoking. Adherence to the 'processed meat/westernized' pattern was lower among inland Sami than inland/coastal non-Sami; no ethnic differences in adherence to this pattern were found between costal multiethnic Sami and inland/coastal non-Sami. Unhealthy lifestyle factors, like low physical activity level and smoking, and younger age were mainly associated with the 'processed meat/westernized' pattern, whereas socioeconomic factors like low education, low gross annual household income, and large household size were related to the 'sweets and bakery goods' pattern. Male gender, low education level, and smoking were associated with the 'bread and sandwich spreads' pattern. The 'fruit/vegetables' pattern was characterized by healthy dietary choices and a health-conscious lifestyle, and was more common in women with a high education level and income. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the six identified dietary patterns was characterized by different sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Ethnicity, in combination with geographical region of residence, was associated with dietary behaviors. This study provides knowledge that will be useful in future studies on dietary patterns related to chronic diseases in the rural population of Northern Norway.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/etnología , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Análisis de Componente Principal , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/etnología , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 1794267, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886276

RESUMEN

Background and Purpose: Diabetes mellitus has been reported as a strong independent risk factor for stroke recurrence. Data on the modifiable factors contributing to the recurrence of stroke in type 2 diabetic Malaysian population with a history of stroke stratified by genders are lacking, and this supports the importance of this study. Method: The data of 4622 patients with T2DM who had a history of stroke was obtained from the Malaysian National Stroke Registry. Univariate analysis was performed to differentiate between genders with and without stroke recurrence in terms of demographics, first stroke attack presentations, and other clinical characteristics. The significant factors determined from the univariate analysis were further investigated using logistic regression. Results: Ischemic heart diseases were found significantly associated with the stroke recurrence in males (OR = 1.738; 95% CI: 1.071-2.818) as well as female (OR = 5.859; 95% CI: 2.469-13.752) diabetic patients. The duration of hypertension, as well as the duration of diabetes, has been associated with the recurrence in both male and female subjects (p value < 0.05). Smoking status has an impact on the stroke recurrence in male subjects, while no significant association was observed among their peers. Conclusions: Most of the predictive factors contributing to the recurrence of stroke in type 2 diabetic Malaysian population with a history of stroke are modifiable, in which IHD was the most prominent risk factor in both genders. The impact of optimizing the management of IHD as well as blood glucose control on stroke recurrence may need to be elucidated. No major differences in recurrent stroke predictors were seen between genders among the Malaysian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had a previous history of stroke.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidad , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia , Sistema de Registros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/mortalidad , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(12): 3667-3677, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870108

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid for a case-control study of thyroid cancer in French Polynesians exposed to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during childhood and adolescence faced a major limitation on very little availability of information on lifestyle of French Polynesians in the 1960s-1970s. METHOD: We use the focus group discussion and key informant interview methodology to collect historical, for the 1960s-1970s, data on behavior and food consumption for French Polynesia population exposed to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1966 and 1974. RESULTS: We obtained archipelago-specific data on food consumptions by children of different ages and by pregnant and lactating women during pregnancy and breastfeeding and behaviour, including time spent outdoors and type and construction materials of residences. CONCLUSIONS: This article presents the first detailed information on several key aspects of daily life on French Polynesian archipelagoes during the 1960s-1970s impacting radiation exposure. Important behavior and food consumptions data obtained in this study are being used to improve the radiation dose estimates and to update the risk analysis reported earlier by correcting biases from previous assumptions and by providing better estimates of the parameter values important to radiation dose assessment.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Focales/estadística & datos numéricos , Preferencias Alimentarias/etnología , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Radioisótopos de Yodo/efectos adversos , Masculino , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/epidemiología , Armas Nucleares , Polinesia/epidemiología , Dosis de Radiación , Ceniza Radiactiva , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 37(3): 19-27, dic. 2019. tab.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100074

RESUMEN

Introduction: the alcohol consumption in adolescence is frequent and it is associated with social determinants. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption in adolescents of the Daniel Córdova High School in Cuenca - Ecuador and its association with some social determinants.Methods: it is a cross-sectional study, with a sample of 218 adolescents. A questionnaire for demo-graphic variables, family structure and migration was used to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption, the diagnostic criteria of the DSM5 was used to identify the family functioning of the FF-SIL Test and for the lifestyle the FANTASTIC test was applied. The PR was obtained with its confidence intervals to control if the social determinants were a risk or protection factor for the alcohol consumption, and the statistical significance was determined with values of p <0.05.Results: the prevalence of alcohol consumption was 42.2%; a total of 56% of the students come from a "nuclear home", the 55% have a migrant relative, 39% have a good lifestyle and 50% be-long to families qualified as moderately functional. There is a statistically significant association with the fact of having a migrant family member, having a bad lifestyle and belonging to a reconstituted and dysfunctional family.Conclusion: the prevalence of alcohol consumption is higher than those reported in other studies carried out in Cuenca city high schools; It is associated with similar social determinants globally.(AU).


Introducción: el consumo de alcohol en la adolescencia es frecuente y se encuentra asociado a determinantes sociales. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de consumo de alcohol en los adoles-centes del colegio "Daniel Córdova" de Cuenca ­ Ecuador y su asociación con algunos determinantes sociales.Métodos: estudio transversal, en una muestra de 218 adolescentes. Se usó un cuestionario para las variables demográficas, estructura familiar y migración; para determinar la prevalencia de consumo de alcohol se usó los criterios diagnósticos del DSM5, para identificar el funcionamiento fa-miliar el Test FF-SIL y para el estilo de vida el test FANTASTIC. Se obtuvo la RP con sus intervalos de confianza para determinar si los determinantes sociales fueron factor de riesgo o de protección para el consumo de alcohol y la significancia estadística se determinó con valores de p<0.05. Resultados: la prevalencia del consumo de alcohol fue del 42.2 %; el 56% de los estudiantes provienen de un "hogar nuclear", el 55% tienen algún fa-miliar migrante, el 39% tienen un buen estilo de vida y el 50% pertenecen a familias calificadas como moderadamente funcionales y existe asociación estadísticamente significativa con el hecho de tener un familiar migrante, poseer un mal estilo de vida y pertenecer a una familia reconstituida y disfuncional. Conclusión: la prevalencia del consumo de alcohol es mayor que los re-portados en otros estudios realizados en colegios de la ciudad de Cuenca y se asocia con determinantes sociales similares a nivel global.(AU).


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/tendencias , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/prevención & control , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Ecuador/epidemiología , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/etnología , Estilo de Vida/etnología
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