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1.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20200865, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886943

RESUMEN

Denture stomatitis is the most frequent oral lesion in removable prosthesis wearers, with high recurrence rates and a complex treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study describes a protocol to obtain and to contaminate a palatal device with Candida albicans biofilm that could be used for an animal model of denture stomatitis. METHODOLOGY: Acrylic resin devices (N=41) were obtained from impressions of the palates of Wistar rats with individual trays and polyether. The efficacy of microwave irradiation (MW), ultraviolet light (UV), or ultrasonic bath (US) was assessed by colony viability and spectrophotometric analyses (n=5) in order to select the most appropriate method for sterilizing the devices. Then, different devices (n=5) were contaminated with C. albicans and evaluated by CFU/mL determination, scanning electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy. Device stabilization was assessed with either autopolymerizing acrylic resins or a self-adhesive resin cement (n=2). The spectrophotometric data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's HSD post-hoc test (α=0.05). RESULTS: MW was the only method capable of sterilizing the devices, and the contamination protocol developed a mature and viable C. albicans biofilm (~1.2 x 106 CFU/mL). The self-adhesive resin cement was the best stabilization material. CONCLUSIONS: This acrylic resin palatal device was designed to be similar to the clinical situation of contaminated prostheses, with easy manufacturing and handling, effective stabilization, and satisfactory contamination. Thus, the acrylic device can be a valuable tool in the development of denture stomatitis in rats.


Asunto(s)
Candida albicans , Estomatitis Subprotética , Resinas Acrílicas , Animales , Biopelículas , Bases para Dentadura , Paladar (Hueso) , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
2.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20200639, 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656098

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surface morphology and in vitro leachability of temporary soft linings modified by the incorporation of antifungals in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Candida albicans biofilm. METHODOLOGY: Specimens of soft lining materials Softone and Trusoft were made without (control) or with the addition of nystatin (Ny), miconazole (Mc), ketoconazole (Ke), chlorhexidine diacetate (Chx), or itraconazole (It) at their MIC for C. albicans biofilm. The surface analyses were performed using Confocal laser scanning microscopy after 24 h, 7 days, or 14 days of immersion in distilled water at 37ºC. In vitro leachability of Chx or Ny from the modified materials was also measured using Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy for up to 14 days of immersion in distilled water at 37ºC. Data (µg/mL) were submitted to ANOVA 1-factor/Bonferroni (α=0.05). RESULTS: Softone had a more irregular surface than Trusoft. Morphological changes were noted in both materials with increasing immersion time, particularly, in those containing drugs. Groups containing Chx and It presented extremely porous and irregular surfaces. Both materials had biexponential release kinetics. Softone leached a higher concentration of the antifungals than Trusoft (p=0.004), and chlorhexidine was released at a higher concentration than nystatin (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The surface of the soft lining materials changed more significantly with the addition of Chx or It. Softone released a higher concentration of drugs than Trusoft did, guiding the future treatment of denture stomatitis.


Asunto(s)
Alineadores Dentales , Estomatitis Subprotética , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Humanos , Cetoconazol , Ensayo de Materiales , Nistatina , Estomatitis Subprotética/tratamiento farmacológico , Propiedades de Superficie
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD003864, 2020 12 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For people with physical, sensory and cognitive limitations due to stroke, the routine practice of oral health care (OHC) may become a challenge. Evidence-based supported oral care intervention is essential for this patient group. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of OHC interventions with usual care or other treatment options for ensuring oral health in people after a stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group and Cochrane Oral Health Group trials registers, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and six other databases in February 2019. We scanned reference lists from relevant papers and contacted authors and researchers in the field. We handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted other researchers. There were no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated one or more interventions designed to improve the cleanliness and health of the mouth, tongue and teeth in people with a stroke who received assisted OHC led by healthcare staff. We included trials with a mixed population provided we could extract the stroke-specific data. The primary outcomes were dental plaque or denture plaque. Secondary outcomes included presence of oral disease, presence of related infection and oral opportunistic pathogens related to OHC and pneumonia, stroke survivor and providers' knowledge and attitudes to OHC, and patient satisfaction and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened abstracts and full-text articles according to prespecified selection criteria, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We sought clarification from investigators when required. Where suitable statistical data were available, we combined the selected outcome data in pooled meta-analyses. We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen RCTs (22 randomised comparisons) involving 3631 participants with data for 1546 people with stroke met the selection criteria. OHC interventions compared with usual care Seven trials (2865 participants, with data for 903 participants with stroke, 1028 healthcare providers, 94 informal carers) investigated OHC interventions compared with usual care. Multi-component OHC interventions showed no evidence of a difference in the mean score (DMS) of dental plaque one month after the intervention was delivered (DMS -0.66, 95% CI -1.40 to 0.09; 2 trials, 83 participants; I2 = 83%; P = 0.08; very low-quality evidence). Stroke survivors had less plaque on their dentures when staff had access to the multi-component OHC intervention (DMS -1.31, 95% CI -1.96 to -0.66; 1 trial, 38 participants; P < 0.0001; low-quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in gingivitis (DMS -0.60, 95% CI -1.66 to 0.45; 2 trials, 83 participants; I2 = 93%; P = 0.26: very low-quality evidence) or denture-induced stomatitis (DMS -0.33, 95% CI -0.92 to 0.26; 1 trial, 38 participants; P = 0.69; low-quality evidence) among participants receiving the multi-component OHC protocol compared with usual care one month after the intervention. There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants receiving a multi-component OHC intervention (99 participants; 5 incidents of pneumonia) compared with those receiving usual care (105 participants; 1 incident of pneumonia) (OR 4.17, CI 95% 0.82 to 21.11; 1 trial, 204 participants; P = 0.08; low-quality evidence). OHC training for stroke survivors and healthcare providers significantly improved their OHC knowledge at one month after training (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.35; 3 trials, 728 participants; I2 = 94%; P = 0.03; very low-quality evidence). Pooled data one month after training also showed evidence of a difference between stroke survivor and providers' oral health attitudes (SMD 0.28, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.54; 3 trials, 728 participants; I2 = 65%; P = 0.06; very low-quality evidence). OHC interventions compared with placebo Three trials (394 participants, with data for 271 participants with stroke) compared an OHC intervention with placebo. There were no data for primary outcomes. There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants receiving an OHC intervention compared with placebo (OR 0.39, CI 95% 0.14 to 1.09; 2 trials, 242 participants; I2 = 42%; P = 0.07; low-quality evidence). However, decontamination gel reduced the incidence of pneumonia among the intervention group compared with placebo gel group (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; 1 trial, 203 participants; P = 0.028). There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants treated with povidone-iodine compared with a placebo (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.18 to 3.51; 1 trial, 39 participants; P = 0.77). One OHC intervention compared with another OHC intervention Twelve trials (372 participants with stroke) compared one OHC intervention with another OHC intervention. There was no difference in dental plaque scores between those participants that received an enhanced multi-component OHC intervention compared with conventional OHC interventions at three months (MD -0.04, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.25; 1 trial, 61 participants; P = 0.78; low-quality evidence). There were no data for denture plaque. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low- to very low-quality evidence suggesting that OHC interventions can improve the cleanliness of patient's dentures and stroke survivor and providers' knowledge and attitudes. There is limited low-quality evidence that selective decontamination gel may be more beneficial than placebo at reducing the incidence of pneumonia. Improvements in the cleanliness of a patient's own teeth was limited. We judged the quality of the evidence included within meta-analyses to be low or very low quality, and this limits our confidence in the results. We still lack high-quality evidence of the optimal approach to providing OHC to people after stroke.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Educación en Salud Dental , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/enfermería , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Placa Dental/diagnóstico , Gingivitis/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Casas de Salud , Neumonía/epidemiología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estomatitis Subprotética/epidemiología
4.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e113, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965459

RESUMEN

Here, the prevalence of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis among diabetic patients compared to healthy ones was summarized through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the grey literature were searched without restriction, until May 2020. Eligibility criteria were established, data were extracted, and quality assessment was conducted by two trained examiners. Qualitative synthesis was based on the recommendations of Fowkes and Fulton. Two meta-analyses were performed on studies investigating patients with: a) oral candidiasis and b) denture stomatitis. Out of 6034 screened studies, seven were eligible for qualitative and quantitative synthesis; of these, three evaluated oral candidiasis and four evaluated denture stomatitis. Qualitative synthesis showed that the main methodological problems of the studies included sample size, source of controls, matching, and randomization. Diabetic patients had a similar chance of developing oral candidiasis to non-diabetic patients (OR1.40 [0.96; 2.04], p = 0.08, I2 = 94%). However, diabetic patients had a higher chance to present denture stomatitis compared to non-diabetic patients (OR 1.92 [1.42, 2.59] p < 0.0001, I2 = 0%). Therefore, diabetic patients have a higher chance of developing denture stomatitis compared to non-diabetic patients. However, for all analyses, the certainty of the evidence was considered to be very low.


Asunto(s)
Candidiasis Bucal , Diabetes Mellitus , Estomatitis Subprotética , Candidiasis Bucal/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Humanos , Estomatitis Subprotética/epidemiología
6.
Quintessence Int ; 51(7): 554-565, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500863

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between the development of denture-related stomatitis (DRS) and the identification of commonly isolated yeast species, and to evaluate various predisposing factors in Saudi participants wearing new removable dental prostheses. METHOD AND MATERIALS: A total of 75 edentulous male participants were recruited, and 64 patients finished the present case-series. All participants received new conventional complete dentures. Colonization of Candida species was assessed, and species were identified by means of the VITEK 2 (bioMérieux) laboratory components. RESULTS: The most prevalent type of Candida at baseline was C albicans, followed by non-C albicans species (C glabrata). Counts of Candida species significantly increased from the day of insertion to the first month (P < . 05), but there were no significant changes between the first and second month (P > . 05). On the day of insertion, C tropicalis, C dubliniensis, and C krusei were extracted from few subjects only, with no significant changes over the first and second month (P > .05). Patients revealing habits of sleeping with their dentures were found to frequently suffer from DRS; development of the latter was rapid, and mixed Candida biofilms (with high CFU/mL counts), along with inadequate oral and denture hygiene, turned out to be contributing factors (P < .05). CONCLUSION: DRS can develop faster than previously reported, even with new dentures; continued denture wearing and poor cleaning of dentures revealed a considerable impact on DRS onset. In the present cohort, C albicans was the most identified kind of yeast, and was followed by C glabrata infection in cases with DRS.


Asunto(s)
Candida , Estomatitis Subprotética , Biopelículas , Dentadura Completa , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
7.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(1): 85-88, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524128

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the category and prevalence rate of denture-related oral mucosal lesions (DML) in 185 patients with removable denture and analyze the influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 185 patients with removable denture who visited the department of stomatology of our hospital from October 2015 to June 2018 were investigated by questionnaire. DML types and locations were recorded in detail, and patients were followed up after treatment. Based on the data of this study, the differences of DML reports in other regions of China were analyzed by comparing the results searched from databases. SPSS 17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In this study, the DML prevalence rate was 42.7%, significantly higher in male patients than in female patients (54.17% vs 35.40%, P<0.05). DML was more common in complete denture wearers than that in partial denture wearers (66.67% vs 31.20%, P<0.05). The categories of DML were as followed (prevalence rate from high to low): denture stomatitis (54.43%), traumatic ulcer (34.18%), inflammatory hyperplasia (6.33%), and angular cheilitis (5.06%). CONCLUSIONS: DML is affected by multiple factors. Among them, denture related factors include denture type, denture wearing time, denture lasting time and cleaning method. DML is more influenced by the type of denture than the wearing time. Gender, ethnicity and systemic diseases may affect the prevalence of DML, but further studies are needed. The results of domestic studies in various regions cannot objectively reflect the current prevalence rate of DML, thus a multi-center epidemiological investigation is needed.


Asunto(s)
Dentadura Parcial Removible , Enfermedades de la Boca , Estomatitis Subprotética , China , Dentadura Completa , Dentadura Parcial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Dent Med Probl ; 57(1): 95-102, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307934

RESUMEN

Denture stomatitis (DS) is a multifactorial disease, but the proliferation of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the main causative factor. Different modalities have been suggested for the prevention and treatment of DS. Among the different approaches that have been implemented to inhibit and control DS there are the topical application of antifungal agents, the surface modification of the denture base and the incorporation of antimicrobial agents into the denture base material. Antifungal agents can effectively control DS, but the recurrence of the disease is common. Accordingly, it has been suggested that coating the surface of the acrylic denture base may result in a decreased fungal adhesion. In recent years, nanotechnology has dominated the research, and several nanoparticles have demonstrated antifungal effects. Therefore, the aim of this article was to review the antifungal effects of the different methods that have been suggested for the prevention and/or control of DS as well as the antimicrobial activity of denture base acrylic resin additives, including nanoparticles. Studies reporting the incorporation of antifungal/antimicrobial agents into the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base were included in this review. The PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases were searched for the articles published between January 2000 and December 2018 using the following key words: dental prosthesis, denture stomatitis, candidiasis, antifungal agents, biofilm formation, polymethyl methacrylate, and PMMA. The antimicrobial material incorporated into the resin may have a superior effect in preventing DS over simply coating the surface of the denture base. However, some antimicrobial fillers can have adverse effects on the physical and mechanical properties of the denture base resin.


Asunto(s)
Candida albicans , Estomatitis Subprotética , Resinas Acrílicas , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Bases para Dentadura , Humanos , Estomatitis Subprotética/tratamiento farmacológico , Estomatitis Subprotética/prevención & control
9.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(2): 107-114, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126926

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: La estomatitis subprotésica es un proceso inflamatorio de la mucosa bucal que se encuentra cubierta por una prótesis removible, de causa multifactorial y alta prevalencia. Objetivo: Caracterizar la estomatitis subprotésica en pacientes portadores de prótesis removible atendidos en las clínicas odontológicas de la Universidad San Gregorio de Portoviejo en el período marzo-noviembre de 2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, con los criterios de inclusión siguientes: mayores de 18 años, ambos sexos, buen estado de salud general, no practicar hábitos tóxicos, usar prótesis removible, total o parcial, confeccionada de acrílico o metales. Todos los sujetos de la investigación firmaron el consentimiento informado antes de realizarles la historia clínica de odontología del Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador de donde se extrajeron los datos sociodemográficos, signos clínicos y características de la prótesis. Resultados: Fueron evaluados 100 pacientes. El 45 %, presentaba signos clínicos de estomatitis subprotésica; predominó el sexo femenino con el 33 % y el grupo de edad de 40 a 59 años con un 26 %. La mayoría de las prótesis no se ajustan ni adaptan de manera correcta, y tienen un mal estado físico, en el 80, 82,2 y el 91 %, respectivamente. El 84,4 % de los pacientes utilizaba prótesis parcial removible, confeccionadas con acrílico, por un periodo de 1 a 6 años en el 60 % de los casos. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de estomatitis subprotésica se asocia con el mal estado físico, desajuste e inadecuada adaptación de las prótesis removibles, lo que indica la necesidad de la institución para el establecimiento de estrategias docentes hacia la comunidad para su prevención y diagnóstico temprano.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Subprosthetic stomatitis is an inflammatory process of the mucosa in the oral cavity covered by a removable prosthesis, with a multifactorial cause and high prevalence. Objective: To characterize subprosthetic stomatitis in patients with removable prosthesis treated at the dental clinics of San Gregorio University in Portoviejo in the period March-November 2019. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, with the following inclusion criteria: patients over 18 years old, both sexes, good general health, no toxic habits, use of removable prosthesis, total or partial, made of acrylic or metals. All the patients involved in the research signed their consent, information given to them before taking their dental records taken by the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador, from which socio-demographic data, clinical signs and characteristics of the prosthesis were extracted. Results: 100 patients were evaluated. Forty-five per cent showed clinical signs of subprosthetic stomatitis; the female sex (33%) predominated and the age group 40-59 years with (26%). Most of the prosthesis did not fit or adapt correctly and were in poor physical condition in 80%, 82.2% and 91% respectively. 84.4% of the patients used removable partial prosthesis, made of acrylic, for a period of 1 to 6 years, (60%) of the cases. Conclusions: The diagnosis of subprosthetic stomatitis is associated with poor physical condition, maladjustment and inadequate adaptation of removable prostheses, which indicates the need for the institution to establish educational strategies towards the community for prevention and early diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Estomatitis Subprotética/diagnóstico , Estomatitis Subprotética/etiología , Estomatitis Subprotética/prevención & control , Dentadura Parcial Removible/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales
10.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(1): 30-33, jan.-abr. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1102370

RESUMEN

As próteses removíveis são consideradas facilitadoras em potencial da estomatite protética, caracterizada por aspectos hiperplásicos e eritematosos na mucosa de suporte. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar as principais manifestações orais da estomatite protética em um paciente geriátrico associada a candidíase oral pseudomembranosa. Paciente do gênero masculino, setenta e quatro anos, apresentava uma lesão exofítica, na região de palato com dois centímetros de extensão, além da presença de candidíase pseudomembranosa, fazia o uso de uma prótese parcial superior removível há aproximadamente dez anos. Foi levantada a hipótese diagnóstica de estomatite protética associada a candidíase pseudomembranosa. A terapêutica instituída consistiu no uso de antifúngico por um período de quinze dias e biópsia incisional. O exame histopatológico confirmou o diagnóstico de hiperplasia fibrosa inflamatória. Foi recomendado a confecção de uma nova prótese para que fosse evitado a recorrência da lesão, e o paciente também foi instruído quanto a sua higiene oral evitando-se desta forma a recorrência da candidíase. O cirurgião-dentista deve ser capaz de reconhecer e diagnosticar a estomatite protética em sua prática diária e tratar o paciente de acordo com a sua etiologia, oferecendo desta forma para o paciente um maior conforto e melhores condições de vida(AU)


Removable total dentures are considered potential facilitators of prosthetic stomatitis, characterized by hyperplastic and erythematous aspects in the supporting mucosa. This paper aims to report the main oral manifestations of prosthetic stomatitis in an elderly patient associated with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis. A seventyseven-year-old male patient presented with an exophytic lesion in the palate region of two centimeters in length, in addition to the presence of pseudomembranous candidiasis, and had been using a removable upper partial denture for approximately ten years. The diagnostic hypothesis of prosthetic stomatitis associated with pseudomembranous candidiasis was raised. The therapy instituted consisted of the use of antifungal for a period of fifteen days and incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia. It was recommended to make a new prosthesis to avoid recurrence of the lesion, and the patient was also instructed as to its oral hygiene, thus avoiding the recurrence of candidiasis. The dentist should be able to recognize and diagnose prosthetic stomatitis in his daily practice and treat the patient according to its etiology, thus offering the patient greater comfort and better living conditions(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Estomatitis Subprotética , Prótesis Dental , Estomatitis , Estomatitis Subprotética/diagnóstico , Estomatitis Subprotética/terapia , Candidiasis Bucal
11.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(1): 57-62, feb. 28, 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151489

RESUMEN

The ageing of population is increasing, and a great percentage of these patients wear removable prostheses, and can suffer denture stomatitis, a condition that has been associated with candidiasis. Aims: To evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of Copper Sulfate against Candida albicans in samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin, compared to nystatin, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Initially, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of copper sulfate for Candida albicans was determined by microdilution. Then, 54 resin samples were divided into 6 treatment groups corresponding to Nystatin 100.000 UI, Sodium Hypochlorite 0.5%, chlorhexidine 0.12%, Copper Sulfate 4.7µg/ml, Copper Sulfate 9.4µg/ml and physiological saline solution, in which samples were submerged for 6 hours. Resin samples were then washed and cultured on solid media at 37°C for 72 hours. The number of colony-forming units was determined using a Quebec colony counter. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Copper sulfate at a concentration of 9.4µg/ml presented a similar effectiveness as the other control products regarding the reduction in the number of colonies of Candida albicans post-treatment. Conclusion: The effectiveness of copper sulfate against Candida albicans on acrylic resin was similar to that of nystatin, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine.


En las últimas décadas se ha observado un aumento de la población de adultos mayores, de los cuales un gran porcentaje es portador de prótesis removible, y dos tercios pueden sufrir estomatitis subprotésica, enfermedad que es asociada a infecciones como candidiasis. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad antimicótica in vitro del sulfato de cobre en placas de resinas acrílicas de termocurado inoculadas con Candida albicans, frente a Nistatina, Hipoclorito de Sodio y Clorhexidina. Material y Métodos: Inicialmente, y mediante microdilución del sulfato de cobre, se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) para Candida albicans. En la fase experimental, 54 muestras de resina se dividieron en 6 grupos correspondientes a Nistatina 100.000 UI, Hipoclorito 0.5%, Clorhexidina 0.12%, Sulfato de Cu 4.7µg/ml, Sufato de Cu 9.4 µg/ml y suero fisiológico. Las muestras fueron sumergidas en estos agentes por 6 horas, para posteriormente ser lavadas y cultivada en medios solidos a 37°C por 72 horas. Luego se realizó el conteo de unidades formadoras de colonias mediante contador tipo Quebec. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Resultado: El sulfato de cobre a una concentración de 9.4µg/ ml presentó una efectividad similar a los otros productos, en la reducción de colonias de Candida albicans. Conclusión: La efectividad del sulfato de cobre contra Candida albicans fue semejante a la de Nistatina, Hipoclorito y Clorhexidina.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Resinas Acrílicas , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Sulfato de Cobre/farmacología , Hipoclorito de Sodio , Estomatitis Subprotética , Técnicas In Vitro , Candidiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Clorhexidina , Medios de Cultivo
12.
J Prosthet Dent ; 123(1): 181.e1-181.e7, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813582

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Candida adherence to the denture base is an important cause of denture stomatitis. In addition, infections with drug-resistant Candida have become more prevalent, especially among elderly and immunocompromised patients. Thus, alternative safe antifungal agents for oral applications are needed. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the activity of chitosan, a natural biopolymer, against common oral Candida species and its efficacy in inhibiting C albicans adherence to denture-base acrylic resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of 5 types of chitosan against 6 species of Candida and 10 C albicans clinical isolates were determined by broth and agar dilution, respectively. N-succinyl chitosan (NSC), low- and high-molecular-weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWC and HMWC), and oligomer and polymer shrimp-chitosan were examined. NSC and HMWC, as pure gel and as a mixture with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), were applied to acrylic resin disks, incubated with C albicans for 24 hours, and washed, and adherent cells were collected for colony count. The effects of HMWC on human gingival fibroblasts after 1 and 24 hours of treatment were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The retention force of HMWC gel was measured by using a universal testing machine. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the antiadherence activity (α=.05). RESULTS: HMWC had the highest antifungal activity against most Candida species tested and C albicans clinical isolates. HMWC gel completely inhibited C albicans adherence to denture base acrylic resin (P<.001). CMC denture adhesive significantly increased C albicans adherence (P<.001), but adding 2×MFC HMWC into CMC reduced the adherence, although this was not statistically significant (P=.06). HMWC at 1×MFC and 2×MFC showed no toxic effect on gingival fibroblast viability and proliferation. Moreover, the retention force provided by HMWC gel was sufficient for use as a denture adhesive (>5000 Pa). CONCLUSIONS: High-molecular-weight, water-soluble chitosan is a biocompatible biopolymer that could inhibit C albicans adherence and that showed properties suitable for development into an antifungal denture adhesive.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Estomatitis Subprotética , Resinas Acrílicas , Anciano , Antifúngicos , Candida , Candida albicans , Cementos Dentales , Bases para Dentadura , Humanos
13.
Trials ; 20(1): 661, 2019 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783777

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Denture-related stomatitis (DS) is chronic multifactorial inflammation, strongly related to the presence of the biofilm that is the complex structure formed by microorganisms held together by a mucus-like matrix of carbohydrate that adheres to different surfaces, including the denture surface. DS has recently been correlated with deleterious cardiovascular alterations. The potential effect of hygiene protocols in the control of DS and randomized clinical trials that address this oral condition with cardiovascular complications are important in clinical decision-making. MATERIAL/DESIGN: A clinical trial, randomized, double-blind, and with parallel groups, will be conducted in Brazil The sample will consist of 100 patients without teeth in both arches, users of at least maxillary complete dentures, and diagnosed with DS, who will be allocated to groups (n = 25 per group) according to the different hygiene protocols: (1) brushing of the palate and immersion of the prosthesis in 0.25% sodium hypochlorite solution (positive control); (2) brushing of the palate and immersion of the prosthesis in 0.15% triclosan solution; (3) brushing of the palate and immersion of the prosthesis in lactose monohydrate; or (4) brushing the palate with citric acid and immersing the prosthesis in lactose monohydrate. The response variables will be heart rate variability and alteration of blood pressure (systemic level), remission of DS, removal of biofilm, reduction of microbial load (colony-forming units (CFU)), mouth and prosthesis odor level, expression of MUC1, proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), viscosity, pH and salivary flow (locally); patient-centred qualitative analysis will also be undertaken. Measurements will be performed at baseline and 10 days after the interventions. The results obtained will be statistically analyzed as pertinent, with a level of significance of 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study will provide a guideline for clinical practice regarding the use of hygiene protocols in the treatment of oral diseases (DS) mediated by biofilm. Also, it may provide evidence of correlation of oral manifestation with cardiac risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, RBR-4hhwjb. Registered on 9 November 2018.


Asunto(s)
Higiene Bucal , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estomatitis Subprotética/terapia , Biopelículas , Método Doble Ciego , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Estomatitis Subprotética/fisiopatología
14.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180779, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691740

RESUMEN

Candida albicans is the main causative pathogen of denture stomatitis, which affects many complete denture patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nanodiamonds (NDs) added to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material on Candida albicans adhesion as well as on surface roughness and contact angle. METHODOLOGY: Acrylic resin specimens sized 10×10×3 mm3 were prepared and divided into four groups (n=30) according to ND concentration (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% by wt). Surface roughness was measured with a profilometer, and the contact angle with a goniometer. The effect of NDs on Candida albicans adhesion was evaluated using two methods: 1) slide count and 2) direct culture test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Addition of NDs decreased the Candida albicans count significantly more than in the control group (p<0.05), with a lowest of 1% NDs. Addition of NDs also significantly decreased the surface roughness (p<0.05), but the contact angle remained the same. Incorporation of NDs into the PMMA denture base material effectively reduced Candida albicans adhesion and decreased surface roughness. CONCLUSION: PMMA/NDs composites could be valuable in the prevention of denture stomatitis, which is considered one of the most common clinical problems among removable denture wearers.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Bases para Dentadura/microbiología , Nanodiamantes/química , Nanodiamantes/microbiología , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Análisis de Varianza , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estomatitis Subprotética/microbiología , Estomatitis Subprotética/prevención & control , Propiedades de Superficie
15.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 219, 2019 10 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604449

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from persistent and recurrent infections, especially after placement of medical devices having direct contact with human tissues. The emergence of SCVs is a survival strategy of S. aureus which enables them to hide inside host's cells and induces a less severe immune response than to wild-type S. aureus. However, contrary to other medical devices, dental prosthesis as a surface potentially colonized by SCVs of S. aureus has not been examined thus far. We reported the first case of SCVs - S. aureus infection in denture wearer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old woman with a complete removable acrylic denture presented extensive elevated erythematous lesions on the palate, compatible with denture stomatitis. The patient had a history of arterial hypertension, cigarette smoking and wearing denture at night. The fungal colonies, identified as Candida albicans, were cultured on Sabouraud agar. From three swabs (from hard palate mucosa, denture surface and angular cheilitis lesions) were cultured of pinpoint, clear, non-pigmented, and non-haemolytic colonies on Columbia agar. The small colonies turned out to be Gram-positive cocci, catalase-, Pastorex Staph Plus -, and clumping factor-positive, and oxidase-negative. Suspected phenotypically SCVs forms were definitively identified as S. aureus based on PCR amplification of species specific nuc and coa genes. Methicillin-resistance was verified by mecA gene detection. The isolates turned out to be susceptible to methicillin (MSSA) and resistant to gentamicin. The isolate was identified as menadione-auxotrophic variant. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrated that oral cavity in denture wearers may be a reservoir of small-colony variants of S. aureus, besides C. albicans. The prevalence of these bacteria and their role in the pathogenesis of oral diseases are not understood. Due to problems with their detection and identification, the true prevalence of oral SCVs may be underestimated.


Asunto(s)
Prótesis Dental/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Estomatitis Subprotética/microbiología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Prótesis Dental/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estomatitis Subprotética/diagnóstico , Estomatitis Subprotética/tratamiento farmacológico , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3 Suppl. 1): 35-41, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538448

RESUMEN

Candida species are commensal yeasts of the oral cavity, which, under predisposing systemic and/or local circumstances, are responsible for a wide variety of clinical manifestations, globally known as oral candidiasis. Candida-associated denture stomatitis is an oral candidiasis particularly affecting the oral mucosa covered by a dental prosthesis, with several degree of severity. Diabetics suffer oral candidiasis more frequently than healthy individuals do and if they are denture wearers, the risk increases. Since various controversies still remain regarding the interrelationship among diabetes, oral Candida spp. strains involved in denture stomatitis and the presence of dentures, the present review aims to investigate the differences in Candida species frequencies and degree of denture stomatitis severity existing among diabetic and non- diabetic individuals, with and without dentures.


Asunto(s)
Candida/clasificación , Candidiasis Bucal/complicaciones , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/microbiología , Diabetes Mellitus , Estomatitis Subprotética/complicaciones , Dentaduras , Humanos , Estomatitis Subprotética/microbiología
17.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527130

RESUMEN

Candida-associated denture stomatitis (DS) is a persistent and chronic oral infection of the denture-bearing palatal mucosa. DS stems from the ability of the fungal opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans to adhere to denture material and invade palatal tissue. Although DS is the most prevalent form of oral candidiasis, there are currently no feasible therapeutic strategies for the prevention of this recurrent condition. We developed a peptide-based antimicrobial bioadhesive formulation specifically designed for oral topical formulation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the applicability of the novel formulation for the prevention of C. albicans colonization on denture material and development of clinical disease. To that end, using the latest technological advances in dental digital design and three-dimensional (3D) printing, we fabricated an intraoral device for rats with universal fit. The device was successfully installed and used to develop clinical DS. Importantly, by taking a preventative therapeutic approach, we demonstrated the potential clinical utility of the novel formulation as a safe and feasible prophylactic agent against DS.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/farmacología , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Candidiasis Bucal/prevención & control , Cementos Dentales/farmacología , Estomatitis Subprotética/prevención & control , Animales , Antifúngicos/química , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Candida albicans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Candidiasis Bucal/tratamiento farmacológico , Candidiasis Bucal/microbiología , Cementos Dentales/química , Dentaduras/microbiología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/microbiología , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Estomatitis Subprotética/tratamiento farmacológico , Estomatitis Subprotética/microbiología
18.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 28: 98-101, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454713

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of the present randomized clinical study was to compare the efficacies of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) to nystatin (NST) in terms of prevalence of Candida species in cases with denture stomatitis (DS). METHODS: Thirty-six patients were randomly divided into two groups; 18 in PDI and 18 in NST. Irradiation was carried out by using the GaA1As diode laser with wavelength, mode of transmission, laser output and energy density were standardized at 660 nm, continuous mode, 100 mW power and 28 J/cm2 respectively. The PDI was applied twice a week, with an interval of at least 48 h among the sessions during four weeks. Topical nystatin oral suspension 100,000 IU was used four times daily for 15 days. The existence of Candida spp. was confirmed by employing the microbiological culture technique. Candida colony counts from the palates and dentures surfaces, quantified as colony forming unit (CFU)/mL, measured at baseline, at the end of treatments (day 15), and at follow-up (days 30 and 60) and the prevalence of Candida spp. were identified in the two groups of treatments. RESULTS: The overall CFU/mL values were higher in the dentures of the patients of both the groups than those from the palates. During all time periods of the study, the CFU/mL values obtained from both NST and PDI groups showed no significant differences. For dentures and palates, a significant reduction in mean CFU/mL values was observed on day 15 compared with baseline (day 0) in both NST and PDI groups. It can be seen that the effect size of treatments was large for the palates of patients in the NST group (1.79) and moderate for the palates of patients in the PDI group (0.63). On the other hand, the effect size was very large for the dentures for both groups (NST group = 3.01; PDI group = 1.58). C. albicans was the most common species on both dentures and palates of patients throughout the study period followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. CONCLUSION: Out of all the Candida spp., C. albicans showed the highest prevalence among all species. In addition, PDI was equally effective as nystatin for the treatment of DS.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Candida , Nistatina/uso terapéutico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Estomatitis Subprotética/tratamiento farmacológico , Estomatitis Subprotética/microbiología , Humanos , Láseres de Semiconductores , Antisépticos Bucales , Células Madre
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10228, 2019 07 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308427

RESUMEN

Denture-associated stomatitis (DS) affects over two-thirds of denture-wearers. DS presents as erythema of the palatal mucosa in areas where denture-surface associated polymicrobial biofilms containing the fungus Candida albicans exist. The contribution of the oral bacterial microbiota toward the infection is unknown. Therefore, this study characterised the bacterial microbiota of sites within the oral cavity to identify potential associations with occurrence of DS. Denture-wearing patients were recruited (denture stomatitis (DS) n = 8; non-denture stomatitis (NoDS) n = 11) and the oral bacterial microbiota of the tongue, palate and denture-fitting surface was characterised using next-generation sequencing. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified to bacterial genera and species, and presence/absence and relative abundances were examined. A significant (P = 0.007) decrease in the number of OTUs and thus, diversity of the microbiota was observed in tongue samples of DS patients (vs non-DS). The microbiota of denture-fitting surfaces and palatal mucosae were similar. Large differences in the abundance of bacterial genera and species were observed at each sample site, and unique presence/absence of bacteria was noted. Presence/absence and relative abundance of specific bacteria associated with DS warrants further in vitro and in vivo evaluation, particularly as our previous work has shown C. albicans virulence factor modulation by oral bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Dentaduras/microbiología , Microbiota/genética , Estomatitis Subprotética/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bacterias , Biopelículas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Boca/microbiología , Mucosa Bucal/microbiología , Paladar (Hueso)/microbiología , Estomatitis/microbiología , Factores de Virulencia
20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 193-197, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Candida species have an influence in the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. The current study aimed to investigate the efficacy of indocyanine green (ICG)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with nystatin mouthwash (PDT + nystatin) for the treatment of denture stomatitis in comparison with routine antifungal therapy with nystatin alone. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 66 patients were randomly assigned into PDT + nystatin (n = 33) and nystatin (n = 33) groups, both groups were treated 3-times a day (15 days) with nystatin mouthwash, and PDT was performed twice once a week for the PDT + nystatin group. Briefly, ICG was applied on the palatal lesion and laser irradiation was performed using a diode laser (810 nm, 56 J/cm2). Nystatin group was also treated with sham laser in order to eliminate the possible psychological effects. The clinical and mycological evaluations were carried out at the baseline, during treatment, and the end of follow-up. Patients who completed the treatment and follow-up were eligible for statistical analysis (each group 28 cases). RESULTS: Patient treatment with nystatin or PDT + nystatin reduced the lesions extension. Candida species were isolated from all patients and the number of Candida CFU in both groups showed a significant reduction at each post-treatment visit; however, the mean reduction achieved in the PDT + nystatin group was significantly higher than nystatin alone. CONCLUSIONS: ICG-mediated PDT in combination with nystatin mouthwash can improve the clinical feature of denture stomatitis with no adverse effects; therefore, it could be used as an alternative to the currently available antifungal therapy using nystatin alone.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Candidiasis Bucal/tratamiento farmacológico , Nistatina/uso terapéutico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Estomatitis Subprotética/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Método Doble Ciego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/uso terapéutico , Láseres de Semiconductores , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nistatina/administración & dosificación , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/uso terapéutico , Estomatitis Subprotética/microbiología
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