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1.
Science ; 372(6537): 84-87, 2021 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795456

RESUMEN

Human activities and climate change threaten marine biodiversity worldwide, though sensitivity to these stressors varies considerably by species and taxonomic group. Mapping the spatial distribution of 14 anthropogenic stressors from 2003 to 2013 onto the ranges of 1271 at-risk marine species sensitive to them, we found that, on average, species faced potential impacts across 57% of their ranges, that this footprint expanded over time, and that the impacts intensified across 37% of their ranges. Although fishing activity dominated the footprint of impacts in national waters, climate stressors drove the expansion and intensification of impacts. Mitigating impacts on at-risk biodiversity is critical to supporting resilient marine ecosystems, and identifying the co-occurrence of impacts across multiple taxonomic groups highlights opportunities to amplify the benefits of conservation management.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Actividades Humanas , Océanos y Mares , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Ambiente , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Humanos , Estrés Fisiológico
2.
Physiol Plant ; 171(4): 896-908, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665834

RESUMEN

The agriculture sector is vulnerable to various environmental stresses, which significantly affect plant growth, performance, and development. Abiotic stresses, such as salinity and drought, cause severe losses in crop productivity worldwide. Soil salinity is a major stress suppressing plant development through osmotic stress accompanied by ion toxicity, nutritional imbalance, and oxidative stress. Various defense mechanisms like osmolytes accumulations, activation of stress-induced genes, and transcription factors, production of plant growth hormones, accumulation of antioxidants, and redox defense system in plants are responsible for combating salt stress. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) have emerged as novel bioactive gaseous signaling molecules that positively impact seed germination, homeostasis, plant metabolism, growth, and development, and are involved in several plant acclimation responses to impart stress tolerance in plants. NO and H2 S trigger cell signaling by activating a cascade of biochemical events that result in plant tolerance to environmental stresses. NO- and H2 S-mediated signaling networks, interactions, and crosstalks facilitate stress tolerance in plants. Research on the roles and mechanisms of NO and H2 S as challengers of salinity is entering an exponential exploration era. The present review focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants and the role of NO and H2 S in adaptive plant responses to salt stress and provides an overview of the signaling mechanisms and interplay of NO and H2 S in the regulation of growth and development as well as modulation of defense responses in plants and their long term priming effects for imparting salinity tolerance in plants.


Asunto(s)
Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Salinidad , Sequías , Óxido Nítrico , Plantas , Estrés Fisiológico
3.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652855

RESUMEN

Head group-acylated chloroplast lipids were discovered in the 1960s, but interest was renewed about 15 years ago with the discovery of Arabidopsides E and G, acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols with oxidized fatty acyl chains originally identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Since then, plant biologists have applied the power of mass spectrometry to identify additional oxidized and non-oxidized chloroplast lipids and quantify their levels in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The enzyme responsible for the head-group acylation of chloroplast lipids was identified as a cytosolic protein closely associated with the chloroplast outer membrane and christened acylated galactolipid-associated phospholipase 1 (AGAP1). Despite many advances, critical questions remain about the biological functions of AGAP1 and its head group-acylated products.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/química , Galactolípidos/química , Lípidos de la Membrana/química , Acilación , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/sangre , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Galactolípidos/genética , Galactolípidos/metabolismo , Lípidos de la Membrana/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1952, 2021 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782393

RESUMEN

The non-protein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been proposed to be an ancient messenger for cellular communication conserved across biological kingdoms. GABA has well-defined signalling roles in animals; however, whilst GABA accumulates in plants under stress it has not been determined if, how, where and when GABA acts as an endogenous plant signalling molecule. Here, we establish endogenous GABA as a bona fide plant signal, acting via a mechanism not found in animals. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we show guard cell GABA production is necessary and sufficient to reduce stomatal opening and transpirational water loss, which improves water use efficiency and drought tolerance, via negative regulation of a stomatal guard cell tonoplast-localised anion transporter. We find GABA modulation of stomata occurs in multiple plants, including dicot and monocot crops. This study highlights a role for GABA metabolism in fine tuning physiology and opens alternative avenues for improving plant stress resilience.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Canales de Cloruro/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/genética , Estomas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transpiración de Plantas/genética , Agua/metabolismo , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Canales de Cloruro/metabolismo , Sequías , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/metabolismo , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/genética , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Estomas de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Estomas de Plantas/genética , Transpiración de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Vicia faba/genética , Vicia faba/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 273: 119297, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689686

RESUMEN

Stress-induced gastritis is a common problem in the intensive care unit. Zeaxanthin (ZE), a non-provitamin A carotenoid has been known to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the effect of ZE on water avoidance stress (WAS)-induced gastritis in rats. 24 Sprague' Dawley male rats were divided into four groups; control, ZE, WAS and WAS+ZE. In the stressed rats, treatment with ZE effectively downregulated the gastric levels of total oxidant status (TOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), with significant upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes' activities and gastric levels of prostagladin-E2 (PGE2) as compared to the untreated stressed one. As noticed in the present study, ZE significantly decrease the gastric levels of interleukin-1 ß (IL-1ß) and IL-6 as well as suppression of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) immunohistochemical expression together with upregulation of trefoil factor-1 (TFF-1) gene expression. Moreover, in the untreated WAS-induced gastritis group, gastrin and corticosterone levels were significantly increased together with upregulation of the gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), PI3K, Akt and JNK in the gastric tissues, which significantly improved by ZE administration. These all positive effects of ZE reflected on reduction of microscopic gastric mucosal damage and inflammatory cell infiltration with improvement of ulcer score. Our results discover that ZE has a new gastroprotective effect against stress-induced gastritis in rats, primarily through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, which are expressed in the regulation of the MMP-9 and HIF-1α signaling pathways.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/análisis , Gastritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Estrés Fisiológico , Zeaxantinas/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Gastritis/etiología , Gastritis/metabolismo , Gastritis/patología , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/genética , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/metabolismo , MAP Quinasa Quinasa 4/genética , MAP Quinasa Quinasa 4/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factor Trefoil-1/genética , Factor Trefoil-1/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1399, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658521

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent human pathogen that readily adapts to host immune defenses. Here, we show that, in contrast to Gram-negative pathogens, S. aureus induces a distinct airway immunometabolic response dominated by the release of the electrophilic metabolite, itaconate. The itaconate synthetic enzyme, IRG1, is activated by host mitochondrial stress, which is induced by staphylococcal glycolysis. Itaconate inhibits S. aureus glycolysis and selects for strains that re-direct carbon flux to fuel extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) synthesis and biofilm formation. Itaconate-adapted strains, as illustrated by S. aureus isolates from chronic airway infection, exhibit decreased glycolytic activity, high EPS production, and proficient biofilm formation even before itaconate stimulation. S. aureus thus adapts to the itaconate-dominated immunometabolic response by producing biofilms, which are associated with chronic infection of the human airway.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/fisiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/inmunología , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiología , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidad , Succinatos/metabolismo , Adulto , Animales , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Fibrosis Quística/microbiología , Regulación Bacteriana de la Expresión Génica , Glucólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Glucólisis/fisiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Hidroliasas/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/inmunología , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Esputo/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Estrés Fisiológico , Succinatos/farmacología , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671215

RESUMEN

Since their identification as genomic regulatory elements, Transposable Elements (TEs) were considered, at first, molecular parasites and later as an important source of genetic diversity and regulatory innovations. In vertebrates in particular, TEs have been recognized as playing an important role in major evolutionary transitions and biodiversity. Moreover, in the last decade, a significant number of papers has been published highlighting a correlation between TE activity and exposition to environmental stresses and dietary factors. In this review we present an overview of the impact of TEs in vertebrate genomes, report the silencing mechanisms adopted by host genomes to regulate TE activity, and finally we explore the effects of environmental and dietary factor exposures on TE activity in mammals, which is the most studied group among vertebrates. The studies here reported evidence that several factors can induce changes in the epigenetic status of TEs and silencing mechanisms leading to their activation with consequent effects on the host genome. The study of TE can represent a future challenge for research for developing effective markers able to detect precocious epigenetic changes and prevent human diseases.


Asunto(s)
Elementos Transponibles de ADN/genética , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Animales , Epigénesis Genética , Genoma , Humanos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Nutrición
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671243

RESUMEN

Brown alga Ectocarpus sp. belongs to Phaeophyceae, a class of macroalgae that evolved complex multicellularity. Ectocarpus sp. is a dominant seaweed in temperate regions, abundant mostly in the intertidal zones, an environment with high levels of abiotic stresses. Previous transcriptomic analysis of Ectocarpus sp. revealed several genes consistently induced by various abiotic stresses; one of these genes is Esi0017_0056, which encodes a protein with unknown function. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that the protein encoded by Esi0017_0056 is soluble and monomeric. The protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli,Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. In A. thaliana the gene was expressed under constitutive and stress inducible promoters which led to improved tolerance to high salinity and temperature stresses. The expression of several key abiotic stress-related genes was studied in transgenic and wild type A. thaliana by qPCR. Expression analysis revealed that genes involved in ABA-induced abiotic stress tolerance, K+ homeostasis, and chaperon activities were significantly up-regulated in the transgenic line. This study is the first report in which an unknown function Ectocarpus sp. gene, highly responsive to abiotic stresses, was successfully expressed in A. thaliana, leading to improved tolerance to salt and temperature stress.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Proteínas Algáceas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiología , Calor , Phaeophyta/metabolismo , Salinidad , Estrés Fisiológico , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Proteínas Algáceas/química , Proteínas Algáceas/genética , Arabidopsis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Electrólitos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Filogenia , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Plantones/genética , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 853-859, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754550

RESUMEN

Tree regeneration is significantly affected by water deficiency, which could be alleviated by the inoculation of Trichoderma spp. In this study, the effects of rhizosphere inoculation with Trichoderma spp. on the antioxidant system and osmotic substances in the seedlings of Larix principis-rupprechtii was investigated under experimental drought stresses, with the relative water content 50%-60%, 35%-50%, and 20%-35% as the light, moderate and severe drought stress, respectively. The results showed that, with increasing drought stress, the activities of protective enzymes, SOD and POD in the needles of seedlings were significantly promoted, the contents of MDA and proline were remarkably increased, whereas the contents of soluble protein and starch showed a decreasing trend. Inoculation with Trichoderma spp. promoted much stronger increase in the activities of SOD and POD in the needles, yet the MDA content showed a lower level of increase. Under moderate drought, the activity of POD in the seedling inoculated with Trichoderma spp. was 1.8 folds of that in the control, while the content of MDA was 62.9% of the control. The contents of proline, soluble protein, soluble sugar, and starch in the inoculated seedlings were higher than that in the uninoculated seedlings. Drought-resistance of L. principis-rupprechtii seedlings inoculated by Trichoderma spp. was significantly enhanced due to the augmenting regulation of antioxidant system and osmotic adjustment substances. Therefore, under the trend of warming and drying in North China, the technique of rhizosphere inoculation of Trichoderma spp. could be popularized for forest plantation or understory tending.


Asunto(s)
Larix , Trichoderma , China , Sequías , Plantones , Estrés Fisiológico
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(1): 52-56, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645051

RESUMEN

ATP-binding cassette(ABC) transporters are one of the largest protein families in organisms, with important effects in regulating plant growth and development, root morphology, transportation of secondary metabolites and resistance of stress. Environmental stress promotes the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites, which determines the quality of medicinal plants. Therefore, how to improve the accumulation of secondary metabolites has been a hotspot in studying medicinal plants. Many studies have showed that ABC transporters are extremely related to the transportation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. Recently, with the great development of genomics and transcriptomic sequencing technology, the regulatory mechanisms of ABC transporters on secondary metabolites have attached great attentions in medicinal plants. This paper reviewed the mechanisms of different groups of ABC transporters in transporting secondary metabolites through cell membranes. This paper provided key theoretical basis and technical supports in studying the mechanisms of ABC transporters in medicinal plant, and promoting the accumulation of secondary metabolites, in order to improve the quality of medicinal plants.


Asunto(s)
Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP , Plantas Medicinales , Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/genética , Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Desarrollo de la Planta , Plantas Medicinales/genética , Plantas Medicinales/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico
11.
Animal ; 15(2): 100106, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712219

RESUMEN

High environmental temperatures are a foremost concern affecting poultry production; thus, understanding and controlling such conditions are vital to successful production and welfare of poultry. In view of this, a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement involving two local strains (Kirin chicken (KC) and Three-yellow chicken (TYC)) and two temperature groups (normal/control = 30 ±â€¯2 °C and acute heat stress (AHS) = 35 ±â€¯1 °C for 8-h with 70% humidity) was used to assess the main regulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP70) gene, cytokine genes (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10), muscle development gene (IGF-1) and tissue histopathological changes. At 56 days old, the temperatures of the comb (CT), feet (FT), eyelid (ET) and rectal (RT) from each group were taken thrice at 0, 2, 4 and 8-h during AHS, and 1 and 3-h recovery period after AHS. At 80 days old, the slaughter weight was also analyzed. The CT and ET of the AHS groups increased during the 8-h trial, while the RT of both strains decreased significantly at 4 h but increased at 8 h in the TYC group. All temperature recordings dropped in the AHS groups of both strains during the recovery period. The results revealed that the mRNA expression of HSP70 in the liver was higher in the heat-stressed group of both strains compared to the control. The expression of HSP70 was shown in the AHS-KC group to be significantly high compared to the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, the IGF1 gene in the liver, breast muscle and leg muscle was downregulated in the AHS-TYC group compared to the control (P < 0.05), although that in the AHS-KC was downregulated in the breast muscle. The mRNA expression of spleen IL-1ß significantly decreased in the AHS-TYC group (P < 0.01), whereas that of the AHS-KC had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The mRNA expression of spleen IL-6 and IL-10 was increased in the AHS-KC group but did not exhibit obvious changes in the AHS-TYC. Correspondingly, the histopathological examinations revealed tissue injury in the AHS groups of both strains, with the TYC strain experiencing more severe changes. The final live and carcass weights showed a significant enhancement in the treatments (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and treatment×strain interaction (P < 0.05) with breast muscle rate significantly reducing among the treatments (P < 0.01) at 80 days. In conclusion, the differential response to AHS after physiological, molecular and immune response portrays KC to have better thermal tolerance than the TYC.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor , Animales , Pollos/genética , Proteínas HSP70 de Choque Térmico/genética , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/veterinaria , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/genética , Calor , Estrés Fisiológico
12.
Physiol Plant ; 171(4): 833-848, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583052

RESUMEN

Cellular sugar status is essentially maintained during normal growth conditions but is impacted negatively during various environmental perturbations. Drought presents one such unfavorable environmental cue that hampers the photosynthetic fixation of carbon into sugars and affects their transport by lowering the cellular osmotic potential. The transport of cellular sugar is facilitated by a specific set of proteins known as sugar transporters. These transporter proteins are the key determinant of influx/ efflux of various sugars and their metabolite intermediates that support the plant growth and developmental process. Abiotic stress and especially drought stress-mediated injury results in reprogramming of sugar distribution across the cellular and subcellular compartments. Here, we have reviewed the imperative role of sugar accumulation, signaling, and transport under typical and atypical stressful environments. We have discussed the physiological effects of drought on sugar accumulation and transport through different transporter proteins involved in monosaccharide and disaccharide sugar transport. Further, we have illustrated sugar-mediated signaling and regulation of sugar transporter proteins along with the overall crosstalk of this signaling with the phytohormone module of abiotic stress response under osmotic stress. Overall, the present review highlights the critical role of sugar transport, distribution and signaling in plants under drought stress conditions.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Azúcares , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas , Estrés Fisiológico
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(6): 685-696, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543389

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: This work demonstrates that PpCIPK1, a putative protein kinase, participates in regulating plant salt tolerance in moss Physcomitrella patens. Calcineurin B-Like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) have been reported to be involved in multiple signaling networks and function in plant growth and stress responses, however, their biological functions in non-seed plants have not been well characterized. In this study, we report that PpCIPK1, a putative protein kinase, participates in regulating plant salt tolerance in moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PpCIPK1 shared high similarity with its homologs in higher plants. PpCIPK1 transcription level was induced upon salt stress in P. patens. Using homologous recombination, we constructed PpCIPK1 knockout mutant lines (PpCIPK1 KO). Salt sensitivity analysis showed that independent PpCIPK1 KO plants exhibited severe growth inhibition and developmental deficiency of gametophytes under salt stress condition compared to that of wild-type P. patens (WT). Consistently, ionic homeostasis was disrupted in plants due to PpCIPK1 deletion, and high level of H2O2 was accumulated in PpCIPK1 KO than that in WT. Furthermore, PpCIPK1 functions in regulating photosynthetic activity in response to salt stress. Interestingly, we observed that PpCIPK1 could completely rescue the salt-sensitive phenotype of sos2-1 to WT level in Arabidopsis, indicating that AtSOS2 and PpCIPK1 are functionally conserved. In conclusion, our work provides evidence that PpCIPK1 participates in salt tolerance regulation in P. patens.


Asunto(s)
Bryopsida/fisiología , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/metabolismo , Plantas Tolerantes a la Sal/fisiología , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Bryopsida/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Fotosíntesis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente , Proteínas Quinasas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a la Sal/genética , Alineación de Secuencia , Estrés Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542545

RESUMEN

The current Coronavirus disease outbreak requires that physicians work in collaboration with other physicians especially in intensive care and emergency units. To fight against this new disease, whose pathogenesis, effects, and results have not been clearly demonstrated, especially in patients with the pre-existing chronic disease, requires special expertise and perspectives. Due to the need for dynamic glucocorticoid treatment at different stages of the disease in patients with adrenal insufficiency, the existence of reports indicating that "coronavirus disease 2019" also affects the adrenal reserve, and the use of glucocorticoids also in advanced stages in patients with Coronavirus disease require this issue to be emphasized with precision. Herein, treatment of the pre-existing adrenal insufficiency in patients with actual Coronavirus disease and the effects of the this critical disease on the adrenal gland have been reviewed.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Suprarrenal/tratamiento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Hidrocortisona/uso terapéutico , Glándulas Suprarrenales/metabolismo , Insuficiencia Suprarrenal/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Terapia de Reemplazo de Hormonas/métodos , Hospitalización , Humanos , Inflamación , Estrés Fisiológico
15.
Gene ; 778: 145474, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549711

RESUMEN

SIX Gene Expression 1 (Sge1) is an important and well-recognized fungal-specific transcription regulator from the Gti1/Pac2 family that exhibits a conserved function in the vegetative growth, regulating the expression of effector genes and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. However, its functions in Cytospora chrysosperma, a notorious phytopathogenic fungus in forestry, remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized a Sge1 orthologue, CcSge1, in C. chrysosperma and deleted its Gti1/Pac2 domain for functional analysis. The CcSge1 deletion mutants showed obvious defects in hyphal growth, conidial production and response to hydrogen peroxide. Correspondingly, significantly lower expression of conidiation related genes were found in deletion mutants compared to that of the wild type. Importantly, the CcSge1 deletion mutants totally lost their pathogenicity to the host. Further analysis demonstrated that CcSge1 was responsible for the expression of putative effector genes and the transcription of CcSge1 was under tight control by pathogenicity-related MAP Kinase 1 (CcPmk1). What's more, one of the putative effector gene CCG_07874 was positively regulated by both CcSge1 and CcPmk1. Taken together, these data indicate that CcSge1is indispensable for hyphal radial growth, conidiation, the expression of effector genes and fungal virulence.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana/genética , Saccharomycetales/fisiología , Virulencia , Biología Computacional , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulación Fúngica de la Expresión Génica , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Mutación , Saccharomycetales/patogenicidad , Estrés Fisiológico
16.
Gene ; 781: 145535, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631240

RESUMEN

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important factor in limiting peanut growth on acidic soil. The molecular mechanisms underlying peanut responses to Al stress are largely unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of the root tips (0-1 cm) of peanut cultivar ZH2 (Al-sensitive) and 99-1507 (Al-tolerant) respectively. Root tips of peanuts that treated with 100 µM Al for 8 h and 24 h were analyzed by RNA-Seq, and a total of 8,587 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. GO and KEGG pathway analysis excavated a group of important Al-responsive genes related to organic acid transport, metal cation transport, transcription regulation and programmed cell death (PCD). These homologs were promising targets to modulate Al tolerance in peanuts. It was found that the rapid transcriptomic response to Al stress in 99-1507 helped to activate effective Al tolerance mechanisms. Protein and protein interaction analysis indicated that MAPK signal transduction played important roles in the early response to Al stress in peanuts. Moreover, weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) identified a predicted EIL (EIN3-like) gene with greatly increased expression as an Al-associated gene, and revealed a link between ethylene signaling transduction and Al resistance related genes in peanut, which suggested the enhanced signal transduction mediated the rapid transcriptomic responses. Our results revealed key pathways and genes associated with Al stress, and improved the understanding of Al response in peanut.


Asunto(s)
Aluminio/toxicidad , Arachis/efectos de los fármacos , Arachis/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Arachis/metabolismo , Mapeo Cromosómico , Cromosomas de las Plantas , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/genética , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas , RNA-Seq , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estrés Fisiológico
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540792

RESUMEN

The skin barrier consists of mucus, primarily comprising highly glycosylated mucins, and the epithelium. Host mucin glycosylation governs interactions with pathogens and stress is associated with impaired epithelial barrier function. We characterized Atlantic salmon skin barrier function during chronic stress (high density) and mucin O-glycosylation changes in response to acute and chronic stress. Fish held at low (LD: 14-30 kg/m3) and high densities (HD: 50-80 kg/m3) were subjected to acute stress 24 h before sampling at 17 and 21 weeks after start of the experiment. Blood parameters indicated primary and secondary stress responses at both sampling points. At the second sampling, skin barrier function towards molecules was reduced in the HD compared to the LD group (Papp mannitol; p < 0.01). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 81 O-glycan structures from the skin. Fish subjected to both chronic and acute stress had an increased proportion of large O-glycan structures. Overall, four of the O-glycan changes have potential as indicators of stress, especially for the combined chronic and acute stress. Stress thus impairs skin barrier function and induces glycosylation changes, which have potential to both affect interactions with pathogens and serve as stress indicators.


Asunto(s)
Aglomeración , Mucinas/metabolismo , Moco/química , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Polisacáridos/metabolismo , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Absorción Cutánea/fisiología , Piel/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores , Cromatografía Liquida , Aglomeración/psicología , Glicosilación , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Manitol/farmacocinética , Espectrometría de Masas , Mucinas/aislamiento & purificación , Moco/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/aislamiento & purificación , Oxígeno/análisis , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Procesamiento Proteico-Postraduccional , Salmo salar/sangre , Piel/ultraestructura , Temperatura , Calidad del Agua
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540571

RESUMEN

Drought represents a major threat to plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural settings. The biostimulant Super Fifty (SF), produced from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, enables ecologically friendly stress mitigation. We investigated the physiological and whole-genome transcriptome responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought stress after a treatment with SF. SF strongly decreased drought-induced damage. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which typically stifle plant growth during drought, was reduced in SF-primed plants. Relative water content remained high in SF-treated plants, whilst ion leakage, a measure of cell damage, was reduced compared to controls. Plant growth requires a functional shoot apical meristem (SAM). Expression of a stress-responsive negative growth regulator, RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 26 (RD26), was repressed by SF treatment at the SAM, consistent with the model that SF priming maintains the function of the SAM during drought stress. Accordingly, expression of the cell cycle marker gene HISTONE H4 (HIS4) was maintained at the SAMs of SF-primed plants, revealing active cell cycle progression after SF priming during drought. In accordance with this, CYCP2;1, which promotes meristem cell division, was repressed by drought but enhanced by SF. SF also positively affected stomatal behavior to support the tolerance to drought stress. Collectively, our data show that SF priming mitigates multiple cellular processes that otherwise impair plant growth under drought stress, thereby providing a knowledge basis for future research on crops.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis/fisiología , Ascophyllum/química , Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Sequías , Estrés Fisiológico , Transcriptoma , Adaptación Fisiológica , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Algas Marinas/química
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(6): 637-654, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543390

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: We demonstrate that OsNAC109 regulates senescence, growth and development via binding to the cis-element CNTCSSNNSCAVG and altering the expression of multiple senescence- and hormone-associated genes in rice. The NAC family is one of the largest transcripton factor families in plants and plays an essential role in plant development, leaf senescence and responses to biotic/abiotic stresses through modulating the expression of numerous genes. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel yellow leaf 3 (yl3) mutant exhibiting arrested-growth, increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased level of soluble proteins, increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, altered expression of photosynthesis and senescence/hormone-associated genes. The yellow leaf and arrested-growth trait was controlled by a single recessive gene located to chromosome 9. A single nucleotide substitution was detected in the mutant allele leading to premature termination of its coding protein. Genetic complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype while the YL3 knockout lines displayed similar phenotype to WT. YL3 was expressed in all tissues tested and predicted to encode a transcriptional factor OsNAC109 which localizes to the nucleus. It was confirmed that OsNAC109 could directly regulate the expression of OsNAP, OsNYC3, OsEATB, OsAMTR1, OsZFP185, OsMPS and OsGA2ox3 by targeting to the highly conserved cis-element CNTCSSNNSCAVG except OsSAMS1. Our results demonstrated that OsNAC109 is essential to rice leaf senescence, growth and development through regulating the expression of senescence- and phytohormone-associated genes in rice.


Asunto(s)
Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alelos , Cloroplastos/ultraestructura , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Mutación , Fenotipo , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Factores de Transcripción , Transcriptoma
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562320

RESUMEN

Chloroplast ribonucleoproteins (cpRNPs) are nuclear-encoded and highly abundant proteins that are proposed to function in chloroplast RNA metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of chloroplast RNAs involved in stress tolerance are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that CHLOROPLAST RNA-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (OsCRP1), a rice (Oryza sativa) cpRNP gene, is essential for stabilization of RNAs from the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex, which in turn enhances drought and cold stress tolerance. An RNA-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that OsCRP1 is associated with a set of chloroplast RNAs. Transcript profiling indicated that the mRNA levels of genes from the NDH complex significantly increased in the OsCRP1 overexpressing compared to non-transgenic plants, whereas the pattern in OsCRP1 RNAi plants were opposite. Importantly, the OsCRP1 overexpressing plants showed a higher cyclic electron transport (CET) activity, which is essential for elevated levels of ATP for photosynthesis. Additionally, overexpression of OsCRP1 resulted in significantly enhanced drought and cold stress tolerance with higher ATP levels compared to wild type. Thus, our findings suggest that overexpression of OsCRP1 stabilizes a set of mRNAs from genes of the NDH complex involved in increasing CET activity and production of ATP, which consequently confers enhanced drought and cold tolerance.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/genética , Frío , Sequías , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estabilidad del ARN , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Oryza/genética , Fotosíntesis , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Estrés Fisiológico
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