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1.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 26(4): e21203, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468562

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In this study, simulations were performed by the finite element method (FEM) to determine the tension and displacement in mini-implants and in expander appliance during rapid maxillary expansion, by varying the number and location of the mini-implants. METHODS: For the computational simulation, a three-dimensional mesh was used for the maxilla, mini-implants and expander appliance. Comparisons were made on six different Mini-implant Assisted Rapid Palatal Expander (MARPE) configurations, by varying the amount and location of mini-implants. A closed suture was design and received two activations of 0.25 mm, and an open suture had a 0.5-mm aperture that received 20 activations, also of 0.25 mm. RESULTS: For the closed suture, the maximum displacement values in the mini-implants were between 0.253 and 0.280 mm, and stress was between 1,348.9 and 2,948.2 MPa; in the expander appliance, the displacement values were between 0.256 and 0.281 mm, and stress was between 738.52 and 1,207.6 MPa. For the open suture, the maximum displacement values in the mini-implants were between 2.57 and 2.79 mm, and stress was between 5,765.3 and 10,366 MPa; in the appliance, the maximum displacements was between 2.53 and 2.89 mm, and stress was between 4,859.7 and 9,157.4 MPa. CONCLUSIONS: There were higher stress concentrations in the mini-implant than in the expander arm. In the simulations with a configuration of three mini-implants, stress overload was observed in the isolated mini-implant. Displacements of the mini-implants and arms of the appliance were similar in all simulations.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Técnica de Expansión Palatina , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Maxilar/cirugía , Paladar (Hueso) , Estrés Mecánico
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931969, 2021 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455415

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Midfoot deformity and injury can affect the internal pressure distribution of the foot. This study aimed to use 3D finite element and biomechanical analyses of midfoot von Mises stress levels in flatfoot, clubfoot, and Lisfranc joint injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Normal feet, flatfeet, clubfeet (30 individuals each), and Lisfranc injuries (50 individuals) were reconstructed by CT, and 3D finite element models were established by ABAQUS. Spring element was used to simulate the plantar fascia and ligaments and set hyperelastic coefficients in encapsulated bone and ligaments. The stance phase was simulated by applying 350 N on the top of the talus. The von Mises stress of the feet and ankle was visualized and analyzed. RESULTS The von Mises stress on healthy feet was higher in the lateral metatarsal and ankle bones than in the medial metatarsal bone. Among the flatfoot group, the stress on the metatarsals, talus, and navicular bones was significantly increased compared with that on healthy feet. Among patients with clubfeet, stress was mainly concentrated on the talus, and stress on the lateral metatarsal and navicular bones was significantly lower. The von Mises stress on the fractured bone was decreased, and the stress on the bone adjacent to the fractured bone was higher in Lisfranc injury. During bone dislocation alone or fracture accompanied by dislocation, the von Mises stress of the dislocated bone tended to be constant or increased. CONCLUSIONS Prediction of von Mises stress distribution may be used clinically to evaluate the effects of deformity and injury on changes in structure and internal pressure distribution on the midfoot.


Asunto(s)
Pie Equinovaro/fisiopatología , Análisis de Elementos Finitos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pie Plano/fisiopatología , Traumatismos de los Pies/fisiopatología , Articulaciones del Pie/fisiopatología , Artropatías/fisiopatología , Estrés Mecánico , Adulto , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Articulaciones del Pie/lesiones , Humanos , Masculino , Pronóstico
3.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(4): 640-649, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411203

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of solid (one-piece) and two-piece abutments on the stress profile of narrow implants with marginal bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Solid and two-piece abutments were connected to a conical internal octagon-connection implant (3.3 mm in diameter, 10 mm in length) and restored with a single crown. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to simulate the stress distribution in implant models with different levels of marginal bone resorption (0, 1, 2, and 3 mm). The effect of the design variables under increased bone resorption scenarios, including abutment screw length and diameter, was assessed. Static loading was applied to determine the mechanical response of the implant and cortical and trabecular bone. RESULTS: Marginal bone resorption levels dominated the mechanical response under static loading conditions. A marginal bone loss of 3 mm significantly increased stress values in the implant vicinity and abutment screw. Both abutment designs displayed similar stress distribution in the surrounding bone, but lower stress values were observed in the implant body with two-piece abutments. The abutment screw length was more effective in the resultant stress, as the longer screws reduced the stress in the implants. CONCLUSION: Marginal bone resorption magnitude is the crucial parameter in biomechanics to determine the mechanical behavior. As bone loss increases, resultant stress around implants under mastication forces may lead to implant failure, regardless of abutment type.


Asunto(s)
Pilares Dentales , Implantes Dentales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Estrés Mecánico
4.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(4): e63-e71, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411208

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether axial or radial functionally graded root analog implants can optimize the stress and strain distribution near the implant-bone interface in alveolar bone models under static loads using finite element analysis (FEA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 3D profile of the root analog implant was captured from a natural tooth in CBCT data. The implant was separated into different layers (3, 5, and 10 layers) to vary the Young modulus axially or radially. The variation in Young modulus was designed to be linear, exponential, or parabolic. Different occlusal loads were applied. The von Mises stress and strain were used to evaluate the system risk of failure. RESULTS: The difference in the numbers of layers had no significant effect on the alveolar bone. In the radial functionally graded implant models, the maximum von Mises stress of the alveolar bone decreased as the outer layer's elastic modulus increased; however, in the vertical functionally graded implants, this stress varied little. The maximum von Mises stress of the cancellous bone changed only slightly, from 2 to 5 MPa in all models. The maximum strain of the alveolar bone varied from 0.001478 mm to 0.003999 mm. Those FEA results were in line with previous findings. CONCLUSION: The functionally graded root analog implants show no significant biomechanical advantages over dense zirconia implants. Radial functionally graded root analog implants should optimize the peri-implant stresses and are biomechanically favorable for design.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Simulación por Computador , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Estrés Mecánico
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440948

RESUMEN

The exact molecular pathways underlying the multifactorial natural history of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are still largely unknown, to the point that their understanding represents an imperative challenge in neurovascular research. Wall shear stress (WSS) promotes the genesis of IAs through an endothelial dysfunction causing an inflammatory cascade, vessel remodeling, phenotypic switching of the smooth muscle cells, and myointimal hyperplasia. Aneurysm growth is supported by endothelial oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, whereas low and high WSS determine the rupture in sidewall and endwall IAs, respectively. Angioarchitecture, age older than 60 years, female gender, hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, and hypercholesterolemia also contribute to growth and rupture. The improvements of aneurysm wall imaging techniques and the implementation of target therapies targeted against inflammatory cascade may contribute to significantly modify the natural history of IAs. This narrative review strives to summarize the recent advances in the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the genesis, growth, and rupture of IAs.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma Roto , Aneurisma Intracraneal , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estrés Mecánico
6.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104598, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346320

RESUMEN

Over the past decade, Finite Element (FE) modelling has been used as a method to understand the internal stresses within the diabetic foot. Foot deformities such as hammer toe have been associated with increased risk of foot ulcers in diabetic patients. Hence the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of hammer toe deformity on internal stresses during walking. A 3D finite element model of the human foot was constructed based on capturing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of a diabetic neuropathic volunteer exhibiting hammer toe. 3D gait measurements and a multi-body musculoskeletal model for the same participant were used to define muscle forces. FE simulations were run at five different instances during the stance phase of gait. Peak plantar pressure and pressure distribution results calculated from the model showed a good agreement with the experimental measurement having less than 11% errors. Maximum von Mises internal stresses in the forefoot hard tissue were observed at the 3rd and 5th metatarsals and 4th proximal phalanx. Moreover, presence of hammer toe deformity was found to shift the location of maximum internal stresses on the soft tissue to the forefoot by changing the location of centre of pressure with internal stress 1.64 times greater than plantar pressure. Hammer toe deformity also showed to reduce the involvement of the first phalanx in internal/external load-bearing during walking. The findings of this study support the association between changes in loading pattern, deformity, and internal stresses in the soft tissue that lead to foot ulceration.


Asunto(s)
Pie Diabético , Síndrome del Dedo del Pie en Martillo , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Pie Diabético/diagnóstico por imagen , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Síndrome del Dedo del Pie en Martillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Presión , Estrés Mecánico , Caminata
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360970

RESUMEN

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are usually treated with autograft implantation to prevent knee instability. Tissue engineered ACL reconstruction is becoming promising to circumvent autograft limitations. The aim was to evaluate the influence of cyclic stretch on lapine (L) ACL fibroblasts on embroidered scaffolds with respect to adhesion, DNA and sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) contents, gene expression of ligament-associated extracellular matrix genes, such as type I collagen, decorin, tenascin C, tenomodulin, gap junctional connexin 43 and the transcription factor Mohawk. Control scaffolds and those functionalized by gas phase fluorination and cross-linked collagen foam were either pre-cultured with a suspension or with spheroids of LACL cells before being subjected to cyclic stretch (4%, 0.11 Hz, 3 days). Stretch increased significantly the scaffold area colonized with cells but impaired sGAGs and decorin gene expression (functionalized scaffolds seeded with cell suspension). Stretching increased tenascin C, connexin 43 and Mohawk but decreased decorin gene expression (control scaffolds seeded with cell suspension). Pre-cultivation of functionalized scaffolds with spheroids might be the more suitable method for maintaining ligamentogenesis in 3D scaffolds compared to using a cell suspension due to a significantly higher sGAG content in response to stretching and type I collagen gene expression in functionalized scaffolds.


Asunto(s)
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiología , Esferoides Celulares/citología , Ingeniería de Tejidos/métodos , Andamios del Tejido/química , Animales , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/citología , Adhesión Celular , Proliferación Celular , Células Cultivadas , Conexinas/genética , Conexinas/metabolismo , Decorina/genética , Decorina/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Femenino , Fibroblastos/fisiología , Proteínas de Homeodominio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodominio/metabolismo , Homeostasis , Masculino , Poliésteres/química , Conejos , Regeneración , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Estrés Mecánico
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39957-39966, 2021 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376049

RESUMEN

Microbial inoculants can enhance soil quality, promote plant nutrient acquisition, and alleviate problems caused by the excessive use of chemical fertilizers. However, susceptibility to harsh conditions during transport and storage, as well as the short shelf-life of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), limit industrial application. Herein, a novel strategy to form nanocoating on bacterial surfaces to enhance viability was proposed. The nanocoating was composed of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-modified poly (γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and calcium ions, which could adhere to the surface of bacteria by forming covalent bonds and ionic bonds with the bacteria. The bacteria encapsulated in the coating had better resistance against harsh conditions than bare bacteria. The viability of coated bacteria was also increased by 2.38 times compared with bare bacteria after 4 weeks of storage. The pot experiment showed that coated Pseudomonas stutzeri NRCB010 had better growth-promoting properties compared with free P. stutzeri NRCB010. These results indicate that cell surface engineering is an effective method to enhance the resistance of bacteria against harsh conditions and is expected to promote the widespread use of PGPR.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biocompatibles Revestidos/química , Materiales Biocompatibles Revestidos/metabolismo , Nanoestructuras/química , Ácido Poliglutámico/análogos & derivados , Pseudomonas stutzeri/metabolismo , Biotecnología , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Fertilizantes/microbiología , Calor , Ingeniería Metabólica , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Desarrollo de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Ácido Poliglutámico/química , Ácido Poliglutámico/metabolismo , Pseudomonas stutzeri/efectos de los fármacos , Exposición a la Radiación , Suelo , Estrés Mecánico
9.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(4): 764-769, 2021 Aug 18.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393242

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of base materials on stress distribution in endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored with endocrowns using three-dimensional finite element analysis. METHODS: A maxillary second premolar was scanned by Micro-CT and a three-dimensional finite element model of ceramic endocrown with 1 mm thickness of base was established. A model without base was also established as a negative control. Four kinds of conventional base materials with different elastic modulus were adopted: light cure glass ionomer(3M Vitrebond, 3 657 MPa), flowable composite resin(3M Filtek Z350XT Flowable Restorative, 7 300 MPa), high strength glass ionomer(GC Fuji Ⅸ, 13 130 MPa), and posterior composite resin(3M Filtek P60, 19 700 MPa). With a 200 N force loaded vertically and obliquely, the distribution and magnitude of stress in the tooth tissue and adhesive layer were investigated by three-dimensional finite element analysis. RESULTS: The maximum von Mises stress values(vertical/oblique) in dentin and adhesive layer were measured as follows: (1) no base material: 19.39/70.49 MPa in dentin and 6.97/17.97 MPa in adhesive layer; (2) light cure glass ionomer: 19.00/69.75 MPa in dentin and 6.87/16.30 MPa in adhesive layer; (3) flowable composite resin: 18.78/69.33 MPa in dentin and 6.79/16.17 MPa in adhesive layer; (4) high strength glass ionomer: 18.71/69.20 MPa in dentin and 6.74/16.07 MPa in adhesive layer; (5) posterior composite resin: 18.61/69.03 MPa in dentin and 6.70/16.01 MPa in adhesive layer. Under the same loading condition, models with different elastic moduli of base materials had similar stress distribution patterns. The von Mises stress of tooth tissue was mainly concentrated in the tooth cervix. Under oblique load, the regions where von Mises stress concentrated in were similar to those under a vertical load, but the values increased. The stress concentration in the tooth cervix was alleviated in models with base materials compared with the model without base material. The maximum von Mises stress in the tooth tissue and adhesive layer decreased when the elastic modulus of base materials increased and got close to that of dentin. CONCLUSION: The posterior composite resin of which the elastic moduli is high and close to that of dentin is recommended as base material for premolar endocrowns to alleviate the concentration of stress in tooth cervix and adhesive layer.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Compuestas , Cuello del Diente , Diente Premolar , Cerámica , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Dentina , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Estrés Mecánico , Microtomografía por Rayos X
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372266

RESUMEN

Mooring systems are an integral and sophisticated component of offshore assets and are subject to harsh conditions and cyclic loading. The early detection and characterisation of fatigue crack growth remain a crucial challenge. The scope of the present work was to establish filtering and alarm criteria for different crack growth stages by evaluating the recorded signals and their features. The analysis and definition of parametrical limits, and the correlation of their characteristics with the crack, helped to identify approaches to discriminate between noise, initiation, and growth-related signals. Based on these, a filtering criterion was established, to support the identification of the different growth stages and noise with the aim to provide early warnings of potential damage.


Asunto(s)
Fatiga , Humanos , Estrés Mecánico
11.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(4): 539-550, 2021 Aug 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405210

RESUMEN

The article aims to study the effect and mechanism of shear stress on eicosanoids produced by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in endothelial cells. First, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated by control (Static), laminar shear stress (LSS) and oscillatory shear stress (OSS) for 6 h. Then the endothelial cells were incubated with fresh M199 medium for 3 h, and the cell culture medium was collected. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to detect the level of eicosanoid metabolites secreted by endothelial cells. The results showed that under different shear stress, the level of eicosanoid metabolites were changed significantly. We found 10 metabolites were significantly up-regulated by OSS compared with those in LSS group, including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α and PGJ2 produced by cyclooxygenase; 11-HETE, 15-HETE, 13-HDoHE produced by lipoxygenase or spontaneous oxidation; 12,13-EpOME, 9,10-EpOME, 9,10-DiHOME produced by cytochrome P450 oxidase and soluble epoxide hydrolase. The transcription levels of these up-regulated eicosanoids metabolic enzyme-related genes were also increased in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that OSS may promote the increase of metabolites by up-regulating the transcription level of metabolic enzyme-related genes, which playing a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study reveals the effect of shear stress on eicosanoid metabolism in endothelial cells, which provides a novel supplement to the systems biology approach to study systemic hemodynamics.


Asunto(s)
Eicosanoides , Metabolómica , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Estrés Mecánico
12.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 39(2): 178-182, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341238

RESUMEN

Introduction: The primary function of corono-radicular post is to provide retention for the core and to reinforce and to replace the remaining coronal tooth structure. There is considerable controversy regarding optimal choice of the material. An ideal post system should exhibit fracture resistance higher than the average masticatory forces. Finite elemental analysis (FEA) method facilitates precise analysis of the distribution and magnitude of stresses at any point of complex and irregular structures. Thus, this FEA study has been undertaken to evaluate the fracture stress distribution patterns in three fiber posts, viz., carbon, glass fiber, and everStick with an FEA. Materials and Methods: The FE stress analysis was performed with the FE software program (CATIA). Three two-dimensional FEA models of central incisor were simulated, and elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio of all the materials were fed to the software. For all the models, a 200 N vertical force was applied on the lingual surface of the tooth at an angle of 45°. Stress concentration and distribution were evaluated and noted down for all the models. To evaluate the stresses within the restored tooth, the modified von Mises failure criterion was used. The equivalent stresses found in the tested models were compared with the tensile strength of the respective materials. Contact stresses in the luting cement-dentin interface were calculated. Results: Finite element method revealed that maximum stress concentration was at the point of stress application. The stress value was highest in carbon fiber post followed by glass fiber post and least stresses found in everStick post. Maximum stress was observed at the labial surfaces of crown. However, the stress values and distribution were more homogenous in everStick post. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that everStick post has uniform stress distribution within tooth structure.


Asunto(s)
Técnica de Perno Muñón , Resinas Compuestas , Coronas , Materiales Dentales , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Dentina , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Vidrio , Humanos , Estrés Mecánico
13.
Nano Lett ; 21(16): 6740-6747, 2021 08 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387494

RESUMEN

The mechanical environment of a cell is not constant. This dynamic behavior is exceedingly difficult to capture in (synthetic) in vitro matrices. This paper describes a novel, highly adaptive hybrid hydrogel composed of magnetically sensitive magnetite nanorods and a stress-responsive synthetic matrix. Nanorod rearrangement after application of (small) magnetic fields induces strain in the network, which results in a strong (over 10-fold) stiffening even at minimal (2.5 wt %) nanorod concentrations. Moreover, the stiffening mechanism yields a fast and fully reversible response. In the manuscript, we quantitatively analyze that forces generated by the particles are comparable to cellular forces. We demonstrate the value of magnetic stiffening in a 3D MCF10A epithelial cell experiment, where simply culturing on top of a permanent magnet gives rise to changes in the cell morphology. This work shows that our hydrogels are uniquely suited as 3D cell culture systems with on-demand adaptive mechanical properties.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Hidrogeles , Fenómenos Magnéticos , Magnetismo , Estrés Mecánico
14.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 100(4): 83-87, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357734

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to improve the strength properties polymer by modifying its basis with various materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A polymer in the form of a pink-colored plasticine mass with veins was studied, a quartz mesh «Quartz splint mesh¼ manufactured by RTD (France) and two metal gold-plated wire mesh (0.1 mm and 0.15 mm in diameter) manufactured by Renfert (Germany). Modified test specimens, 65×40×3.5 mm in size were covered with a lavsan film and at a slight pressure the material was rolled out with a glass cylinder flush with the frame. Curing was carried out in Fhotopress photopolymer (Aveyron, RF) under the 460-470 nm wavelength light for 6 minutes on each side. The plates were sawn with a mill in the form of strips 64×10×3.3 mm and kept in distilled water at 37 °C for 50 h before testing. The test of the reinforced samples was carried out with a middle and lower location of quartz and metal grids pre-treated with adhesive and subjected to a 4-point bending test. Bending strength, bending modulus, and fracture deformation were determined using a Zwick/Roell Z010 testing machine with a constant crosshead speed under loading (5±1) mm/min. The statistical significance of the influence of reinforcing elements on the performance of the basic physical and mechanical properties of the base material was determined using Student's t-test. RESULTS: The value of fracture toughness index K1 at the lower location of the quartz mesh was 3.72±0.43 MN/m1.5, which was 4.9 times significantly higher than K1 for the non-reinforced material (p=0.0001). CONCLUSION: The ability to achieve maximum material strength with the lower reinforcement method increases the functional usefulness of removable orthodontic and orthopedic structures with a basis of «Nolatek¼ light-cured material.


Asunto(s)
Vidrio , Polímeros , Resinas Compuestas , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Aparatos Ortodóncicos , Estrés Mecánico
15.
J Biomech ; 125: 110564, 2021 08 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237658

RESUMEN

Dynamic cell cultures simulate the in vivo cell environment for a regular loading system with curtain strains. However, it is difficult to obtain strains that are suitable for cells without conducting multiple trials. This study develops a device that increases the strain gradient by changing the tensile section, in order to determine the effect of various cyclic strains on cultured human keratinocytes (HK) cells. This device is used to determine the effect of 3% and 5% cyclic strain and shear strain on cell proliferation and arrangement at 1 Hz. The results show that compared with static and 3% strain, a 5% cyclic strain better inhibits the proliferation of HK cells. Compared to the initial cell attachment when there is no specific directionality, the cells are aligned in the vertical stretching direction after cyclic stretching. This equipment increases the efficiency of the experiment and more intuitively maps the cell behavior and shape to the strain field and the response to the shear strain.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Línea Celular , Membrana Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Estrés Mecánico
16.
J Biomech ; 125: 110542, 2021 08 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237660

RESUMEN

This study investigates the biomechanical properties of ascending aortic aneurysms focusing on the inter-patient differences vs. the heterogeneity within a patient's aneurysm. Each specimen was tested on a biaxial testing device and the resulting stress-strain response was fitted to a four-parameter Fung constitutive model. We postulate that the inter-patient variability (differences between patients) blurs possible intra-patient variability (regional heterogeneity) and, thus, that both effects must be considered to shed light on the role of heterogeneity in aneurysm progression. We propose, demonstrate, and discuss two techniques to assess differences by, first, comparing conventional biomechanical properties and, second, the overall constitutive response. Results show that both inter- and intra-patient variability contribute to errors when using population averaged models to fit individual tissue behaviour. When inter-patient variability was accounted for and its effects excluded, intra-patient heterogeneity could be assessed, showing a wide degree of heterogeneity at the individual patient level. Furthermore, the right lateral region (from the patient's perspective) appeared different (stiffer) than the other regions. We posit that this heterogeneity could be a consequence of maladaptive remodelling due to altered loading conditions that hastens microstructural changes naturally occurring with age. Further validation of these results should be sought from a larger cohort study.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma de la Aorta Torácica , Aneurisma de la Aorta , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estrés Mecánico
17.
Acta Biomater ; 131: 403-414, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245895

RESUMEN

The increased risk of fracture in the elderly associated with metabolic conditions like osteoporosis poses a significant strain on health care systems worldwide. Due to bone's hierarchical nature, it is necessary to study its mechanical properties and failure mechanisms at several length scales. We conducted micropillar compression experiments on ovine cortical bone to assess the anisotropic mechanical response at the lamellar scale over a wide range of strain rates (10-4 to 8·102 s-1). At the microscale, lamellar bone exhibits a strain rate sensitivity similar to what is reported at the macroscale suggesting that it is an intrinsic property of the extracellular matrix. Significant shear band thickening was observed at high strain rates by HRSEM and STEM imaging. This is likely caused by the material's inability to accommodate the imposed deformation by propagation of thin kink bands and shear cracks at high strain rates, leading to shear band thickening and nucleation. The post-yield behavior is strain rate and direction dependent: hardening was observed for transverse oriented micropillars and hardening modulus increases with strain rate by a factor of almost 2, while axially oriented micropillars showed strain softening and an increase of the softening peak width and work to ultimate stress as a function of strain rate. This suggests that for compression at the micrometer scale, energy absorption in bone increases with strain rate. This study highlights the importance of investigating bone strength and post-yield behavior at lower length scales, under hydrated conditions and at clinically relevant strain rates. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: We performed micropillar compression experiments of ovine cortical bone at two different orientations and over seven orders of magnitude of strain rate. Experiments were performed under humid condition to mimic the natural conditions of bone in a human body using a newly developed micro-indenter setup. The strain rate sensitivity was found to be of a similar magnitude to what has been reported for higher length scales, suggesting that the strain rate sensitivity is an intrinsic property of the bone extracellular matrix. In addition, localized shear deformation in thick bands was observed for the first time at high strain rates, highlighting the importance of investigating bone under conditions representative of an accident or fall at several length scales.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Hueso Cortical , Anciano , Animales , Fuerza Compresiva , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Presión , Ovinos , Estrés Mecánico
18.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104600, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214938

RESUMEN

In a new therapeutic technique, called magnetic drug targeting (MDT), magnetic particles carrying therapeutic agents are directed to the target tissue by applying an external magnetic field. Meanwhile, this magnetic field also affects the blood as a biomagnetic fluid. Therefore, it is necessary to select a magnetic field with an acceptable range of influence on the blood flow. This study investigates the effect of an external magnetic field on the pulsatile blood flow in a stenosed curved artery to identify a safe magnetic field. The effects of a number of parameters, including the magnetic susceptibility of blood in oxygenated and deoxygenated states and the magnetic field strength, were studied. Moreover, the effect of the plaque morphology, including the occlusion percentage and the chord length of the stenosis, on changes in blood flow induced by the magnetic field was investigated. The results show that applying a magnetic field increases the wall shear stress (WSS) and the pressure of the deoxygenated blood. Comparing the wall shear stresses of the deoxygenated and oxygenated blood shows that the effect of magnetic field on the deoxygenated blood is more significant than its effect on the oxygenated blood due to its higher magnetic susceptibility. The study of the stenosis geometry shows that the influence of magnetic field on the blood flow is increased by decreasing the occlusion percentage of the artery. Furthermore, among the evaluated lengths, the 50° chord length results in the highest variation under the influence of the magnetic field. Finally, the magnetic field of Mn = 2.5 can be utilized as a safe field for MDT purposes in such a stenosed curved artery.


Asunto(s)
Arterias , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Velocidad del Flujo Sanguíneo , Simulación por Computador , Constricción Patológica , Humanos , Campos Magnéticos , Flujo Pulsátil , Estrés Mecánico
19.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104595, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216890

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In a healthy body, the elastic wall of the arteries forms wave-like structures resulting from the continuous pumping of the heart. The systolic and diastolic phases generate a contraction and expansion pattern, which is mimicked in this study by considering a wavy-walled arterial structure. A numerical investigation of the spatio-temporal flow of blood and heat transfer through a porous medium under the action of magnetic field strength is conducted. METHOD: The governing equations of the blood flow in the Darcy model are simulated by applying a vorticity-stream function formulation approach. The transformed dimensionless equations are further discretized using the finite difference method by developing the Peaceman-Rachford alternating direction implicit (P-R ADI) scheme. RESULTS: The computational results for the axial velocity, temperature distribution, flow visualization using the streamlines and vorticity contours, isotherms, wall shear stress and the average Nusselt number are presented graphically for different values of the physical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that the axial velocity increases with an increase in the Darcy number, and a similar phenomenon is observed because of an amplitude variation in the wavy wall. Both temperature and wall shear stress decreases with an increase in the Darcy number. The average Nusselt number increases with the magnetic field strength, while it has a reducing tendency due to the permeability of the porous medium.


Asunto(s)
Hemodinámica , Calor , Arterias , Porosidad , Estrés Mecánico
20.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104629, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274895

RESUMEN

The determinant role of the annulus fibrosus interlamellar zones in the intervertebral disc transversal and volumetric responses and hence on their corresponding three-dimensional conducts have been only revealed and appreciated recently. Their consideration in disc modeling strategies has been proven to be essential for the reproduction of correct local strain and displacement fields inside the disc especially in the unconstrained directions of the disc. In addition, these zones are known to be the starting areas of annulus fibrosus circumferential tears and disc delamination failure mode, which is often judged as one of the most dangerous disc failure modes that could evolve with time leading to disc hernia. For this latter reason, the main goal of the current contribution is to incorporate physically for the first time, the interlamellar zones, at the scale of a complete human lumbar intervertebral disc, in order to allow a correct local vision and replication of the different lamellar-interlamellar interactions and an identification of the interlamellar critical zones. By means of a fully tridimensional chemo-viscoelastic constitutive model, which we implemented into a finite element code, the physical, mechanical and chemical contribution of the interlamellar zones is added to the disc. The chemical-induced volumetric response is accounted by the model for both the interlamellar zones and the lamellae using experimentally-based fluid kinetics. Computational simulations are performed and critically discussed upon different simple and complex physiological movements. The disc core and the interlamellar zones are numerically accessed, allowing the observation of the displacement and shear strain fields that are compared to direct MRI experiments from the literature. Important conclusions about the correct lamellar-interlamellar-nucleus interactions are provided thanks to the developed model. The critical interlamellar spots with the highest delamination potentials are defined, analyzed and related to the local kinetics and microstructure.


Asunto(s)
Anillo Fibroso , Disco Intervertebral , Anillo Fibroso/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Estrés Mecánico
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