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1.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 3, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398078

RESUMEN

This N = 173,426 social science dataset was collected through the collaborative COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey - an open science effort to improve understanding of the human experiences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic between 30th March and 30th May, 2020. The dataset allows a cross-cultural study of psychological and behavioural responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and associated government measures like cancellation of public functions and stay at home orders implemented in many countries. The dataset contains demographic background variables as well as measures of Asian Disease Problem, perceived stress (PSS-10), availability of social provisions (SPS-10), trust in various authorities, trust in governmental measures to contain the virus (OECD trust), personality traits (BFF-15), information behaviours, agreement with the level of government intervention, and compliance with preventive measures, along with a rich pool of exploratory variables and written experiences. A global consortium from 39 countries and regions worked together to build and translate a survey with variables of shared interests, and recruited participants in 47 languages and dialects. Raw plus cleaned data and dynamic visualizations are available.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Comparación Transcultural , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Gobierno , Humanos , Personalidad , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Confianza
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406588

RESUMEN

The restrictions enacted during lockdown to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have led to changes in people's lifestyle habits. In Italy, these restrictions have dramatically changed the way people work and spend their leisure time, also with repercussions on diet and physical activity. An anonymous survey was disseminated via websites and social media to a convenience sample of the Italian population during and immediately after the first lockdown (10 March-18 May 2020). Data collected on 1826 individuals show that lockdown might have worsened the quality of sleep of almost half of the participants in this cross-sectional study. This worsening was associated with a deterioration in crucial determinants of health, such as physical activity and diet (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.18-2.40 and OR 4.19; 95% CI 2.51-6.96, respectively), with symptoms of psychological distress, such as tension (OR 3.88; 95% CI 2.74-5.52) and loneliness (OR 3.27; 95% CI 2.23-4.79), and with the presence of financial problems (some OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72; many OR 7.27; 95% CI 3.59-14.73). The multivariate regression analysis models confirmed these associations. This impact on sleep quality was seen especially among females, those with low education level, and those who experienced financial problems.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias , Sueño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Soledad , Masculino , Cuarentena , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 79, 2021 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413224

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: About 83,000 COVID-19 patients were confirmed in China up to May 2020. Amid the well-documented threats to physical health, the effects of this public health crisis - and the varied efforts to contain its spread - have altered individuals' "normal" daily functioning. These impacts on social, psychological, and emotional well-being remain relatively unexplored - in particular, the ways in which Chinese men and women experience and respond to potential behavioral stressors. Our study investigated sex differences in psychological stress, emotional reactions, and behavioral responses to COVID-19 and related threats among Chinese residents. METHODS: In late February (2020), an anonymous online questionnaire was disseminated via WeChat, a popular social media platform in China. The cross-sectional study utilized a non-probabilistic "snowball" or convenience sampling of residents from various provinces and regions of China. Basic demographic characteristics (e.g., age and gender) - along with residential living arrangements and conditions - were measured along with psychological stress and emotional responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Three thousand eighty-eight questionnaires were returned: 1749 females (56.6%) and 1339 males (43.4%). The mean stress level,as measured by a visual analog scale, was 3.4 (SD = 2.4) - but differed significantly by sex. Besides sex, factors positively associated with stress included: age (< 45 years), employment (unsteady income, unemployed), risk of infection (exposureto COVID-19, completed medical observation), difficulties encountered (diseases, work/study, financial, mental), and related behaviors (higher desire for COVID-19 knowledge, more time concerning on the COVID-19 outbreak). "Protective" factors included frequent contact with colleagues, calmness of mood comparing with the pre-pandemic, and psychological resilience. Males and females also differed significantly in adapting to current living/working, conditions, responding to run a fever, and needing psychological support services. CONCLUSIONS: The self-reported stress of Chinese residents related to the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly related to sex, age, employment, resilience and coping styles. Future responses to such public health threats may wish to provide sex- and/or age-appropriate supports for psychological health and emotional well-being to those at greatest risk of experiencing stress.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Empleo/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores Sexuales , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Emociones , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Servicios de Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0240146, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428630

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic does not fit into prevailing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) models, or diagnostic criteria, yet emerging research shows traumatic stress symptoms as a result of this ongoing global stressor. Current pathogenic event models focus on past, and largely direct, trauma exposure to certain kinds of life-threatening events. Yet, traumatic stress reactions to future, indirect trauma exposure, and non-Criterion A events exist, suggesting COVID-19 is also a traumatic stressor which could lead to PTSD symptomology. To examine this idea, we asked a sample of online participants (N = 1,040), in five western countries, to indicate the COVID-19 events they had been directly exposed to, events they anticipated would happen in the future, and other forms of indirect exposure such as through media coverage. We then asked participants to complete the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5, adapted to measure pre/peri/post-traumatic reactions in relation to COVID-19. We also measured general emotional reactions (e.g., angry, anxious, helpless), well-being, psychosocial functioning, and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. We found participants had PTSD-like symptoms for events that had not happened and when participants had been directly (e.g., contact with virus) or indirectly exposed to COVID-19 (e.g., via media). Moreover, 13.2% of our sample were likely PTSD-positive, despite types of COVID-19 "exposure" (e.g., lockdown) not fitting DSM-5 criteria. The emotional impact of "worst" experienced/anticipated events best predicted PTSD-like symptoms. Taken together, our findings support emerging research that COVID-19 can be understood as a traumatic stressor event capable of eliciting PTSD-like responses and exacerbating other related mental health problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, psychosocial functioning, etc.). Our findings add to existing literature supporting a pathogenic event memory model of traumatic stress.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Depresión/etiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Depresión/diagnóstico , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
5.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 294-300, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a highly stressful event that may lead to significant psychological symptoms, particularly in cancer patients who are at a greater risk of contracting viruses. This study examined the frequency of stressors experienced in relation to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic and its relationship with psychological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, insomnia, fear of cancer recurrence) in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Thirty-six women diagnosed with a non-metastatic breast cancer completed the Insomnia Severity Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the severity subscale of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, and the COVID-19 Stressors Questionnaire developed by our research team. Participants either completed the questionnaires during (30.6%) or after (69.4%) their chemotherapy treatment. RESULTS: Results revealed that most of the participants (63.9%) have experienced at least one stressor related to the COVID-19 pandemic (one: 27.8%, two: 22.2%, three: 11.1%). The most frequently reported stressor was increased responsibilities at home (33.3%). Higher levels of concerns related to the experienced stressors were significantly correlated with higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia, and fear of cancer recurrence, rs(32) = 0.36 to 0.59, all ps < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients experience a significant number of stressors related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which are associated with increased psychological symptoms. These results contribute to a better understanding of the psychological consequences of a global pandemic in the context of cancer and they highlight the need to better support patients during such a challenging time.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/complicaciones , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Neoplasias de la Mama/inmunología , Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , /psicología , Supervivientes de Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/psicología , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435368

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to global mental health. Loneliness and isolation may put people at higher risk for increased psychological distress. However, there is a lack of research investigating the development of COVID-19-related distress over time. Materials and Methods: We undertook an online survey among general population (N = 1903) in Germany throughout 6 months from the peak transmission period in April to the off-peak period by September 2020. Results: We found that the average prevalence of psychological distress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic significantly rose from 24% to 66% between the peak and off-peak transmission period, respectively. Unemployment rate and loneliness increased negative mental health outcomes, although the number of active COVID-19 cases decreased from April to September. Psychological distress scores increased mostly in female, young, and lonely people. Conclusions: Our results underline the importance of considering innovative alternatives to facilitate employment opportunities, distant contacts, and self-help over the course of the pandemic. Our study highlights the urgent need to pay attention to mental health services specifically targeting female, young, unemployed, and lonely people.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Soledad/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Escolaridad , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Distrés Psicológico , Factores Sexuales , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Desempleo/psicología , Adulto Joven
7.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 5, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407889

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Workplace stress carries considerable costs for the employees' wellbeing and for the organization's performance. Recent studies demonstrate that perceptions of psychological contract breach are a source of stress for employees. That is, when employees notice that their employer does not fulfil certain obligations, they will perceive that certain resources are threatened or lost, which in turn translates into increased stress. In this study, we zoom in on how stress unfolds in the aftermath of breach, dependent on the organization's reaction to the breach. More specifically, we examined the influence of different types of social accounts (i.e., denial, apology, blaming and exonerating justification) on individuals' stress resolution process using physiological (i.e., heart rate) and psychological (self-report) data. METHOD: We used an experimental design in which we manipulated psychological contract breach and social account type. To test our hypotheses, we performed two sets of functional Principal Component Analyses: first to examine the effects of breach and second to examine the effects of social accounts. RESULTS: Our results indicate that breach elicits a physiological stress reaction, reflected in a short-lived increase in heart rate. However, no increase in the self-reported stress measure was found. Further, we did not find a significant effect of social accounts on the psychological and physiological recovery process. CONCLUSIONS: The current research allows us to demonstrate that psychological contract breach will trigger a short-lived increase in heart rate. Further research is needed to better understand unfolding trajectories of physiological reactions to contract breach and the effect of social accounts as organizational recovery efforts.


Asunto(s)
Contratos , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Responsabilidad Social , Estrés Fisiológico , Estrés Psicológico , Confianza , Conducta Cooperativa , Empleo/psicología , Humanos , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 20, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419391

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quarantine as a preventive action to reduce people's exposure to a contagious disease has substantial psychological impact. We aimed to collect information on psychologically distressing experiences of Italians living in quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From 6 to 20 April 2020 participants filled out an online questionnaire. Demographic and physical symptoms data from the prior 14 days of quarantine were collected. Psychological impact of quarantine was assessed by the COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI). RESULTS: In all, 20,158 participants completed the online survey. Of these, 11,910 (59.1%) were from Lombardy, the region with 37.7% of positive cases identified during the survey period. 30.1% of responders were male. About half (55.9%) of responders were 18-50 years old, 54.3% had a tertiary level of education, 69.5% were workers, 84.1% were living in houses with ≥3 rooms, and 13.7% were living alone. 9.7% had had contact with COVID-19 positive people. Of all responders, 9978 (48.6%) reported a psychological impact, 8897 (43.4%) of whom reported mild or moderate and 1081 (5.2%) severe psychological impact. The multivariate analysis, after adjustments, showed that an increasing CPDI score was associated with gender (female), first-second educational level, being unemployed, living in a ≤2 room house, having had new health problems during the previous 14 days, and not having been out of the house in the previous week. Concerning the type of psychological distress, 2003 responders (9.9%) reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms, 1131 (5.5%) moderate to severe anxiety symptoms, and 802 (3.9%) moderate to severe physical symptoms. A positive correlation was found between responder rate (per 10.000 residents) and positive COVID-19 cases (per 10.000 residents) by region (rs = + 0.83, p = < 0.0001), and between responder rate and region latitude (rs = + 0.91, p = < 0.0001), with a greater response rate in the north. Considering Lombardy Region responders, a negative correlation between CPDI score and distance from place of residence to the red zone (Nembro-Alzano) was found. Higher prevalence of psychological distress was found up to 25 km away from the red zone and, in particular, severe distress up to 15 km. CONCLUSIONS: Policy makers and mental health professionals should be aware of quarantine's adverse mental health consequences. Factors influencing the success of quarantine and infection control practices for both disease containment and community recovery should be identified and additional support to vulnerable persons at increased risk of adverse psychological and social consequences of quarantine should be guaranteed.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad , Depresión , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Distrés Psicológico , Cuarentena , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 19, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419411

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has disrupted millions of lives and commerce. We investigated psychological reactions and insomnia during the COVID-19 outbreak in adults with mental health disorders (MDs). METHODS: A self-reported psychological and sleep online survey was conducted in China between February 5th to 19th, 2020. A total of 244 adults with MDs and 1116 controls matched for age, gender and sites were included. Worsened symptoms of anxiety, depressive and insomnia were defined when severity levels shifted to a more severe category compared to pre-COVID-19. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, we found significantly increased prevalence of anxiety (MDs: 54.9% vs. 49.6%, controls: 25.5% vs. 14.3%), depression (MDs: 63.9% vs. 61.5%, controls: 29.9% vs. 21.2%) and insomnia (MDs: 66.0% vs. 57.8%, controls: 31.5% vs. 24.8%) compared to pre-COVID-19 period (all P-value < 0.001). Furthermore, adults with MDs had higher odds for developing COVID-19-related stress (OR = 3.41, 95% CI 2.49 ~ 4.67), worsened anxiety (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.38 ~ 2.76), depression (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.43 ~ 2.93) and insomnia (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.53 ~ 3.21) during the COVID-19 outbreak compared to controls. Moreover, higher COVID-19-related stress and lower levels of pre-COVID-19 anxiety, depressive and insomnia symptoms were predictors for worsened anxiety, depression and insomnia in adults with MDs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that adverse psychological reactions and insomnia are more pronounced in adults with mental health disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak, thus more attention need to be provided.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Salud Mental , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/complicaciones , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico
10.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(1)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408099

RESUMEN

Patients admitted to the isolation ward during the COVID-19 outbreak face multiple psychosocial stressors including the disruptive experience of being in quarantine, anxiety over contracting a newly emerging infectious disease and limited access to their healthcare team. This quality improvement project aims to leverage on technology to improve patients' access to, and experience of, care while in isolation.Patients admitted to two isolation wards in Singapore General Hospital (SGH) between 28 February and 19 March 2020 were each provided an iPad loaded with the MyCare application (app), curated materials and mobile games. During this period, 83 of them accessed the device and the app. MyCare app is an app developed by the nursing team in SGH as part of an existing interprofessional collaboration to help patients navigate their care during their inpatient stay. In response to COVID-19, MyCare app was supplemented with materials to address affected patients' informational and psychosocial needs. These materials included an information sheet on COVID-19, interviews with previous severe acute respiratory syndrome survivors, psychosocial support materials, and uplifting literature, illustrated storybooks and artwork.This paper describes the process of planning for, and executing, the intervention and reports the initial results of its effect. Initial feedback indicated a positive response to the intervention. 9 out of 10 respondents (90%) rated their hospital experience with a maximum of five stars and all 10 respondents (100%) rated the psychosocial support materials with five stars. Doctors managing the patients also observed a reduction in the number of commonly asked questions following the deployment of the iPad.This quality improvement project is ongoing with plans for further research to determine how to better support the psychosocial needs of patients in isolation during a novel disease outbreak. This report is written based on the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Hospitalización , Aplicaciones Móviles , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades , Empoderamiento , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Singapur , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200105, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439938

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in socioeconomic and health conditions of Brazilians during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study with data from a web-based behavioral survey carried out from April 24 to May 24, 2020, with 45,161 participants recruited by the chain sampling method. A descriptive analysis of the survey topics was performed: adherence to social restriction measures, diagnosis of the new coronavirus, work situation and income, difficulties in routine activities, presence of comorbidities, psychological issues, and access to health services. Prevalence and respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: Approximately 74% of Brazilians adhered to social restrictions. As for flu symptoms, 28.1% reported having at least one flu symptom, but only 5.9% underwent testing for COVID-19. Regarding the socioeconomic impact, 55.1% reported a decrease in family income, and 7.0% were left without any income; 25.8% of the people lost their jobs, with the group of informal workers being the most affected (50.6%). As for health conditions, 29.4% reported worsening of health status; 45%, having sleep problems; 40% frequently presented feelings of sadness, and 52.5%, of anxiety; 21.7% sought health care, and, among them, 13.9% did not get care. CONCLUSION: The findings show the importance of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, to mitigate the adverse effects on the socioeconomic and health conditions related to social restriction measures.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Pandemias/economía , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Renta , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
12.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205100p1-7501205100p9, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399058

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Populations already experiencing chronic stress, such as families with children who are neurologically atypical, are at particular risk for developing stress-related disease. OBJECTIVE: To establish feasibility of collecting salivary samples from pediatric occupational therapy patients and their parents in a clinical setting and at home and to examine associations among parental attachment style, parent self-reported stress, and physiological stress (i.e., cortisol) in pediatric occupational therapy patients who were neurologically atypical and their parents (N = 10 dyads). DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study to test feasibility. SETTING: Sliding-scale university clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 10 children undergoing occupational therapy treatment and their parent. Families were approached and told the study was voluntary and would not affect their treatment. Families provided informed consent. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Parents completed measures to assess their own attachment style, general and parenting stress, and stress in their child. Children and parents provided saliva samples during an occupational therapy clinic visit and collected samples at home to measure cortisol level. RESULTS: Parent attachment avoidance was related to increased parent cortisol levels in the clinic and increased child cortisol levels at home. Parent and child cortisol levels had a strong, positive relationship in the clinic but not at home. We did not observe a difference between cortisol levels in children or parents in the clinic or at home. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: We concluded that this protocol is feasible and provide suggestions for future research. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Stress physiology in pediatric occupational therapy clients should be considered within the context of the family system. Family-based interventions may be particularly helpful for reducing client stress in this population.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Ocupacional , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres , Proyectos Piloto , Estrés Psicológico
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 105, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397973

RESUMEN

Environmental triggers have important functions in multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility, phenotype, and trajectory. Exposure to early life trauma (ELT) has been associated with higher relapse rates in MS patients; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well-defined. Here we show ELT induces mechanistic and phenotypical alterations during experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). ELT sustains downregulation of immune cell adrenergic receptors, which can be attributed to chronic norepinephrine circulation. ELT-subjected mice exhibit interferon-ß resistance and neurodegeneration driven by lymphotoxin and CXCR2 involvement. These phenotypic changes are observed in control EAE mice treated with ß1 adrenergic receptor antagonist. Conversely, ß1 adrenergic receptor agonist treatment to ELT mice abrogates phenotype changes via restoration of immune cell ß1 adrenergic receptor function. Our results indicate that ELT alters EAE phenotype via downregulation of ß1 adrenergic signaling in immune cells. These results have implications for the effect of environmental factors in provoking disease heterogeneity and might enable prediction of long-term outcomes in MS.


Asunto(s)
Regulación hacia Abajo , Interferón beta/metabolismo , Esclerosis Múltiple/complicaciones , Degeneración Nerviosa/complicaciones , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacología , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacología , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/inmunología , Encéfalo/patología , Células Dendríticas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental/sangre , Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental/patología , Femenino , Aparato de Golgi/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Esclerosis Múltiple/sangre , Esclerosis Múltiple/inmunología , Esclerosis Múltiple/patología , Degeneración Nerviosa/sangre , Degeneración Nerviosa/inmunología , Degeneración Nerviosa/patología , Neuronas/metabolismo , Neuronas/patología , Norepinefrina/sangre , Fenotipo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escocia/epidemiología , Sueño/fisiología , Higiene del Sueño , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
J Patient Saf ; 17(1): e35-e38, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394882

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic led to a worldwide medical crisis, affecting mostly immunocompromised patients, such as cancer patients. Various cancer societies have issued recommendations regarding patients care, but few studies addressed the perception of cancer patients regarding this pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the perception of cancer patients regarding their health risks during this pandemic and the preventive measures taken. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous survey was conducted among cancer patients presenting for their treatment, during 10 consecutive working days, at the one-day clinic of Hotel-Dieu de France University hospital in Beirut. We evaluated their state of disease, comorbidities, precautions taken, and their concerns regarding the virus spread. RESULTS: A total of 216 patients responded with a mean age of 60 years. The majority had a good performance status (performance status = 0-1 in 79.6%), 51.4% had metastatic disease, and chemotherapy was the main therapy used (65.7%). A total of 52.3% of patients considered themselves to be at increased risk of contracting the virus. A total of 55.1% were more worried about the coronavirus rather than their disease. The priority was for the treatment of their cancer in 47.7% of the total patients studied. Of note, only 2.8% of planned one-day clinic reservations were canceled or postponed to avoid COVID-19 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Although cancer is a disease with a high mortality rate, many patients are more concerned about the actual pandemic rather than their disease. Nevertheless, the absenteeism from their treatment sessions during the COVID-19 atmosphere was minimal.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Neoplasias/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Atención Ambulatoria , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patología , Seguridad del Paciente , Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Nervenarzt ; 92(1): 81-89, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410960

RESUMEN

In the context of intensive care medicine, patients, their relatives, and more infrequently members of the ICU team can be affected by potential trauma. Acute stress disorder often results. Psychological symptoms of critically ill patients should therefore be regularly screened in a standardized manner in order to be able to identify and treat patients with a high symptom burden. Some traumatic stressors in intensive care medicine can be reduced using trauma-sensitive communication. Psychological and psychotherapeutic interventions can complement this basic care. High quality communication with relatives contributes to a risk reduction with regard to their subsequent psychological stress. On the part of the ICU team, stress should be differentiated from potentially traumatizing events and both problem areas should be dealt with preventively. After experiencing a traumatic event during work, a procedure analogous to physical work accidents is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Cuidados Críticos , Enfermedad Crítica , Familia , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Estrés Psicológico
17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 256: 40-45, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166796

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to exceptional stress in pregnant women. In order to evaluate stress levels of pregnant woman in this difficult time, the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Scale (PREPS) was introduced in the US. The present study introduces and validates the German version of the PREPS. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 1364 German-speaking pregnant women from Germany and Switzerland took part in this online cohort study and completed the PREPS as well as gave information on sociodemographic, obstetric and other psychological factors. RESULTS: A confirmatory factor analysis of the PREPS showed very good psychometric values and confirmed the structure of the original questionnaire. The PREPS comprises three dimensions: Infection Stress (5 items), Preparedness Stress (7 items) and Positive Appraisal (3 items). Furthermore, correlations between the PREPS and other psychological factors such as Pregnancy Specific Stress and Fear of Childbirth highlight convergent validity. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was demonstrated by its associations with several obstetric and COVID-19 related factors. CONCLUSION: The German PREPS showed good psychometric properties and is a useful instrument for future studies which aim to investigate the impact of pandemic-related stress on birth outcomes and postpartum factors.


Asunto(s)
Internet , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Infección Hospitalaria , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/psicología , Psicometría , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suiza , Traducciones
18.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 20-28, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307818

RESUMEN

Scales assessing stressor exposure often fail to demonstrate adequate psychometric qualities, demonstrating low interitem reliability or complex factor structures, as would be expected, given that the majority of stressors are independent events. However, in large-scale mass crisis events, the stressors may be highly interrelated, indicating shared experience. Furthermore, few stressor exposure scales also measure appraised stressfulness of those stressors. Development of a psychometrically sound measure of both stressor exposure and appraisal advances the study of highly stressful events such as community-wide crises, especially in providing a useful measure of its cumulative stressfulness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an enduring, worldwide stressor with an indefinite timeline. The COVID-19 Stressor Scale is a 23-item measure of stressor exposure and appraisal related to the pandemic developed within the first weeks of widespread shelter-in-place practices in the Unites States. We present initial psychometric results of the COVID-19 Stressor Scale. Results of a principal components analysis indicate that the measure is unidimensional and has strong internal consistency. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated. The COVID-19 Stressor Scale is a useful measure for studying the ongoing stressors associated with the pandemic and presents a model for measuring other massive, ongoing crises.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Percepción , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
J Sex Med ; 18(1): 35-49, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234430

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19-related lockdown has profoundly changed human behaviors and habits, impairing general and psychological well-being. Along with psychosocial consequences, it is possible that sexual behavior was also affected. AIMS: With the present study, we evaluated the impact of the community-wide containment and consequent social distancing on the intrapsychic, relational, and sexual health through standardized psychometric tools. METHODS: A case-control study was performed through a web-based survey and comparing subjects of both genders with (group A, N = 2,608) and without (group B, N = 4,213) sexual activity during lockdown. The Welch and chi-square tests were used to assess differences between groups. Univariate analysis of covariance, logistic regression models, and structural equation modeling were performed to measure influence and mediation effects of sexual activity on psychological, relational, and sexual outcomes. OUTCOMES: Main outcome measures were General Anxiety Disorder-7 for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Dyadic Adjustment Scale for quality of relationship and a set of well-validated sexological inventories (International Index of Erectile Function, Female Sexual Function Index, and male-female versions of the Orgasmometer). RESULTS: Anxiety and depression scores were significantly lower in subjects sexually active during lockdown. Analysis of covariance identified gender, sexual activity, and living without partner during lockdown as significantly affecting anxiety and depression scores (P < .0001). Logistic regression models showed that lack of sexual activity during lockdown was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing anxiety and depression (OR: 1.32 [95% CI: 1.12 - 1.57, P < .001] and 1.34 [95% CI: 1.15 - 1.57, P < .0001], respectively). Structural equation modeling evidenced the protective role of sexual activity toward psychological distress (ßmales = -0.18 and ßfemales = -0.14), relational health (ßmales = 0.26 and ßfemales = 0.29) and sexual health, both directly (ßmales = 0.43 and ßfemales = 0.31), and indirectly (ßmales = 0.13 and ßfemales = 0.13). CLINICAL TRANSLATION: The demonstrated mutual influence of sexual health on psychological and relational health could direct the clinical community toward a reinterpretation of the relationship among these factors. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Based on a large number of subjects and well-validated psychometric tools, this study elucidated the protective role of sexual activity for psychological distress, as well for relational and sexual health. Main limitations were the web-based characteristics of the protocol and the retrospective nature of prelockdown data on psychorelational and sexual health of subjects recruited. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown dramatically impacted on psychological, relational, and sexual health of the population. In this scenario, sexual activity played a protective effect, in both genders, on the quarantine-related plague of anxiety and mood disorders. Mollaioli D, Sansone A, Ciocca G, et al. Benefits of Sexual Activity on Psychological, Relational, and Sexual Health During the COVID-19 Breakout. J Sex Med 2021;18:35-49.


Asunto(s)
Salud Sexual , Ansiedad , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Conducta Sexual , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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