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1.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 33(2): 101-107, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic may adversely impact the mental health of health care workers (HCWs). To address this issue, it is essential to determine levels of anxiety, depression, and traumatic stress, and sources of stress, and to identify subgroups of HCWs at a higher risk of adverse mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of symptoms of mental illness in HCWs in the area surrounding Detroit, Michigan. The online survey included questions about demographics, health and clinical factors, and sources of stress. Several tools were used to assess psychiatric symptoms among HCWs, including the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item assessment, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5. The adequacy of personal protective equipment, patient resources, and training for highly contagious diseases were rated. RESULTS: The sample (N = 129) was predominantly female (51.2%) and White (65.9%), with 30.2% screening positive for clinical follow-up to assess anxiety, 20.9% for moderate to severe depression, and 16.3% for elevated traumatic stress. Differences were found by self-reported psychiatric diagnosis and chronic conditions, and role on treatment teams. CONCLUSIONS: Frontline HCWs demonstrate high levels of stress and trauma symptoms. Timely screening and accommodations may be needed during health care crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Estrés Laboral , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/etiología , /psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Michigan/epidemiología , Evaluación de Necesidades , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Laboral/diagnóstico , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/etiología , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático/etiología , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático/prevención & control , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
2.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(3): 203-211, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855316

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of psychological distress. This study evaluates the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on HCWs in a national paediatric referral centre. METHODS: This was a survey-based study that collected demographic, work environment and mental health data from paediatric HCWs in the emergency, intensive care and infectious disease units. Psychological impact was measured using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with psychological distress. RESULTS: The survey achieved a response rate of 93.9% (430 of 458). Of the 430 respondents, symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were reported in 168 (39.1%), 205 (47.7%) and 106 (24.7%), respectively. Depression was reported in the mild (47, 10.9%), moderate (76, 17.7%), severe (23, 5.3%) and extremely severe (22, 5.1%) categories. Anxiety (205, 47.7%) and stress (106, 24.7%) were reported in the mild category only. Collectively, regression analysis identified female sex, a perceived lack of choice in work scope/environment, lack of protection from COVID-19, lack of access to physical activities and rest, the need to perform additional tasks, and the experience of stigma from the community as risk factors for poor psychological outcome. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was reported among frontline paediatric HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Personal psychoneuroimmunity and organisational prevention measures can be implemented to lessen psychiatric symptoms. At the national level, involving mental health professionals to plan and coordinate psychological intervention for the country should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Depresión/etiología , Hospitales Pediátricos , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , /prevención & control , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Singapur/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 5, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852675

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms of severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as their associated factors, among Brazilians during social distancing. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in April/May 2020 with 3,200 Brazilians over 18 years old. Respondents' sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using an online questionnaire, which also included the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess emotional symptoms. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. RESULTS: Our results show the prevalence of severe/extreme stress was 21.5%, anxiety 19.4%, and depression 21.5%. In the final model, sociodemographic, clinical, and Covid-19-related factors were associated with severe/extreme stress, anxiety, and depression in Brazilians during social distancing due to the Covid-19 pandemic. We found the main factors associated with severe/extreme depression to be young women, brown, single, not religious, sedentary, presenting reduced leisure activities, history of anxiety and depression, increased medication use, and Covid-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study may help develop and systematically plan measures aimed to prevent, early identify, and properly manage clinical signs and symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Global Health ; 17(1): 47, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853616

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to assess the perceived fear of COVID-19 and its associated factors among older adults in Bangladesh. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2020 among 1032 older Bangladeshi adults aged ≥60 years. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on participants' characteristics and COVID-19 related information. Perceived fear of COVID-19 was measured using the seven-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), where the cumulative score ranged from 7 to 35. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify factors associated with perceived fear of COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean fear score was 19.4. Participants who were concerned about COVID-19 (ß: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.71 to 3.78) and overwhelmed by COVID-19 (ß: 3.31, 95% CI: 2.33 to 4.29) were significantly more likely to be fearful of COVID-19. Moreover, older adults who felt themselves isolated from others and whose close friends and family members were diagnosed with COVID-19 were more fearful. However, the participants who received COVID-19 related information from the health workers had a lower level of fear (ß: -1.90, 95% CI: - 3.06 to - 0.73). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of overwhelming fear of COVID-19 among the older adults of Bangladesh underlines the psychological needs of these vulnerable groups. Health workers have a key role in addressing these needs and further research is needed to identify the effective strategies for them to use.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Miedo , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Acceso a la Información/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bangladesh , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 310-321, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861153

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered university lockdowns, forcing physiology educators to rapidly pivot laboratories into a remote delivery format. This study documents the experiences of an international group of 10 physiology educators surrounding this transition. They wrote reflective narratives, framed by guiding questions, to answer the research question: "What were the changes to physiology laboratories in response to the COVID-19 pandemic?" These narratives probed educators' attitudes toward virtual laboratories before, during, and after the transition to remote delivery. Thematic analysis of the reflections found that before COVID-19 only a few respondents had utilized virtual laboratories and most felt that virtual laboratories could not replace the in-person laboratory experience. In response to university lockdowns, most respondents transitioned from traditional labs to remote formats within a week or less. The most common remote delivery formats were commercially available online physiology laboratories, homemade videos, and sample experimental data. The main challenges associated with the rapid remote transition included workload and expertise constraints, disparities in online access and workspaces, issues with academic integrity, educator and student stress, changes in learning outcomes, and reduced engagement. However, the experience generated opportunities including exploration of unfamiliar technologies, new collaborations, and revisiting the physiology laboratory curriculum and structure. Most of the respondents reported planning on retaining some aspects of the remote laboratories postpandemic, particularly with a blended model of remote and on-campus laboratories. This study concludes with recommendations for physiology educators as to how they can successfully develop and deliver remote laboratories.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia , Docentes/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Laboratorios , Pandemias , Fisiología/educación , Realidad Virtual , Curriculum , Escolaridad , Predicción , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Relaciones Interpersonales , Invenciones , Aprendizaje , Cuarentena , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25512, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is no study that has conducted a review or meta-analysis investigating a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention to patients with COVID19, with the aim of improving their psychological health. Therefore, in order to provide new evidence-based medical evidence for clinical treatment, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of CBT in relieving patients' psychological distress and improving quality of life during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: Seven electronic databases including Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Wanfang Data, Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane Library will be searched in April 2021 by 2 independent reviewers. For search on PubMed, the following search terms will be used: "COVID-19, 2019 Coronavirus Disease, 2019-nCoV, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT, cognitive behavioral treatment." In order to achieve a consistency (at least 80%) of extracted items, the data extractors will extract data from a sample of eligible studies. The outcomes include any rating scale describing stress, mood, and quality of life. Review Manager software (v 5.4; Cochrane Collaboration) will be used for the meta-analysis. Two independent reviewers will assess the risk of bias of the included studies at study level. Any disagreements will be discussed and resolved in discussion with a third reviewer. RESULTS: The results of our review will be reported strictly following the PRISMA criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The review will add to the existing literature by showing compelling evidence and improved guidance in clinic settings. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/DCRPJ. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval and patient consent are not required because this study is a literature-based study. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Calidad de Vida , Estrés Psicológico , /epidemiología , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e213997, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797552

RESUMEN

Importance: In March 2020, US public buildings (including schools) were shut down because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 42% of US workers resumed their employment duties from home. Some shutdowns remain in place, yet the extent of the needs of US working parents is largely unknown. Objective: To identify and address the career development, work culture, and childcare needs of faculty, staff, and trainees at an academic medical center during a pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this survey study, between August 5 and August 20, 2020, a Qualtrics survey was emailed to all faculty, staff, and trainees at University of Utah Health, an academic health care system that includes multiple hospitals, community clinics, and specialty centers. Participants included 27 700 University of Utah Health faculty, staff, and trainees who received a survey invitation. Data analysis was performed from August to November 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included experiences of COVID-19 and their associations with career development, work culture, and childcare needs. Results: A total of 5030 participants completed the entire survey (mean [SD] age, 40 [12] years); 3738 (75%) were women; 4306 (86%) were White or European American; 561 (11%) were Latino or Latina (of any race), Black or African American, American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; and 301 (6%) were Asian or Asian American. Of the participants, 2545 (51%) reported having clinical responsibilities, 2412 (48%) had at least 1 child aged 18 years or younger, 3316 (66%) were staff, 791 (16%) were faculty, and 640 (13%) were trainees. Nearly one-half of parents reported that parenting (1148 participants [49%]) and managing virtual education for children (1171 participants [50%]) were stressors. Across all participants, 1061 (21%) considered leaving the workforce, and 1505 (30%) considered reducing hours. Four hundred forty-nine faculty (55%) and 397 trainees (60%) perceived decreased productivity, and 2334 participants (47%) were worried about COVID-19 impacting their career development, with 421 trainees (64%) being highly concerned. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey of 5030 faculty, staff, and trainees of a US health system, many participants with caregiving responsibilities, particularly women, faculty, trainees, and (in a subset of cases) those from racial/ethnic groups that underrepresented in medicine, considered leaving the workforce or reducing hours and were worried about their career development related to the pandemic. It is imperative that medical centers support their employees and trainees during this challenging time.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral , Adulto , Selección de Profesión , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Docentes Médicos , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Responsabilidad Parental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Utah , Carga de Trabajo , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
8.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211006332, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829877

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to learn about the use, barriers, reasons and beliefs regarding mind-body practices among adults living in the United States during the beginning months of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. An on-line survey was developed following the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet e-Surveys (CHERRIES) guidelines and using the online survey software program, Qualtrics® XM, platform. Pilot testing of the survey was conducted for usability and functionality. The final 24-item survey was distributed via email and social media. A total of 338 adults responded to the survey, with 68.8% indicating that they participated in mind-body activities since the start of the pandemic. Physical activity was the most frequently (61.5%, n = 227) used mind-body practice. Further, 2 of the common barriers to engaging in mind-body practices were lack of motivation and wandering mind. Frequently listed reasons for using mind-body practices were to promote health, reduce stress and relaxation. Respondents believed that mind-body practices resulted in less stress. These findings may be applicable for reducing psychological stress related to the pandemic, as the pandemic continues to impact many areas of the United States.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Terapias Mente-Cuerpo , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , /fisiopatología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Terapias Mente-Cuerpo/métodos , Terapias Mente-Cuerpo/psicología , Motivación , Autocuidado , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802066

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused disruptions to what people eat, but the pandemic's impact on diet varies between individuals. The goal of our study was to test whether pandemic-related stress was associated with food intake, and whether relationships between stress and intake were modified by appetitive and cognitive traits. (2) Methods: We cross-sectionally surveyed 428 adults to examine current intake frequency of various food types (sweets/desserts, savory snacks, fast food, fruits, and vegetables), changes to food intake during the pandemic, emotional overeating (EOE), cognitive flexibility (CF), and COVID-19-related stress. Models tested associations of stress, EOE, and CF with food intake frequency and changes to intake. (3) Results: Models demonstrated that the positive relationship between stress and intake of sweets/desserts was stronger with higher EOE, while the positive relationship between stress and intake of chips/savory snacks was weaker with higher CF. Higher EOE was associated with greater risk of increased intake of palatable foods. (4) Conclusions: Findings suggest that emotional overeating may escalate stress-associated intake of high-sugar foods, and cognitive flexibility may attenuate stress-associated intake of high-fat foods. Differences in appetitive and cognitive traits may explain changes to and variability in food intake during COVID-19, and efforts to decrease emotional overeating and encourage cognitive flexibility could help lessen the effect of COVID-19-related stress on energy dense food intake.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/psicología , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/epidemiología , Hiperfagia/etiología , Hiperfagia/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 419, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863301

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer, but factors contributing to HR-HPV persistence are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to test for associations of chronic stress and two aspects of diurnal cortisol secretion (i.e., the cortisol awakening response [CAR] and total cortisol output over the day [AUCgday]) with HR-HPV status at baseline and 12 months later (follow-up). METHODS: We evaluated 188 women (25 ± 3 years) at baseline. Follow-up investigation was restricted to HR-HPV infected women at baseline. Of the initial 48 HR-HPV positive participants, 42 completed the follow-up (16 HR-HPV positive and 26 HR-HPV negative). At baseline and follow-up, we determined HR-HPV status in cervical smears, assessed chronic stress, and repeatedly measured salivary cortisol over the day. At baseline, we analyzed salivary cortisol only in a subgroup of 90 participants (45 HR-HPV negative and 45 HR-HPV positive). RESULTS: At baseline, higher chronic stress (excessive demands at work: p = .022, chronic worrying: p = .032), and a higher CAR (p = .014) were related to baseline HR-HPV positivity. At follow-up, there was a statistical trend for a positive association between the CAR and HR-HPV positivity (p = .062). Neither the CAR nor the AUCgday mediated the associations between chronic stress and HR-HPV status. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that both chronic stress and diurnal cortisol are related to the presence of HR-HPV infection and may thus play a role in HPV-associated cervical carcinogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Infecciones Tumorales por Virus/epidemiología , Infecciones Tumorales por Virus/psicología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Biomarcadores , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo , Saliva/metabolismo , Infecciones Tumorales por Virus/complicaciones , Infecciones Tumorales por Virus/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
11.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(6): 635-642, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867058

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic has changed university routines affecting student mental health. The aims of this study were to survey aspects related to mental health of pharmaceutical course students considering previous and current contexts. METHODS: The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and Brunel Mood Scale were used. DASS-21 was completed pre- and post-pandemic. The validity and reliability of the data were verified. The prevalence (95% CI) of mental health symptoms was estimated. The relationship between the time spent watching/reading the news and mean scales scores was evaluated (Pearson's correlation coefficient). RESULTS: The prevalence of depression symptoms in students pre-pandemic was 66.7% (95% CI = 65.3-68.1) and during the pandemic was 81% (95% CI = 79.8-82.2). More than 70% (95% CI = 69.8-72.6) of participants had some psychological impact as a result of the pandemic (mild: 16.7% [95% CI = 15.6-17.8]; moderate: 9.1% [95% CI = 8.2-10]; severe: 45.4% [95% CI = 43.9-46.9]). High values of tension, depressed mood, mental confusion, and anger were observed. There was a significant correlation between the time spent following the news of the pandemic and symptoms of anxiety (r = 0.356; P < .001), stress (r = 0.248; P = .014), hyperarousal (r = 0.322; P ≤ 0.001), and intrusion (r = 0.21; P = .039). CONCLUSIONS: Students are highly vulnerable to depressive symptoms and mood swings due to the pandemic. These findings deserve consideration mainly from mental health professionals, but also from managers and educators.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Ansiedad/etiología , Depresión/etiología , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Brasil/epidemiología , Confusión , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Masculino , Salud Mental , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
12.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(3): 317-329, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871269

RESUMEN

The current study aims to understand the detrimental effects of COVID-19 pandemic on employee job insecurity and its downstream outcomes, as well as how organizations could help alleviate such harmful effects. Drawing on event system theory and literature on job insecurity, we conceptualize COVID-19 as an event relevant to employees' work, and propose that event strength (i.e., novelty, disruption, and criticality) of COVID-19 influences employee job insecurity, which in turn affects employee work and non-work outcomes. We also identified important organization adaptive practices responding to COVID-19 based on a preliminary interview study, and examined its role in mitigating the undesired effects of COVID-19 event strength. Results from a two-wave lagged survey study indicated that employees' perceived COVID-19 event novelty and disruption (but not criticality) were positively related to their job insecurity, which in turn was positively related to their emotional exhaustion, organizational deviance, and saving behavior. Moreover, organization adaptive practices mitigated the effects of COVID-19 event novelty and criticality (but not disruption) on job insecurity. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Empleo/psicología , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Salud Laboral , Administración de Personal/métodos , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Teoría Psicológica , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 171, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648450

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and coping experienced during pregnancy can have important effects on maternal and infant health, which can also vary by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we assessed stressors, coping behaviors, and resources needed in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of 162 perinatal (125 pregnant and 37 postpartum) women in the United States. METHODS: A mixed-methods study captured quantitative responses regarding stressors and coping, along with qualitative responses to open-ended questions regarding stress and resources needed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze differences between pregnant and postpartum participants, as well as differences across key demographic variables. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended questions. RESULTS: During the COVID-pandemic, food scarcity and shelter-in-place restrictions made it difficult for pregnant women to find healthy foods. Participants also reported missing prenatal appointments, though many reported using telemedicine to obtain these services. Financial issues were prevalent in our sample and participants had difficulty obtaining childcare. After controlling for demographic variables, pregnant women were less likely to engage in healthy stress-coping behaviors than postpartum women. Lastly, we were able to detect signals of increased stressors induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, and less social support, in perinatal women of racial and ethnic minority, and lower-income status. Qualitative results support our survey findings as participants expressed concerns about their baby contracting COVID-19 while in the hospital, significant others missing the delivery or key obstetric appointments, and wanting support from friends, family, and birthing classes. Financial resources, COVID-19 information and research as it relates to maternal-infant health outcomes, access to safe healthcare, and access to baby supplies (formula, diapers, etc.) emerged as the primary resources needed by participants. CONCLUSIONS: To better support perinatal women's mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers should engage in conversations regarding access to resources needed to care for newborns, refer patients to counseling services (which can be delivered online/via telephone) and virtual support groups, and consistently screen pregnant women for stressors.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Recursos en Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Atención Perinatal , Educación Prenatal/métodos , /epidemiología , /psicología , Femenino , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Salud Mental/normas , Evaluación de Necesidades , Atención Perinatal/métodos , Atención Perinatal/organización & administración , Atención Perinatal/tendencias , Embarazo , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organización & administración , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247959, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662014

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe how men and women divided childcare and housework demands during the height of the first Covid-19 lockdown in the UK, and whether these divisions were associated with worsening mental health during the pandemic. BACKGROUND: School closures and homeworking during the Covid-19 crisis have resulted in an immediate increase in unpaid care work, which draws new attention to gender inequality in divisions of unpaid care work. METHODS: Data come from the wave 9 (2017-19) of Understanding Society and the following April (n = 15,426) and May (n = 14,150) waves of Understanding Society Covid-19 study. Psychological distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) at both before and during the lockdown, and unpaid care work was measured during the lockdown. Linear regression models were used. RESULTS: Women spent much more time on unpaid care work than men during lockdown, and it was more likely to be the mother than the father who reduced working hours or changed employment schedules due to increased time on childcare. Women who spent long hours on housework and childcare were more likely to report increased levels of psychological distress. Working parents who adapted their work patterns increased more psychological distress than those who did not. This association was much stronger if he or she was the only member in the household who adapted their work patterns, or if she was a lone mother. Fathers increased more psychological distress if they reduced work hours but she did not, compared to neither reducing work hours. CONCLUSION: There are continued gender inequalities in divisions of unpaid care work. Juggling home working with homeschooling and childcare as well as extra housework is likely to lead to poor mental health for people with families, particularly for lone mothers.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Distrés Psicológico , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(5): 405-415, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773109

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parents have faced substantial social and economic challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Preliminary cross-sectional research has demonstrated increases in mental health problems in mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with pre-pandemic estimates. We aimed to study an existing longitudinal cohort of mothers to assess changes in the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety symptoms as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic over time and at the individual level. METHODS: In this longitudinal observational study, women who took part in the All Our Families pregnancy cohort in Canada were invited to complete a COVID-19 impact survey between May 20 and July 15, 2020. Women who had not agreed to additional research, had discontinued, were lost to follow-up, or who were not contactable via email were excluded. Maternal depression and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared with three previous estimates collected at 3, 5, and 8-year timepoints (between April, 2012, and October, 2019). Depression symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Repeated cross-sectional analyses were done to assess temporal trends and fixed-effects regression models were fitted to assess within-person change over time. FINDINGS: Of the 3387 women included in the All Our Families study, 2445 women were eligible and were invited to participate in the COVID-19 impact study, of whom 1333 consented to participate, and 1301 were included in the longitudinal analysis. At the COVID-19 impact survey timepoint, a higher proportion of mothers had clinically significant depression (35·21%, 95% CI 32·48-38·04) and anxiety symptoms (31·39%, 28·76-34·15) than at all previous data collection timepoints. The mean depression score (8·31, 95% CI 7·97-8·65) and anxiety score (11·90, 11·66-12·13) at the COVID-19 pandemic timepoint were higher than previous data collection waves at the 3-year timepoint (mean depression score 5·05, 4·85-5·25; mean anxiety score 9·51, 9·35-9·66), 5-year timepoint (mean depression score 5·43, 5·20-5·66; mean anxiety score 9·49, 9·33-9·65), and 8-year timepoint (mean depression score 5·79, 5·55-6·02; mean anxiety score 10·26, 10·10-10·42). For the within-person comparisons, depression scores were a mean of 2·30 points (95% CI 1·95-2·65) higher and anxiety scores were a mean of 1·04 points (0·65-1·43) higher at the COVID-19 pandemic timepoint, after controlling for time trends. Larger increases in depression and anxiety symptoms were observed for women who had income disruptions, difficulty balancing home schooling with work responsibilities, and those with difficulty obtaining childcare. White mothers had greater increases in anxiety scores than non-white mothers and health-care workers had smaller increases in depressive symptoms than non-health-care workers. INTERPRETATION: Compared with previous estimates, the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety among mothers in a Canadian cohort increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Financial support, childcare provision, and avoiding the closure of schools, might be key priorities for preventing future increases in maternal psychological distress. FUNDING: Alberta Innovates Health Solutions Interdisciplinary Team, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Alberta Innovates, and Alberta Children's Hospital Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Depresión , Madres/psicología , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , /epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , /psicología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/tendencias , Evaluación de Necesidades , Prevalencia , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud de la Mujer/tendencias
17.
Global Health ; 17(1): 32, 2021 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has impacted adversely upon the mental health of millions of people worldwide. Impacts on the mental health conditions and the associated predictors relating to adults in Pakistan, the fifth most populous country in the world, during the COVID-19 remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate distress, anxiety, and overall mental health and their associated predictors among Pakistani adults in this pandemic. We specifically examine mental health issues based on the distance from the epicenter, (a predictor that has revealed opposing evidence in other countries) based on the theories of typhoon eye effect and ripple effect. The sample consisted of 601 adults who were surveyed online about 2.5 months into the outbreak across Pakistan with varying distances from the epicenter of COVID-19 of Karachi. RESULTS: The results showed that 9.2 and 19.0% of the participants surpassed the cut-off criteria for distress and anxiety disorders, respectively. Overall, the distance from the epicenter positively predicted the mental health of adults in Pakistan, and family size negatively moderated this effect. The distance from the epicenter negatively predicted distress and anxiety disorders for adults in large families, which are quite common in Pakistan. CONCLUSION: The evidence of the study interestingly finds that the prediction of the mental health of people by their distance from the epicenter depends on family size. The evidence of this study can help to provide initial indicators for mental health care providers to screen vulnerable groups in Pakistan, a populous country that continues struggling to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Composición Familiar , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis Espacial , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Global Health ; 17(1): 34, 2021 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781283

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental burden due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been widely reported for the general public and specific risk groups like healthcare workers and different patient populations. We aimed to assess its impact on mental health during the early phase by comparing pandemic with prepandemic data and to identify potential risk and protective factors. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analyses, we systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from January 1, 2019 to May 29, 2020, and screened reference lists of included studies. In addition, we searched PubMed and PsycINFO for prepandemic comparative data. Survey studies assessing mental burden by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the general population, healthcare workers, or any patients (eg, COVID-19 patients), with a broad range of eligible mental health outcomes, and matching studies evaluating prepandemic comparative data in the same population (if available) were included. We used multilevel meta-analyses for main, subgroup, and sensitivity analyses, focusing on (perceived) stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and sleep-related symptoms as primary outcomes. RESULTS: Of 2429 records retrieved, 104 were included in the review (n = 208,261 participants), 43 in the meta-analysis (n = 71,613 participants). While symptoms of anxiety (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.40; 95% CI 0.15-0.65) and depression (SMD 0.67; 95% CI 0.07-1.27) were increased in the general population during the early phase of the pandemic compared with prepandemic conditions, mental burden was not increased in patients as well as healthcare workers, irrespective of COVID-19 patient contact. Specific outcome measures (eg, Patient Health Questionnaire) and older comparative data (published ≥5 years ago) were associated with increased mental burden. Across the three population groups, existing mental disorders, female sex, and concerns about getting infected were repeatedly reported as risk factors, while older age, a good economic situation, and education were protective. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis paints a more differentiated picture of the mental health consequences in pandemic situations than previous reviews. High-quality, representative surveys, high granular longitudinal studies, and more research on protective factors are required to better understand the psychological impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to help design effective preventive measures and interventions that are tailored to the needs of specific population groups.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Protectores , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología
19.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707410

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The pandemic caused by COVID-19, at a psychological level, can cause an increase in levels of stress and anxiety due to the fear of contagion and its consequences. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to these psychological consequences. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral stress control program in reducing psychological stress and increasing resilience in pregnant women, which ended at the begining of the confinement due to COVID-19 in Spain. METHODS: The study included 22 pregnant women who were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (GT) consisted of 11 participants and the control group (GC) also consisted of 11 participants. Participants were recruited from the Hospital Universitario Clínico San Cecilio in the province of Granada (Spain), where the weekly cognitive behavioral intervention was also carried out, which was implemented between January 22 and March 11, 2020. They used the assessment instruments: Pregnancy Distress Questionnaire (PDQ), Perceived Stress Scale (EEP-14), Inventory of Vulnerability to Stress (IVE) and Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). A mixed ANOVA of repeated measures 2*2 was performed, with the variable between groups having two levels (CG and GT), and the within-subject having two time periods (pre and post). RESULTS: The repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed group*time interaction effects between the therapy group and the control group and the CD-RISC scores (F1,20=10.658; p<0.02). Intrasubject differences in CD-RISC scores were found in the (GT) (t=-2.529; p<0.05), with a moderate effect size. CONCLUSIONS: It can be affirmed that cognitive behavioral intervention in pregnant women, administrated prior to confinement in Spain and during the COVID-19 pandemic, has resulted in increased levels of resilience in this population.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Embarazo , Aislamiento Social , España/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200188, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787721

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the repercussions on mental health of groups and populations in the context of the new coronavirus pandemic. METHOD: Narrative review carired out in three databases, in March 2020, using the descriptors mental health and coronavirus. A total of 19 publications were analyzed, organized in a synoptic chart, containing type of publication, authors, country, sample, objective, and main results. From this analysis, two thematic axes emerged: identification of problems and vulnerable groups in mental health; and mental health interventions and actions. RESULTS: The first axis showed manifestations of suffering - anguish, insomnia, anger, stress, fear. The second revealed the need to build government policies and general guidelines; production of information and communication; and mental health care practices. CONCLUSIONS: The repercussions on mental health in the population intensified with the pandemic, identifying vulnerable groups, and the need to build coping strategies and policies aimed at mental health during epidemics.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Ira , Miedo , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Genio Irritable , Servicios de Salud Mental , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología
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