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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804912

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: This observational prospective study aims to examine the psychological and psychopathological impact of the pandemic stress on patients with pre-existing mood, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Materials and Methods: The study includes 386 consecutive patients recruited from 10 March to 30 June 2020 among those being treated at the Institute of Psychopathology in Rome (Italy) with an age ≥18 years and meeting DSM-5 criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) (35.2%), bipolar I (BD-I) (21.5%) or II (BD-II) (28.8%) disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (7.5%), panic disorder (PD) (7.0%) or social anxiety (SA). A total of 34.2% had lifetime comorbid Axis I disorders and 15.3% had alcohol/drug abuse disorders. Using a semi-structured interview, we investigated if the impact of COVID-19 stress for patients has been similar, higher or lower than that of their family and friends and, for patients with relapse/symptoms worsening, if there was a relationship between the clinical condition worsening and the pandemic stress. Results: Compared with that experienced by their family members and friends, the psychological impact of pandemic stress was similar in 52.1% of the sample, better in 37.1% and worse in 10.8%. In 21 patients (5.4%), the stress triggered a recurrence or worsened the symptoms. Patients with OCD had a higher rate of worsening due to pandemic stress compared to patients with MDD (p = 0.033), although, overall, the χ2 test was not significant among primary diagnoses (χ2 = 8.368; p = 0.057). Conclusions: The psychological and psychopathological consequences of COVID-19 stress in our outpatients were very modest. The continuity of care offered during the lockdown could explain the results.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Humor/psicología , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/psicología , Trastorno de Pánico/psicología , Fobia Social/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Roma , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0239244, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793550

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health, physical activity, and sedentary behavior of people worldwide. According to the Health Belief Model (HBM), health-related behavior is determined by perceived barriers and motivators. Using an online survey with 1669 respondents, we sought to understand why and how physical activity and sedentary behavior has changed by querying about perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity that changed because of the pandemic, and how those changes impacted mental health. The following results were statistically significant at p < .05. Consistent with prior reports, our respondents were less physically active (aerobic activity, -11%; strength-based activity, -30%) and more sedentary (+11%) during the pandemic as compared to 6-months before. The pandemic also increased psychological stress (+22%) and brought on moderate symptoms of anxiety and depression. Respondents' whose mental health deteriorated the most were also the ones who were least active (depression r = -.21, anxiety r = -.12). The majority of respondents were unmotivated to exercise because they were too anxious (+8%,), lacked social support (+6%), or had limited access to equipment (+23%) or space (+41%). The respondents who were able to stay active reported feeling less motivated by physical health outcomes such as weight loss (-7%) or strength (-14%) and instead more motivated by mental health outcomes such as anxiety relief (+14%). Coupled with previous work demonstrating a direct relationship between mental health and physical activity, these results highlight the potential protective effect of physical activity on mental health and point to the need for psychological support to overcome perceived barriers so that people can continue to be physically active during stressful times like the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Salud Mental , Motivación , Conducta Sedentaria , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad , /psicología , Depresión , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6481, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742072

RESUMEN

The novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, impacting the lifestyles, economy, physical and mental health of individuals globally. This study aimed to test the model triggered by physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection, in which the need for health information and perceived impact of the pandemic mediated the path sequentially, leading to adverse mental health outcomes. A cross-sectional research design with chain mediation model involving 4612 participants from participating 8 countries selected via a respondent-driven sampling strategy was used. Participants completed online questionnaires on physical symptoms, the need for health information, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The results showed that Poland and the Philippines were the two countries with the highest levels of anxiety, depression and stress; conversely, Vietnam had the lowest mean scores in these areas. Chain mediation model showed the need for health information, and the perceived impact of the pandemic were sequential mediators between physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection (predictor) and consequent mental health status (outcome). Excessive and contradictory health information might increase the perceived impact of the pandemic. Rapid COVID-19 testing should be implemented to minimize the psychological burden associated with physical symptoms, whilst public mental health interventions could target adverse mental outcomes associated with the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Depresión/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/psicología , Asia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Mental , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(1): 53-66, 2021.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686015

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have investigated the relationship between personality and psychoactive substance use. Researches of personality and marijuana use suggests that certain personality traits differentiate between occasional and regular marijuana consumers. Understanding the relationship between individual persona - lity traits and marijuana use is a key step in the development of prevention and treatment methods. In the current study, we present the development of emotion regulation difficulties, coping with stress, impulsivity, external-internal control and sensation seeking in occasional and regular marijuana users. METHODS: 322 people participated in our study, within this 51 occasional and 56 regular marijuana users and 215 non-marijuana users who formed the control group. The examined personality traits were measured with the Diffi - culties in Emotion Regulation Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and the Sensation Seeking Scale. RESULTS: Varying levels of marijuana use increased difficulty in emotion regulation as well as impulsivity. Addi tio nally, the use of emotion-oriented coping strategies were most common in occasional and regular marijuana use. Regular marijuana users were more likely to have external control than occasional users. Non-marijuana users were less sen - sation seekers that the two groups of marijuana users, however, we did not find significant difference between occasio nal and regular users.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Cannabis/efectos adversos , Regulación Emocional , Conducta Impulsiva , Control Interno-Externo , Uso de la Marihuana/psicología , Personalidad , Sensación , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
5.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 83-95, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705187

RESUMEN

Prosocial activities, such as volunteering, predict better mental and physical health in late adulthood, but their proximal links to well-being in daily life are largely unknown. The current study examined day-to-day associations of prosocial activities with emotional and physical well-being, and whether these associations differ with age. We used daily diary data from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) II (n = 2,016; ages 33-84) and NSDE Refresher Study (n = 774; ages 25-75). Participants completed telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings regarding their prosocial activities (formal volunteering, providing unpaid assistance, providing emotional support), well-being (negative affect, stressors, positive events), and physical symptoms. On days when individuals participated in more formal volunteering or provided more unpaid assistance than usual, they experienced more stressors and positive events but no difference in the number of physical symptoms. Negative affect was reduced on volunteering days for older adults but increased for younger adults (NSDE Refresher). Providing emotional support was associated with higher same-day negative affect, more stressors, more positive events, and elevated physical symptoms. Compared to younger and middle-aged adults, older adults experienced less of an increase in stressors and positive events (NSDE II) and negative affect (NSDE Refresher) on days when they provided more emotional support than usual. These findings demonstrate that prosocial activities are associated with both costs (negative affect, stressors, physical symptoms) and benefits (positive events) for same-day well-being. Older age may protect against negative ramifications associated with prosocial activities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
6.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(4): 244-245, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764953

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The outbreak of the coronavirus is becoming an international crisis these days, overshadowing everything. The outbreak of this disease in different countries, including Iran, has caused a lot of concern. In addition to the dangers it poses to human health, the spread of the virus has become a major challenge and a stressful test, putting additional pressure on these countries. Every step in the coming school year offers an opportunity for an ongoing two-way conversation with your child. Listen carefully to what they say and be careful not to burden them with your fears. Giving voice to concerns means sharing them so no one is holding their worries alone, and remember, kids' development is fluid and many kids can make up for lost time, academically and socially. Humans are resilient. Therefore, if schools do not open - or close their doors - it is important to be hopeful and positive about the future, despite everything that is currently being missed or delayed, whether academic or social.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/prevención & control , Instituciones Académicas , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Ansiedad/psicología , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
7.
Trials ; 22(1): 171, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) has reached pandemic status and is affecting countries all over the world. The COVID-19 pandemic is accompanied by various stressors that require adjustment in everyday life and possibly changes in personal future prospects. While some individuals cope well with these challenges, some develop psychological distress including depressive symptoms, anxiety, or stress. Internet-based self-help interventions have proven to be effective in the treatment of various mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Based on that, we developed an internet-based self-help program for individuals with psychological distress due to the situation surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. The 3-week self-help program consists of 6 modules comprising texts, videos, figures, and exercises. Participants can request guidance within the self-help program (guidance on demand). The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the self-help program compared to a waiting control condition. METHODS: The design is a parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants are allocated to a 3-week self-help intervention plus care as usual or a 3-week waiting period with only care as usual. There are follow-ups after 6 weeks and 18 weeks. At least 80 participants with COVID-19 pandemic related psychological distress will be recruited. Primary outcome are depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include anxiety and chronic stress, suicidal experiences and behavior, health-related quality of life, generalized optimism and pessimism, embitterment, optimistic self-beliefs, emotion regulation skills, loneliness, resilience, and the satisfaction with and usability of the self-help program. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies investigating the efficacy of an internet-based self-help program for psychological distress due to the situation surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the results of this study may give further insight into the use of internet-based self-help programs in pandemic-related psychological distress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04380909 . Retrospectively registered on 8 May 2020.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/terapia , Depresión/terapia , Intervención basada en la Internet , Autocuidado , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Regulación Emocional , Humanos , Soledad , Optimismo , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Satisfacción del Paciente , Pesimismo , Distrés Psicológico , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resiliencia Psicológica , Autoeficacia , Automanejo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Ideación Suicida
8.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e16, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745483

RESUMEN

A sample of 641 participants were presented with four decision-making tasks during the first stages of the COVID-19 lockdown in Spain: The dictator game, framing problems, utilitarian/deontological and altruistic/egoistic moral dilemmas. Participants also completed questionnaires on mental health status and experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We used boosted regression trees (an advanced form of regression analysis based on machine learning) to model relationships between responses to the questionnaires and decision-making tasks. Results showed that the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted participants' responses to the framing problems and utilitarian/deontological and altruistic/egoistic moral dilemmas (but not to the dictator game). More concretely, the more psychological impact participants suffered, the more they were willing to choose the safest response in the framing problems, and the more deontological/altruistic were their responses to moral dilemmas. These results suggest that the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic might prompt automatic processes.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Depresión/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Altruismo , Teoría Ética , Ética , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Principios Morales , Análisis de Regresión , España , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249058, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730077

RESUMEN

The petrochemical industry has made the economic development of many local communities possible, increasing employment opportunities and generating a complex network of closely-related secondary industries. However, it is known that petrochemical industries emit air pollutants, which have been related to different negative effects on mental health. In addition, many people around the world are being exposed to highly stressful situations deriving from the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdowns adopted by national and regional governments. The present study aims to analyse the possible differential effects on various psychological outcomes (stress, anxiety, depression and emotional regulation strategies) stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic and consequent lockdown experienced by individuals living near an important petrochemical complex and subjects living in other areas, nonexposed to the characteristic environmental pollutants emitted by these kinds of complex. The sample consisted of 1607 subjects who answered an ad hoc questionnaire on lockdown conditions, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). The results indicate that people living closer to petrochemical complexes reported greater risk perception [K = 73.42, p < 0.001, with a medium size effect (η2 = 0.061)]. However, no significant relationship between psychological variables and proximity to the focus was detected when comparing people living near to or far away from a chemical/petrochemical complex. Regarding the adverse psychological effects of the first lockdown due to COVID-19 on the general population in Catalonia, we can conclude that the conditions included in this survey were mainly related to changes in the participants' impulsivity levels, with different total impulsivity scores being obtained if they had minors in their care (p<0.001), if they had lost their jobs, if they were working (p<0.001), if they were not telecommuting (p<0.001), if they went out to work (p<0.001) or if they established routines (p = 0.009). However, we can also be fairly certain that the economic effects are going to be worse than those initially detected in this study. More research will be necessary to corroborate our results.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 600330, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748057

RESUMEN

Background: There is a global disaster since WHO declared Covid-19 as a pandemic. With the increase in cases & mortality rate, various health issues viz., stress, mental disorders and altered health-related quality of life have been noted as a result of pandemic and lockdowns. This study aimed to assess the association of COVID-19 pandemic stress with health-related quality of life in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional analytical study. Subjects included 878 citizens and residents of Saudi Arabia aged 18 years and above. Convenience, non-probability sampling technique was used. A web-based, self-administered, electronic questionnaire in Arabic language having three sections; Sociodemographic & clinical profile, Standard PSS-10, and Standard SF-12 was used as the study tool and distributed through various social media means. The study period was of 2 months. Data were analyzed using SPS version 25. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, independent sample t-test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed for suitable statistical analysis. Results: Almost two-thirds of the subjects were between the age of 18 to < 40 and majority (74.1%) being females. Majority (83.0%) reported as having no chronic diseases, and 69.5% had no contact history with COVID-19 cases. The mean of MCS & PCS was (32.34 ± 25.30) & (41.65 ± 11.82), respectively. Majority (67.6%) had a moderate level of COVID-19 stress. A significant negative relationship between total stress scores and HRQOL domains was observed. Conclusion: Majority subjects had a moderate level of stress related to COVID-19 lockdown. Stress during COVID-19 has a significant negative association with both physical and mental HRQOL in which MCS was significantly lower than PCS. It is recommended to evaluate the effectiveness of stress management program and follow a holistic approach.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Arabia Saudita , Autoinforme , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 193, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685398

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic, pregnancy and childbirth for women are taking place in unusual circumstances. We explored the lived experiences of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic to better understand their experience of pregnancy so that better support could be provided. METHODS: We used a descriptive phenomenological approach to understand the lived experience of pregnant women in COVID-19 pandemic. We collected data using a purposive sampling method through in-depth interviews in cyberspace with a semi-structured questionnaire. We used Colaizzi's seven-step content analysis method to analyze the research data with the help of MAXQDA software version 2020. RESULTS: We conducted this descriptive phenomenology study on 19 pregnant women in a period between the 10th to the 20th of May, 2020. The participating women were already pregnant when the first signs of the epidemic appeared in the country and at the time of the interview. We acquired four themes including disruption of the tranquility and regular routines of daily life, new challenges caused by the epidemic, resilience and strength in facing the crisis, and adaptation with new conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant women were under intense stress during the COVID-19 outbreak. The general mobilization the health system is necessary for alleviating pregnant women's difficulties in situations like the COVID-19 epidemic. Virtual training classes and virtual counseling may enhance the peace and tranquility of pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(1): 59-64, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646720

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Adolescence is a time known for risky behaviors and often the initiation of alcohol use. Readily available, alcohol is often one of the drugs of choice for adolescents. Whereas in the past 30 years, the overall consumption of alcohol is down, the data in the past 10 years have shown more girls are binge drinking and meeting criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD). The alarm of early alcohol use is the association with problems with the substances later in life. Historically, men and male adolescents consumed more alcohol than females. Recent studies indicate girls' alcohol use surpasses boys, whereas women now are developing AUD at the same rate as men. The consequences of early use can result in women's increased risk for multiple cancers, having a more severe form of AUD with less alcohol consumption as well as premature death. To further exacerbate this growing concern, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created a perfect storm for increased use of alcohol to cope with the stress of living in an uncertain world. Normal daily activities have been halted with the uncertainty of school closures, zoom classroom sessions, and living in mandated social isolation. All nurses need to be screening for how families under their care have been managing stress. The time is opportune to educate and support parents in engaging their children in conversations around substance use. Parents can be supported to increase awareness of their own coping mechanisms and strengthen positive coping. Adolescents need support to strengthen interpersonal skills as well as make informed decisions concerning when and how they engage in alcohol consumption. This article will illuminate the growing need for all healthcare providers to assess and guide adolescents' coping skills during COVID with a focus on mental health, high-risk behavior, and alcohol use.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Femenino , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos
14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(4): e28943, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565259

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We sought to assess the impact of disruptions due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on caregivers of childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: A 13-question survey containing multiple-choice, Likert-type, and free-text questions on experiences, behaviors, and attitudes during the COVID-19 outbreak was sent to childhood cancer caregivers and completed between April 13 and May 17, 2020. Ordered logistic regression was used to investigate relationships between demographics, COVID-related experiences, and caregiver well-being. RESULTS: Caregivers from 321 unique families completed the survey, including 175 with children under active surveillance/follow-up care and 146 with children no longer receiving oncology care. Overall, caregivers expressed exceptional resiliency, highlighting commonalities between caring for a child with cancer and adopting COVID-19 prophylactic measures. However, respondents reported delayed/canceled appointments (50%) and delayed/canceled imaging (19%). Eleven percent of caregivers reported struggling to pay for basic needs, which was associated with greater disruption to daily life, greater feelings of anxiety, poorer sleep, and less access to social support (p < .05). Caregivers who were self-isolating reported greater feelings of anxiety and poorer sleep (p < .05). Respondents who expressed confidence in the government response to COVID-19 reported less disruption to their daily life, decreased feelings of depression and anxiety, better sleep, and greater hopefulness (p < .001) CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers are experiencing changes to medical care, financial disruptions, and emotional distress due to COVID-19. To better serve caregivers and medically at-risk children, clinicians must evaluate financial toxicity and feelings of isolation in families affected by childhood cancer, and work to provide reliable information on how COVID-19 may differentially impact their children.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Neoplasias/psicología , Apoyo Social , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/enfermería , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
15.
J Relig Health ; 60(2): 646-653, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611679

RESUMEN

Given links between stress and obesity, it is likely that individuals gained weight during the COVID-19 lockdown. Research suggests that religiosity facilitates coping, which may have lessened the relationship between stress and weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown. We examined this relationship among Orthodox Jews (n = 731). Results indicated that stress was marginally associated with weight gain, and that this was moderated by intrinsic religiosity (IR). For those with low IR, stress correlated with weight gain, while for those with mean or higher IR, stress and weight change were unrelated. Results suggest that for some, religiosity may moderate links between stress and weight gain during times of crisis.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Judíos/psicología , Obesidad/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Religión
16.
J Relig Health ; 60(2): 654-662, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635446

RESUMEN

During life challenging times like the present COVID-19 pandemic, the health care worker (HCW) is faced with a number of questions of an existential nature. There is a sense of guilt, anguish, helplessness, uncertainty and powerlessness when one is fighting something on such a powerful scale with limited resources and no definite end in sight. There are circumstances when these feelings can overwhelm a person leading to demoralization and potentially a moral injury. Spiritual practices and advice may help to deal with moral paradoxes and ethical dilemmas when other secular supports are undermined or inaccessible. The Holy Indian Epic, the Bhagvad Gita has described the moral distress of the warrior Arjuna, during the battle of Kurukshetra and the advice given to him by the Lord Krishna the gist of which can be encapsulated in the form of the four Ds- Detachment, Duty, Doer-ship and Dhyana or meditation. In this article, the authors explore how these concepts may be useful aids to the HCW faced with moral and psychological distress.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Hinduismo/psicología , Principios Morales , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Humanos , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Pandemias
17.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 52(2): 200-204, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619672

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic exposed mothers to stress and social isolation during the pre- and post-natal periods. The deleterious effects of stress on both pregnant women and their infants are well documented, with research suggesting that effects are exacerbated by reduced social support. In this brief report, we summarize evidence linking stress and social isolation to negative outcomes for mothers and infants and present a conceptual model featuring inflammation as a driving mechanism. There is strong evidence that the coronavirus pandemic will affect mothers and infants through immune pathways that, in previous research, have been shown to link stress and social isolation during the pre- and post-natal periods with deficits in maternal mental health and infant well-being and development across developmental stages. We close with recommendations for novel research, policy changes, and integrated clinical care that can address these biological threats to infants and mothers while leveraging the anti-inflammatory effects of social support.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Madres/psicología , Atención Perinatal , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Estrés Psicológico , /epidemiología , /psicología , Salud de la Familia/tendencias , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Salud Mental/tendencias , Atención Perinatal/métodos , Atención Perinatal/normas , Embarazo , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
18.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(2): 47-55, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571046

RESUMEN

People living with HIV (PLHW) and other concealable stigmatized identities (CSIs) face continual decisions about the degree of openness they are willing to allow for their identities in different social contexts. Disclosing or concealment of CSIs describes potential stigma management strategies that may have distinct psychosocial consequences. This study aimed to examine disclosure processes in a sample of sexual minority men (SMM) with intersecting CSIs, who use substances and were suboptimally engaged in HIV care. Interviews (N = 33) were initially double coded following thematic analysis, which identified disclosure as a theme. Subsequently, content analysis and additional selective double coding were used to iteratively identify and refine subthemes related to disclosure decisions. Illustrative quotes and frequencies of the invoked subthemes and identities were recorded for each participant. The majority of participants discussed experiences of disclosure and nondisclosure (N = 31, 94%). Among these, a spectrum of related behaviors and preferences emerged, including active disclosure, passive disclosure, passive nondisclosure, and concealment. Across disclosure-related content, in addition to HIV status, the majority of participants also described navigating decisions about disclosure of sexual orientation (71%), substance use (61%), and multiple identities at once (55%). Findings from this study highlight the fluid and multi-dimensional nature of identity-related disclosure processes in SMM with multiple CSIs. Participants in this study possessed interlocking stigmatized identities and described being varying degrees of "out" across identities and time. Moreover, these findings challenge common beliefs that disclosure is a binary construct associated with positive gain.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estigma Social , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Revelación de la Verdad , Adulto , Anciano , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Estereotipo
19.
Res Dev Disabil ; 112: 103890, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607484

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Caring for children with cerebral palsy (CP) for many aspects of their lives may affect caregiver's psychological health. Emergence of COVID-19 put added pressure on caregivers. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological health of Iranian caregivers of children with CP and associated risks during a lockdown period. METHODS: Using online snowball sampling, 160 caregivers of children with CP participated in this web-based cross-sectional study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), Caregiver Difficulties Scale (CDS), and a demographic questionnaire were administered. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors related to caregiver psychological health. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Mental health problems were prevalent; (depression = 45.0% and anxiety = 40.6%). Significant correlations were found between CDS and HADS-Anxiety (r = 0.472, P < 0.001), HADS-depression (r = 0.513, P < 0.001), and perceived stress (PSS) related to COVID-19 (r = 0.425, P < 0.001). After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, burden (CDS) was found to significantly predict caregiver anxiety, depression and stress. Furthermore, several demographic characteristics (being married, low educational level and low income) were significantly related to high HADS Anxiety scores. For depression, only having a physical problem was significantly related to HADS among demographic variables. No significant correlations were found between PSS-4 and demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: During COVID-19 outbreak, the mental health of caregivers of children with CP is affected by multiple factors such as burden of care and demographic characteristics. Due to the importance of well-being among caregivers of disabled children, a comprehensive plan including psychological consultation, remote education, or in-person handouts for the self-care or handling of the children and adequate distance support may enable better mental health for these caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Parálisis Cerebral , Depresión/epidemiología , Padres/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Escolaridad , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Renta , Internet , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Estado Civil , Salud Mental , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Aust Crit Care ; 34(2): 146-154, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632606

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of the study was to determine levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms and factors associated with psychological burden amongst critical care healthcare workers in the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: An anonymous Web-based survey distributed in April 2020. All healthcare workers employed in a critical care setting were eligible to participate. Invitations to the survey were distributed through Australian and New Zealand critical care societies and social media platforms. The primary outcome was the proportion of healthcare workers who reported moderate to extremely severe scores on the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). RESULTS: Of the 3770 complete responses, 3039 (80.6%) were from Australia. A total of 2871 respondents (76.2%) were women; the median age was 41 years. Nurses made up 2269 (60.2%) of respondents, with most (2029 [53.8%]) working in intensive care units. Overall, 813 (21.6%) respondents reported moderate to extremely severe depression, 1078 (28.6%) reported moderate to extremely severe anxiety, and 1057 (28.0%) reported moderate to extremely severe stress scores. Mean ± standard deviation values of DASS-21 depression, anxiety, and stress scores amongst woman vs men was as follows: 8.0 ± 8.2 vs 7.1 ± 8.2 (p = 0.003), 7.2 ± 7.5 vs 5.0 ± 6.7 (p < 0.001), and 14.4 ± 9.6 vs 12.5 ± 9.4 (p < 0.001), respectively. After adjusting for significant confounders, clinical concerns associated with higher DASS-21 scores included not being clinically prepared (ß = 4.2, p < 0.001), an inadequate workforce (ß = 2.4, p = 0.001), having to triage patients owing to lack of beds and/or equipment (ß = 2.6, p = 0.001), virus transmission to friends and family (ß = 2.1, p = 0.009), contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (ß = 2.8, p = 0.011), being responsible for other staff members (ß = 3.1, p < 0.001), and being asked to work in an area that was not in the respondents' expertise (ß = 5.7, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this survey of critical care healthcare workers, between 22 and 29% of respondents reported moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, with women reporting higher scores than men. Although female gender appears to play a role, modifiable factors also contribute to psychological burden and should be studied further.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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