Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29.938
Filtrar
1.
Psicol. conduct ; 25(1): 99-109, ene.-abr. 2020. mapas, tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-162156

RESUMEN

Youth social withdrawal has raised clinical concerns, and prevention of withdrawal behavior is important yet difficult. While human evaluation of withdrawal behavior can be subjective, technology provides objective measurement for withdrawal behavior. This study aims to examine the association between withdrawal behaviors (home-stay and non-communication) and mental health status (stress, depression and loneliness). The open-access StudentLife dataset, including the location and conversation information derived from the sensor data, stress levels, and pre- and post-questionnaires of depression (PHQ-9) and loneliness (RULS) of 47 college students over 10 weeks was used. Multilevel modeling and functional regression were employed for data analysis. Daily duration of home-stay was negatively associated with daily stress levels, and the interaction effect of daily duration of home-stay and non-communication were positively associated with daily stress levels and changes in PHQ-9 and RULS scores. Smartphone data is useful to provide adjunct information to the professional clinical judgement and early detection on withdrawal behavior


El aislamiento social de los jóvenes ha generado preocupaciones clínicas y prevenir estos comportamientos es importante pero difícil. Aunque la evaluación del aislamiento puede ser subjetiva, la tecnología proporciona medidas objetivas de este comportamiento. El objetivo de este estudio es examinar la asociación entre los comportamientos de aislamiento (permanecer en casa y no comunicarse) y el estado de la salud mental (estrés, depresión y soledad). Se utilizó la base de datos de libre acceso StudentLife, incluyendo información sobre la ubicación y la conversación registrada por un sensor de datos, los niveles de estrés y medidas de autoinforme pre y pos sobre depresión (PHQ-9) y soledad (RULS) de 47 estudiantes universitarios durante 10 semanas. Para el análisis de datos se utilizaron modelos multinivel y la regresión funcional. La duración diaria de la permanencia en casa estaba negativamente asociada con los niveles diarios de estrés y el efecto de interacción de la duración diaria de la permanencia en casa y la falta de comunicación estaban positivamente relacionados con los niveles diarios de estrés y los cambios en las puntuaciones en PHQ-9 y RULS. Los datos del teléfono inteligente son útiles para obtener información complementaria al juicio clínico profesional y para la detección temprana de los comportamientos de aislamiento


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Soledad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Psicometría/instrumentación , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Diagnóstico Precoz , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Factores de Riesgo , Tecnología de la Información , Comunicación
2.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 212-218, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141600

RESUMEN

Background: Parenting approach and early childhood experiences are thought to be two important factors in the initiation of substance use. Aims: We aimed to explore the nurse's role in the prevention of childhood addiction. Methods: In this qualitative study we conducted in-depth interviews with young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users as well as with family members and nurses. The data analysis followed Strauss and Corbin's constant comparison method. Results: The data analysis revealed six categories: traumatic events during childhood, inappropriate parenting approach, Lack of knowledge and a tolerant attitude toward drug use, turning a blind eye on the threat of drug use, nurses' poor experience of drug use prevention, and the lack of a clear definition of the nurse's role in prevention of drug use. Conclusions: Nurses who work with young people and their families have a special opportunity for prevention, early detection and timely intervention for drug dependency.


Asunto(s)
Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Rol de la Enfermera , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/enfermería , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Adictiva/enfermería , Conducta Adictiva/prevención & control , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19298, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080147

RESUMEN

Patients who commit self-wrist cutting injuries (SWCIs) are a heterogeneous group composed of patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA). The purpose of this study was to compare the demographic features and wound characteristics of patients with NSSI and SA.A retrospective review of 300 patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for treatment of SWCIs between January 2011 and December 2015 was performed. Data collected from the electronic medical records included age, sex, the reason for SWCIs, presence of suicidal ideation, concomitant intoxication with alcohol or drugs, past psychiatric history, whether or not the patient received psychiatric counseling at the ED, the principal psychiatric diagnosis, the number and severity of external wounds, and subsequent follow-up at the psychiatric or hand surgery outpatient department (OPD). The patients were divided into the NSSI and SA groups according to the presence of suicidal ideation and other variables were compared between the two groups.There were 138 NSSI patients and 162 SA patients. The NSSI group was younger (33.9 years vs 40.9 years, P < .01), more female-dominant, and more non-compliant with psychiatric treatment than the SA group. Compared with the SA group, fewer NSSI patients had past psychiatric histories (26.1% vs 45.7%, P < .01) and more patients refused psychiatric counseling (30.4% vs 9.9%, P < .01) and follow-up at the psychiatric OPD (8.0% vs 17.3%, P < .01). In contrast, the number (P = .31) and severity (P = .051) of wounds and the rate of follow-up at the hand surgery OPD (P = .43) were not statistically different between the two groups.Although the NSSI and SA groups showed different demographic features and degrees of compliance with psychiatric treatment, wound characteristics were not different between the two groups. Therefore, hand surgeons cannot estimate patients' suicidal intent based on wound characteristics and all patients should be advised to receive psychiatric treatment.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Heridas Punzantes/psicología , Traumatismos de la Muñeca/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Servicios de Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Distribución por Sexo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Negativa del Paciente al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas Punzantes/epidemiología , Traumatismos de la Muñeca/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 141-153, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002927

RESUMEN

Substantial evidence from various studies suggests a preeminent role for early adverse experiences in the development of psychopathology. The most recent studies reviewed here suggest that early life stressors are associated with an increased risk for anxiety disorders in adulthood. Early life stress predisposes individuals to develop a number of psychiatric syndromes, particularly affective disorders, including anxiety disorders, and is therefore a significant health problem.This review examines the emerging literature on the relationship between stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and phobias and the role of early life stress as an important risk factor for HPA axis dysfunction.The most consistent findings in the literature show increased activity of the HPA axis in depression associated with hypercortisolemia and reduced inhibitory feedback. In addition to melancholic depression, a spectrum of other conditions may be associated with increased and prolonged activation of the HPA axis, including panic, GAD, phobias and anxiety. Moreover, HPA axis changes appear to be state-dependent, tending to improve upon resolution of the anxiety syndrome. Interestingly, persistent HPA hyperactivity has been associated with higher rates of relapse. These studies suggest that an evaluation of the HPA axis during treatment may help identify patients who are at a higher risk for relapse. These findings suggest that this dysfunction of the HPA axis is partially attributable to an imbalance between glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Evidence has consistently demonstrated that glucocorticoid receptor function is impaired in anxiety disorders. Moreover, normal basal cortisol levels and hyper-responsiveness of the adrenal cortex during a psychosocial stressor are observed in social phobics. Finally, abnormal HPA axis activity has also been observed in generalized anxiety disordered patients. Early stressful life events may provoke alterations of the stress response and thus of the HPA axis that can endure during adulthood, predisposing individuals to develop psychopathology.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/fisiopatología , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal/fisiopatología , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
5.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 34(2): 63-69, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068634

RESUMEN

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The hCATS (health Colleges Advancing Team Skills) to CPR (Cultivating Practices for Resilience) Camp was an interprofessional pilot program to promote resilience, introduce strategies for coping with stress, cultivate compassion, and promote work-life balance to prevent burnout among health profession students, faculty, and healthcare professionals who team to provide patient care. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The University of Kentucky (UK) College of Nursing received funding to partner with the UK Center for Interprofessional Health Education for immersive weekend activities utilizing KORU and Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction models, conducted by certified UK faculty experts in self-stewardship techniques such as mindfulness practices. OUTCOMES: Thirty-nine participants from 7 UK colleges and UK HealthCare participated in 4 distinct CPR Camps, completed program assessments, and created team projects. Mean scores from each cohort significantly increased in a retrospective pre/post analysis of student perception of knowledge in all of the following categories: (1) habits and practices for resilient people, (2) strategies for building resilience and preventing/coping with stress/burnout in self and others, and (3) work-life balance (with the exception of cohort 4, for work-life balance). Students indicated on open-response items specific strategies they were willing to adopt going forward. These outcomes met our objectives for developing participants' understanding of resilience practices and adopting useful stress reduction practices. Planning and implementation of team projects successfully brought different professions together to advance learning in resilience. CONCLUSION: The CPR Camp initiative is an effective model for promoting and sustaining resilience-building strategies among health profession students. Similar programming conducted and/or attended by academic and/or health system leaders, such as clinical nurse specialists, can help cultivate practices for resilience among the members of the interprofessional workforce, enabling teams to better cope with stress, prevent burnout, and ultimately improve team-based care delivery for patients and their families.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interprofesionales , Resiliencia Psicológica , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral
6.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e86, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915100

RESUMEN

With cancer incidence increasing over time worldwide, attention to the burden of psychiatric and psychosocial consequences of the disease is now mandatory for both cancer and mental health care professionals. Psychiatric disorders have been shown to affect at least 30-35% of cancer patients during all phases of the disease trajectory, and differ in nature according to stage and type of cancer. Other clinically relevant distressing psychosocial and existential conditions (e.g. demoralisation, health anxiety, loss of meaning and existential distress) not included as 'disorders' in the usual diagnostic and nosological systems (i.e. meta-diagnostic conditions) have also been shown to be present in another 15-20% of cancer patients. In this editorial, we will present a summary of the extensive literature regarding the epidemiology of the several psychosocial disorders affecting cancer patients as a cause of distress and burden to be taken into consideration and addressed in cancer care through evidence-based intervention.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Salud Mental , Neoplasias/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Ansiedad/etiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Depresión/etiología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Psicooncología , Calidad de Vida , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/etiología
7.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 559-567, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992143

RESUMEN

This study examined the relationships between daily cognitive appraisals of organizational events, affective responses, and coping. In addition, a 5-year longitudinal relationship between coping and performance outcomes at the senior professional level was assessed. Using an experience sampling method, professional academy rugby union players (N = 39, Mage = 17.23 years, SD = 0.87) completed daily diary measures of appraisals, affective responses, and coping over 5 weeks of training. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that daily cognitive appraisals were related to daily affective responses and coping functions enacted by behaviours, after accounting for a series of within (e.g., time, day, week) and between-person (e.g., personality, key decision-makers) differences. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression revealed that coping related to eliciting support was associated with minutes played at the senior professional level five years later. This study extends theoretical knowledge of the within- and between-person relationships that explain organizational stress experiences. The findings suggest that some coping functions enacted by behaviours may be early indicators of future performance outcomes in professional sport.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Rendimiento Atlético , Evaluación Ecológica Momentánea , Fútbol Americano/psicología , Cultura Organizacional , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Afecto , Predicción , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
8.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(2): 149-159, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894996

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Acculturative Process and Context Framework (Ward & Geeraert, 2016) proposes that acculturative stressors influence psychological well-being over time. In fact, extant literature has linked bicultural stress with psychological functioning; yet, no studies have explored the causal dominance of bicultural stress. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the directionality of prospective relations among bicultural stress and psychosocial functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, hopefulness, and self-esteem) in Latinx immigrant adolescents across 5 waves. METHOD: There were 303 Latinx adolescents who were recruited for this study from Los Angeles and Miami and were assessed across 5 waves at 6-month intervals. Adolescents were 14.50 years old on average (SD = .88) and 53.16% were male. Adolescents reported living in the United States for 2.07 years on average (SD = 1.87). A Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model (RI-CLPM) was used to examine the between- and within-person relations among bicultural stress, depressive symptoms, hopefulness, and self-esteem in a comprehensive model. RESULTS: The comprehensive RI-CLPM including bicultural stress, depressive symptoms, hopefulness, and self-esteem exhibited excellent model fit. Between-person, trait-like relations among constructs ranged from small to large, as expected. Within-person, cross-lagged estimates among constructs were overall inconsistent, with some evidence that, within individuals, self-esteem influences later hopefulness. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study indicate that the RI-CLPM is an effective strategy to examine bicultural stress and well-being processes among adolescents. There is a need for further research examining bicultural stress among Latinx immigrant youth, particularly within prevention and intervention studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Salud Mental , Autoimagen , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Esperanza , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
9.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 19: 1534735419890682, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957499

RESUMEN

Background: There is a paucity of research on the long-term impact of stress-reduction in Hispanic/Latina breast cancer (BC) survivors, a growing minority. In this article, we assess the long-term efficacy of an 8-week training program in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on quality of life (QoL) in Hispanic BC survivors. Methods: Hispanic BC survivors, within the first 5 years of diagnosis, stages I to III BC, were recruited. Participants were enrolled in bilingual, 8-week intensive group training in MBSR and were asked to practice a- home, daily. They were also provided with audio recordings and a book on mindfulness practices. Patient-reported outcomes for QoL and distress were evaluated at baseline, and every 3 months, for 24 months. Results: Thirty-three self-identified Hispanic women with BC completed the MBSR program and were followed at 24 months. Statistically significant reduction was noted for the Generalized Anxiety Disorder measure (mean change -2.39, P=0.04); and Patient Health Questionnaire (mean change -2.27, P=0.04), at 24 months, compared with baseline. Improvement was noted in the Short-Form 36 Health-related QoL Mental Component Summary with an increase of 4.07 (95% confidence interval = 0.48-7.66, P=0.03). However, there was no significant change in the Physical Component Summary. Conclusions: Hispanic BC survivors who participated in an 8-week MBSR-based survivorship program reported persistent benefits with reduced anxiety, depression, and improved mental health QoL over 24 months of follow-up. Stress reduction programs are beneficial and can be implemented as part of a comprehensive survivorship care in BC patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Atención Plena/métodos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Neoplasias de la Mama/etnología , Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Sentido de Coherencia , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 117-124, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009300

RESUMEN

The stress of veterinary students ranges from the financial stress associated with high student loan debt combined with possible credit card debt, to relational stress due to lack of time to commit to social activities, to uncertainty regarding the ability to perform at the highest level. While this study considers a multifaceted approach to veterinary student stress and ultimate depressive symptoms, the focus is on the financial stress. A common strategy for reducing debt is to increase financial literacy. While this has the potential to help, it is not the sole solution given that students opt into the program for non-financial reasons. A path analysis was used to explore the predictors of financial satisfaction (the inverse of financial stress). The results were then used to predict depression among pre-vet and veterinary students in combination with relationship stress and demographic characteristics. Results indicate that current and expected student loan debt negatively influence financial satisfaction of pre-veterinary and veterinary students. Lower financial and relational satisfaction predict depressive symptoms among students. Among pre-veterinary students, feeling less intelligent than peers and being a sophomore versus a freshman is associated with depressive symptoms. Among current veterinary students, third-year students are more likely to report depressive symptoms than first-year students.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Veterinaria , Administración Financiera , Estrés Psicológico , Veterinarios , Educación en Veterinaria/economía , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional , Veterinarios/economía
11.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 96-108, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729019

RESUMEN

Anaesthetists are thought to be at increased risk of suicide amongst the medical profession. The aims of the following guidelines are: increase awareness of suicide and associated vulnerabilities, risk factors and precipitants; to emphasise safe ways to respond to individuals in distress, both for them and for colleagues working alongside them; and to support individuals, departments and organisations in coping with a suicide.


Asunto(s)
Anestesistas/psicología , Anestesistas/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Suicidio/prevención & control , Suicidio/psicología , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido
12.
Med J Aust ; 211(11): 519-522, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813170

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether blondes have more fun, as proposed by Sir Roderick David Stewart in 1978. DESIGN: Prospective, non-randomised crossover field study, 1-2 June 2018. SETTING: Single centre medical writing course, during a break in the course program. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 21 healthy Danish researchers: ten blondes, nine non-blondes, and two with missing data (bald). INTERVENTION: Participants completed a visual analogue scale (VAS) for fun and Profile of Mood States - Adolescents (POMS-A) questionnaires before and after two rides each on a waterslide (once sitting upright, once lying down). There was a wash-out between rides. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fun, as assessed by VAS completed moments after completing each waterslide ride. RESULTS: Blondes did not have more fun than non-blondes, neither while sitting upright (median VAS, 60 [IQR, 23-66] v 25 [IQR, 4.5-57]; P = 0.39) nor lying down (median VAS, 70 [IQR, 60-85] v 66 [IQR, 35-80]; P = 0.62). Riding the waterslide lying down was significantly faster (median duration, 9 s; range, 8-13 s) than sitting upright (median duration, 13.6 s; range, 8-37 s; P < 0.001), and also more fun (median VAS, 72 [IQR, 59-85] v 41 [IQR, 14-66]; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are not consistent with the statement by Sir Roderick David Stewart that "blondes have more fun"; we found no evidence that blondes experience more fun or are more susceptible to mood changes than non-blondes.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Color del Cabello , Felicidad , Satisfacción Personal , Adulto , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Humanos , Placer , Estudios Prospectivos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Joven
13.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e83, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839021

RESUMEN

AIMS: Mental disorders are associated with lower subjective social status (SSS), but a more nuanced understanding of this relationship is needed. We examined the influence of disorder age of onset and recency on SSS and studied whether mental disorders are also associated with the discrepancy between actual and desired SSS. METHOD: Data are from the baseline and second wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). Mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), while both actual and desired SSS were assessed with a ten-rung ladder. Linear regression was used to examine the association between mental disorders and SSS. RESULTS: Of 5303 participants, 2237 had a lifetime mental disorder at baseline. These participants reported significantly lower actual SSS (6.28) at follow-up than healthy participants (6.66, B = -0.38 [95% CI -0.48 to -0.27], p < 0.001) and a significantly greater actual-desired SSS discrepancy (1.14 v. 1.05 after controlling for actual SSS, B = 0.09 [0.01-0.17], p = 0.024). Lower age of onset of the first mental disorder was marginally significantly associated with lower actual SSS (B = 0.006 [0.000-0.012], p = 0.046). More recent disorders were also associated with lower actual SSS (B = 0.015 [0.005-0.026], p = 0.005), such that participants whose disorder remitted ⩾6 years before baseline were statistically indistinguishable from healthy participants. CONCLUSIONS: Lifetime mental disorders are associated with lower actual SSS and a slightly greater discrepancy between actual and desired SSS. However, people with mental disorders in (long-term) remission have a similar social status as healthy participants.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Clase Social , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Medio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1694, 2019 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847898

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health care employees in Germany and worldwide are exposed to a variety of stressors. However, most of the hospitals in Germany lack a systematic workplace health management. Thus, this study aims at the evaluation of the effects of a behavioural as well as organisational (´complex´) intervention on the mental health and well-being of hospital staff. METHODS: Mental health in the hospital workplace (SEElische GEsundheit am Arbeitsplatz KrankeNhaus - SEEGEN) is an unblinded, multi-centred cluster-randomised open trial with two groups (intervention group (IG) and waitlist control group (CG)). Study participants in the intervention clusters will receive the complex intervention; study participants in the waitlist control clusters will receive the complex intervention after the last follow-up measurement. The intervention consists of five behavioural and organisational intervention modules that are specifically tailored to hospital employees at different hierarchical and functional levels. Hospital staff may select one specific module according to their position and specific needs or interests. Towards the end of the intervention roundtable discussions with representatives from all professional groups will be held to facilitate organisational change. Primary outcome is the change in emotional and cognitive strain in the working environment, from baseline (T0) to 6 month-follow up (T1), between IG and CG. In addition, employees who do not participate in the modules are included in the trial by answering shorter questionnaires (cluster participants). Furthermore, using mixed methods, a process evaluation will identify uptake of the intervention, and mediators and moderators of the effect. DISCUSSION: There seems to be growing psychological strain on people working in the health care sector worldwide. This study will examine whether investing directly in the hospital staff and their interpersonal relationship may lead to measurable benefits in subjective well-being at the workplace and improved economic performance indicators of the hospital. In case of a positive outcome, health promotion strategies looking at behavioural as well as organisational components within the hospital may gain additional importance, especially in regard of the growing financial pressure within the health sector. TRIAL REGISTRATION DRKS: The SEEGEN study is registered at the German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS) under the DRKS-ID DRKS00017249. Registered 08 October 2019, URL. https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00017249.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal de Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226333, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877163

RESUMEN

Generally speaking, institutionalised children and adolescents are at greatly increased risk of serious mental and behavioural problems, up to seven times more than their peers. Life skills- based interventions using peer enforcement have been introduced as effective program to improve adolescents' emotional and behavioral health. Therefore, the current randomized control study aimed to determine, if a life skills-based intervention could improve the emotional health and self-esteem among Malaysian adolescents in orphanages. Overall, 271 male and female adolescents (13-18 years old) from 8 orphanages in Klang valley, Malaysia participated in the study. Comparing the intervention to control group within 3 points of time, the finding of the study showed that immediately after finishing the interventional sessions (post-test), the mean scores of depression (F = 33.80, P<0.001, η2 = 0.11), anxiety (F = 6.28, P = 0.01, η2 = 0.02), stress (F = 32.05, P<0.001, η2 = 0.11) and self-esteem (F = 54.68, P<0.001, η2 = 0.17) were significantly decreased compared to the pre-test values. However, there was no significant difference between two groups in the depression mean scores (F = 2.33, P = 0.13). Regarding to the interaction between group and test a significant change was seen in the mean score of all 4 variables including depression (F = 31.04, P<0.001, η2 = 0.10), anxiety (F = 14.21, P<0.001, η2 = 0.05), stress (F = 15.67, P<0.001, η2 = 0.06) and self-esteem (F = 13.29, P<0.001, η2 = 0.05). Furthermore, except depression (Δmean = -1.37, P<0.001), no significant difference was seen between study variables' mean scores between post- and follow-up test (p>0.001). These results provide preliminary approve for LSE to enhance emotional health and self-esteem in orphanages.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/terapia , Depresión/terapia , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Adolescente , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia , Masculino , Salud Mental , Orfanatos , Autoimagen , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 1424592, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885635

RESUMEN

Background: Tobacco smoking and use of smokeless tobacco are the most preventable cause of death in Bangladesh. The prevalence of psychological distress is increasing globally. This paper reports the smoking status and their association with psychological distress and other factors in a rural district, Narail, of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 2425 adults of age 18-90 years. Smoking status along with sociodemographic characteristics and measures of psychological distress using the Kessler 10-item questionnaire were collected using a face-to-face data collection method. Results: The crude (age-standardized) prevalence of ever smoking was 27.1 (24.3)% that includes current 25.6 (23.7) and smoker 1.5 (0.6)%, and the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) was 23.5 (13.4)%. The prevalence of ever smoking was the highest in daily labourers (62.9%) and SLT use was the highest in widowed people (47.2%). After adjustment for covariates, no education (odds ratio (OR): 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57-9.07 for females and OR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.87-3.87 for males) compared to at least secondary level of education and daily labours (OR: 6.66, 95% CI: 1.67-26.6 for females and OR: 5.12, 95% CI: 1.30-20.19 for males) compared to housework were associated with higher prevalence of ever smoking. Any level of psychological distress, such as mild psychological distress, was associated with at least double the prevalence of tobacco smoking in females (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.67-3.83) but not in males (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.80-1.56). Psychological distress was not associated with SLT use. Conclusions: Prevalence of both smoking and SLT use was high, particularly in daily labourers, people with no education, and females with psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Appropriate intervention programs should especially target those of low levels of education and laborious occupations for increasing awareness for the cessation of smoking in rural Bangladesh.


Asunto(s)
Salud Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1726, 2019 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870352

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the last few years, so-called "common mental disorders", including adjustment disorder and stress-related exhaustion, have outrivalled musculoskeletal disorders as being the leading cause of long-term sick leave in Sweden. Cardiorespiratory fitness level defined as "the maximal amount of physiological work that an individual can do as measured by oxygen consumption" has in many studies shown to reduce the risk of several life-style related diseases and moreover to improve mood, well-being and physical performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate, longitudinal associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and self-reported physical activity levels and the severity of symptoms connected to stress-related exhaustion, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances among women clinically diagnosed with stress-related exhaustion disorder (ED). METHODS: The study was that of a longitudinal cohort study consisting of women (n = 88) diagnosed with stress-related ED in a specialist clinic in Gothenburg, Sweden. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with the Åstrand indirect test of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and subjective measures of physical activity levels were rated on 4-graded physical activity scale. To measure and follow symptoms of ED over time the SMBQ-questionnaire (Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire) was used. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure depression and anxiety. A proxy variable for capturing overall disturbed sleep used to measure sleep. Longitudinal associations for continuous outcome variables and the dichotomous variable sleep were analysed using mixed- effects regression models with random intercepts. Regression coefficients along with the 95% confidence interval (CI) are presented as measures of association. Both exposures and the outcome were measured simultaneously over six waves (T1-T6). RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant associations between level of fitness and reduced symptoms of stress-related exhaustion over time. Best improvements over time were seen in patients having a medium cardiorespiratory fitness level. No associations could be found between cardiorespiratory fitness level over time and anxiety, depression or sleep disturbances. CONCLUSION: Having medium cardiorespiratory fitness was positivity associated with a more sustained reduction in symptoms of ED overtime compared to those having low or high cardiorespiratory fitness levels. The clinical implication following this result is that an individual recommendation based on a medium level of physical activity in line with the recommendations from ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) is preferable compared to recommendations including more vigorous physical activity in order to restore and sustainably reduce symptoms of exhaustion disorder over time.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Capacidad Cardiovascular/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Fatiga/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suecia/epidemiología
18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224542, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860638

RESUMEN

For four decades, theories of job demand-control have proposed that higher occupational status groups have lower health risks due to the stress accompanying jobs featuring high demands but high control. This research examines whether Flexible Work Arrangements (FWAs) can improve the health prospects of a range of workers by giving greater control over work time arrangements. Our setting is Australia, where FWAs were introduced in 2009. In line with these early studies alongside studies of work-life balance, we expected to observe that workers with access to control over daily work times could better control the activities outside of work that influence chronic disease. Using a practice sociology approach, we compared the accounts of twenty-eight workers in blue and white collar industries with differing degrees of work time flexibility. The findings do not contradict early theories describing occupational differences of job demand-control dynamics and their relationship to health risks. However, this study suggests that a) time demands and strains have increased for a broad sweep of workers since the 1980s, b) the greater control of higher occupational status groups has been eroded by the high performance movement, which has attracted less scrutiny than FWAs, and c) more workers are forced to adapt their daily lives, including their approach to health, to accommodate their job demands. Job insecurity further impedes preventative health practices adoption. What might appear to be worker-controlled flexibility can-under the pressures of job insecurity and performance expectations without time limits-transform into health-eroding unpredictability. The answer however is not greater flexibility in the absence of limits on the well-documented precursors of work stress: long hours, job insecurity and intensity-related exhaustion. While there have been welcome developments in job demand-control-health conceptualizations, they typically ignore the out-of-work temporal demands that workers face and which compound on-the-job demands. Redesign of the temporalities of working life within worksites need to be accompanied by society-level policies which address caring responsibilities, gender equality as well as broad labour market conditions.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral/tendencias , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Australia , Empleo , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225149, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856167

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Women with infertility have different experiences that determine the quality of their psychosocial health. Cultural constructions of infertility in Africa have made the experience of infertility among African women more burdensome. Yet, little is known about the psychosocial experiences of women with infertility in Zamfara State of Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychosocial experiences of women with infertility in Zamfara. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An exploratory qualitative design was used for this exploration. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Ethical approval was received from the Institutional Review Board of the Nogouchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in the University of Ghana. Women who were married and seeking treatment for infertility from a public hospital were recruited and interviewed. A total of 12 women were interviewed with each interview lasting 45 minutes. The interviews were audiotaped with permission from the participants, transcribed verbatim, and content analysed. RESULTS: The findings revealed that psychologically, majority of the women had experienced anxiety, stress and depression as a result of their inability to get pregnant. Socially, the women suffered self and social isolation, social stigma, social pressure and marital problems. CONCLUSION: These women have psychosocial health problems that need the attention of health professionals to enhance their wellbeing.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Conflicto Familiar , Infertilidad Femenina/psicología , Estigma Social , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Matrimonio , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Aislamiento Social , Esposos , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto Joven
20.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 575-591, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711395

RESUMEN

Early Life Stress Stress and daily hassles are a normal part of day-to day-life. The amount of control that is experienced strongly contributes to resilience and coping. Children very frequently do not experience control over the stressors within their lives. Starting from pregnancy, they are subjected - via the maternal endocrine system - to a variety of stressors ranging from normal stress regarding the transition to parenthood to maternal abuse or torture. This article collects research of the last two decades regarding the influence of stress on the developing brain. Both, animal and human studies will shed light on the effect of pre- and postnatal stress demonstrating an influence of early life stressors reaching far into adulthood. A direct influence of stress on multiple developmental characteristics has been postulated and shown. The results of this review will underline the necessity of early life programs focusing stress reduction and resilience in children and their parents. Also, a need for programs targeting stress reduction in pregnancy will be demonstrated and emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Psicológico/fisiopatología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Animales , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Encéfalo/patología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Padres/psicología , Embarazo , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA