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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e18171, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764859

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) of the ovary is rare. We describe the first case of ovarian SST with estrogen excess with both clinical and serological evidence in a postmenopausal woman. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-year-old female who referred menopause 14 years ago was admitted with postmenopausal bleeding for 3 months. Ultrasonography revealed thickened endometrium of 6 mm and no adnexal masses. An elevated serum estradiol level of 49.78 ng/L was revealed in laboratory examination with normal ranges less than 27.25 ng/L in postmenopausal women. DIAGNOSES: The final histology diagnosis is SST of left ovary and endometrial hyperplasia with polyps. INTERVENTIONS: Laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed and a solid tumor with a diameter of 3 cm × 2 cm from the left ovary was found intraoperatively. OUTCOMES: Three days after removal of the tumor, the serum estrogen level was decreased to normal which indicated the estrogen activity of the tumor. LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, it is the first reported case of ovarian SST with estrogen excess with both clinical and serological evidence. The present case illustrates the necessity to consider the rare possibility of ovarian SST as a cause for estrogen excess leading to postmenopausal bleeding. Hormonal evaluation (estrogens, androgens) should be considered in women with postmenopausal bleeding regardless of imaging examination.


Asunto(s)
Estrógenos/sangre , Neoplasias Ováricas/sangre , Tumores de los Cordones Sexuales y Estroma de las Gónadas/sangre , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Posmenopausia
2.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(11): 1201-1211, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542834

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use induces alterations in circulating estrogens/estrogen metabolites, which may contribute to the altered risk of reproductive tract cancers among current users. Thus, the current study assessed associations between circulating estrogens/estrogen metabolites and ovarian and endometrial cancer risk among MHT users. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study among postmenopausal women using MHT at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (179 ovarian cancers, 396 controls; 230 endometrial cancers, 253 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals overall and by subtype. RESULTS: Estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels were not associated with overall or serous ovarian cancer risk, examined separately. However, unconjugated estradiol was positively associated with non-serous ovarian cancer risk [quintile 5 vs. quintile 1: 3.01 (1.17-7.73); p-trend = 0.03; p-het < 0.01]. Endometrial cancer risk was unrelated to estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels among women who took combined estrogen/progestin therapy (EPT). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel evidence that may support a heterogeneous hormonal etiology across ovarian cancer subtypes. Circulating estrogens did not influence endometrial cancer risk among women with EPT-induced high-estrogen levels. Larger studies are needed to delineate the relationship between ovarian/endometrial cancer subtypes and estrogen levels in the context of MHT use.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Endometriales/sangre , Estradiol/sangre , Estrógenos/sangre , Terapia de Reemplazo de Hormonas , Neoplasias Ováricas/sangre , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Posmenopausia , Riesgo
3.
Biosci Trends ; 13(3): 284-285, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327799

RESUMEN

Threatened abortion is a common complication of pregnancy. Since the underlying mechanisms behind this condition are complicated, predicting and treating threatened abortion is a challenge for clinicians. Interestingly, a recent article in Bioscience Trends (Biosci Trends 2019; DOI: 10.5582/bst.2019.01111) revealed a higher, not lower, level of ꞵ-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estrogen during the first 6 weeks of pregnancy, suggesting a novel association between ꞵ-hCG, estrogen, and threatened abortion. Unfortunately, this study was limited by its small sample size, unconvincing trial design, and inadequate exploration of the underlying mechanisms. This low-quality evidence indicates that a higher level of ꞵ- hCG and estrogen is associated with threatened abortion. However, that work provided some new insights for further studies of threatened abortion.


Asunto(s)
Amenaza de Aborto/diagnóstico , Amenaza de Aborto/patología , Aborto Espontáneo/sangre , Aborto Espontáneo/diagnóstico , Aborto Espontáneo/tratamiento farmacológico , Aborto Espontáneo/patología , Amenaza de Aborto/sangre , Amenaza de Aborto/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonadotropina Coriónica/sangre , Estrógenos/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261736

RESUMEN

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) seems to be associated with alterations of immunoregulation. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogens play a role in the modulation of immune responses and may be related to the etiology of IBD. The purpose of this work was to examine the involvement of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor ß (ERß) and ERα spliced variants ERα36 and ERα46 in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The studied group included 73 patients with IBD and 31 sex and age-related controls. No differences in serum levels of 17ß-estradiol nor of CYP1A1 and SULT1E1 enzymes involved in estrogen catabolism were stated. The expression pattern of estrogen receptors in tissue samples was quantified using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Statistically significant up-regulation of GPER and ERα in both CD and UC as well as down-regulation of ERß in CD patients was found. However, differences in the expression of estrogen receptors in CD and UC have been identified, depending on the sex and age of patients. In men, up-regulation of GPER, ERα and ERα46 expression was shown in CD and UC patients. In women under 50 years of age, GPER protein level increased in UC whereas ERß expression tended to decrease in CD and UC patients. In turn, in women over 50 the protein level of ERα increased in UC while ERß expression decreased in CD patients. Dysregulation of estrogen receptors in the intestinal mucosa of patients with CD and UC indicates that estrogen signaling may play a role in the local immune response and maintain epithelial homeostasis in a gender- and age-dependent manner.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Crohn/metabolismo , Estrógenos/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogénicos/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Colitis Ulcerosa/patología , Enfermedad de Crohn/patología , Estradiol/sangre , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrógenos/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Receptores Estrogénicos/genética , Factores Sexuales
5.
Life Sci ; 232: 116640, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295470

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common causes of female infertility, affecting 5-10% of the population. Women with PCOS manifest hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia, low-grade systemic inflammation, and polycystic ovaries. Unfortunately, current available medications are only symptomatic without relevant reported treatment. Therefore, a pressing need for alternative safe approaches is necessitated. To this end, the present study is designed to investigate therapeutic merits of the edible plant: Ocimum kilimandscharicum (Ok), in a letrozole PCOS rat model, and compare it to metformin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PCOS rats were treated with Ok total extract and its different fractions at 100 mg/kg orally for 10 consecutive days. Moreover, phytochemical characterization was applied using HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS to identify different secondary metabolites in the bioactive fractions. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that the total extract (Ok) and ethyl acetate (EA) fraction improved insulin sensitivity and restored normal hormonal and lipid profiles as well as normal morphological structure of the reproductive system. Furthermore, elevation of SOD and reduction of VEGF levels in comparison with metformin were recorded. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that Ok extract and EA fraction halt letrozole-induced reproductive dysfunctions and restore normal morphological and physiological functions in PCOS rats, even superior to metformin.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Aromatasa/farmacología , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Letrozol/farmacología , Metformina/farmacología , Ocimum/química , Ovario/efectos de los fármacos , Ovario/fisiopatología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glucemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Estrógenos/sangre , Estro , Femenino , Glicósidos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Insulina/sangre , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Ovario/patología , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/inducido químicamente , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/patología , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/fisiopatología , Progesterona/sangre , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Testosterona/sangre , Triglicéridos/sangre , Útero/efectos de los fármacos
6.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163520

RESUMEN

Objective:To investigate relationship between the level of estrogen, calcium and phosphorus concentration in serum with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(BPPV). Method:A total of 84 patients with idiopathic BPPV were enrolled in the experimental group, including 32 non-menopausal women, 24 menopausal women, and 28 males; 83 healthy people without vertigo and vestibular disease were selected as the control group consisted with 32 non-menopausal women, 24 menopausal women and 27 males. The levels of estradiol, serum calcium and serum inorganic phosphorus were measured in all participants. The difference of estrogen level, serum calcium and serum inorganic phosphorus concentration between the experimental group and the control group was analyzed by t test. Result:The total number, age distribution and gender composition of the experimental group and the control group were basically paired, and the age difference was not statistically significant (P=0.71). The overall estrogen level in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). Among them, the female group's estrogen level, menopausal female estrogen level and male estrogen level in the experimental group were lower than the control group (P<0.01); there was no significant difference in serum calcium and serum inorganic phosphorus concentration between the experimental group and the control group (P=0.55, 0.11, respectively). Conclusion:The decrease of estrogen level may be a risk factor for idiopathic BPPV. The relationship between serum calcium and serum inorganic phosphorus concentration and BPPV needs further study.


Asunto(s)
Vértigo Posicional Paroxístico Benigno , Calcio , Estrógenos , Fósforo , Adulto , Vértigo Posicional Paroxístico Benigno/sangre , Calcio/sangre , Estrógenos/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fósforo/sangre
7.
Reprod Biol ; 19(2): 149-157, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147267

RESUMEN

Embryonic diapause in the European roe deer includes a period of five months from August to December in which embryonic development is extremely decelerated. Following exit from diapause, the embryo rapidly elongates and subsequently implants. In diapausing carnivores and marsupials, resumption of embryonic growth is regulated by ovarian steroid hormones. In the roe deer, the role of steroid hormones is not known to date. In the present study, progesterone (P4), estradiol-17ß (E2) and total estrogens (Etot) were determined in blood plasma and endometrium of roe deer shot in the course of regular huntings between September and December. Steroid hormone concentrations were correlated to the corresponding size of the embryo derived from ex vivo uterine flushing and to the date of sampling. The mean plasma concentrations of P4 (5.4 ± 0.2 ng/ml, mean ± SE, N = 87), E2 (24.3 ± 2.6 pg/ml, N = 86) and Etot (21.7 ± 2.6 pg/ml, N = 78) remained constant over the sampling period and were not correlated to embryonic size. Likewise, endometrial concentrations of P4 (66.1 ± 6.5 ng/ml), E2 (284.0 ± 24.43 pg/ml) and, Etot (440.9 ± 24.43 pg/ml) showed no changes over time. Therefore, it was concluded that ovarian steroid hormones do not play a determining role in resumption of embryonic growth following the period of diapause in the roe deer.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos/fisiología , Diapausa/fisiología , Estradiol/sangre , Preñez , Progesterona/sangre , Animales , Endometrio , Estrógenos/sangre , Femenino , Embarazo , Preñez/fisiología
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6539294, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240219

RESUMEN

Chemotherapy leads to a loss of fertility and reproductive endocrine function, thereby increasing the risk of premature ovarian failure (POF). Studies have suggested that the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells could inhibit apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells and improve follicular development. In the present study, the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UCMSC) transplantation on ovarian function after ovarian damage caused by chemotherapy and the mechanism underlying these effects were investigated. POF model rats were obtained by the intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide, and cultured UCMSCs were transplanted by tail vein injection. Serum estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, and anti-Mullerian hormone levels were detected by ELISA. Folliculogenesis was evaluated by histopathological examination. The expression levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), high affinity nerve growth factor receptor (TrkA), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and caspase-3 were evaluated by western blotting and RT-qPCR. The natural reproductive capacity was assessed by pregnant rate and numbers of embryos. The results indicated that UCMSC transplantation recovered disturbed hormone secretion and folliculogenesis in POF rats. NGF and TrkA levels increased, while FSHR and caspase-3 decreased. The pregnancy rate of POF rats was improved. Therefore, UCMSCs could reduce ovarian failure due to premature senescence caused by chemotherapy, and the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway was involved in the amelioration of POF.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Trasplante de Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/métodos , Factor de Crecimiento Nervioso/metabolismo , Insuficiencia Ovárica Primaria/terapia , Cordón Umbilical/trasplante , Animales , Hormona Antimülleriana/sangre , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Caspasa 3/sangre , Ciclofosfamida/efectos adversos , Estrógenos/sangre , Femenino , Hormona Folículo Estimulante/sangre , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/sangre , Humanos , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Factor de Crecimiento Nervioso/sangre , Ovario/patología , Embarazo , Insuficiencia Ovárica Primaria/inducido químicamente , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de HFE/sangre
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15637, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096480

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Warm needle acupuncture (WNA) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy which combines technical advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion. Climacteric insomnia is a common symptom in climacteric women, which can seriously affect the physical and mental health of patients. Relevant studies have been reported that WNA can improve insomnia in climacteric women. In this protocol, the effectiveness and safety of WNA on insomnia in climacteric women will be explored. METHODS: Seven electronic databases include 3 English databases [Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library)] and 4 Chinese databases [Chinese VIP Information, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Wanfang Database] for randomised controlled trials (RCT) of WNA on insomnia in climacteric women will be searched. The changes of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index was used as the main outcome, and the secondary outcome includes the changes of the Kupperman score, serum hormone level, and TCM syndrome score, as well as the adverse events caused by WNA. We will use RevMan software V5.3 to help us to analyze all data and use a Cochrane risk of bias tool to help us to assess the methodological quality for RCTs. RESULT: This study will provide reliable evidence for WNA on insomnia in climacteric women CONCLUSION:: The findings will be an available reference to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of WNA on insomnia in climacteric women. REGISTRATION: PROS-PERO CRD42019125743.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Menopausia/fisiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/terapia , Estrógenos/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional , Agujas , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sueño/fisiología
11.
Biosci Trends ; 13(3): 245-252, 2019 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130576

RESUMEN

The associations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), estrogen, and progesterone levels with threatened abortion have not been fully studied. Eighty women with threatened abortion were recruited sequentially, and the levels in their pregnancy hormones during the first trimester were compared with that of 160 normal early pregnancy controls. The natural logarithm transformed (Ln) hCG and Lnestrogen of women with threatened abortion and gestational age ≤ 6 weeks were significantly higher than values for the normal controls of the same gestational age (8.6 ± 1.2 vs. 7.4 ± 1.7 mIU/mL and 5.8 ± 0.4 vs. 5.4 ± 0.5 pg/mL); the two hormones reached similar levels in the groups of gestational age > 6 weeks. Among the group with gestational age ≤ 6 weeks, a univariate logistic regression showed that LnhCG and Lnestrogen were associated with threatened abortion, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.85 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-2.64] and 4.62 (95% CI: 1.67-12.80), respectively. The multivariate logistic regression model revealed that hCG and estrogen were mutually confounding factors, and only hCG was an independent factor for threatened abortion (OR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.06-2.28). None of the variables in the univariate or multivariate logistic regression was a factor associated with threatened abortion after 6 weeks gestational age. In conclusion, ß-hCG and estrogen levels in the first half of the first trimester are factors associated with threatened abortion.


Asunto(s)
Amenaza de Aborto/sangre , Gonadotropina Coriónica/sangre , Estrógenos/sangre , Progesterona/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Oportunidad Relativa , Embarazo , Primer Trimestre del Embarazo
12.
Brain Stimul ; 12(5): 1271-1279, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126870

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as both therapeutic and experimental tools has grown enormously over the past decade. However, variability in response to rTMS is one challenge that remains to be solved. Estrogen can impact neural plasticity and may also affect plastic changes following rTMS. The present study investigated whether estrogen levels influence the neurophysiological effects of high-frequency (HF) rTMS in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). HYPOTHESIS: It was hypothesised that individuals with higher endogenous estrogen would demonstrate greater rTMS-induced changes in cortical reactivity. METHODS: 29 healthy adults (15M/14F) received HF-rTMS over left DLPFC. Females attended two sessions, one during a high-estrogen (HE) phase of the menstrual cycle, another during a low-estrogen (LE) phase. Males attended one session. Estrogen level was verified via blood assay. TMS-EEG was used to probe changes in cortical plasticity and comparisons were made using cluster-based permutation statistics and Bayesian analysis. RESULTS: In females, a significant increase in TMS-evoked P60 amplitude, and decrease in N45, N100 and P180 amplitudes was observed during HE. A less pervasive pattern of change was observed during LE. No significant changes in TEPs were seen in males. Between-condition comparisons revealed higher likelihood of the change in N100 and/or P180 being larger in females during HE compared to both females during LE and males. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings indicate that a greater neuroplastic response to prefrontal HF-rTMS is seen in women when estrogen is at its highest compared to men, suggesting that endogenous estrogen levels contribute to variability in response to HF-rTMS.


Asunto(s)
Estrógenos/sangre , Ciclo Menstrual/sangre , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
13.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(6): 892-901, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002198

RESUMEN

The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in reproductive hormone receptor expressions of the ovary and hormone concentrations between oestrous cycle pattern of two different sheep breeds in China. Ovarian tissues were collected from Chinese Merino (Junken type) and Hu sheep with different reproductive states in spring and autumn. Serum samples were assayed for oestrogen (E2), progesterone (P), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations by radioimmunoassay during spring. The ovarian expression of hormone receptors (ERα, ERß, PR, LHR and FSHR) was analysed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In Chinese Merino, there was no corpora lutea and ovulation point on the surfaces of ovaries in spring and low basal levels of both LH and P in serum. ERα, ERß and FSHR were expressed significantly higher in Merino ovaries during anoestrus compared with oestrous or luteal phases of Hu sheep (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). However, both varieties of sheep exhibited a similar tendency to secrete E2 and FSH. Compared with Hu sheep, FSH levels were slightly higher in Merino serum. In Hu sheep, ERα, ERß, FSHR, LHR and PR expressed in luteal phase ovaries during spring were significantly lower (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 or p < 0.001) than autumn. Interestingly, LHR and PR expressed in anoestrous ovaries were similar to that in oestrous phase of both sheep breeds. The above results suggest that seasonal reproductive sheep increased the expression of E2 and FSH receptors in ovary during spring may enhance the effects of E2 and FSH on follicular development. It is likely that this enhancement prevents the ovary from progressing to the luteal phase.


Asunto(s)
Ciclo Estral/fisiología , Ovario/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Oveja Doméstica/fisiología , Animales , Estrógenos/sangre , Femenino , Hormona Folículo Estimulante/sangre , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Hormona Luteinizante/sangre , Progesterona/sangre , Receptores de Neuropéptido/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Especificidad de la Especie
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213975, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947260

RESUMEN

The genital tract of African women has been shown to differ from what is currently accepted as 'normal', defined by a pH≤4.5 and lactobacilli-dominated microbiota. Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) from sub-Saharan Africa are at high risk for HIV, and we hypothesized that specific biological factors are likely to be influential. This study aimed to compare characteristics of vaginal health in HIV-negative AGYW (16-22-years-old), from two South African communities, to international norms. We measured plasma hormones, vaginal pH, presence of BV (Nugent scoring), sexually transmitted infections (multiplex PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium) and candidiasis (Gram stain) in AGYW (n = 298) from Cape Town and Soweto. Cervicovaginal microbiota was determined by 16S pyrosequencing; 44 genital cytokines were measured by Luminex; and cervical T-cell activation/proliferation (CCR5, HLA-DR, CD38, Ki67) was measured by multiparametric flow cytometry. 90/298 (30.2%) AGYW were negative for BV, candidiasis and bacterial STIs. L. crispatus and L. iners were the dominant bacteria in cervicovaginal swabs, and the median vaginal pH was 4.7. AGYW with L. crispatus-dominant microbiota (42.4%) generally had the lowest cytokine concentrations compared to women with more diverse microbiota (34/44 significantly upregulated cytokines). Frequencies of CCR5+CD4+ T-cells co-expressing CD38 and HLA-DR correlated positively with interleukin (IL)-6, TNF-α, GRO-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and IL-9. While endogenous oestrogen had an immune-dampening effect on IL-6, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and IL-16, injectable hormone contraceptives (DMPA and Net-EN) were associated with significantly lower endogenous hormone concentrations (p<0.0001 for oestrogen and progesterone) and upregulation of 34/44 cytokines. Since genital inflammation and the presence of activated CD4+ T cells in the genital tract have been implicated in increased HIV risk in South African women, the observed high levels of genital cellular activation and cytokines from AGYW may point towards biological factors increasing HIV risk in this region.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Microbiota/inmunología , Vagina/microbiología , Vaginosis Bacteriana/epidemiología , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología , Cuello del Útero/citología , Cuello del Útero/inmunología , Cuello del Útero/microbiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Citocinas/inmunología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Estrógenos/sangre , Estrógenos/inmunología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Lactobacillus crispatus/inmunología , Lactobacillus crispatus/aislamiento & purificación , Progesterona/sangre , Progesterona/inmunología , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Vagina/citología , Vagina/inmunología , Vaginosis Bacteriana/sangre , Vaginosis Bacteriana/inmunología , Adulto Joven
16.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(6): 855-863, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924551

RESUMEN

Puberty is considered a critical period on development that involved sexual maturation and morphological changes. Isoflavones have been described as endocrine disruptors in male rats. Therefore, the present study attempt to evaluate the effect that daily intake of low and high doses of isoflavones exert into the hormonal regulation that take place during puberty by analyzing the levels of serum and testes steroid and pituitary hormones. 108 male pre-puberal Wistar rats (30 days old) were randomly divided into three groups; control, low and high doses of isoflavones. Experimental animals were daily dosed orally with low and high doses of a mixture of two soy isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) during 6 weeks. An EIA was performed in serum and testes homogenates for analyzing FSH, LH, P5, P4, DHEA, A4, T, DHT, SO4E1 and E2 hormone concentrations. Results revealed a decrease of an oestrogen environment in testes stimulates the secretion of FSH and LH leading to the production of androgens in the testes at the onset of puberty. Low doses of isoflavones resulted in a significant increase of testes oestrogens that consequently produced a delay on the onset of puberty; however at high doses of isoflavones the maintained oestrogenic environment in the testes prevent the stimulation of the secretion of pituitary hormones and the production of T abolishing the onset of puberty. These results clarify the hormonal mechanisms that take place on puberty and determine the effect of high and low doses of isoflavones at the onset of puberty.


Asunto(s)
Genisteína/farmacología , Isoflavonas/farmacología , Maduración Sexual/efectos de los fármacos , Leche de Soja/administración & dosificación , Andrógenos/sangre , Animales , Estrógenos/sangre , Genisteína/administración & dosificación , Isoflavonas/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas Wistar , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Andrologia ; 51(5): e13259, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873638

RESUMEN

Our objectives were to assess sperm alteration and adipose tissue (AT) genes expression related to steroid metabolism subsequent to fatty acids consumption. Twenty-nine mature male mice were divided into: fat diet (FD; n = 15) and the control group (n = 14). FD group was fed with low level of trans and saturated fatty acids source for 60 days. Sperm parameters, levels of hormones and the mRNA abundance of the target genes in AT were assessed. The sperm concentration, total and progressive motilities were lower in FD group compared to that of control (p < 0.01). Blood estradiol levels increased in FD (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed in testosterone. The mRNA levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 17ßHSD7 and 17ßHSD12 in AT of FD were higher than those of the control (p < 0.05). In contrast, mRNA level of Cyp19a1 in FD was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of control. 17ßHSD12 and 17ßHSD7 (as oestrogenic genes) increased, while 17ßHSD5 and 17ßHSD3 (as androgenic genes) remained unchanged, indicating that dietary trans/saturated fatty acids affect AT genes expression. Probably, sperm parameters were altered by increment of expression level of genes involved in oestrogenic metabolism rather than those engaged in androgenic metabolism after fatty acids consumption.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Ácidos Grasos/efectos adversos , Esteroides/metabolismo , Andrógenos/sangre , Andrógenos/metabolismo , Animales , Estrógenos/sangre , Estrógenos/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Modelos Animales , Recuento de Espermatozoides
18.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 486: 105-112, 2019 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853599

RESUMEN

The fungicide imazalil (IMZ), an AR antagonist, has been linked to endocrine disruption in animals. Here, adult female C57BL/6 mice were administered IMZ through their drinking water at levels of 0, 0.025‰ and 0.25‰ during the gestation and lactation periods (the exposed females are marked as F0, and the offspring are marked as F1). Then, we evaluated the physiological, biochemical and gene expression levels in mice after maternal IMZ exposure. The genes involved in sex hormone receptors, cholesterol synthesis and T synthesis were generally inhibited, and the serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were also decreased in the F0 generation female mice. In addition, after F0 IMZ exposure, ovarian androgen receptor (AR) expression was significantly inhibited, and the androgen levels in the serum increased significantly. This may lead to the appearance of progressive virilization during pregnancy. This phenomenon leads to an aromatase deficiency in the F1 generation mice, which results in a decrease in androgen conversion into estrogen and androgen accumulation. In addition, the mRNA expression of key genes and the serum TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C levels increased in the F1 generation after maternal exposure to IMZ. In addition, testicular TC and LDL-C levels also decreased in the F1 generation male mice. Molecular docking analysis revealed that key hydrogen bonds were formed by nitrogen atoms of the imidazole bonds with Trp751 of the ARs. Our data suggests that maternal IMZ exposure could induce endocrine disruption in the next generation of mice.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Sistema Endocrino/patología , Imidazoles/toxicidad , Exposición Materna , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/patología , Andrógenos/sangre , Animales , Aromatasa/metabolismo , Cruzamientos Genéticos , Sistema Endocrino/efectos de los fármacos , Estrógenos/sangre , Femenino , Imidazoles/química , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Ovario/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogénicos/genética , Receptores Estrogénicos/metabolismo , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Transcripción Genética/efectos de los fármacos , Útero/efectos de los fármacos
19.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 97(7): 647-654, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856341

RESUMEN

The effect of vitamin D on cardiac dysfunction after menopause is still under investigation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of vitamin D3 on cardiac apoptotic and structural changes in ovariectomized rats. Forty adult female albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: sham rats, sham rats treated with vitamin D3, ovariectomized rats, and ovariectomized rats treated with vitamin D3 (500 IU/kg per day for 6 weeks, orally). Body mass, blood pressure, heart rate, and whole heart mass (WHM) were measured. Serum soluble receptors of advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity were estimated. Cardiac sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stain. Fas and FasL apoptosis-related proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry. Vitamin D3 treatment significantly decreased ovariectomy-induced cardiac Fas and FasL apoptosis-related proteins, whole heart mass, body mass, C-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde accompanied by decreased inflammation and reduced collagen deposition between cardiac muscle fibres. However, vitamin D3 significantly increased total antioxidant capacity and sRAGE in ovariectomized and sham treated groups. Our findings suggest that vitamin D3 treatment can prevent ovariectomy-induced cardiac structural and apoptotic changes in rats via increasing sRAGE and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that vitamin D3 has therapeutic effect against postmenopausal cardiovascular disease.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Colecalciferol/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Miocardio/patología , Ovariectomía/efectos adversos , Animales , Biomarcadores/sangre , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Estrógenos/sangre , Proteína Ligando Fas/metabolismo , Femenino , Miocardio/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Receptor para Productos Finales de Glicación Avanzada/sangre , Receptor fas/metabolismo
20.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 70-76, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002173

RESUMEN

Abstract Introduction Dichotic listening refers to the ability to hear different sounds presented to each ear simultaneously. Objective The aim of the present study was to assess dichotic listening in women throughout the menstrual cycle. Methods The volunteers who met the eligibility criteria participated in a dichotic listening assessment composed of three tests: 1) staggered spondaic word test; 2) dichotic digits test; and 3) consonant-vowel test. The female participants were tested during two different phases of the menstrual cycle: the follicular (days 11 to 13) and luteal (days 23 to 26) phases. The phases were confirmed by measuring serum levels of the hormone estradiol. Results A total of 20 volunteers aged 18 to 49 years participated in the study (9 females and 11 males). In test 1, only the right ear of females showed better performance during the follicular phase (high estrogen levels), compared with the luteal phase (low estrogen levels); in test 2, there were no significant differences for any of the groups; and in test 3, both males and females showed significantly better performance in their right ear compared with their left ear. Conclusion The better performance of females during the follicular phase of the cycle may indicate that estrogen levels might have an influence on dichotic listening in women. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Estrógenos/sangre , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Longitudinales , Pruebas Auditivas
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