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1.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(11): 836-845, 2019 05 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415690

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate final-year pharmacy students' perceptions toward pharmacogenomics education, their attitudes on its clinical relevance, and their readiness to use such knowledge in practice. METHODS: A 19-question survey was developed and modified from prior studies and was pretested on a small group of pharmacogenomics faculty and pharmacy students. The final survey was administered to 978 final-year pharmacy students in 8 school/colleges of pharmacy in New York and New Jersey between January and May 2017. The survey targeted 3 main themes: perceptions toward pharmacogenomics education, attitudes toward the clinical relevance of this education, and the students' readiness to use knowledge of pharmacogenomics in practice. RESULTS: With a 35% response rate, the majority (81%) of the 339 student participants believed that pharmacogenomics was a useful clinical tool for pharmacists, yet only 40% felt that it had been a relevant part of their training. Almost half (46%) received only 1-3 lectures on pharmacogenomics and the majority were not ready to use it in practice. Survey results pointed toward practice-based trainings such as pharmacogenomics rotations as the most helpful in preparing students for practice. CONCLUSIONS: Final-year student pharmacists reported varying exposure to pharmacogenomics content in their pharmacy training and had positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of the discipline, yet they expressed low confidence in their readiness to use this information in practice.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Farmacogenética/educación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adulto , Curriculum , Docentes/psicología , Docentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430842

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate students' perception of team-based learning (TBL) amongst a cohort who was exposed to this methodology for the first time at an university in the United Kingdom . METHODS: Between November and December 2018, 26 first year Master of Pharmacy and 90 second year B.Sc. Biomedical Science students of School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, United Kingdom were invited to participate and requested to complete a questionnaire that contained quantitative and qualitative questions. The quantitative component was based on the team-based-learning student assessment instrument (TBL-SAI) instrument. It additionally contained questions about key student characteristics. RESULTS: The response rate was 60% (70/116), 74% (n=52) were females and 26% (n=18) males. The percentage of agreement in the TBL-SAI suggested a favourable response to TBL. The overall mean score for the TBL-SAI was 115.6 (SD 5.6) [maximum score: 140] which was above the threshold of 102, thus suggesting a preference for TBL. Statistically significant differences were not found according to demographics characteristics. Students who predicted a final result of ≥70% strongly agreed that TBL help improve their grades. Some students highlighted issues with working in teams and only 56% of students agreed that they could learn better in a team setting. CONCLUSION: This study shows that students exposed to TBL for the first-time favour several aspects of it. However, more focused strategies including team-building exercises activities and expert facilitation skills could potentially tackle resistance to working in teams.


Asunto(s)
Procesos de Grupo , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Curriculum , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Universidades
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 95, 2019 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053114

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicine has always been Pakistan's cultural heritage, providing health care to a large part of its population. Thus, we aimed to assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and perception about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) between pharmacy and non-pharmacy students, the results of which may be helpful in devising national health-education policy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by enrolling 937 students, pharmacy (437) and non-pharmacy (500), of Punjab University, Lahore. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS. (IBM v22). RESULTS: Data suggested that majority of students knew about the use of traditional herbs and considered massage (P: 84.4%, NP: 82%, p = 0.099), homeopathy, herbs (P: 86.5%, NP: 81%, p = 0.064], yoga [P: 357 (81.7%), NP: 84%), p = 0.42] and spiritual healing (P: 85.6%, NP: 86.2%, p = 0.55) as effective and least harmful CAM modalities. The pharmacy students had better knowledge about CAM modalities compared to non-pharmacy students. Despite utilizing non-reliable sources of CAM information and their belief that CAM is practiced by quacks, the majority of students had positive attitudes and perceptions about CAM usage. Students also believed that CAM had a positive impact on health outcomes [P: 3.19 ± 1.04, NP: 3.02 ± 1.09, p = 0.008] and acceded to include CAM in the pharmacy curriculum. However, non-pharmacy students scored higher in their beliefs that CAM usage should be discouraged due to the non-scientific basis of CAM (P: 3.04 ± 0.97, NP: 3.17 ± 1.02, p = 0.028) and a possible threat to public health (P: 3.81 ± 1.74, NP: 4.06 ± 1.56, p = 0.02). On the other hand, pharmacy students believed that patients might get benefits from CAM modalities (P: 4.31 ± 1.48, NP: 4.12 ± 1.45, p = 0.02). Majority of students perceived that spiritual healing is the most useful and safer CAM modality, while acupuncture (P: 25.4%, NP: 21.8%, p = 0.0005), hypnosis (P: 26.8%, NP: 19.6%, p = 0.001) and chiropractic (P: 18.8%, NP: 11.6%, p = 0.0005) were among the harmful ones. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, despite poor knowledge about CAM, students demonstrated positive attitudes and beliefs regarding CAM. They exhibited better awareness about yoga, spiritual healing/prayer, herbs, and massage. Students also showed willingness to advance their knowledge about CAM and favored its inclusion in the curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Terapias Complementarias/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Adulto Joven
5.
Int J Med Educ ; 10: 98-105, 2019 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129658

RESUMEN

Objectives: To determine non-Western situated health professional student experiences and preferences for feedback in workplace-based settings. Methods: We conducted five focus groups with 27 students of Arab-origin enrolled in a Canadian-accredited cross-border pharmacy program in Qatar. Transcripts of recorded discussions were analyzed using the framework method.  Hofstede's and Hall's cultural dimension models were employed to understand described feedback encounters and behaviours. Results: We identified three themes associated with cultural influences on student feedback experiences, namely: 1) collectivism; 2) power distance; and 3) context.  Trainees described clinical supervisors who inadequately recognized individual performance, rejected critique, and insufficiently documented feedback onto the written in-training evaluation report. Conversely, students expected specific and timely feedback, invited criticism for learning, and desired clear written commentary. Conclusions: Feedback behaviours of clinical supervisors, but not those of trainees, were consistent with local cultural norms as described by Hofstede and Hall.  Instead, feedback expectations of pharmacy students in Qatar largely echo those of other trainees enrolled in professional curricula situated outside the Middle East. Principles for optimal feedback in clinical training largely arise from Western perspectives but are not necessarily universal. Our work demonstrates that practices, in part, may be subject to local socio-cultural influences.  This is of particular importance in the experiential training component of cross-border medical education programs adopted by overseas institutions. Our findings also further add to the growing body of literature reporting suboptimal feedback in workplace-based learning, reinforcing the need to cultivate more student-centered practices in health professional training globally.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Retroalimentación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Acreditación , Canadá , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Qatar , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo
6.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-184603

RESUMEN

Background: Training programs of various intensities and durations have been implemented to assist healthcare providers and students in leading smokers in a quit attempt. While some training programs have been developed to help community leaders provide these services, the focus for community leaders has been to assist with recruitment efforts. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare knowledge and confidence of students and community members before and after a smoking cessation educational intervention. Methods: After approval from the institutional review board, pharmacy students and community members were recruited for two-hour educational interventions. Topics covered included smoking health risks, benefits of quitting, behavioral, cognitive, and stress-management techniques, smoking cessation medications, and how to start a formal class. Pre- and post-intervention survey instruments were given to all participants with comparisons made via Student's or Paired T-tests, as appropriate. Results: Knowledge scores increased significantly (p<0.05) after the educational intervention for pharmacy students (n=30) and community members (n=8). Confidence scores increased significantly for pharmacy students (p<0.05), but not for community members. Pharmacy students had significantly greater knowledge score changes (53.7%, pre-intervention; 81.8%, post-intervention; p<0.05) versus community members (32.1%, pre-intervention; 50.1%, post-intervention; p<0.05). When comparing individual confidence questions, only scores evaluating the change in confidence for providing counseling were higher for students versus community members (2.13 vs. 1.8, respectively; p<0.05). Conclusions: Pharmacy students and community leaders exhibited increased knowledge after a smoking cessation educational intervention, and pharmacy students had increased confidence scores. All confidence scores did not change significantly for community members. Developing coalitions between healthcare providers and community leaders, focusing on the roles of each, may be productive in initiating smoking cessation programs


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Evaluación de Eficacia-Efectividad de Intervenciones , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-184608

RESUMEN

Objective: The present study aimed to explore faculty (i.e., professors of various ranks) opinions and views regarding the pediatric content in courses taught to pharmacy students in Jordan. Methods: Purposeful sampling was used to identify faculty from ten pharmacy schools. Participants were identified through their institutions' websites. After obtaining required approvals, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 11 Software. Interviews followed a previously prepared and validated interview guide. The interview guide covered various aspects of pediatric undergraduate education and training. Results: Twelve professors (eight assistants and four associate professors) agreed to take part in the study. Qualitative analysis revealed four themes each with regard to respondents' knowledge of the pediatric content and their students' competency in dealing with pediatric patients. The emerging themes were: the lack of pediatric content in their current curriculum, the need for exposing students to more courses teaching pediatrics, and future aspirations to deal with this, and implications on practice. Conclusions: This study highlights the deficiency of pediatric courses in pharmacy curriculum in Jordan. Respondent believed that this will have negative implications on pediatric pharmaceutical care and treatment efficacy and safety. It was thought that adding more pediatrics topics to undergraduate curricula, offering pediatric specialized postgraduate education, and implementing pre-registration training could alleviate the current situation


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Curriculum/tendencias , Pediatría/educación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Jordania , Evaluación Educacional , Servicios Farmacéuticos/tendencias
8.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(5): 569-574, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658041

RESUMEN

Objectives: The economic crisis in Greece has triggered an extensive public debate about the use of generic drugs (generics). Despite their cost-saving potential, generic market penetration remains very low. This raises questions on awareness of, perception on and preference for generics by health-care professionals and patients. This is a descriptive study on the level of knowledge and attitudes towards generics of final year pharmacy school students in Greece. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to 173 senior pharmacy school students in three Universities in Greece. Responses were submitted electronically. Results: The majority of students knew that generics contain the same active ingredient as the originator products and are cheaper. Students were somehow concerned with safety and efficacy of generics. The majority of students agreed that pharmacists should probably recommend the use of generics, and indicated that prescribing and dispensing practices would largely depend on the profit margin. Despite more than half of the students expressing a positive attitude towards generics, they were inadequately educated on their features. Conclusion: It is critical to improve knowledge of and preference for generics amongst health-care professionals from early on if to build the trust required to increase generic market penetration and achieve measurable savings in pharmaceutical expenditure.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Genéricos/administración & dosificación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Facultades de Farmacia , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Medicamentos Genéricos/efectos adversos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economía , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Rol Profesional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Equivalencia Terapéutica
9.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(3): 295-302, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648772

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Increased demands from healthcare services have led to new roles for healthcare professionals (HCPs). Simulation based learning (SBL) can offer multidisciplinary HCPs and students a format to train for such emerging roles. The aim of this work was to adapt existing nursing SBL to involve pharmacy students and evaluate perceptions and effectiveness of SBL when used for interprofessional education (IPE). METHODS: Settings were a simulated hospital ward and a general practitioner (GP) practice. Participants were pharmacy and nursing students. Evaluation was by questionnaires and interviews. Ethical approval was obtained from the University Ethics Committee. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 440 students participated. The majority of respondents (317/330;96%) found the sessions useful. All elements were highly rated: briefing (315/340;93%), setting (301/321;94%), scenario (325/338;96%), feedback (303/327;93%), interaction with the "patient" (328/338;97%), interactions with other HCP trainee (293/329;89%). The majority (304/327;93%) agreed that they felt the sessions had enhanced their skills. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) enhancement in communication confidence was perceived by the students. Students gained understanding of each other's roles, and appreciated practicing communication and teamwork. CONCLUSIONS: Students recognised the importance, usefulness and need for IPE. SBL has the potential to support a variety of HCPs to facilitate uptake of new roles and working in multidisciplinary teams.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Prácticas Interdisciplinarias/métodos , Entrenamiento Simulado/métodos , Medicina General , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo
10.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(1): 55-62, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732640

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practice of final-year student pharmacists about public health. METHODS: Knowledge, attitudes and practice of all final-year student pharmacists (N = 158) in Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe were assessed through a quantitative 12-item survey. The survey assessed personal interest and attitude towards public health activities, self-assessed ability to perform basic public health activities, perspectives towards current pharmacist practices within public health activities in their country, and student involvement in public health activities during pharmacy school. KEY FINDINGS: Eighty-two per cent of students responded to the survey (n = 129). The majority (95%) of all final-year student pharmacists are interested in contributing to public health activities in both health promotion and disease prevention and feel, as pharmacists, they have the responsibility to do so. Additionally, the majority of students would like more education during pharmacy school on health promotion (93%) and disease prevention (89%). Despite their interest, low numbers of student pharmacists feel that pharmacists are currently utilised in disease prevention (35%) and health promotion (42%). CONCLUSION: Final-year student pharmacists in Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe express strong interest in public health education and involvement in public health activities. This interest and enthusiasm can serve as evidence for advancing public health education in the pharmacy curricula and for developing pharmacist opportunities in public health efforts that match the needs of the country.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Curriculum , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Namibia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Zambia , Zimbabwe
11.
Med Educ ; 53(3): 285-295, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443996

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: In an era of medical education reform and increasing accountability at all levels of higher education, there is a need to understand how the time in which students engage in academic activities can inform evidence-based quality improvement of the curriculum. Time logging provides an opportunity to quantify student use of academic time and guide data-informed decision making in curriculum design. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate faculty staff and student predictions of students' academic time use and to assess students' reported academic time use. METHODS: Graduate-level professional students engaged in a time use exercise during the first semester of Year 1 (autumn 2015) and second semester of Year 2 (spring 2017) of a redesigned curriculum launched in autumn 2015. This exercise involved three key activities: (i) prediction of time use; (ii) time logging, and (iii) reflection on time use. Key faculty staff predicted students' weekday time use in both semesters. RESULTS: Students' predictions of academic time use strongly correlated with their reported academic time use during both the first semester of Year 1 and second semester of Year 2 (r = 0.55 and r = 0.53, respectively). Faculty members' predictions of academic time use did not correlate with student academic time use during either semester. Although 63.8% of Year-1 students reported the time use exercise motivated them to change their time use, students reported spending similar amounts of time on academic activities during the first semester of Year 1 (7.8 ± 1.5 hours per weekday) and the second semester of Year 2 (7.9 ± 2.0 hours per weekday). Most students reported that the exercise had been useful and indicated that their logged time accurately reflected their actual time use. CONCLUSIONS: Although curriculum reform efforts may always require that some assumptions be made, time logging can quantify students' academic use of time. Although students predict their use of time more accurately than do faculty staff, negligible changes in students' academic time use despite reported desires to make changes indicate that students' academic time use may remain inelastic. Educators must consider these findings as they design curricula, identify academic rigour, and establish student expectations of academic time use.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Educación de Postgrado/métodos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Curriculum/tendencias , Docentes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
12.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(3): 303-310, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548898

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation and assess the effect of a blended learning approach to teach pharmacy law. METHODS: Twenty didactic pharmacy law lectures were redeveloped to 9 h of flipped classroom sessions. Presession online videos delivered factual content created in-house. In-class activities explored the application and nuances of law through simulated cases. Stage 2 Pharmacy undergraduate students (n = 69) were administered the Community of Inquiry Survey, measuring the social, teaching and cognitive presence of online learning experiences across 34 items on a Likert scale 1-5 (1 = 'strongly agree', to 5 = 'strongly disagree'). Four focus groups were undertaken and analysed thematically to explore student perceptions. Performance at the final summative law examination was recorded and compared to that of two previous cohorts given traditional, didactic teaching. KEY FINDINGS: Fifty-three students (76.8% response) completed the survey. The mean ranking was 3.6 ± 0.7, 3.6 ± 0.6 and 3.3 ± 0.7 for teaching, social and cognitive presence, and most positively rated statements related to material design and organization. All students passed the summative law examination performing not significantly different to the previous cohorts. Focus group discussions demonstrated that students liked the online and interactive case-study materials, but wanted more direction and preferred smaller group sessions. Students had mixed feelings about needing an online social component. CONCLUSIONS: Blended learning transformed the pharmacy law teaching from didactic to an interactive learning experience. The student feedback was generally mixed, but offered many recommendations to optimize the design and format of the course. Examination performance appeared to be unaffected by the change in teaching style.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Enseñanza , Adulto , Instrucción por Computador , Curriculum , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Legislación Farmacéutica , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(3): 286-294, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537397

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of authentic clinical tasks on student confidence in interprofessional communication and assess the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy undergraduate students on how their degree prepares them to communicate and integrate with other healthcare professionals. METHODS: Pharmacists completed a questionnaire regarding how their degree prepared them to communicate with other healthcare professionals. Third- and fourth-year pharmacy undergraduate students completed a modified questionnaire with questions relating to interprofessional learning and their experiences of reflective interprofessional communication tasks whilst on hospital placement. The questionnaires produced a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. KEY FINDINGS: Pharmacists (n = 36) and pharmacy students (n = 186) were in agreement that interprofessional training is important for undergraduate pharmacy students. Over 80% of student respondents viewed the interprofessional communication skills task as a useful method to develop communication skills with an increase in confidence following completion of the task. A variety of methods ranging from classroom- to practical-based sessions may be used to develop communication skills and professional socialism. CONCLUSIONS: Interprofessional learning has an important role for all working within the multidisciplinary healthcare team and contributes to the development of collaborative working relationships. It should be introduced and reinforced throughout undergraduate studies and continued in the workplace.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Prácticas Interdisciplinarias/métodos , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto Joven
14.
J Pharm Pract ; 32(1): 62-67, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29108459

RESUMEN

PURPOSE:: To evaluate the differences in medication history errors made by pharmacy technicians, students, and pharmacists compared to nurses at a community hospital. METHODS:: One hundred medication histories completed by either pharmacy or nursing staff were repeated and evaluated for errors by a fourth-year pharmacy student. The histories were analyzed for differences in the rate of errors per medication. Errors were categorized by their clinical significance, which was determined by a panel of pharmacists, pharmacy students, and nurses. Errors were further categorized by their origin as either prescription (Rx) or over the counter (OTC). The primary outcome was the difference in the rate of clinically significant errors per medication. Secondary outcomes included the differences in the rate of clinically insignificant errors, Rx errors, and OTC errors. Differences in the types of errors for Rx and OTC medications were also analyzed. Additionally, the number of patients with no errors was compared between both groups. RESULTS:: The pharmacy group had a lower clinically significant error rate per medication (0.03 vs 0.09; relative risk [RR] = 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.020-0.093; P = .003). For secondary outcomes, the pharmacy group had a lower total error rate (0.21 vs 0.36, RR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.041-0.255; P = .007), Rx error rate (0.09 vs 0.27, RR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.071-0.292; P = .002), and OTC error rate (0.24 vs 0.46; RR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.057-0.382; P = .009) per medication. The pharmacy group completed 20% more medication histories without Rx errors ( P = .045) and 25% more histories without OTC errors ( P = .041). CONCLUSION:: This study demonstrated that expanded use of pharmacy technicians and students improves the accuracy of medication histories in a community hospital.


Asunto(s)
Anamnesis/normas , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/normas , Farmacéuticos/normas , Técnicos de Farmacia/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Errores de Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medicamentos sin Prescripción/administración & dosificación , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/normas , Técnicos de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/administración & dosificación , Estudios Prospectivos
15.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(2): 207-213, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088295

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: (i) To provide a preliminary indication of the performance of pharmacy undergraduate students and pre-registration pharmacy trainees in the Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA). (ii) To determine the feasibility of administering and delivering the PSA in schools of pharmacy. (iii) To examine the potential relevance of the PSA and associated training materials to pharmacy education. (iv) To assess the attitudes of the cohort towards the PSA and their readiness to prescribe. METHODS: Four schools of pharmacy in England recruited final year undergraduate pharmacy students and pre-registration pharmacy trainees undertaking training with both hospital and community pharmacy employers in their locality to undertake the PSA. Performance data and feedback from candidates were obtained. KEY FINDINGS: Pre-registration pharmacy trainees in community (n = 27) and hospital (n = 209) settings mean average scores were 86.3% and 85.3%, respectively. There was a significant performance differential between undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 397) and those in pre-registration training, with the mean average score for undergraduate students being 73.0% (t test P < 0.05). Candidates felt their current course did prepare them for the PSA, some highlighted that additional curriculum content would be needed should this become a compulsory high-stakes assessment for pharmacy trainees. The majority of candidates felt that this assessment was useful and applicable to their training. CONCLUSIONS: The PSA process and associated learning tools could be introduced to pre-registration pharmacy education to support trainees in their development towards future prescribing roles.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Prescripciones de Medicamentos , Educación en Farmacia/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/organización & administración , Curriculum , Evaluación Educacional , Inglaterra , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Proyectos Piloto , Facultades de Farmacia
16.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(2): 140-148, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338875

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to recognise the professional core values in the moral dilemmas of pharmacists in community pharmacy and to customise the descriptions of these values for community pharmacy practice. METHODS: The narratives of 128 moral dilemmas, collected from Dutch PharmD students and early career pharmacists who experienced these dilemmas in practice, were qualitatively analysed. An expert panel deductively coded relevant portions of these narratives with the core values as formulated by the Royal Dutch Pharmacists Association. Other values that emerged were inductively coded and if possible used to further customise the respective core values. KEY FINDINGS: The expert panel identified all four professional core values, that is, commitment to the patient's well-being (117, 91.4%), reliable and caring (116, 90.6%), pharmaceutical expertise (72, 56.2%) and responsibility to society (30, 23.4%) in the 128 moral dilemma narratives. Thirteen other values that emerged in the analysis could all be used for the customisation of the professional core values in descriptions that better reflect community pharmacy practice. CONCLUSIONS: Professional core values were identified in moral dilemma narratives of pharmacists in community pharmacy and customised for their practice. These customised core values can enable pharmacists to better recognise moral dilemmas in practice. This can add to the advancement of the profession as a pharmaceutical care practice.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/ética , Ética Farmacéutica , Principios Morales , Farmacéuticos/ética , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos , Farmacéuticos/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 27(3): 311-317, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592562

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The Transnet-Phelophepa Health Care Trains provide primary healthcare services to patients in under-resourced rural communities across South Africa. Selected final-year pharmacy students work on the trains for 1 week. The aim of the study was to determine the experiences and document the work-based activities of pharmacy students engaged in. METHODS: A hyperlink to an online questionnaire was sent to 106 pharmacy students from five Pharmacy Schools (70.75% response rate). Both closed- and open-ended questions were included. Data were captured in Excel. KEY FINDINGS: Respondents expressed that their motivation to volunteer to work on the train was threefold: they wanted to help the community, experience this unparalleled work environment, as well as having heard positive responses from previous volunteers. Students were exposed to a variety of pharmacy-related activities; however, the majority of their time was spent dispensing. Although less than half (n = 33) found it difficult to communicate with patients, almost all responded that the translator helped them communicate with patients. A few saw this as an opportunity to learn a new language. The pharmacy staff was described as approachable, knowledgeable and willing to teach. Most respondents agreed that they were able to apply their knowledge and skills whilst working on the train (mean 4.52 ± 0.93; n = 75). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy students felt valued by the community and found it to be a rewarding experience while reporting to apply knowledge and information, improve their communication skills and work as part of a team.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Área sin Atención Médica , Unidades Móviles de Salud , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Servicios Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Vías Férreas , Servicios de Salud Rural/organización & administración , Sudáfrica , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1175-1183, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497620

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to simultaneously assess impact of enhanced training and anonymity on frequency, constructiveness, and professionalism of open-ended comments provided on course and instructor evaluations. METHODS: In a 2 × 2 factorial study, didactic students at one doctor of pharmacy program were randomized to receive enhanced training in providing constructive feedback on student evaluations of teaching or an unrelated control activity at the beginning of the academic year, and to provide or not provide an electronic signature at the time of evaluation completion for two consecutive semesters. After ensuring intercoder reliability and agreement among all investigators, one external investigator coded all open-ended comments based on the following factors: comment provided/comment not provided, constructive/less than constructive, professional/unprofessional, training/no training, and signed/unsigned. RESULTS: Of 836 opportunities to respond to open-ended items, 646 (77.3%) written comments were provided, which was similar by training (76.6% vs. 78.0%, p = 0.631) and signature (76.1% vs. 78.5%, p = 0.401) status. Of the 646 comments, 85.1% (n = 550) were constructive and 98.0% (n = 633) were professional. Students in the untrained/signed group were associated with decreased constructiveness (78.3%, OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.76, p = 0.003); overall, training was associated with increased constructiveness (88.3%, OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09-2.65, p = 0.019). No factors were negatively or positively associated with professionalism when accounting for covariates. DISCUSSION: Most students provided comments on course and instructor evaluations; most were constructive and professional. CONCLUSION: Study group assignment did not substantially impact comment frequency or professionalism. Assignment to enhanced training, regardless of signature status, significantly increased constructiveness.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Educacional/normas , Profesionalismo/normas , Autoinforme , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Curriculum/normas , Curriculum/tendencias , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Indiana , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1184-1196, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497621

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Older adults constitute the largest population admitted to hospitals due to chronic diseases, which requires appropriate prescribing of medications and comprehensive pharmaceutical care. The views and perspectives of students and educators can inform curriculum review in geriatric education in pharmacy schools. METHODS: A cross sectional online survey containing 34 questions covering the areas of curriculum content and perceived needs for geriatric education was administered to students, faculty members, and preceptors. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The majority of participants indicated that their pharmacy school offered geriatric education. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Considerations in the Elderly was the topic most frequently reported to be covered in the geriatric curricula. Significantly more use of small groups discussions for delivering the geriatric curriculum was reported by respondents in Qatar than in Canada. Experiential geriatric education was available in both countries, although duration of rotations were reported to be longer in Canada than in Qatar. The majority of respondents perceived that students were moderately prepared for providing geriatric care. DISCUSSION: This is the first study conducted to explore the current state of geriatric education in a pharmacy school in the Middle East in comparison with a well-established Canadian pharmacy curricula. CONCLUSION: Both pharmacy schools studied offer a compulsory course on special populations that includes a similar geriatric curriculum. Future surveys should investigate how geriatric content in the pharmacy curricula is being evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Docentes de Farmacia/psicología , Geriatría/educación , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adulto , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Curriculum/normas , Curriculum/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Docentes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Qatar , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1211-1218, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497624

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study assessed student perception in treating chronic disease states before and after taking an ambulatory care didactic elective and the impact on performance within a fourth-year ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). METHODS: Assessment of student perceptions was evaluated in students taking the Fall 2016 and Spring 2017 elective offering by completing an 11-item electronic survey prior to the first lecture of the course and after the last lecture of the course. A retrospective assessment of student performance in the APPE compared students that had taken the elective to those that had not over a two-and-one-half year period. Data collected included the students' final APPE experiential and required examination grade. RESULTS: In all but one survey question, student perceptions significantly improved upon completion of the elective. Student ambulatory care APPE final experiential grades were higher in students who had taken the elective compared to those that had not (90.3% vs. 88.9%, respectively, p = 0.04) as were APPE examination scores (78.0% vs. 74.0%, respectively, p = 0.01). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Student perception in key ambulatory care concepts, disease states, and drug knowledge improved after taking the ambulatory care elective. Student ambulatory care APPE performance was also mildly improved as a result of taking the elective compared to those who did not take the course. This is the first study to evaluate subsequent performance in an APPE as a result of taking an elective ambulatory care course and can serve as a template for other research in elective assessment.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Curriculum/normas , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Curriculum/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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