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1.
JAMA ; 323(1): 91, 2020 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910274
2.
JAMA ; 323(1): 91, 2020 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910275
4.
J Dent Educ ; 84(1): 22-26, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977091

RESUMEN

Empathy is the fundamental substructure of moral behavior. Skillful clinicians may not necessarily be successful dentists if they do not have sufficient empathy. The aim of this study was to assess the level of empathy among dental students at King Abdulaziz University with an emphasis on the effect of gender and study level. A cross-sectional study was carried out among third- to sixth-year dental students of King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A validated, self-administered Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Care Provider Student Version was distributed in academic year 2016-17 to all 380 students in the third to sixth years. A total of 300 students responded, for a response rate of 78.9%. The results showed that the students' mean empathy score was 84.84±11.28 on a range from 20 to 140. The fifth- and sixth-year students had higher scores than the third- and fourth-year students although the differences were not statistically significant. The mean empathy score of women students was significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of men students, and the women demonstrated significantly better perspective-taking (p<0.001) than the men. This study found that the students were empathetic and had a sense of moral obligation although their mean empathy score was not as high as expected. Integrating empathic, ethical, and professional elements into the dental curriculum is needed.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Odontología , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estudios Transversales , Empatía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Arabia Saudita , Universidades
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 16-20, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915330

RESUMEN

Now a days depression is one of the leading cause of disabilities all over the world. Depression leads to a wide range of disorders and affects people of all communities. Medical students pass through a relatively high level of stress. Several studies revealed that anxiety and depression is significantly prevalent among medical students and often it persists even when they become physicians. The study was designed with an aim to estimate the prevalence of depression among the medical students of Bangladesh. The cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was conducted among randomly selected 399 Bangladeshi students of third year MBBS from six (6) randomly selected public medical colleges of Bangladesh from February 2017 to July 2017. Data were collected by a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire containing Beck's Depression Inventory. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Among 399 medical students, 45.6% were male and 54.4% were female. Regarding presence of depression among the medical students, 35.8% students had normal score. More than one fourth of the students (25.1%) had mild mood disturbance. Borderline clinical depression was found in 15.5% and moderate depression was found in 18.0% of the students. Severe depression was found in 5.3% students and one (0.3%) student was suffering from extreme depression. Overall 39.1% students were suffering from different levels of depression. Depression was prevalent more in female students (45.6%) than male students (31.3%). Suicidal tendency was present in 18.8% students. Among them 14.3% had thoughts of killing themselves but they would not carry them out; 3% would like to kill themselves and 1.5% would kill themselves if they had the chance. Suicidal tendency was also a bit higher in female students (19.3%) than male students (18.1%). A significant number (39.1%) of medical students of Bangladesh are suffering from depression and many of them (18.8%) have suicidal tendency which demands immediate attention of the authority. The findings of the study warrant a need for psychiatric counseling and support services for vulnerable students.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(1): 51-55, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902850

RESUMEN

A computer simulation application on pharmacokinetics, which we developed using a software, named "Stella®", has been successfully used for the virtual training of pharmacokinetics at multiple medical schools. The training course using Stella® has encouraged the medical students to optimize drug administration for individual patients on the computers. Importantly, the virtual training is free of any concern on human and animal ethics. The simulation application has been freely provided for medical schools without any restrictions and charge. For many years, it has been under constant version-upgrade in response to updates of the operating systems (OS) of personal computers or the software. Very recently, major updates of the OS and the software, and the emergence of tablet- and smartphones-type computers have been prompting us to perform a major revision of the simulation application. Here, we introduce the new version of the "web-based" simulation application that is available through any device including personal computers, tablets, and smartphones irrespective of the OSs (Microsoft Windows and Macintosh, Android, and iOS), without any extra charge unless the modification is required. We believe that the new-version of web-based simulation application will be useful not only for medical, nursing and pharmacy students, but also for medical workers who need to simulate drug pharmacokinetics on the computers before they administer drugs to the patients.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Programas Informáticos , Estudiantes de Medicina , Animales , Humanos , Internet , Microcomputadores
13.
Urology ; 135: 28-31, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628969

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To address information overload for trainees, a concise electronic case-based urology learning program (CBULP) was developed. Previous qualitative assessments suggested CBULP's potential efficacy/utility. Herein we assess CBULP more stringently by evaluating test performance before/after reviewing a CBULP curriculum covering core concepts in testicular cancer. METHODS: Eleven of 33 CBULP testicular cancer cases were strategically selected for this curriculum. A 26 question multiple-choice test was developed to assess fundamental knowledge about testis cancer tumor biology and evaluation/management. Pretest was administered to PGY4/PGY1 residents at 2 pilot urology-training programs, and medical students interested in Urology. Participants were given 4 weeks to review the curriculum and the test was then repeated. A control group (4 PGY1s) was administered the pretest and repeat test in an analogous manner without provision of the CBULP curriculum. RESULTS: Twenty individuals took the pretest (7 medical students, 8 PGY1s, and 5 PGY4s), and 17 (85%) took the post-test (5 medical students, 8 PGY1s, and 4 PGY4s,). As expected, PGY4s performed significantly better than the other 2 groups on the pre- and post-test. However, significant improvement in test performance was seen across all groups that utilized the CBULP curriculum (P <.02), with highest increase demonstrated by PGY1 residents (4.75 more questions correct, P = .002). The control arm did not demonstrate significant improvement (P = .20). CONCLUSION: Significant improvement in test performance was observed after completion of the CBULP testicular series. This study suggests that CBULP can be an efficacious and clinically useful educational resource for urologic residents and students interested in the field.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Internado y Residencia/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Urología/educación , Adulto , Competencia Clínica , Instrucción por Computador/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/patología , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia
15.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e535-e539, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562974

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgery is a notoriously difficult career to enter and requires medical students to engage in extracurricular activities to demonstrate their commitment to the specialty. The National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition (NUNC) was established in 2013 as a means for students to display this commitment as well as academic ability. METHODS: A bespoke 22-item questionnaire was designed to determine career outcomes and the role of competition attendance in job applications. It was distributed using the SurveyMonkey website to the 87 attendees at the 2013 and 2014 competitions. RESULTS: Responses were received by 40 competitors (response rate, 46.0%). Twenty-four responders (60.0%) intended to pursue a career in either neurosurgery (n = 18) or neurology (n = 6). This included 10 responders (25.0%) who had successfully entered either neurosurgery (n = 9) or neurology (n = 1). The performance of these 10 was significantly better than the other responders (57.0 ± 13.6% vs. 46.5 ± 13.5% [n = 30]; P = 0.036). Seventeen responders (42.5%) either included their attendance at NUNC in a post-Foundation job application or intend to. CONCLUSIONS: The NUNC provides the opportunity for medical students to demonstrate their interest in neurosurgery. It has the potential to be used as a tool for recognizing medical students suitable for neurosurgery training.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Neurocirugia , Competencia Profesional , Estudiantes de Medicina , Distinciones y Premios , Humanos , Neuroanatomía
17.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): 3-8, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858833

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Achieving a standard of clinical research at the pinnacle of the evidence pyramid is historically expensive and logistically challenging. Research collaboratives have delivered high-impact prospective multicentre audits and clinical trials by using trainee networks with a range of enabling technology. This review outlines such use of technology in the UK and provides a framework of recommended technologies for future studies. METHODS: A review of the literature identified technology used in collaborative projects. Additional technologies were identified through web searches. Technologies were grouped into themes including access (networking and engagement), collaboration and event organisation. The technologies available to support each theme were studied further to outline relative benefits and limitations. FINDINGS: Thirty-three articles from trainee research collaboratives were identified. The most frequently documented technologies were social media applications, website platforms and research databases. The Supportive Technologies in Collaborative Research framework is proposed, providing a structure for using the technologies available to support multicentre collaboration. Such technologies are often overlooked in the literature by established and start-up collaborative project groups. If used correctly, they might help to overcome the physical, logistical and financial barriers of multicentre clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Tecnología Biomédica/métodos , Conducta Cooperativa , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Comunicación , Cirugía General/educación , Humanos , Internet , Redes Sociales en Línea , Estudiantes de Medicina
18.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 20192803. 59 p. ilus, tab.
Tesis en Portugués | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1016793

RESUMEN

Introdução: As avaliações usando tecnologia estão presentes nas escolas em vários países, e seu uso se popularizou nas últimas duas décadas, sendo utilizadas no exame para licença médica nos Estados Unidos desde 1999. O potencial que as avaliações aprimoradas por tecnologia trazem para o mundo acadêmico foi o que motivou a realização deste estudo, e o conhecimento advindo de uma conferência específica sobre essas tecnologias trouxe o incentivo para persistir nessa linha de pesquisa. Método: Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar o estresse, a satisfação e o desempenho dos acadêmicos durante o primeiro semestre de 2018, ao realizarem provas escritas convencionais e provas no computador na disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do curso de Medicina da Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, campus Alfenas. Foram avaliadas as turmas do décimo segundo período e sétimo período, totalizando uma amostra de 135 alunos. Tratou-se de um estudo experimental randomizado em que os alunos foram divididos em dois grupos para as avaliações e foram-lhes aplicados questionários pré-definidos e presenciais. Antes da prova, foram entregues aos alunos perguntas específicas para avaliar o estresse envolvido em sua realização. Ao término da prova, foram aplicadas as questões que avaliaram a satisfação com o tipo de prova realizada. Foram ainda registradas as notas obtidas nos dois tipos de avaliação. Cada aluno fez uma avaliação escrita convencional e uma avaliação via computador. Resultados: Os acadêmicos avaliados demonstraram maior estresse e menor satisfação com a prova no computador, comparando-a com a prova escrita convencional. O tipo de prova não esteve associado ao desempenho acadêmico. Conclusão: A falta de familiaridade e treinamento com a metodologia, antes da aplicação das avaliações, causou aumento no estresse nos acadêmicos envolvidos no presente estudo, o que interferiu na satisfação, ao fazer a prova usando tecnologia, embora não tenha havido diferença nos escores de desempenho. As informações coletadas serão utilizadas para reestruturação do formato dos testes oferecidos no departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da UNIFENAS, campus Alfenas, com o intuito de aprimorar a avaliação teórica que se realiza na Universidade.


Introduction: Evaluations using technology are present in schools in several countries and have become popular in the last two decades and have been used in the United States medical license examination since 1999. The potential that improved technology assessments bring to the academic world motivated the carrying out of this study, and the knowledge from a specific conference on these technologies brought the incentive to persist in this research line. Method: This study aims to compare the stress, satisfaction and performance of academics during the first semester of 2018, when conducting conventional written tests and computer tests in the course of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the medical program of the University of José do Rosário Vellano, Alfenas campus, a total sample of 135 students. It was a randomized experimental study in which the students were divided for the evaluations and pre-defined and class-based questionnaires were applied. Prior to the test, specific questions were given to students to assess the stress involved in their achievement. At the end of the test, the questions were answered to evaluate the satisfaction with the type of the test they took. Each student did a conventional written assessment and a computer assessment. Results: The evaluated students showed greater stress and less satisfaction with the computer-based test compared to the conventional written test, although there was no statistical difference in performance when comparing both. Conclusion: Lack of familiarity and training with the methodology prior to test application resulted an increase in students' stress in the present study, which interfered in the satisfaction with the test using technology, even though there was no difference in the performance scores. The collected information will be used to restructure the format of the tests offered in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of UNIFENAS, Campus Alfenas, in order to improve the theoretical evaluation performed at the University.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Educación Médica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Computadores , Evaluación Educacional , Rendimiento Académico
19.
Zentralbl Chir ; 144(6): 587-596, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826293

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In many locations, communication between patients and doctors is already actively taught as part of undergraduate medicine at many. Informed consent prior to surgery is a particular reason for communication that calls for differentiated feedback to students. Within the framework of communication training, the aim was to compare the feedback given from 5 different sources (by a medical expert, by tutors, by student peers, by the student obtaining informed consent and by the simulated patients) using evaluation checklists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 171 medical students in their eighth semester at the University of Würzburg participated in a training module in obtaining informed consent prior to surgery. 50 students out of this group conducted a conversation. The emphasis laid on "communication" and "risks". Students were able to prepare using teaching materials from the University's own e-learning platform. The statistical evaluation focussed on assessing the test quality of the checklists, the scores in the scales, and interrater agreement based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The checklists delivered satisfactory test values with respect to internal consistency, item difficulty and discriminatory index. The average scores from the five raters only differed significantly with respect to communicative skills, whereby the students seeking informed consent were strict in their self-assessment. The student raters where highly consistent with the expert rater. With respect to "risks and complications", there was high agreement between all raters. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: We were able to demonstrate that, within the highly specific setting of a simulation and after subtile preparation, a trained student tutor can provide just as effective feedback as a medical expert. Feedback from tutors or peers may be furnished with greater prominence in future, given the overall high agreement in the 360-degree feedback.


Asunto(s)
Consentimiento Informado , Estudiantes de Medicina , Lista de Verificación , Competencia Clínica , Comunicación , Humanos
20.
Zentralbl Chir ; 144(6): 597-605, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826294

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Practical skills are very important for medical doctors, but, for many practical skills, the optimal teaching form is not yet known. Surgical education and training can be compared to high performance sports, since complex movements and differentiated coordination have to be united perfectly in both disciplines. Thus, it would be useful to integrate into medical training methods that have been established and analysed in detail in sports sciences. The aim of the present study was to perform an analysis of the comparative effectiveness of mental training and the traditional "see one, do one" approach - with respect to both the acquired expertise, as well as the personnel and material costs. METHODS: Third year undergraduate medical students were randomised into two groups while participating in a practical skills training session: The control group was taught using the "see one, do one" approach, but the intervention group used mental training. As an example of a complex surgical skill, wound care was selected, as it consists of applying a local anaesthetic, the sterile covering and preparation of a wound, as well as performing a simple interrupted suture. The learning success was recorded at 3 measuring times: Directly after the training in an introductory OSCE (time point 1), two weeks after training using a free recall test (time point 2) as well as 5 - 14 weeks after training in an overall OSCE (time point 3). RESULTS: 123 students participated in the study. At the first time point, the students of the "mental training" group showed significantly better results in performing the sterile covering and wound preparation ("see one, do one" group 67.4% + 11.1; mental training group 71.6 + 10.6, p = 0.035). At other stations and at other time points there were no significant differences between the two groups. The cost analysis shows a potential saving of 4067.68 € per semester due to the resource-saving handling of materials and personnel. CONCLUSION: Mental training represents a teaching method that can be used with good results in curricular teaching in the field of surgery, which goes hand in hand with a reduction in personnel and material costs.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Competencia Clínica , Humanos
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