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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0183, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394859

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Introduction The student, when entering university, is subject to new cycles and major changes in his routine, which includes exercise and nutritious habits. Objective Explore the effect of a balanced diet and physical exercise on the health of university students. Methods Through literature studies, a questionnaire was developed where the physical condition, nutritional habits, dietary structure, and exercise practice of obese college students were investigated and analyzed. Results The BMI index of those investigated exceeded the standard limit of BMI > 25. The longer the time of physical exercise, the more evident the difference between male and female students in terms of physical endurance factor. The body weight, BMI, and body fat index of both groups showed a downward trend after the intervention. Six weeks of aerobic exercise combined with a proper diet can significantly improve body mass index, body mass index, and physiological and biochemical indices of obese college students. Conclusion Balanced diet and exercise positively affect the health of obese college students. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução O estudante, ao ingressar na universidade, está sujeito a novos ciclos e grandes mudanças em sua rotina, que inclui os hábitos de exercício e alimentares. Objetivo Explorar o efeito de uma dieta balanceada e exercícios físicos na saúde de estudantes universitários. Métodos Através de estudos da literatura, elaborou-se um questionário onde foram investigadas e analisadas a condição física, os hábitos alimentares, a estrutura alimentar e a prática de exercícios nos universitários com obesidade. Resultados o índice de IMC dos investigados ultrapassou o limite padrão de IMC > 25. Quanto maior o tempo de exercício físico, mais evidente é a diferença entre estudantes do sexo masculino e feminino no fator da resistência física. O peso corporal, IMC e índice de gordura corporal dos dois grupos apresentaram tendência de queda após a intervenção. Seis semanas de exercícios aeróbicos combinados com dieta razoável podem melhorar significativamente o índice de massa corporal, índice de massa corporal e índices fisiológicos e bioquímicos de estudantes universitários obesos. Conclusão Dieta balanceada e exercício físico possuem um efeito positivo sobre a saúde dos estudantes universitários obesos. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción El estudiante, al entrar en la universidad, se ve sometido a nuevos ciclos y a grandes cambios en su rutina, que incluye el ejercicio y los hábitos alimenticios. Objetivo Explorar el efecto de una dieta equilibrada y el ejercicio físico en la salud de los estudiantes universitarios. Métodos A través de estudios bibliográficos, se elaboró un cuestionario en el que se investigó y analizó la condición física, los hábitos alimentarios, la estructura de la dieta y la práctica de ejercicio en estudiantes universitarios con obesidad. Resultados El índice de IMC de los investigados superaba el límite estándar de IMC > 25. Cuanto mayor es el tiempo de ejercicio físico, más evidente es la diferencia entre los alumnos y las alumnas en el factor de resistencia física. El peso corporal, el IMC y el índice de grasa corporal de ambos grupos mostraron una tendencia a disminuir después de la intervención. Seis semanas de ejercicios aeróbicos combinados con una dieta razonable pueden mejorar significativamente el índice de masa corporal, el índice de masa corporal y los índices fisiológicos y bioquímicos de los estudiantes universitarios obesos. Conclusión La dieta equilibrada y el ejercicio tienen un efecto positivo en la salud de los estudiantes universitarios obesos. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Deportes , Ejercicio Físico , Dieta Saludable , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Estudiantes , Universidades , Índice de Masa Corporal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0184, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394858

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Introduction Although the overall physical health of university students has positive rates in recent years, indicators such as body composition, vital capacity, and flexibility have declined, following the indicators of speed and strength. Several studies corroborate the beneficial impacts of strength training, accelerating the metabolism of university students, reducing injuries and joint pain, and increasing flexibility, bone density, and self-image of obese students. In light of this situation, the government, through schools and related departments, encourage effective measures to control the current situation under a new context. Objective Study the impacts of strength training on the physical fitness of college students. Methods 70 male college students in a physical education institute were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group, with 35 people in each group. Systematically protocoled and scientifically validated physical exercises were performed for eight weeks. After the implementation of physical exercise, physical quality indicators were evaluated. Results Functional physical training raised the scores of several sports of male college students. There was also an effective reduction in blood pressure in obese youth, improvement in vascular elasticity index, vital capacity, cardiovascular system function, exercise capacity, and strengthening physique. The results of the seven FMS tests were significantly improved. Physical function training can significantly improve and strengthen students' core, hip, shoulder, knee, and ankle stability and flexibility. Conclusion Strength training has been shown to improve college students' physical health indices. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução Embora a saúde física geral dos estudantes universitários tenha índices positivos nos últimos anos, indicadores como a composição corporal, a capacidade vital e a flexibilidade tiveram um declínio, acompanhando os indicadores de velocidade e força. Vários estudos corroboram sobre os impactos benéficos do treinamento de força, acelerando o metabolismo dos estudantes universitários, reduzindo lesões e dores articulares, aumentando a flexibilidade, densidade óssea e a autoimagem dos estudantes obesos. Diante dessa situação, o governo, por intermédio das escolas e departamentos correlacionados incentiva medidas eficazes para controlar a situação atual sob um novo contexto. Objetivo Estudar os impactos do treino de força sobre a aptidão física dos estudantes universitários. Métodos 70 estudantes universitários do sexo masculino em um instituto de educação física foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo experimental e grupo controle, com 35 pessoas em cada grupo. Exercícios físicos sistematicamente protocolados e cientificamente validados foram executados por oito semanas. Após a implementação do exercício físico, avaliou-se os indicadores de qualidade física. Resultados O treinamento físico funcional elevou as pontuações de vários esportes de estudantes universitários do sexo masculino. Também houve redução efetiva na pressão arterial de jovens obesos, melhora do índice de elasticidade vascular, capacidade vital, função do sistema cardiovascular, capacidade de exercício e alcançar o propósito de fortalecer o físico. Os resultados dos sete testes de FMS foram significativamente aprimorados. O treinamento em funções físicas pode melhorar e fortalecer significativamente a estabilidade do core dos alunos, estabilidade e flexibilidade do quadril, ombro, joelho e tornozelo. Conclusão O treinamento de força demonstrou-se eficaz em melhorar os índices de saúde física nos estudantes universitários. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Aunque la salud física general de los estudiantes universitarios presente índices positivos en los últimos años, indicadores como la composición corporal, la capacidad vital y la flexibilidad tuvieron un descenso, acompañando a los indicadores de velocidad y fuerza. Varios estudios corroboran los efectos beneficiosos del entrenamiento de fuerza, acelerando el metabolismo de los estudiantes universitarios, reduciendo las lesiones y el dolor articular, aumentando la flexibilidad, la densidad ósea y la autoimagen de los estudiantes obesos. Ante esta situación, el gobierno, a través de las escuelas y los departamentos relacionados, impulsa medidas eficaces para controlar la situación actual en un nuevo contexto. Objetivo Estudiar el impacto del entrenamiento de fuerza en la condición física de los estudiantes universitarios. Métodos 70 estudiantes universitarios varones de un instituto de educación física fueron divididos aleatoriamente en grupo experimental y grupo de control, con 35 personas en cada grupo. Se realizaron ejercicios físicos sistemáticamente protocolizados y científicamente validados durante ocho semanas. Tras la realización del ejercicio físico, se evaluaron los indicadores de calidad física. Resultados El entrenamiento físico funcional aumentó las puntuaciones de varios deportes de los estudiantes universitarios masculinos. También hubo una reducción efectiva de la presión arterial de los jóvenes obesos, la mejora del índice de elasticidad vascular, la capacidad vital, la función del sistema cardiovascular, la capacidad de ejercicio y lograr el propósito de fortalecer el físico. Los resultados de las siete pruebas FMS mejoraron significativamente. El entrenamiento de la función física puede mejorar y fortalecer significativamente la estabilidad del core, la cadera, el hombro, la rodilla y el tobillo de los estudiantes y la flexibilidad. Conclusión El entrenamiento de fuerza ha demostrado ser eficaz para mejorar los índices de salud física de los estudiantes universitarios. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes , Ejercicio Físico , Aptitud Física/fisiología , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Universidades , Estudios de Casos y Controles
3.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107470, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055057

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reducing the rate and impact of problematic smartphone use (PSU) among deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students has become a social issue. Research has suggested that perceived discrimination is associated with PSU, although the underlying mechanism of this association for DHH students is not clear. AIMS: This study explored the mediating roles of sense of security and social avoidance in the association between perceived discrimination and PSU among Chinese DHH students. METHOD: Five hundred and seventy DHH students, selected through simple random sampling, participated in an online survey, which included measurements of perceived discrimination, sense of security, social avoidance, and PSU. The results were analyzed with SPSS 25.0 and Mplus 7.0. RESULTS: (1) Perceived discrimination, sense of security, and social avoidance were significantly associated with PSU among DHH students; (2) sense of security and social avoidance played mediating roles separately in the association between perceived discrimination and PSU; (3) sense of security and social avoidance played serial mediating roles in the relationship between perceived discrimination and PSU. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that discriminatory experiences of DHH students are related to a relatively low sense of security and high social avoidance, which may lead to PSU. The results have important implications for the prevention of and intervention for PSU among DHH students.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Deficiencia Auditiva , China , Humanos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes , Discriminación Percibida , Teléfono Inteligente , Estudiantes
4.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107464, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067636

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As daily engagement with social networking sites (SNS) increases globally, identifying and understanding the risk factors associated with problematic SNS use is of utmost importance. Researchers are interested in understanding internalizing symptoms as both a risk factor and a negative consequence of problematic SNS use. Prior research has proposed rumination alongside internalizing symptoms as a risk factor, though limited research has examined these associations across different cultures. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the indirect associations between internalizing symptoms (specifically depressive and social anxiety symptoms) and problematic SNS use via rumination among a cross-cultural sample. METHOD: Participants were 8,912 (70.8 % female; Mean age = 20.25, SD = 3.95) college students recruited across seven countries (U.S., Canada, Spain, England, Argentina, Uruguay, and South Africa) who completed measures of internalizing symptoms, rumination, weekly SNS use, and problematic SNS use. RESULTS: We found that higher internalizing symptoms were associated with more problematic SNS use via higher ruminative thinking. Specifically, problem-focused thoughts (a rumination subtype) uniquely accounted for 22.89% and 28.15% of the total effect of depressive and social anxiety symptoms on problematic SNS use, respectively. Other rumination subtypes (i.e., anticipatory thoughts and repetitive thinking) also demonstrated significant indirect effects, though weaker effects than for problem-focused thoughts. Findings were invariant across countries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for further exploring the role rumination plays in determining and comparing problematic SNS use cross-culturally in longitudinal and experimental work.


Asunto(s)
Red Social , Estudiantes , Adulto , Argentina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España , Uruguay/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107471, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The transition from high school to university is associated with increased alcohol use and harm. Web-based interventions (WBIs) and ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) are two methods that have had some success in reducing alcohol use among university students and may be particularly effective if implemented during the transition to university. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined WBI and EMI to reduce alcohol use among incoming university students. METHODS: Incoming first-year students (n = 783, in 2018 and 2019) were randomized into either a WBI + EMI, WBI-only, or an assessment-only condition. All participants completed online questionnaires before university, after their first and second semester, and reported their alcohol use fortnightly throughout their first year. Those in the WBI + EMI and WBI conditions received online feedback about their drinking (i.e., the WBI) immediately following the pre-university survey. Those in the WBI + EMI were also sent eight EMI messages to their mobile phones during Orientation Week and six EMI messages across the academic year aimed at reducing alcohol harm. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the conditions in Orientation Week drinking, academic year drinking (both "typical" semester or fortnightly drinking), or alcohol-related harms. CONCLUSION: A WBI + EMI intervention aimed at the transition to university did not reduce university students' alcohol use. The transition, however, continues to be a period of serious harm where students drink more than any other period.


Asunto(s)
Intervención basada en la Internet , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Retroalimentación , Humanos , Internet , Estudiantes , Universidades
6.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107474, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084415

RESUMEN

High levels of alcohol consumption are common among college students and associated with endorsing negative alcohol-related consequences. Research suggests both drinking norms and location are strong predictors of drinking behavior in college students. Yet, normative perceptions of consequences, and whether they are location-specific, are less well-studied. We tested the hypotheses that college students who drink would have the highest levels of descriptive and injunctive norms for negative consequences, and would self-report the greatest number of negative consequences, at large gatherings/parties relative to someone's home/dorm and/or bars/clubs. Additionally, we explored whether specific acute consequences were more likely in some drinking locations versus others. Participants were 96 full-time undergraduate students who engaged in high-risk drinking. At baseline, participants reported descriptive and injunctive norms for negative consequences in three locations (home/dorm, large gathering/party, bar/club). Over a 28-day period, participants self-reported daily experiences of five alcohol-related consequences in these same locations. With repeated measures analyses of variance, we found that participants perceived their peers experienced more negative consequences and were more approving of negative consequences at large gatherings/parties and small gatherings at someone's home/dorm relative to bars/clubs. Likewise, nonparametric analyses demonstrated that the total number of consequences over the 28-day assessment period also differed by location, with participants reporting more consequences at home/dorm and large gathering/party locations than at bars/clubs. Future research is needed to better understand how the impact of norms on behavior differs across drinking location, and whether location-specific intervention content (e.g., normative correction) would be useful.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Etanol , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes , Universidades
7.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107484, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087498

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Despite increasing college campus prevention efforts, and identification of effective strategies to reduce drinking, reducing alcohol related negative consequences (ARNC, e.g., regrets, blackouts, self- and other- injury, law enforcement exposure, sexual assault, and considering suicide) continues to be a challenge. While college students with a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are at greater risk for alcohol misuse, research regarding the association between ACE and ARNC remains limited. METHODS: Data are responses of currently drinking students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA II) and College Student Health Survey (CSHS), administered in 2018 to students in California and Minnesota (N = 6,667). RESULTS: On average, students reported one ARNC (SD = 1.30) although 13 % experienced three or more different types of ARNC in the past year. Every ACE was associated with a 19 % to 41 % increase in the IRR of ARNC. Students with 1-3 ACE experienced significantly more types of ARNC events (IRR 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.44-1.67) than students with no ACE and students with ≥ 4 ACE experienced statistically significantly more types of ARNC events (IRR 2.04, 95 % CI: 1.82-2.31) than their peers with 1-3 or no ACE. The ACE-ARNC relationship did not vary by drinking frequency or binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS: The consistent ACE - ARNC relationship across drinking behaviors suggests alcohol consumption does not fully explain the association between ACE and ARNC and that early adversity heightens vulnerability for ARNC. Implications for future prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Etanol , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes , Universidades
8.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107485, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087499

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students experience unique stressors as a minority linguistic and cultural group that may contribute to problematic substance and alcohol use behavior. Proper coping strategies may be one protective factor to avoid reliance on alcohol as a means to reduce stress. METHODS: The current study compared the endorsement of coping strategies by DHH students and hearing individuals and their relationship to drinking to cope behavior. Data was collected among DHH (n = 126) and hearing students (n = 349) at a large university. RESULTS: While these two groups did not differ in their levels of problematic drinking behavior, there were differences observed in drinking to cope motives as well as in the levels of coping styles used. DHH students were found to endorse greater levels of emotion-oriented and task-oriented coping than hearing students. Drinking to cope motivations were also higher for DHH students, particularly those who endorsed greater emotion focused coping. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions and educational efforts involving coping skills is a potentially important area of focus for the DHH student population. Further implications for understanding drinking behavior in this population are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Escolaridad , Audición , Humanos , Motivación , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades
9.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107490, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113279

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Stealth vaping gained popularity among college students in recent years. It may undermine the benefits introduced by tobacco-free policies. Yet, no studies have investigated attitude and belief factors associated with stealth vaping. The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between attitudes toward on-campus tobacco regulations, normative perceptions of stealth vaping behaviors, and control beliefs with on-campus stealth vaping among U.S. college students. METHODS: Participants from four large, public universities with policies prohibiting use of all forms of tobacco (including e-cigarettes) on campus (N = 863) completed an online survey in Fall 2020. On-campus stealth vaping behavior was captured by past 30-day stealth vaping status and frequency. Hurdle models with logistic and negative binomial regressions were conducted, where stealth vaping status was treated as a binary variable based on the non-zero and zero frequency, and stealth vaping frequency was treated as a count variable. Multiple imputation by chained equations was employed to handle the missing data. RESULTS: Participants with more positive attitudes toward regulating on-campus tobacco use were less likely to practice stealth vaping on campus (OR = 1.16, p < 0.01 [predicting zero]). Those with higher perceptions of stealth vaping among other students were more likely to stealth vape more frequently (IRR = 1.03, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the need for interventions to address students' attitudes and normative beliefs about stealth vaping. Efforts are needed to educate college students about the risk of e-cigarettes and to enhance enforcement of campus tobacco-free policies.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Política para Fumadores , Vapeo , Humanos , Estudiantes , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Universidades
10.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103883, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037655

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Playing a musical instrument can potentially lead to musculoskeletal disorders. Postural loads are different considering the instrument they play; for example violin and flute require elevation from both upper limbs, asymmetrical postures are common and instrument weight can be significant. The aim was to explore how musicians' postures are investigated, and potentially if there is evidence of an association between postural impairments and pain. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in several databases, combined with manual search. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty seven relevant studies were included in this review covering musicians with the full range of playing experience (professionals, students, teachers, amateurs). The main considered methods to investigate postures are visual assessment and three dimensional analysis using videography. DISCUSSION: This review provides a synthesis of the different methods used to monitor posture in musicians and provides information in order to build protocols which will allow comparison with previous work.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas , Música , Enfermedades Profesionales , Humanos , Postura , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/etiología , Estudiantes , Extremidad Superior , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología
11.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107482, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152382

RESUMEN

Substance use is widely recognized as a negative outcome following traumatic events and is tied to symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS). Sleep quality may influence the PTS and substance use association, particularly among college students who are at risk for poor sleep. The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating effect of sleep quality on the relationship between PTS and substance use in a cohort of college students, with an exploratory aim of examining potential differences by assigned sex. A screening survey was completed by 2,767 students enrolled in a larger RCT examining various brief college student alcohol reduction strategies. Results found a significant two-way interaction between PTS symptoms and subjective sleep quality on weekly number of drinks and peak drinking occasion, where the significant positive association between PTS symptoms to weekly drinks and peak drinking occasion was only found for those who reported poor sleep quality. A similar pattern emerged for the significant two-way interaction between PTS symptoms and subjective sleep quality on cannabis use frequency. A significant three-way interaction (i.e., PTS Symptoms × Poor Subjective Sleep Quality × Assigned Sex) indicated the two-way interaction between PTS symptoms and sleep quality for both weekly drinks and cannabis use frequency was stronger among male compared to female participants. Study findings suggest sleep quality is an important factor contributing to the relation between PTS symptom severity and substance use among college students. Strategies for assessing and improving sleep quality and PTS symptoms can be incorporated into prevention and intervention efforts targeting substance use related harm for college students.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad del Sueño , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248493, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339399

RESUMEN

Abstract Parasites of veterinary importance have been heavily focused on domesticated livestock that was introduced into the neo-tropics. The text used in the teaching parasitology to veterinary students in Trinidad has only investigated the parasites of domesticated species. In the reviewed veterinary parasitology text no mention was made on the parasites that affect wild neo-tropical animals. Information on wild neo-tropical animals had to be sourced from texts on the management of wild life animals in the Neotropics. The texts that were reviewed in this document spanned from the mid-1950s to 2020. The information presented in this review reveals the exhaustive work done on the parasites of domesticated species but also revealed little information on neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. In conclusion, this review reveals the gap of information that is missing from parasitology texts used in the teaching of veterinary students. In the future these parasitology texts can be revised to include chapters on the parasites of neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. At present students that graduate from the veterinary parasitology course has little information on the parasites of animals which are present in their 'backyards'.


Resumo Parasitas de importância veterinária têm se concentrado fortemente em animais domésticos que foram introduzidos na região neotrópica. O texto usado no ensino de parasitologia para estudantes de veterinária em Trinidad investigou apenas os parasitas de espécies domesticadas. No texto de parasitologia veterinária revisado, nenhuma menção foi feita sobre os parasitas que afetam os animais selvagens neotropicais. As informações sobre animais selvagens neotropicais tiveram que ser obtidas a partir de textos sobre o manejo de animais selvagens nos Neotrópicos. Os textos revisados neste documento vão de meados da década de 1950 até 2020. As informações apresentadas nesta revisão revelam o trabalho exaustivo realizado sobre os parasitas de espécies domesticadas, mas também revelaram poucas informações sobre animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Em conclusão, esta revisão revela a lacuna de informação que existe nos textos de parasitologia utilizados no ensino de estudantes de veterinária. No futuro, esses textos de parasitologia podem ser revisados ​​para incluir capítulos sobre os parasitas de animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Atualmente, os alunos que se formam no curso de parasitologia veterinária têm poucas informações sobre os parasitas de animais que estão presentes em seus "quintais".


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Educación en Veterinaria , Animales Salvajes , Facultades de Medicina Veterinaria , Estudiantes , Trinidad y Tobago , Universidades
13.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107487, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116205

RESUMEN

Approximately one-third of college students engage in heavy episodic drinking. Although White students drink more than Black students, White individuals are more likely to mature out of heavy drinking, whereas Black individuals drink more as they age and experience disproportionate alcohol-related consequences. Compared to their White counterparts, limited research has examined factors associated with alcohol use among Black college students. Descriptive drinking norms based on the typical college student are strong predictors of college student drinking, but previous research found that this association was weaker for Black college students. Therefore, the current study is a preliminary examination of perceived drinking norms (descriptive) and approval (injunctive) based on race for Black college students. Further, we explored likelihood of excessive drinking around other Black students. The current study included survey responses of 192 Black college students from a large southeastern US university. Results indicated that university and race-specific descriptive norms, but not university and race-specific injunctive norms, were associated with more drinks per week. These findings suggest that descriptive norms with Black students at the participant's university as the normative reference group are associated with alcohol use among Black students. Further, greater likelihood of drinking excessively around peers who share the same racial identity may impact alcohol consumption for this population. Current prevention programs for college student drinking are tailored by gender rather than race; however, preliminary findings from the current study suggests that tailoring by race may be an effective way to prevent alcohol misuse among Black college students.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Etanol , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Normas Sociales , Estudiantes , Universidades
14.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2145103, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351566

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A lack of educational continuity creates disorienting friction at the onset of residency. Few programs have harnessed the benefits of coaching, which can facilitate self-directed learning, competency development, and professional identity formation, to help ease this transition. OBJECTIVE: To describe the process of training faculty Bridge Coaches for the Transition to Residency Advantage (TRA) program for interns. METHODS: Nineteen graduate faculty educators participated in a coaching training course with formative skills assessment as part of a faculty development program starting in January 2020. Surveys (n = 15; 79%) and a focus group (n = 7; 37%) were conducted to explore the perceived impact of the training course on coaching skills, perceptions of coaching, and further program needs during the pilot year of the TRA program. RESULTS: Faculty had strong skills around establishing trust, authentic listening, and supporting goal-setting. They required more practice around guiding self-discovery and following a coachee-led agenda. Faculty found the training course to be helpful for developing coaching skills. Faculty embraced their new roles as coaches and appreciated having a community of practice with other coaches. Suggestions for improvement included more opportunities to practice and receive feedback on skills and additional structures to further support TRA program encounters with coaches. CONCLUSIONS: The faculty development program was feasible and had good acceptance among participants. Faculty were well-suited to serve as coaches and valued the coaching mindset. Adequate skills reinforcement and program structure were identified as needs to facilitate a coaching program in graduate medical education.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Tutoría , Humanos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina , Docentes , Estudiantes
15.
Violence Against Women ; 29(1): 65-73, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36185016

RESUMEN

Campbell et al. provided a candid summary of a long-term strategic plan to address relationship violence and sexual misconduct (RVSM) at Michigan State University (MSU). Coming in the aftermath of a national scandal and public outcry regarding MSU's lack of response to RVSM on its campus, the authors describe a coordinated university community response to understanding the prevalence of RVSM on campus, developing policy to respond to RVSM, and reestablishing community and survivor trust. In this commentary, we explore the innovations and sustainability of MSU's strategic plan and its potential replicability at other institutions of higher learning.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales , Humanos , Universidades , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Estudiantes , Conducta Sexual , Violencia
16.
Violence Against Women ; 29(1): 35-43, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256533

RESUMEN

Campbell and colleagues propose a robust and rigorous strategic model to address and reduce Relationship Violence and Sexual Misconduct (RVSM) at Michigan State University, which significantly advances the field of RVSM prevention and education, particularly for survivors belonging to marginalized populations. While prior efforts have addressed RVSM on college and university campuses, Campbell and colleagues' model is groundbreaking in its ability to reduce RVSM against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, intersex, and asexual/agender (LGBTQIA+) students of color, by its principles of intersectional and trauma-informed action. This commentary highlights the contributions of Campbell et al.'s model and provides recommendations for enhancing programming and postassault services by addressing the totality of LGBTQIA+ survivors of color's identities.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes , Personas Transgénero , Femenino , Humanos , Universidades , Michigan , Violencia , Sobrevivientes
17.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107524, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279712

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The adolescent health consequences of the school-to-prison pipeline remain underexplored. We test whether initiating components of the school-to-prison pipeline-suspensions, expulsions, and school policing-are associated with higher school-average levels of student substance use, depressed feelings, and developmental risk in the following year. METHOD: We linked 2003-2014 data from the California Healthy Kids Survey and the Civil Rights Data Collection from over 4,800 schools and 4,950,000 students. With lagged multi-level models, we estimated relationships between the school prevalence of total discipline, out-of-school discipline, and police-involved discipline, and standardized school-average levels of 6 substance use measures and 8 measures of developmental risk, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of school discipline predicted subsequent school-mean substance use and developmental risk. A one-unit higher prevalence of total discipline predicted higher school levels (in standard deviations) of binge drinking alcohol (0.14, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.17), drinking alcohol (0.15, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.18), smoking tobacco (0.09, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12), using cannabis (0.16, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.19), using other drugs (0.17, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.21), and violence/harassment (0.16, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.2). Total discipline predicted lower levels of reported community support (-0.07, 95% CI: -0.1, -0.05), feeling safe in school (-0.12, 95% CI: -0.16, -0.09), and school support (-0.16, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.12). Associations were greater in magnitude for more severe out-of-school discipline. Findings were inconsistent for police-involved discipline. CONCLUSION: Exclusionary school discipline and school policing-core elements of the school-to-prison pipeline-are previously unidentified population predictors of adolescent substance use and developmental risk.


Asunto(s)
Prisiones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Fumar/epidemiología
18.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107530, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308839

RESUMEN

This study aimed to explore the prospective associations between both alcohol and cannabis use (frequency and DSM-5 substance use disorder symptom counts) as they relate to academic performance over a period of âˆ¼ four years. The study members were students enrolled in college in the Southeastern United States (N = 209, 62 % female, 90 % white). Baseline survey data were obtained in the first year of college while participants finished the follow-up assessments âˆ¼ 1 and âˆ¼ 4 years from baseline (80+ % retention rates). We aimed to tease apart antecedent from consequence in the associations between substance use and academic performance using a sophisticated modeling technique that accounts for between-person influences in evaluating within-person change over time. Results showed that greater alcohol use disorder symptoms in the first year of college were associated with a within-person decline in grades in the second year of college. This was not demonstrated for alcohol or cannabis frequency, alcohol quantity, or cannabis use disorder symptoms or in relation to the later developmental transition out of college. In addition to widely implemented prevention efforts, these results indicate that screening first-year college students for alcohol use disorder symptoms and connecting them with resources and treatment may be beneficial in attempts to promote academic performance.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Alcoholismo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas
19.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107536, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334313

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is significant heterogeneity in alcohol and cannabis use patterns among college students, with some engaging in use patterns that heighten their risk for adverse consequences. Person-centered approaches can help identify those subgroups of students with riskier use patterns. Latent Profile Analyses (LPA) were conducted to identify subgroups based on alcohol and cannabis use frequency and quantity, to explore demographic covariates and to examine mean differences across subgroups on alcohol- and cannabis-related consequences, simultaneous use, and other substance use. METHODS: Participants were 2,423 college students (Mage = 20.1; 72  % female) recruited from seven US universities who endorsed past-month alcohol and cannabis use and completed an online survey of substance use behaviors. RESULTS: A four-profile solution was the best fitting model. Profile 1 represented "light, infrequent alcohol and cannabis use" (73.8 %), Profile 2 represented "heavy, infrequent alcohol and moderate, frequent cannabis use" (15.9 %), Profile 3 represented "moderate, frequent alcohol and cannabis use" (5.6 %) and Profile 4 represented "very heavy, frequent alcohol and heavy, frequent cannabis use" (4.7 %). Students who identify as male, White non-Hispanic, and/or Greek-affiliated were more likely to be in the heavy alcohol use profiles. Profiles 3 and 4 represent high-risk profiles, with both having a higher likelihood of simultaneous use, Profile 3 endorsing more cannabis consequences, and Profile 4 endorsing more alcohol consequences. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that heavy alcohol or heavy co-use heightens risk for serious adverse consequences.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Universidades , Etanol
20.
Neurol Clin ; 41(1): 215-229, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400557

RESUMEN

Training of students and residents in outpatient settings requires adequate exposure to a broad range of neurologic diseases. A competency-based method has been frequently used to provide a framework for the design and assessment of medical curriculums. However, it is the responsibility of the faculty within a medical school to design the curriculum and ensure its quality. In this article, we review learning objectives, assessment of core competencies, the current status of outpatient neurology education, and the flaws that may affect its quality. We also discuss potential strategies and approaches for the improvement of education and learning process in the outpatient setting, including early clinical exposure of students, cross-disciplinary courses, balancing case mix, near-peer teaching, active learning, electronic and online education, and virtual modules.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Internado y Residencia , Humanos , Curriculum , Estudiantes
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