Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 73.719
Filtrar
1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105269, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416553

RESUMEN

Visualizations are commonly used in educational materials; however, not all visualizations are equally effective at promoting learning. Prior research has supported the idea that both perceptually rich and bland visualizations are beneficial for learning and generalization. We investigated whether the perceptual richness of a life cycle diagram influenced children's learning of metamorphosis, a concept that prior work suggests is difficult for people to generalize. Using identical materials, Study 1 (N = 76) examined learning and generalization of metamorphosis in first- and second-grade students, and Study 2 (N = 53) did so in fourth- and fifth-grade students. Bayesian regression analyses revealed that first and second graders learned more from the lesson with the perceptually rich diagram. In addition, fourth and fifth graders generalized more with the bland diagram, but these generalizations tended to be incorrect (i.e., generalizing metamorphosis to animals that do not undergo this type of change). These findings differ from prior research with adults, in which bland diagrams led to more correct generalizations, suggesting that the effect of perceptual richness on learning and generalization might change over development.


Asunto(s)
Generalización Psicológica , Aprendizaje , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes
2.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107087, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464915

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug among college students, and there is a need to understand the social processes that contribute to young adults' marijuana use. Substance use behaviors tend to be more similar (homophilous) among individuals with social ties to one another. However, little is known about whether marijuana use homophily within young adult relationships is due to social selection (seeking out ties with similar marijuana use to one's own) or social influence (adopting similar marijuana use behaviors as one's ties), or both. METHODS: Students (N = 1,489; 54.6% female; Mage = 18.6 years) at one University completed online surveys in their first three semesters of college. Surveys assessed participant characteristics, marijuana use, and ties to up to 10 other students in the whole (sociocentric) network of first-year college students. Stochastic-actor oriented models (SAOMs) were used to analyze the co-evolution of marijuana use and social ties over time. RESULTS: Participants were more likely to select peers with similar past 30-day marijuana use as themselves. Concurrently, students' past 30-day marijuana use became more similar to their peers' use over time. DISCUSSION: Evidence for selection and influence effects were highly significant after controlling for network structure and other covariates indicating these processes may work in tandem to increase marijuana use homophily over the first year of college. This highlights the importance of relationships made early in the first-year of college, as these initial peer ties are likely to reinforce marijuana use behaviors that occur within these relationships.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
3.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107083, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464916

RESUMEN

Student drinking during the college years can result in many adverse outcomes. Emotion-based decision-making (EBDM), or the use of emotional information to influence future plans and behavior, may lead to increased harmful consequences of alcohol. The current study examined both the number of types and total frequency of alcohol consequences as a function of EBDM. Undergraduate students from three large universities (n = 814) were assessed on EBDM and typical weekly drinking during their 2nd year of college, and alcohol-related consequences during their 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years. Alcohol-related consequences were operationalized both as unique types of consequences and total consequences experienced in the previous year. Latent growth modeling used EBDM in year 2 to predict unique and total alcohol consequences in years 2, 3, and 4. Students who endorsed higher levels of EBDM experienced a significantly increased total frequency of consequences over the three years, without differences in trajectory between students high and low on this construct. Participants with higher levels of EBDM experienced a significantly greater number of unique consequences at all time points, but these consequences increased at a significantly lower rate than individuals lower on this construct. Findings of this study indicate Emotion-Based Decision-Making may be a useful predictor of harmful consequences of student drinking over time.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Emociones , Humanos , Estudiantes , Universidades
4.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107098, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521066

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study estimated self-reported perceived negative marijuana use consequences among a national sample of U.S. young adults, examining consequence prevalence differences by use frequency, college attendance, living situation, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity; and use frequency/sociodemographic characteristic interactions. METHODS: A subsample of 1,212 respondents from the 2004-2018 class cohorts of 12th grade students participating in the nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study was surveyed up to two times from modal ages 19 through 22 (in 2008-2019). Respondents self-reported negative consequences related to their own past 12-month marijuana use. Bivariate and multivariable models examined subgroup differences in consequence prevalence. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of those using frequently (20+ use occasions in the past 30 days) and 35% of those using non-frequently reported negative consequences. Among all young adult marijuana users, 31.1% reported emotional/physical consequences, 12.9% performance/financial consequences, and 12.3% relational consequences. Use frequency was positively associated with consequence likelihood, excluding regret and unsafe driving. Among college students, frequent use was more strongly associated with any and performance/financial consequences. Controlling for use frequency, men reported more performance/financial consequences; relational consequences were higher among Hispanic (vs. White) respondents, and those living with parents, employed full-time, and not attending 4-year colleges. CONCLUSION: Young adults using marijuana reported a wide range of negative use consequences; likelihood of most consequences increased with higher use frequency. Perceived consequences varied by college attendance, living situation, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity. Efforts to reduce negative marijuana consequences may be strengthened by recognizing and addressing the different types of negative consequences users perceive.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Autoinforme , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
5.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107099, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534840

RESUMEN

Drinking motives are robustly related to alcohol use behavior from adolescence through young adulthood. Yet, examination of changes in motives during the first year of college, a transitional time associated with both onset of and increases in heavy drinking has been understudied. We examined (a) whether drinking motives change, (b) time-varying effects of motives on alcohol use and consequences, and (c) change in the strength of the association between motives and use and motives and consequences over the first year of college. A sample of 121 heavy drinking first-year students (50% female, 58% Caucasian) completed three assessments (baseline, 3 months, 6 months). Endorsement of social motives declined from 0 to 3 months, while endorsement of coping, enhancement, and conformity motives declined from 3 to 6 months. Social motives were positively associated with alcohol use and consequences across assessments. When motive × time interactions were tested in separate models, the strength of effects of coping motives on drinks per week increased from 0 to 3 months. The strength of the effect of coping and conformity motives on consequences increased from 0 to 3 months and then decreased from 3 to 6 months. Identifying how drinking motives evolve and relate to trajectories of alcohol use may help to understand the development of risky drinking behavior and inform intervention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
6.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107107, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530208

RESUMEN

Drunkorexia is a behavior pattern marked by calorie restriction and/or compensation in relation to alcohol consumption. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of social norms (descriptive, injunctive) and social comparison orientation (SCO; global, alcohol-specific, eating disorder-related) in drunkorexia engagement. Specifically, our research aimed to examine a possible interaction between norms and SCO; we hypothesized that the relationship between social norms and drunkorexia would be moderated by SCO in that the relationship would be stronger among those elevated on SCO. Data were collected from an undergraduate sample (n = 501); participants completed the consent form and questions/questionnaires via Qualtrics. The results indicated that the predictor variables examined were correlated with overall drunkorexia engagement. In the regression models, in terms of main effects, eating disorder-related SCO emerged as the strongest predictor of the drunkorexia dimensions as well as overall drunkorexia engagement. Descriptive norms emerged as the second strongest predictor in the models. Only one interaction was identified; eating disorder-related SCO moderated the relationship between descriptive norms and the bulimia drunkorexia dimension. The simple slopes analysis indicated that descriptive norms was positively predictive of the bulimia drunkorexia dimension only among individuals with average or elevated eating disorder-related SCO. Social comparisons made regarding one's body, eating, or exercise (eating disorder-related) and social norms are potentially important targets for drunkorexia prevention and/or intervention programs. Further research is needed to better understand risk factors for drunkorexia engagement in the college population.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Normas Sociales , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Comparación Social , Estudiantes , Universidades
7.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 126-129, 2022 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601299

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms, and associated risk factors among a large-scale sample of adolescents from China after the pandemic and lockdown. METHOD: A total of 57,948 high school students took part in an online survey from July 13 to 29, 2020. The mental health outcomes included anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms. Risk factors included negative family relationships, COVID-19 related exposure, and a lack of social support. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms was 7.1%, 12.8%, and 16.9%, respectively. COVID-19 related exposure significantly linked to the mental health outcomes (all p < .001). The most important predictors for the mental health outcomes were family relationship and social support (all p < .001). CONCLUSION: The pandemic may have long-term adverse mental health consequences among adolescents. Adverse family relationships and lack of social support could be the major risk factors for the post-pandemic mental health outcomes of adolescents.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico , Estudiantes
8.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(2): 147-167, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas | ID: biblio-1340819

RESUMEN

RESUMO A iniquidade de gênero na carreira científica ainda é um tema relevante e pouco explorado, assim como os desafios trazidos pela vivência da maternidade às mulheres docentes. Este estudo buscou compreender a interação família e trabalho de mulheres que são mães e atuam como docente na pós-graduação. As participantes (11 mulheres, 35 a 44 anos) responderam a uma entrevista em profundidade. Os resultados evidenciam a maternidade como um planejamento concomitante ao desenvolvimento profissional; a importância da licença-maternidade e do apoio do cônjuge; e as dificuldades e estratégias de conciliação família-trabalho. Ressalta-se a relevância de se pensar em políticas públicas e projetos institucionais que colaborem com o processo de conciliação entre maternidade e trabalho.


ABSTRACT Gender inequity in scientific careers is still a relevant and little explored topic, as well as the challenges brought by the experience of maternity to women professors. This study sought to understand the family and work interaction of women who are mothers and work as faculty in graduate courses. The participants (11 women, 35 to 44 years old) responded to an in-depth interview. The results show maternity as a concomitant planning for professional development; the importance of maternity leave and spousal support; and the difficulties and strategies of family-work conciliation. It is important to think about public policies and institutional projects that collaborate with the process of conciliation between maternity and work.


RESUMEN La desigualdad de género en la carrera científica sigue siendo un tema relevante y poco explorado, así como los retos que la experiencia de la maternidad plantea a las profesoras. Este estudio trató de comprender la interacción familiar y laboral de las mujeres que son madres y trabajan como profesoras en la enseñanza de posgrado. Los participantes (11 mulheres, 35 a 44 años) respondieron a una entrevista en profundidad. Los resultados muestran la maternidad como una planificación concomitante para el desarrollo profesional; la importancia de la licencia de maternidad y el apoyo del cónyuge; y las dificultades y estrategias de conciliación entre la familia y el trabajo. Se destaca la pertinencia de pensar en políticas públicas y proyectos institucionales que colaboren con el proceso de conciliación entre la maternidad y el trabajo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relaciones Profesional-Familia , Estudiantes , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Educación de Postgrado
9.
J Nurs Educ ; 60(11): 651-654, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723744

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This educational innovation describes the implementation of a telehealth supportive counseling center for psychiatric/mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP) students at a small graduate school. The free, nurse-run, health care center was at risk due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in-person care restrictions. METHOD: Due to COVID-19, PMHNP faculty and students pivoted to offer services via telehealth for the summer 2020 semester. Planning and implementation strategies regarding this pivot are presented. RESULTS: PMHNP students conducted a total of 82 visits, recording a 150% increase in clients served during the telehealth implementation. On average, students accrued between 39 and 73 supervised clinical hours. CONCLUSION: Given the COVID-19 pandemic, clinical placements as well as access to health care services were jeopardized. Through innovation and flexibility, PMHNP students were able to continue accruing supervised clinical hours, and an identified need in the community was continued to be met. [J Nurs Educ. 2021;60(11):651-654.].


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermeras Practicantes , Telemedicina , Consejo , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes
10.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2163-2168, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725294

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Study the key aspects of organization of the process and individual characteristics of nutrition of pupils and students of different types of modern educational institutions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: To adequately assess the process of organization of the regime and individual characteristics of nutrition of pupils and students of different types of modern educational institutions, we have evaluated the key characteristic features of a rational diet: number of daily meals and their duration, food consumption rate, conditions and priorities as well as distribution of dish volume and caloric content in accordance with food intake frequency. RESULTS: Results: The results of the study have shown a significantly high rate of abuses in individual diet key components. Thus, majority of pupils and students do not observe proper food intake frequency, often skip their main meals, fail to maintain proper time intervals between meals, spent insufficient time for their main meals, incorrectly distribute food volume and caloric content according to the number of meals, do not have breakfast, consume the largest volume of food for their supper, eat their meals at a quick rate, and, certainly, abuse street and fast food. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The revealed violations of the basic nutrition principles and patterns may be the cause of functional disorders and adaptive incapabilities of the body, as well as the development of various polynutrient deficiencies and food-related diseases, therefore requiring justification and implementation of the possible ways of their correction.


Asunto(s)
Estado Nutricional , Instituciones Académicas , Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Estudiantes
11.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2192-2196, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725299

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To identify the main fears of donation among young people in the city and ways to eliminate these phobias with the help of modern marketing tools. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: It was conducted the questionnaire among Sumy State University students on donation fears. The questionnaire included questions about experience of donation, reason for non donation and age. After that a focus group among students who feared donation was organized. Participants were shown a 360 degree video recorded in the blood center and discussed how to donate blood after watching the video. RESULTS: Results: The main phobias were fear of becoming infected during the procedure (37.7%), fear of the procedure itself due to ignorance and misunderstanding of what to expect (14.0%), and fear of the needle, blood, and the discomfort possibility during the procedure (10.0%); 26.7% indicated that they could not be donors due to poor health, and 11.6% due to personal laziness. It was developed a 360o video, which demonstrates the blood donation process, showing the next steps with the selected blood in facilities. Its continues for 20 minutes. This video was shown in the focus group for ten non-donors with some donation fear. 60% of them reported a change from blood to a positive, which may indicate this tool's effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Due a 360o video some non-donor people can ensure safety, sterility of the process, reduce the fear of donation and further increase the likelihood of becoming regular donors.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre , Miedo , Adolescente , Humanos , Mercadotecnía , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 286: 79-83, 2021 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755694

RESUMEN

The medical literature shows that social determinants of health have a significant impact upon health outcomes. However, health professionals often lack the skills to address these determinants at the systems-level. Therefore, we developed a Design Thinking workshop to teach about health-related social needs and to practice designing person-centered solutions. We piloted the workshop with 53 medical and physician assistant students; 69.8% responded to the post-workshop questionnaire. Nearly 80% of students agreed the workshop helped them understand the effect of context on clinical outcomes and demonstrated how to design patient-centered solutions. However, only 50% of respondents anticipated using the Design Thinking methods in their future practice. We need to identify more effective ways to demonstrate the practical application of Design Thinking to clinical work settings.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Comunitaria , Curriculum , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
J Prof Nurs ; 37(5): 866-874, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742516

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Through innovative use of established technologies, online nursing programs can provide psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP) students with robust virtual experiences for learning professional competencies, including those involving psychomotor and affective domains. PURPOSE: To describe a virtual simulation teaching methodology using online text-based simulations of patient visits prior to a virtual standardized patient (SP) encounter in an asynchronous online course for PMHNP students. METHOD: Student learning experiences were framed by the Framework for the 21st Century Learning. Two types of online simulations were employed: (1) four text-based exercises, created with a testing tool in a learning management system, allowed students to practice the critical thinking processes behind diagnostic interviewing, and (2) a telehealth simulation with an SP, where students engaged the patient, conducted a diagnostic interview, and discussed the treatment plan with the patient. Following the telehealth simulation, students completed self-assessments, received individual feedback from the SP and clinical faculty, and discussed experiences in small groups. RESULTS: Students demonstrated professional competencies and developed self-awareness and self-efficacy through reflection and discussion. CONCLUSION: This teaching approach can potentially enhance learning and build greater career skills including conducting diagnostic interviews using therapeutic communication skills for patients with stigmatizing mental health conditions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Competencia Clínica , Docentes de Enfermería , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes
14.
J Prof Nurs ; 37(5): 971-977, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Now, more than ever, enhancement of diversity and inclusion is significant to the nursing profession. One way that nursing institutions can enrich diversity in the workforce is through enrollment of students from diverse backgrounds. PURPOSE: The overarching goal of this innovative admissions revision project was to implement and assess the process of holistic admissions in a BSN to DNP family nurse practitioner track. METHODS: Using a step-by-step approach, the authors in this paper present five key steps to implementing a holistic review of doctoral nursing applicants. These five steps are: (1) assessing fit of admissions criteria, (2) utilizing shared governance, (3) measuring admissions criteria, (4) analyzing reliability, and (5) evaluating revision outcomes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The step-by-step approach to holistic admissions discussed in this paper was feasible and cost effective. The scoring tool developed for applicant videos demonstrated very good to excellent reliability among raters in two different scoring scenarios. Diversity enhancement among enrolled students was noted in gender, race, and ethnicity after a holistic review was implemented. IMPLICATIONS: Findings from this innovative admissions revision have implications for nursing education, advanced nursing practice, organizational policy, workforce diversity, and student/patient outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudiantes , Recursos Humanos
15.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(2): 216-230, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744271

RESUMEN

Dental health care workers, particularly dental medicine students (DMS), are at an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of our study was to assess the level of knowledge on HBV and HCV, estimate needlestick injury (NSI) prevalence and reporting practice in DMS at the University of Zagreb, and analyze how enrolment in obligatory and supplemental courses affects knowledge and NSI reporting practice. The knowledge was assessed by our questionnaires based on the Centers for Disease Control general handouts. Additional information was collected to examine the prevalence and reporting practice of NSI. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis, independent-samples t-test, proportion analyses, and combined factor analyses of categorical and quantitative variables in SPSS and R. In total, 206 students participated in the survey. The overall level of HBV- and HCV-related knowledge was poor, with the mean scores of 61.90% and 51.35%, respectively. Moreover, students enrolled in the first year demonstrated significantly lower levels of knowledge in comparison with their older peers. Of all participants, 18.2% had sustained a NSI and the majority of them (78.95%) had never reported the injury. In conclusion, DMS have low levels of knowledge on important occupational pathogens and poor NSI reporting practice. Moreover, formal education in the current form has failed to significantly improve student competence and theoretical knowledge translates poorly into more conscientious injury reporting practice. We should look for a better way to increase student awareness and level of knowledge on this topic.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Estudios Transversales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1417-1422, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792900

RESUMEN

At present, there is an understanding of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on all spheres of society, both in our country and abroad. Objective of the research: to study the effect of self-isolation on the mental health of university students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic; to identify the most vulnerable groups of students and the reasons of anxiety and stress. Materials and methods. The survey involved 872 students (68% - girls, 32% - boys) 1-4 years of bachelor's degree and 1-2 courses of master's degree at the age of 17-23 years old, enrolled in full-time education in three universities in Moscow. Results. The most vulnerable categories of students for mental health disorders, experiencing the highest level of anxiety and stress, are 3rd-4th year undergraduate and 1th year graduate students with an average level of academic performance. In this regard, the question arises about the need to develop and introduce programs into the educational process of universities to identify and provide psychological assistance and support to students who are acutely experiencing the consequences of the pandemic to maintain their psychological health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 443, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of migraine headaches varied from 2.4 to 48.5% worldwide among university students. As per the knowledge of the investigators, the study of migraine headaches is not done in this study area. Hence, this study aimed to assess determinates of migraine headaches among regular undergraduate students, of Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia, 2020. METHOD: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from November 15-30 /2020 by using a self-administered questionnaire among 371 regular undergraduate students at Wollo University. A multistage sampling technique was employed to represent our study population. Identity migraine test, Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire, perceived stress scale, and Oslo social support scale was used. Descriptive statistics, binary and multiple logistic regression were employed. The adjusted odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval and level of significance (p-value < 0.05) was used to interpret the findings. RESULTS: From 371 participants, the prevalence of migraine headache in this study was 34% (95% CI: 29.2, 38.5). Variables statistically associated with migraine headache, were a family history of headache (AOR = 3.83, CI: 2.313, 6.366), suicidal thoughts in the past 3 months (AOR = 10.76, CI: 2.117, 54.74), and had low perceived stress 62.6% (AOR = 0.374, CI: 0.205, 0.683). CONCLUSION: In this study, the prevalence of migraine headaches was very high. Family history of headache, suicidal thoughts, and low perceived stress were determinates for migraine headache. So special emphasis shall be given to those participants who had high perceived stress, a family history of migraine headache, and suicidal thoughts.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Migrañosos , Universidades , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 224, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758844

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse (CSA) refers to the involvement of a child (< 18 years) in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. It is a serious public health problem affecting millions of people each year worldwide but the most neglected and least documented form of violence in Ethiopia among school girls. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of child sexual abuse and its associated factors among female high school students in the Dire Dawa administration, Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among female high school students in Dire Dawa administration between March 1 and 23/2021. We employed stratified and multistage sampling techniques to include 794 participants from selected high schools. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used, and the data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 24. RESULTS: The proportion of students who reported at least one form of sexual abuse was 384 (48.9%) and approximately 19% of the students reported rape from the total respondents. Students who live alone 4.3 times (AOR 4.30; 95% CI 1.81-10.24), those who live with their friends five times (AOR 5.02; 95% CI 2.24-8.04), and those who live with their single parent three times (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 1.23-8.89) more likely to experience sexual abuse than those living with both parents. The odds of experiencing sexual abuse among students of rural residence were 3.2 times higher than their urban counterparts (AOR 3.2; 95% CI 2.02-4.51). Students who didn't drink alcohol were 70% more protective than those who drank alcohol (AOR 0.70; 95% CI 0.28-0.97). Among rape survivors (64, 37.9%) developed unwanted pregnancies, 26.0% of them underwent an abortion, and (39, 26.0%) developed STI as an outcome of sexual abuse. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the magnitude of child sexual abuse among female students in Dire Dawa was high. Lack of discussion about sexual issues with parents, living without both parents, drinking alcohol, and being a rural residence had a significant association with child sexual abuse. Unwanted pregnancy, abortion, and STIs have been reported as reproductive health outcomes of rape. Therefore, policymakers should introduce and strengthen comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education both in school and out of school, in addition to formal education to reduce the magnitude of the problem. Parents should discuss all sexual and reproductive health issues with their children to reduce the magnitude and consequences of child sexual abuse.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Sexual , Estudiantes
19.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 178, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758865

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has not only increased mortality but has also negatively affected mental health among populations across the world. Furthermore, individuals are experiencing uncertainty about their current and future situation because of the pandemic. Therefore, the present study investigated the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and procrastination among a sample of Turkish university students. METHODS: Between October and November 2020, 450 university students (291 females and 159 males aged 17 to 24 years) from three state universities in Turkey completed an online survey. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling methods were employed to examine a model for understanding the general procrastination during COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The results of the correlation analysis indicated that the fear of COVID-19 was positively correlated with both intolerance of uncertainty (r = .26, p < .001) and procrastination (r = .23, p < .001). The mediation analysis also showed that intolerance of uncertainty had a significant mediating role in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and procrastination (ß = .11, p < .001). CONCLUSION: Reducing the fear of COVID-19 and intolerance of uncertainty is likely to contribute to reducing individuals' procrastination behaviors during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Procrastinación , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes , Turquia , Incertidumbre , Universidades
20.
Sch Psychol ; 36(6): 433-444, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766811

RESUMEN

We assessed the effects of a whole-school equity intervention implemented within a school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) framework on racial inequities in school discipline in eight elementary schools with inequitable referrals for Black students. The intervention involved assessing patterns of racial disparities in school discipline decisions and providing professional development on adapting school-wide behavior systems to improve cultural responsiveness through concrete strategies targeting the patterns. After consent and matching on existing levels of racial inequities, half of the schools were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Analyses showed that schools receiving the intervention had significant decreases in racial disparities in school discipline and rates of office discipline referrals (ODRs) for Black students, while control schools had minimal change. Results are discussed in terms of improving equity in school discipline within multitiered systems of support. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Terapia Conductista , Grupos de Población Continentales , Humanos , Derivación y Consulta
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...