Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26.977
Filtrar
1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(9): 231-235, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134904

RESUMEN

From July 2009 to June 2018, the rates of multiple-victim, school-associated homicides in the United States fluctuated substantially, with evidence of a significant increase in recent years (1). Data on the effects of such incidents on students' school attendance and perceptions of safety and connectedness are limited (2,3) but important. This study used data from a neighboring within-district school before and after a multiple-fatality shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, on February 14, 2018. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by one group of students on February 14 just before the shooting (575) and another group during February 15-21 (502); demographics for these groups appeared similar. Linear and logistic regression analyses controlling for demographic characteristics explored differences between groups for safety-related perceptions or experiences, school connectedness, and absenteeism. Compared with students surveyed before the shooting, students surveyed in the days immediately following the shooting had lower odds of feeling safe at school, higher odds of absenteeism, and higher school connectedness scores. Findings suggest the shooting had an immediate, sizeable effect on safety perceptions and absenteeism among students in a neighboring school. Findings also suggest higher school connectedness following the shooting. Further study of school connectedness, including how to enhance and sustain it, might help schools and communities better respond to traumatic events in the community.


Asunto(s)
Violencia con Armas , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología , Absentismo , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Florida , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Seguridad , Percepción Social , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
West Afr J Med ; 37(1): 62-66, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilo-sebaceous unit. It affects teenagers and young adults. Factors which can provoke or aggravate acne include cosmetic agents, medications, and sunlight. Acne has been associated with intense emotional and psychological distress. AIMS: This study aimed to describe predisposing factors, clinical characteristics and the quality of life of students with acne in an undergraduate community. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive study of students of Babcock University, located in the South-Western Nigeria. Data was collected at the residential halls using structured questionnaire which consists of students' demographic data, symptoms, predisposing factors, previous treatment, Cardiff Acne Disability Index; and examination findings to document the presence of acne and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Acne vulgaris was documented in 391 students (88.5%). Age range of respondents was between 15 and 35, and mean age was 19.51 + 2.25 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 47.46 + 38.27 months. Factors perceived to precipitate acne include food, stress, cleansers and sugary drinks. The mean CADI score for all respondents was 3.27 +3.07 which represents a mild effect on the quality of life. There was no significant difference in the severity of acne in males and females. CONCLUSION: This study documents a high prevalence of acne, although it has only a mild effect on the quality of life of the students. In view of the high percentage of students with acne, it should be penned down for public health intervention to prevent mismanagement, progression and complications.


Asunto(s)
Acné Vulgar/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Acné Vulgar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distribución por Sexo , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19148, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental health knowledge is an important part of mental health literacy, which is related to one's attitude and coping style when facing mental illness. The awareness rate of mental health knowledge among adolescents is an effective index to evaluate the effect of school mental health education, and the awareness rate of mental health knowledge among Chinese adolescents has not been effectively evaluated. METHODS: Two electronic databases for English language and 3 electronic databases for Chinese language were searched for relevant studies. Meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the awareness rate among Chinese adolescents. The normal distribution test was conducted using 5 methods. Homogeneity test was conducted, and I > 50% indicates existence of heterogeneity and in this case, the random model was adopted; otherwise, we adopt the fixed model. Funnel plot and Egger test was used to confirm whether publication bias existed. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in this study, comprising 22,164 students from different stages of education (10,437 senior middle-school students, 5589 junior middle-school students, and 6138 college students). The awareness rate of mental health knowledge among Chinese adolescents was only 66%; for university students and middle-school students, their awareness rate was 73% and 61%, respectively. The awareness rate among senior middle-school students was as low as that of junior middle-school students. The awareness rate among college students in developed regions was higher than that in developing regions. CONCLUSIONS: The awareness rate of mental health knowledge among Chinese adolescents was lower than the goal set in the national mental health work plan. There are gaps in mental health education in different developed areas. The mental health education among adolescent in Chinese mainland needs to be further strengthened.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Salud Mental , Adolescente , China , Humanos , Estudiantes/psicología
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 144-148, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074700

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the interaction of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students. Methods: From November 2015 to January 2016, 22 628 middle school students from Shenyang of Liaoning Province, Bengbu of Anhui Province, Xinxiang of Henan Province, Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Chongqing Municipality, and Yangjiang of Guangdong Province were enrolled by using the multi-stage cluster convenience sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect the data including demographic information, health literacy, second-hand smoke exposure, and psychopathological symptoms. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the interaction of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students. Results: The age of students was (15.36±1.79) years old, of which 10 990 were boys, accounting for 48.6% of total students. The detection rate of psychopathological symptoms was 29.1% (6 581/22 628). The detection rate of psychopathological symptoms in those who were exposed to second-hand smoke was 38.1% (2 401/6 304), which was higher than that in the non-second-hand smoke exposure group [25.6% (4 180/16 324)] (P<0.001). The OR (95%CI) of the interaction between medium and low levels of overall health literacy, low level of interpersonal dimension of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure was 1.19 (1.15-1.24), 2.00 (1.92-2.10) and 1.59 (1.52-1.66), respectively. Conclusion: There was a positive interaction between middle and low levels of overall health literacy, low level of interpersonal dimension of health literacy and second-hand smoke exposure on psychopathological symptoms of middle school students.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e18774, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028389

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The study's objective was to determine the efficacy of guided internet-assisted intervention (GIAI) on depression reduction among educational technology students of Nigerian universities. METHODS: The design of the study was a 10-weeks group-randomized trial (GRT) which involved a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up assessment. A total of 192 educational technology students who were identified as having depression formed the sample of the study. Beck's Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was the measure used for data collection in the study. Data collected were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures. RESULTS: The initial assessment results showed that the participants in both treatment and usual-care control groups had depression. After 10-weeks participation in GIAI, the assessment results showed a significant reduction in depression among students in the treatment group when compared to those in the usual-care control group. The follow-up assessment indicated a further significant reduction in the depression among participants in the treatment group when compared to those in the usual-care control group. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that GIAI was significantly effective in reducing depression among university students in the treatment group compared to those in the usual-care control group. Therefore, educational technologists, counselors, psychologists, health workers, and other social workers should adopt educational intervention using GIAI in helping university students undergo depression reduction.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Estudiantes/psicología , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Tecnología Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Nigeria , Psicometría , Resultado del Tratamiento , Universidades , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 20, 2020 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social capital is generally portrayed to be protective of adolescents' health and wellbeing against the effects of socioeconomic inequalities. However, few empirical evidence exist on this protective role of social capital regarding adolescents' wellbeing in the low-and middle-income country (LMIC) context. This study examines the potential for social capital to be a protective health resource by investigating whether social capital can mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and wellbeing of Ghanaian adolescents. It also examines how SES and social capital relate to different dimensions of adolescents' wellbeing in different social contexts. METHODS: The study employed a cross-sectional survey involving a randomly selected 2068 adolescents (13-18 years) from 15 schools (8 Senior and 7 Junior High Schools) in Ghana. Relationships were assessed using multivariate regression models. RESULTS: Three measures of familial social capital (family sense of belonging, family autonomy support, and family control) were found to be important protective factors of both adolescents' life satisfaction and happiness against the effects of socioeconomic status. One measure of school social capital (school sense of belonging) was found to augment adolescents' wellbeing but played no mediating role in the SES-wellbeing relationship. A proportion of about 69 and 42% of the total effect of SES on happiness and life satisfaction were mediated by social capital respectively. Moreover, there were variations in how SES and social capital related to the different dimensions of adolescents' wellbeing. CONCLUSION: Social capital is a significant mechanism through which SES impacts the wellbeing of adolescents. Social capital is a potential protective health resource that can be utilised by public health policy to promote adolescents' wellbeing irrespective of socioeconomic inequalities. Moreover, the role of the family (home) in promoting adolescents' wellbeing is superior to that of school which prompts targeted policy interventions. For a holistic assessment of adolescents' subjective wellbeing, both life evaluations (life satisfaction) and positive emotions (happiness) should be assessed concomitantly.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Bienestar del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Capital Social , Clase Social , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Masculino
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 3, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907016

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: University postgraduates' mobility towards, and outside the EU is continuously increasing, creating a competitive context in which maintaining a high life satisfaction (LS) is a public health challenge. However, the relationship between LS and its determinants among this population are under-documented. Our aims were to measure LS indicators of mobile postgraduates (Intra EU: Who pursue part of their studies in Europe; Outside EU: Who study outside of Europe) versus non-mobile (pursue their studies in Luxembourg), and to analyze the associations between LS and career attitudes, socioeconomic characteristics, and health-related factors for each group. METHOD: Six hundred and sixty-four (644) students obtained financial aid from the Luxembourgish government independent of their family's socioeconomic situation. Contacted by post, they completed an online questionnaire. Analyses included a multiple linear regression model in which only significant relationships (p < 0.05) were used. RESULTS: Three groups were created: Mobile intra EU (n = 381), mobile outside EU (n = 43) and non-mobile (n = 66) postgraduates. Health satisfaction was positively linked to LS, in all groups. Among the mobile outside EU group, majority (63.2%) were men and 57.9% did not live alone - health was the only determinant which contributed to their LS. Among the mobile intra EU, majority (57.8%) were women, and 64.3% not living alone. Autonomy and career adaptability attitudes were positively associated with their LS (b: 0.210 and 0.119, respectively), whereas the worry factor was negatively (b: - 0.153 and -0.159) associated. The non-mobile, were the oldest of the three groups. Majority (51.6%) were women, and 93.7% did not live alone. Career optimism and planning attitudes were positively correlated to their LS (regression parameter estimates (b: 0.400 and 0.212, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be devoted to the LS of local and cosmopolitan students, as it seems to be a relevant health indicator. Overall, the farther the mobility was, the higher the postgraduates' general LS (8.5/10) was; this indicator was higher than the LS indicator for the age group 25-34 years 7.53/10 (EU-28, in 2013). University' services could promote the development of career projects and the promotion of health to enhance postgraduates' LS. University policy makers need to ensure this for all students.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado , Intercambio Educacional Internacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción Personal , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Estudios Transversales , Unión Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18514, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study will assess the effects of the project-based learning (PBL) for participants undergoing clinical oncology teaching (COT). METHODS: A systematic and comprehensive literature records will be identified from the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Springer, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All electronic databases will be searched from their inceptions up to the present. Any relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of PBL in participants receiving COT will be considered for inclusion. Study quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RevMan 5.3 software will be utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will assess the effects of PBL in participants receiving COT through assessing the primary outcomes of psychological disorders, student satisfaction, and student feedback, and secondary outcomes of examination scores, excellence rates, course examination pass rates, and clinical knowledge or skills. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will summarize the latest evidence on the effects of PBL in participants receiving in COT. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019150433.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Oncología Médica/educación , Estudiantes/psicología , China/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Satisfacción Personal , Investigación Cualitativa , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza/normas
11.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(1): 20-23, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964439

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the knowledge of first year health sciences students at a South African university regarding hearing loss and symptoms attributable to personal listening devices and their practices concerning the use of personal listening devices. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study carried out using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 336 students, 269 (80.1 per cent) completed the questionnaire. While most participants could identify symptoms that could be caused by extensive use of personal listening devices, almost 30 per cent did not know that it could cause permanent hearing loss. Personal listening devices were used by 90.7 per cent of participants, with 77.8 per cent having used them for more than five years. Use was at a high volume in 14.9 per cent of participants and for more than 2 hours per day in 52.7 per cent. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate the need for an educational programme to inform students as to safe listening practices when using personal listening devices.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida Auditiva Provocada por Ruido/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Percepción Sonora , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Joven
12.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e124, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994597

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the association of demographic conditions, socioeconomic status, clinical variables, and psychosocial factors with the number of filled teeth in adolescents from public schools. This cohort study comprised 1,134 12-year-old adolescents enrolled in public schools in Santa Maria, Brazil, in 2012. They were followed-up in 2014, where 743 individuals were reassessed (follow-up rate of 65.52%) for the number of filled teeth. Data were collected via dental examinations and structured interviews. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected from parents or legal guardians. The psychosocial factor comprised students' subjective measurement of happiness (Brazilian version of the Subjective Happiness Scale - SHS). Dental examinations were performed to assess the number of filled teeth through decay, missing, and filled teeth index (DMF-T). Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed to assess the association between baseline variables and filled teeth at follow-up. The number of filled teeth in 2012 and 2014 were 193 (17.02%) and 235 (31.63%), respectively. The incidence of filled teeth in 2014 was 42 (5.65%). Adolescents with untreated dental caries, those who visited the dentist in the last 6 months, those that exhibited being happier, and those who had filled teeth at baseline were associated with a higher number of filled teeth at follow-up. We conclude that the number of filled teeth in adolescents was influenced by clinical and psychosocial factors, emphasizing the need to focus on oral health policies in individuals with higher disease burden and those who feel psychologically inferior.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas de Salud Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Restauración Dental Permanente/estadística & datos numéricos , Sector Público/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/terapia , Servicios de Salud Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Restauración Dental Permanente/psicología , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes/psicología
13.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(1): 45-51, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386825

RESUMEN

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical and mental well-being and physical activity with dental fear among university students in Finland.Methods: We used the 2016 data from the Finnish student health survey (n = 3090). Perceived physical and mental well-being was ascertained with the questions 'How would you describe your current state of physical well-being?' and 'How would you describe your current state of mental well-being'. Dental fear was inquired with question 'Do you feel scared about dental care?' Associations between physical and mental well-being and dental fear were analyzed with cross tabulations and logistic regression analysis.Results: When controlling for age, gender, educational sector, tobacco and alcohol use, those reporting poor or moderate physical or mental well-being were more likely to have high dental fear than were those reporting good physical or mental well-being.Conclusions: In addition to mental well-being, physical well-being was also associated with dental fear; those with poor or moderate physical well-being were more likely to have dental fear than were those with good physical well-being.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico , Ejercicio , Estado de Salud , Salud Mental , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Finlandia , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Universidades , Adulto Joven
14.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 15-37, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361210

RESUMEN

Bystanders represent one major avenue for reducing the incidence and severity of social exclusion, yet little research has examined behavioral measurement of bystander intervention. Utilizing the most common low risk form of exclusion, this study examined how group membership impacts college students' behavioral response to a peer's social exclusion through an Internet-based ball tossing game (N = 121). Participants played the game with three other virtual players, in which two of these players excluded the third player. Results demonstrated increased inclusive behavior towards the excluded peer across study conditions. This inclusion was strengthened when the excluded player was in the participant's in-group. Participants displayed an initial preference for in-group members, although attitudes towards all peers improved after the shared activity. Findings point to the interaction of social norms of inclusion, group membership, and changes in familiarity in determining bystander responses to social exclusion. In low-risk exclusion, group membership maintains an impact but does not provide sufficient motivation to counteract the social norm of inclusivity. The implication of bystander actions for promotion of community and future research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Procesos de Grupo , Grupo Paritario , Distancia Social , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Actitud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Normas Sociales , Adulto Joven
15.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 1-14, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343957

RESUMEN

Leader emergence was regressed on five factor model (FFM; NEO Five-Factor Inventory) traits and four additional traits (achievement, dominance, aggression, and Machiavellianism) in a sample of 280 undergraduates (229 women (82%), 51 men; M age = 19.7 (SD = 1.4). The Jackson Personality Research Form (Jackson, Personality research form manual (3rd ed.). Port Huron, MI: Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc.) measured achievement, dominance, and aggression. Christie and Geis' (Studies in machiavellianism. San Diego: Academic Press) Mach IV scale measured Machiavellianism. In an independent groups analysis, six of the nine traits showed significant differences, indicating that leaders are less neurotic and Machiavellian, and more extroverted, open, agreeable, and dominant. However, in a logistic regression analysis, which controlled for shared variance among traits, only extraversion, openness, and dominance predicted leader emergence. Previous studies that did not use regression models showed significant differences for a large number of traits. Results from the present study indicate the importance of accounting for shared variance when analyzing personality traits in order to develop parsimonious models.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Personalidad , Estudiantes/psicología , Logro , Agresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Masculino , Inventario de Personalidad , Adulto Joven
16.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 43-50, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730421

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Student-athletes are subject to significant demands due to their concurrent sporting and academic commitments, which may affect their sleep. This study aimed to compare the self-reported sleep quality, quantity, and intraindividual variability (IIV) of students and student-athletes through an online survey. HYPOTHESIS: Student-athletes will have a poorer sleep quality and quantity and experience more IIV. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while sleep quantity and IIV were assessed using the Consensus Sleep Diary. Initially, the PSQI and additional questions regarding sport participation habits were completed by 138 participants (65 students, 73 student-athletes). From within this sample, 44 participants were recruited to complete the sleep diary for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: The mean PSQI score was 6.89 ± 3.03, with 65% of the sample identified as poor sleepers, but no difference was observed between students and student-athletes. Analysis of sleep patterns showed only possibly to likely small differences in sleep schedule, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality between groups. IIV analysis showed likely moderate to possibly small differences between groups, suggesting more variable sleep patterns among student-athletes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that sleep issues are prevalent within the university student population and that student-athletes may be at greater risk due to more variable sleep patterns. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: University coaches should consider these results to optimize sleep habits of their student-athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Sueño , Estudiantes/psicología , Rendimiento Académico , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Autoinforme , Latencia del Sueño , Estrés Psicológico , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
17.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 56-68, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920945

RESUMEN

Clinical reasoning is an important skill for veterinary students to develop before graduation. Simulation has been studied in medical education as a method for developing clinical reasoning in students, but evidence supporting it is limited. This study involved the creation of a contextualized, standardized client simulation session that aimed to improve the clinical reasoning ability and confidence of final-year veterinary students. Sixty-eight participants completed three simulated primary-care consultations, with the client played by an actor and the pet by a healthy animal. Survey data showed that all participants felt that the session improved their clinical decision-making ability. Quantitative clinical reasoning self-assessment, performed using a validated rubric, triangulated this finding, showing an improvement in students' perception of several components of their clinical reasoning skill level from before the simulation to after it. Blinded researcher analysis of the consultation video recordings found that students showed a significant increase in ability on the history-taking and making-sense-of-data (including formation of a differential diagnosis) components of the assessment rubric. Thirty students took part in focus groups investigating their experience with the simulation. Two themes arose from thematic analysis of these data: variety of reasoning methods and "It's a different way of thinking." The latter highlights differences between the decision making students practice during their time in education and the decision making they will use once they are in practice. Our findings suggest that simulation can be used to develop clinical reasoning in veterinary students, and they demonstrate the need for further research in this area.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Educación en Veterinaria , Entrenamiento Simulado , Animales , Toma de Decisiones , Educación en Veterinaria/métodos , Humanos , Solución de Problemas , Entrenamiento Simulado/normas , Estudiantes/psicología , Pensamiento
18.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 117-124, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009300

RESUMEN

The stress of veterinary students ranges from the financial stress associated with high student loan debt combined with possible credit card debt, to relational stress due to lack of time to commit to social activities, to uncertainty regarding the ability to perform at the highest level. While this study considers a multifaceted approach to veterinary student stress and ultimate depressive symptoms, the focus is on the financial stress. A common strategy for reducing debt is to increase financial literacy. While this has the potential to help, it is not the sole solution given that students opt into the program for non-financial reasons. A path analysis was used to explore the predictors of financial satisfaction (the inverse of financial stress). The results were then used to predict depression among pre-vet and veterinary students in combination with relationship stress and demographic characteristics. Results indicate that current and expected student loan debt negatively influence financial satisfaction of pre-veterinary and veterinary students. Lower financial and relational satisfaction predict depressive symptoms among students. Among pre-veterinary students, feeling less intelligent than peers and being a sophomore versus a freshman is associated with depressive symptoms. Among current veterinary students, third-year students are more likely to report depressive symptoms than first-year students.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Veterinaria , Administración Financiera , Estrés Psicológico , Veterinarios , Educación en Veterinaria/economía , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional , Veterinarios/economía
19.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(1): 25-32, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050585

RESUMEN

Objective: Research on the dissemination of e-mental health interventions is in an early stage, so that little is known about the reach, costs, participant characteristics, and patterns of program utilization associated with different recruitment strategies and access paths. This study investigated differences between user groups informed about an Internet-based program for the prevention and early intervention in eating disorders via different recruitment channels. Method: Participant characteristics and user behavior of 3548 participants in the Internet-based program ProYouth were analyzed. Participants were informed about ProYouth via different channels (e. g., print materials, high school, Internet). Results: Results indicate significant relationships between access paths and both user characteristics and program utilization. Participants who were informed about ProYouth at their high schools were more likely to be male, younger, and at lower risk of developing eating disorders. In contrast, other recruitment channels (e. g., Internet, print materials) resulted in participants with significantly higher risk and symptom levels who used the program more frequently and with higher intensity. Conclusion: Efforts aimed at the dissemination of Internet-based interventions should consider the effects that different recruitment channels and access paths may have on sample composition and utilization of the intervention.


Asunto(s)
Intervención Médica Temprana , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/prevención & control , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/terapia , Internet , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología
20.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 398-416, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403565

RESUMEN

This study asks, What are the material conditions under which queer studies is done in the academy? It finds a longstanding association of queer studies with the well-resourced, selective colleges and flagship campuses that are the drivers of class and race stratification in higher education in the U.S. That is, the field of queer studies, as a recognizable academic formation, has been structured by the material and intellectual resources of precisely those institutions that most steadfastly refuse to adequately serve poor and minority students, including poor and minority queer students. In response, "poor queer studies" calls for a critical reorientation of queer studies toward working-poor schools, students, theories, and pedagogies. Taking the College of Staten Island, CUNY as a case study, it argues for structural crossing over or "queer-class ferrying" between high-status institutions that have so brilliantly dominated queer studies' history and low-status worksites of poor queer studies.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Grupos de Población Continentales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/educación , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA