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2.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The German National Cohort (NAKO) is an interdisciplinary health study aimed at elucidating causes for common chronic diseases and detecting their preclinical stages. This article provides an overview of design, methods, participation in the examinations, and their quality assurance based on the midterm baseline dataset (MBD) of the recruitment. METHODS: More than 200,000 women and men aged 20-69 years derived from random samples of the German general population were recruited in 18 study centers (2014-2019). The data collection comprised physical examinations, standardized interviews and questionnaires, and the collection of biomedical samples for all participants (level 1). At least 20% of all participants received additional in-depth examinations (level 2), and 30,000 received whole-body magnet resonance imaging (MRI). Additional information will be collected through secondary data sources such as medical registries, health insurances, and pension funds. This overview is based on the MBD, which included 101,839 participants, of whom 11,371 received an MRI. RESULTS: The mean response proportion was 18%. The participation in the examinations was high with most of the modules performed by over 95%. Among MRI participants, 96% completed all 12 MRI sequences. More than 90% of the participants agreed to the use of complementary secondary and registry data. DISCUSSION: Individuals selected for the NAKO were willing to participate in all examinations despite the time-consuming program. The NAKO provides a central resource for population-based epidemiologic research and will contribute to developing innovative strategies for prevention, screening and prediction of chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Joven
3.
Community Dent Health ; 37(1): 84-89, 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031350

RESUMEN

Confounding can make an association seem bigger when the true effect is smaller or vice-versa and it can also make it appear negative when it may actually be positive. In short, both the direction and the magnitude of an association are dependent on confounding. Therefore, understanding and adjusting for confounding in epidemiological research is central to addressing whether an observed association is causal or not. Moreover, unmeasured confounding in observational studies can give rise to biased estimates. Several techniques have been developed to account for bias and conducting sensitivity analysis. Using an hypothetical example this paper illustrates application of simple methods for conducting sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounder(s).


Asunto(s)
Salud Bucal , Sesgo , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos
4.
Med Lav ; 111(1): 10-21, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096769

RESUMEN

Three types of issues need to be considered in the application of epidemiology results to individuals. First, epidemiology results are subject to random error, and can be applied only to an ideal subject with average values of all variables under study, including potential confounders included in the regression models. Second, the observational nature of epidemiology makes it susceptible to systematic error, and any extrapolation to individuals would mirror the validity of the original results. Quantitative bias analysis has been proposed to assess the likelihood, direction and magnitude of bias, but this has not yet become part of the normal practice of epidemiology. Finally, external validity of the results (i.e., their application to individuals and populations other than those included in the underlying studies) needs to be addressed, including population-based factors, such as heterogeneity in exposure or disease circumstances, and individual-based factors, such as interaction of the risk factors of interest with other determinants of the disease. Similar considerations apply to the application of results of clinical trials to individual patients, although in these studies sources of systematic error are better controlled.


Asunto(s)
Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Atención al Paciente , Factores de Riesgo
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062933

RESUMEN

Epidemiology is a discipline integrating methodology and applied science, whose mission is to prevent and control diseases and promote health. This review introduces the new progress of epidemiology from five aspects: communicable diseases, chronic diseases, systems epidemiology, implementation research and big data of health care. New projects and constantly emerging technologies in the field of infectious diseases are inspiring, while more attention should be paid to the environmental factors of pathogen variation. In the field of chronic diseases, there is an urgent need to study the multimorbidity of the elderly. The role of infectious inducers and human microbiota in the occurrence and development of chronic diseases has been gradually revealed. Systems epidemiology, which is of great significance to achieve precision prevention is a new branch and an important supplement of modern epidemiology. Implementation research, is a bridge connecting basic scientific research and public health practice and will provide evidence to support the effective implementation of the Health China Action Plan. The development of health care big data is based on digital public health, which provides a broad research platform and abundant data resources for epidemiology, and will promote the fundamental transformation of the service and management mode of public health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Anciano , China , Humanos , Salud Pública , Práctica de Salud Pública
7.
9.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 41(1): 34-40, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742723

RESUMEN

Buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the health effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs). Previous studies have shown that ELF MF exposure can be adequately assessed based on the fact that MF levels are high in apartments directly above transformers. In this paper, we describe the creation of a registry of Finnish residential buildings with built-in transformer stations and discuss its usability in epidemiological studies. Information obtained from electric utilities and building blueprints were used to identify 677 buildings in which an apartment was located above or adjacent to a transformer station. All apartments in these buildings were classified into exposure categories based on their location in relation to the transformer. Residential histories of these buildings were obtained from the Population Register Centre. Out of the 287,668 individuals who have resided in the buildings, 9,126 of them have resided in an apartment located directly above a transformer station. All information was collected without contacting residents, thus avoiding selection bias. The registry can be linked with data from high-quality nationwide registries to confirm or challenge the reported associations of ELF MF exposure and diseases such as cancer, miscarriage, and Alzheimer's disease. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020;41:34-40 © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.


Asunto(s)
Suministros de Energía Eléctrica/efectos adversos , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Campos Magnéticos/efectos adversos , Monitoreo de Radiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Electricidad , Vivienda , Humanos , Dosis de Radiación , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 44: 35-47, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852763

RESUMEN

Certain infectious agents can target the brain and interfere with its growth, development, and/or function. A number of studies indicate that exposure to common infectious agents during fetal and postnatal life may also contribute to the later development of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses. Epidemiological studies of maternal infections during pregnancy have provided somewhat contradictory results with regard to infections in general but have reported surprisingly consistent associations with specific maternal exposures such as Toxoplasma gondii. Childhood is also beginning to emerge as a sensitive period for the influence of infections including infectious agents not known to target the brain. Recent studies have associated childhood infections not only with a later diagnosis of schizophrenia but also with impaired cognitive function. Importantly, independent studies indicate that the associations between early life infection and the later development of schizophrenia are not explained by factors shared between related individuals or by genetic liability for schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo , Niño , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , /epidemiología , Embarazo , Esquizofrenia/microbiología , Toxoplasmosis/complicaciones
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134463, 2020 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704405

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies have discovered the adverse health impacts of ambient ozone. Most epidemiological studies explore the relationship between ambient ozone and health effects based on fixed site monitoring data. Fine modeling of ground-level ozone exposure conducted by statistical models has great advantages for improving exposure accuracy and reducing exposure bias. However, there is no review summarizing such studies. OBJECTIVES: A review is presented to summarize the basic process of model development and to provide some suggestions for researchers. METHODS: A search of PubMed, Web of Science and the Wanfang Database was performed for dates through July 1, 2019 to obtain relevant studies worldwide. We also examined the references of the articles of interest to ensure that as many articles as possible were included. RESULTS: The land use regression model (LUR model), random forest model and artificial neural network model have been used in this field. We summarized these studies in terms of model selection, data preparation, simulation scale selection, and model establishment and validation. Multiparameters are a major feature of models. Parameters that influence the formation of ground-level ozone concentrations and parameters that have been extremely important in previous articles should be considered first. The process of model establishment and validation is essentially a process of continuously optimizing the model performance, but there are certain differences in the specific models. CONCLUSION: This review summarized the basic process of the statistical model for ambient ozone exposure. We gave the applicable conditions and application scope of different models and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of various models in ozone modeling research. In the future, research is still needed to explore this area based on its own research purposes and capabilities.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Ozono/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Salud Ambiental , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
12.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124631, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524608

RESUMEN

There is an interdisciplinary interface between analytical chemistry and epidemiology studies with respect to the design, execution, and analysis of environmental epidemiology cohorts and studies. Extracting meaningful results linking chemical exposure to human health outcomes begins at study design and spans the entire workflow. Here we discuss analytical experimental design from an exposure science perspective, and propose a reporting checklist for the design of human biomonitoring studies. We explain key analytical chemistry concepts of blanks and limits of reporting and present a case series of plastic product chemical exposure in prenatal urine specimens from the Barwon Infant Study.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo/orina , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/orina , Fenoles/orina , Ácidos Ftálicos/orina , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Plásticos/síntesis química , Plásticos/química , Embarazo , Proyectos de Investigación
13.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 49(10): 972-984, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790152

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coffee and green tea, two popular drinks in the Japanese, have recently drawn much attention as potential protective factors against the occurrence of liver cancer. METHODS: We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies on coffee, green tea and liver cancer among Japanese populations. Original data were obtained by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Ichushi databases, complemented with manual searches. The evaluation was performed in terms of the magnitude of association in each study and the strength of evidence ('convincing', 'probable', 'possible', or 'insufficient'), together with biological plausibility. RESULTS: We identified four cohort and four case-control studies on coffee and liver cancer and six cohort and one case-control studies on green tea and liver cancer. All cohort and case-control studies on coffee reported a weak to strong inverse association, with a summary relative risk (RR) for one cup increase being 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.79). Conversely, all studies but two cohort studies on green tea reported no association, with a corresponding summary RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01, P = 0.37). CONCLUSION: Coffee drinking 'probably' decreases the risk of primary liver cancer among the Japanese population whereas the evidence on an association between green tea and liver cancer is 'insufficient' in this population.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Café/química , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Té/química , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190055, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826111

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Despite the low incidence rates of tuberculosis (TB) in the Federal District (FD), there are socioeconomic discrepancies allied to intense population growth in recent years, which demonstrates the need to study the trend of the disease in different regions of the FD. OBJECTIVE: To describe the trend of morbidity and mortality due to TB in the FD from 2006 to 2015. METHODS: Ecological study, with descriptive and analytical components, historical series type. RESULTS: There was a decreasing trend in incidence rates (IR) (from 15.1 per 100,000 inhabitants to 11.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, r = -0.50) and in the cure rate (from 86.0% to 74.7, r = -0.91); people experiencing homelessness and incarceration have relative risks from 5 to 16 times higher than the general population; higher IR were found in Paranoá (27.5 per 100,000 inhabitants) and in Estrutural (17.3 per 100,000 inhabitants), areas with poor socioeconomic indicators and demografic explosion during the study period. A higher mean lethality rate was found in Águas Claras (8.5%) and in Lago Sul (7.0%), regions that have a high concentration of homeless and elderly people. CONCLUSION: TB persists as an important public health problem in the FD, especially in impoverished areas, with significant population growth or a high concentration of elderly or vulnerable populations.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Sistemas de Información , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1426-1431, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838816

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E Virus antibody (anti-HEV) in people aged 1-29 years in China in 2014. Methods: Based on database of the national serologic survey of hepatitis B in people aged 1-29 years in China, in 2014, the sample size was estimated. The serum samples of the people surveyed were randomly selected to detect anti-HEV IgG by using enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical software SAS 9.1.3 was used to calculate the positive rate of anti-HEV and 95% confidence interval (CI) in different age, gender groups, urban and rural areas and geographic areas by using the Taylor series linear method with sampling weight. The difference was determined by comparing 95%CI. Results: A total of 14 106 serum samples were detected from people aged 1-29 years, including 6 996 males (49.60%), 7 013 urban residents (49.72%). The positive rate of anti-HEV was 8.12%(95%CI: 7.19-9.15) in people aged 1-29 years. There was no statistical difference between the men and women, between urban area and rural area. The positive rates of anti-HEV in western area(11.36%, 95%CI: 9.45-13.62) was higher than those in eastern and central areas. The positive rates of anti-HEV were 2.46%, 2.24%, 4.50%, 7.58%, 11.89% and 17.27% in people aged 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-29 years, respectively. As the age increased, the positive rate of anti-HEV gradually increased. In different ethnic groups, the positive rate of anti-HEV was higher in Tibetan (18.32%, 95%CI: 12.02-26.90), Zhuang (9.54%, 95%CI: 4.33-19.73) ethnic groups. Conclusion: The positive rate of anti-HEV declined slightly in China in 2014. It is still necessary to pay close attention to the HEV infection, morbidity of hepatitis E and risk factors in people aged 1-29 years.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihepatitis/sangre , Virus de la Hepatitis E/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis E/epidemiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Hepatitis E/sangre , Hepatitis E/inmunología , Virus de la Hepatitis E/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Lactante , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Proteínas Virales/inmunología , Adulto Joven
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1481-1486, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838825

RESUMEN

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between anthropometric indicators and gastric cancer, but the results were inconsistent. Therefore, a literature retrieval was conducted by using PubMed and Wanfang databases to summarize the latest research progress in the cohort study of the association between anthropometric indicators and the risk for gastric cancer. It was found that both general obesity and abdominal obesity might increase the risk for gastric cancer, while the association between underweight and gastric cancer needs further study. This paper summarizes the progress in the cohort study of association between anthropometric indicators for the risk for gastric cancer in order to provide evidence for the prevention and control of gastric cancer.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1074, 2019 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864293

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, there has been an increase in the incidence of scarlet fever across China. The main objective of this study was to depict the spatiotemporal epidemiological characteristics of the incidence of scarlet fever in Shenyang, China, in 2018 so as to provide the scientific basis for effective strategies of scarlet control and prevention. METHODS: Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the month level and ArcGIS10.3 was used to demonstrate the spatial distribution at the district/county level. Moran's autocorrelation coefficient was used to examine the spatial autocorrelation and the Getis-Ord statistic was used to determine the hot-spot areas of scarlet fever. RESULTS: A total of 2314 scarlet fever cases were reported in Shenyang in 2018 with an annual incidence of 31.24 per 100,000. The incidence among males was higher than that among females(p<0.001). A vast majority of the cases (96.89%) were among children aged 3 to 11 years. The highest incidence was 625.34/100,000 in children aged 5-9 years. In 2018 there were two seasonal peaks of scarlet fever in June (summer-peak) and December (winter-peak). The incidence of scarlet fever in urban areas was significantly higher than that in rural areas(p<0.001). The incidence of scarlet fever was randomly distributed in Shenyang. There are hotspot areas located in seven districts. CONCLUSIONS: Urban areas are the hot spots of scarlet fever and joint prevention and control measures between districts should be applied. Children aged 3-11 are the main source of scarlet fever and therefore the introduction of prevention and control into kindergarten and primary schools may be key to the control of scarlet fever epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Escarlatina/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
19.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46885

RESUMEN

Ao contrário do que ocorre em todas as partes do mundo, inclusive no restante do Brasil, na região de Ribeirão Preto, interior de SP, a mortalidade materna atinge mais as mulheres brancas, com oito anos ou mais de estudo, profissionais empregadas e, a maioria, em primeira gestação. Esse foi o perfil destacado por um estudo da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto (EERP) da USP sobre a epidemiologia da mortalidade materna na região de Ribeirão Preto


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Materna , Embarazo , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Complicaciones del Embarazo
20.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(5): 541-546, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721505

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We provided baseline data for oral public health through epidemiological surveys to investigate the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment proportion in 12- to 14-year-old adolescents in Jiangxi province, China. METHODS: Multi-stage random cluster sampling was used. A total of 5 387 12- to 14-year-old adolescents were examined by three professional dentists according to Angle's classification of malocclusion. The subjects were recruited from 30 secondary schools in five counties in Jiangxi Province. Results were statistically analyzed by SPSS19.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of malocclusion was 79.67% among adolescents aged 12-14 years in Jiangxi province. The composition ratios of ClassⅠ, Class Ⅱ Division 1, Class Ⅱ Division 2, and Class Ⅲ malocclusion were 30.96%, 16.36%, 12.78%, and 19.13% respectively. ClassⅠmalocclusion had the highest composition ratio, and the most common clinical manifestation of malocclusion was dentition crowding with a prevalence of 91.30%. The prevalence rate of malocclusion was higher in boys than in girls at 81.16% and 78.21%, respectively (P<0.05). This condition had different prevalence rates in Nanchang, Yichun, Jiujiang, Shangrao, and Ganzhou (P<0.05) with the highest in Nanchang and lowest in Ganzhou. Malocclusion was related to caries, and its prevalence rate was higher in patients with caries than in those without caries (P<0.05). The orthodontic rate of malocclusion was 2.63%, and the value was higher for girls than that for boys (P<0.05). The rate of orthodontic in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with local and international findings on malocclusion of adolescents, high prevalence and low orthodontic rate were found in Jiangxi province. Strengthening the combination of prevention and treatment is important for the physical and mental health of adolescents. We should actively conduct oral health education, popularize the knowledge of malocclusion, and actively treat caries.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Maloclusión , Adolescente , Niño , China , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia
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