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1.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104118, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309430

RESUMEN

A longitudinal study was conducted in five conventional broiler farms during a 2-year period to determine the dynamics of Campylobacter infection in a warm climate region (north-eastern Spain). Weekly sampling of 63 flocks was performed upon one-day-old chick placement, including animal and environmental samples. Campylobacter spp. detection was assessed by culture and non-culture methods. Environmental samples were also obtained from cleaned and disinfected houses prior to chick placement. Thirty-nine flocks (61.90%) became colonized during the growing period. First bird excreting Campylobacter was detected in 10-day-old chicks and the earliest a whole flock became positive was at 14 days of age, while the latest was at 39 days. Once Campylobacter was detected in chickens, the whole flock was colonized within 2-13 days. Campylobacter farm prevalence (positive flocks) ranged from 53.85% to 83.33% in four out of five farms, while the remaining farm showed a lower prevalence (38.5%). Logistic regression model showed that Campylobacter infection was more likely under higher minimal indoor temperature as well as at higher minimal outdoor relative humidity, characteristic of warm climates such as those from Mediterranean countries. Ventilation type was also significant (P = 0.021). No clear farm effect or seasonality were observed. Biosecurity improvements, specially at house level, are needed in broiler farms to prevent flock colonization and reduce the current high flock prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Pollos , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/veterinaria , Granjas , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Temperatura , Humedad , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Prevalencia
2.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 32(1): 21-42, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410904

RESUMEN

Research examining associations between frequent cannabis use in adolescence and brain-behavior outcomes has increased substantially over the past 2 decades. This review attempts to synthesize the state of evidence in this area of research while acknowledging challenges in interpretation. Although there is converging evidence that ongoing, frequent cannabis use in adolescence is associated with small reductions in cognitive functioning, there is still significant debate regarding the persistence of reductions after a period of abstinence. Similarly, there is controversy regarding the replicability of structural and functional neuroimaging findings related to frequent cannabis use in adolescence. Larger studies with informative designs are needed.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Adolescente , Humanos , Cannabis/efectos adversos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Longitudinales
3.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116449, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252329

RESUMEN

Climate change alters weather patterns and hydrological cycle, thus potentially aggravating water quality impairment. However, the direct relationships between climate variability and water quality are complicated by a multitude of hydrological and biochemical mechanisms dominate the process. Thus, little is known regarding how water quality responds to climate variability in the context of changing meteorological conditions and human activities. Here, a longitudinal study was conducted using trend, correlation, and redundancy analyses to explore stream water quality sensitivity to temperature, precipitation, streamflow, and how the sensitivity was affected by watershed climate, land cover percentage, landscape configuration, fertilizer application, and tillage types. Specifically, daily pollutant concentration data of suspended solid (SS), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate and nitrite (NOx), and chloride (Cl) were used as water quality indicators in four Lake Erie watersheds from 1985 to 2017, during which the average temperature has increased 0.5 °C and the total precipitation has increased 9%. Results show that precipitation and flow were positively associated with SRP, NOx, TKN, TP, and SS, except for SRP and NOx in the urban basin. The rising temperatures led to increasing concentrations of SS, TKN, and TP in the urban basin. SRP and NOx sensitivity to precipitation was higher in the years with more precipitation and higher precipitation seasonality, and the basins with more spatially aggregated cropland. No-tillage and reduced tillage management could decrease both precipitation and temperature sensitivity for most pollutants. As one of the first studies leveraging multiple watershed environmental variables with long-term historical climate and water quality data, this study can assist target land use planning and management policy to mitigate future climate change effects on surface water quality.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Calidad del Agua , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fósforo/análisis , Ríos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Cambio Climático
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159035, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted on the association between domestic solid fuel combustion and incident nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). We assessed the prospective association between domestic fuel type and incident nonfatal CVD among Chinese adults aged ≥45 years. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study using data from the China Longitudinal Study of Health and Retirement (CHARLS) that recruited 8803 participants ≥45 years in 2013. Household fuel types were assessed based on self-reports, including solid fuel (coal, crop residue, or wood fuel) and clean fuel (central heating, solar power, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, or marsh gas). Nonfatal CVD was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed nonfatal CVD. We established Cox proportional hazard regression models with age as the time scale and strata by sex to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of five years, 970 (11.02 %) nonfatal CVD cases were documented, including 423 (9.96 %) in males and 547 (12.01 %) in females. Participants with exposure to solid fuel for cooking and clean fuel for heating [HR (95 % CI):2.01 (1.36-2.96)], solid fuel for heating and clean fuel for cooking [HR (95 % CI):1.45 (1.06-1.99)], and solid fuel for both heating and cooking [HR (95 % CI):1.43 (1.07-1.92)] had an elevated nonfatal CVD risk compared to users of cleaner fuel for both cooking and heating. Those whom self-reported switching from solid fuels to cleaner fuels for cooking had significantly decreased nonfatal CVD risk [HR (95 % CI):0.76 (0.58-0.99)] than participants who did not switch to cleaner fuels. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to domestic solid fuel burning for cooking or heating is associated with an elevated nonfatal CVD risk. Notably, switching cooking fuels from solid to cleaner fuels is related to a reduced risk of nonfatal CVD.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , Jubilación , China/epidemiología , Culinaria
5.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 96-101, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273680

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Family conflict is a risk factor for suicidal behaviors among adolescents. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated this association and explored the mediation effect of behavioral and emotional problems. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association between family conflict, internalizing and externalizing problems, and suicidal behaviors in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. METHOD: This longitudinal study of 7,072 adolescents was based on the Shandong Adolescent Behavior & Health Cohort (SABHC). Participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire to assess family conflict, internalizing and externalizing problems, suicidal behaviors, and family demographics at baseline. Excluding adolescents with any suicidal behavior at baseline (N = 839), others (N = 6,233) were allowed to report their internalizing and externalizing problems and suicidal behaviors one-year later. Path analyses were conducted to examine the mediation relationship of internalizing and externalizing problems between family conflict and suicidal behaviors. RESULTS: Of 6,233 participants, mean age was 14.52 at baseline and 51.2% were males. Adolescents with subsequent suicidal behaviors reported higher scores in family conflict, internalizing and externalizing problems (Ps < 0.01). Path analyses showed that internalizing and externalizing problems played a significant mediating role in the associations of family conflict with suicidal behaviors after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Family conflict is associated with suicidal behaviors in adolescents, which is partially mediated by internalizing and externalizing problems. Internalizing problems is the major mediator between family conflict and suicidal thought or suicide plan; however, internalizing and externalizing problems play similar mediating roles in the family conflict-suicide attempt link.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conflicto Familiar , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Femenino , Conflicto Familiar/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Estudios Longitudinales , Intento de Suicidio , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , China
6.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 272-278, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280197

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is largely managed in primary care, but physicians vary widely in their understanding of symptoms and treatments. This study aims to better understand the evolution of depression from initial diagnosis over a 3-year period. METHODS: This was a noninterventional, retrospective, longitudinal study, with 2 waves of participant interviews approximately 3 years apart. Phone interviews were conducted using the hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) Sleep-EVAL system, an AI-driven diagnostic deep learning tool. Participants were noninstitutionalized adults representative of the general population in 8 US states. Diagnosis was confirmed according to the DSM-5 using the Sleep-EVAL System. RESULTS: 10,931 participants completed Wave 1 and 2 (W1, W2) interviews. The prevalence of MDD, including partial and complete remission, was 13.4 % and 19.6 % in W1 and W2, respectively. About 42 % of MDD participants at W1 continued to report depressive symptoms at W2. Approximately half of antidepressant (AD) users in W1 were moderately to completely dissatisfied with their treatment; 29.6 % changed their AD for a different one, with 16.4 % switching from one SSRI to another between W1 and W2. Primary care physicians were the top AD prescribers, both in W1 (45.7 %) and W2 (59%), respectively. LIMITATIONS: Data collected relied on self-reporting by participants. As such, the interpretation of the data may be limited. CONCLUSIONS: Depression affects a sizeable portion of the US population. Dissatisfaction with treatment, frequent switching of ADs, and changing care providers are associated with low rates of remission. Residual symptoms remain a challenge that future research must address.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Humanos , Adulto , Estudios Longitudinales , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Depresión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Inteligencia Artificial , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico
7.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 208-216, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349648

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has a high incidence in China, which may cause stroke and depression. However, the relationship between diabetes and the incidence of new-onset stroke and depression has not been fully studied. METHODS: The data from the China Longitudinal Study on Health and Retirement (CHARLS) from 2013 to 2018 were used. A total of 8530 respondents aged ≥45 years old were included in the follow-up study. Logistic regression model, Cox regression, and Mediation analyses were used to explore the association between diabetes, depression, and new-onset stroke. RESULTS: The depression score of patients with diabetes history was higher (HR,95%CI = 1.02, 1.01-1.04) and were more likely to experience new-onset stroke events (HR, 95%CI = 1.046, 1.02-1.07). With a history of hypertension (HR,95%CI = 1.747, 1.381-2.208), older (HR,95%CI = 1.033, 1.020-1.046) with high BMI (HR,95%CI = 1.056, 1.027-1.086) have a high risk of new-onset stroke. In the combined subgroup analysis, the incidence of new-onset stroke in the subgroup with diabetes depression was higher than in others. The mediating effect of depression on new-onset stroke events in diabetic patients is more pronounced in the medium to long term (>3 years) after adjusting covariates. LIMITATIONS: We defined new-onset stroke by patient self-report, there might be some memory bias. In addition, new-onset stroke was not classified in the CHARLS questionnaire, which would hinder us to evaluate the mediating effect of depression on different types of new-onset stroke. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that depression has a partial mediating effect between diabetes and new-onset stroke in the middle-aged and elderly population in China.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Jubilación , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios de Seguimiento , Depresión/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , China/epidemiología
8.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104820, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108360

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how graphical chain models can be used to model how cardiovascular disease affected quality of life in later life over the course of 17 years of data. METHODS: Waves 1-9 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing was used to investigate how quality of life changed over each wave using the CASP-19 questionnaire, and whether having experienced a cardiovascular event had an effect on quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 12,099 participants were included in the study. Participants had a mean age of 64.2 years, the majority of which were over 50 years old. Older people are more likely to have cardiac events. A one-unit rise in CES-D 8-item score was related with a 14% increased risk of CVD at Wave 1. Those with an O-level, A-level, or degree (or equivalent) had lower CVD risks than those with no education. Women had half the CVD risk of men. Living alone reduced the risk of a CVD-event by 15%. Moderate and vigorous exercise lowered cardiac event risk compared to no exercise. Current or ex-smokers have a 30% higher risk of CVD than non-smokers. Cardiovascular event was significantly associated with quality of life at waves 1 and 2 only. DISCUSSION: Events related to cardiovascular disease only affected quality of life in later life up to 4 years. Factors such as age, depression, perceived position on social ladder, and high levels of physical activity affected quality of life throughout the majority of waves.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Envejecimiento , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Estudios Longitudinales , Factores de Riesgo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Escolaridad , Fumar/efectos adversos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158843, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122716

RESUMEN

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is ubiquitous and moderately persistent in the environment, and it is an identified human carcinogen. Previous animal experiments indicate that toxic mechanisms of PCP include oxidative stress. However, no epidemiological study has reported the association between PCP exposure and oxidative stress; such association in pregnant women, a vulnerable population, is of particular interest. This study aimed to characterize PCP concentrations in 2304 urine samples from 768 pregnant women, explore its determinants, and evaluate the associations between PCP exposure and three oxidative stress biomarkers across three trimesters. The median concentrations of PCP (100% detected) in the first, second, and third trimester were 0.61, 0.59, and 0.48 ng/mL, respectively, with a significant decrease trend. The intraclass correlation coefficient of specific gravity (SG)-adjusted PCP was 0.26, indicating high variability for PCP across the three trimesters. PCP concentrations were significantly higher in older, pre-pregnancy overweight, multiparous, high-income, and employed women during pregnancy. Urinary PCP was markedly lower in samples collected during spring compared to other seasons. Linear mixed effect models for repeated measures revealed that ln-transformed SG-adjusted PCP was significantly associated with increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG; percent change [%Δ] caused by each interquartile range increase of PCP: 46.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.2, 52.5) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG;%Δ [95% CI]: 44.8 [40.1, 49.8]), but the positive association with 4-hydroxy2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA) was not significant. PCP was also positively associated with increased 8-OHdG and 8-OHG in each trimester using general linear models, and its associations with HNE-MA were only significant at T1 (%Δ [95% CI]: 19.1 [1.05, 40.3]) and T2 (%Δ [95% CI]: 12.6 [0.32, 26.3]). Our findings provide valuable information about PCP exposure characteristics during pregnancy and the potential effects of PCP exposure on oxidative stress in pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Pentaclorofenol , Humanos , Animales , Femenino , Embarazo , Anciano , Pentaclorofenol/toxicidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Mujeres Embarazadas , Biomarcadores/orina , Estrés Oxidativo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxicoguanosina , China
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158896, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The adverse health effects of household air pollution have been widely explored, but few studies have evaluated the effects of household air pollution on the risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CMM), a pressing public health concern worldwide. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether exposure to household use of polluting fuels is associated with morbid CMM and, if so, whether a healthy lifestyle could mitigate this association. METHODS: In this prospective, nationwide representative cohort of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), participants free of CMM (defined as the coexistence of 2 or more of the following: heart disease, stroke, and diabetes or high blood sugar) were included in 2011-2012 and followed for CMM incidence until 2018. Household air pollution was measured as the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating. The healthy lifestyle score was determined by six factors, physical activity, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure, and categorized into three groups (unhealthy, 0-1 factors; intermediate, 2-4; and healthy, 5-6). Cox proportional hazards models investigated associations between household air pollution and incident CMM. The potential modifier effect of a healthy lifestyle score was tested through stratified analyses. RESULTS: Among 7125 eligible participants, 239 incident cases of CMM were identified over a median follow-up of 7.0 years. After adjustment for potential confounders, the use of solid household fuels for heating was associated with more significant hazards of CMM (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.71, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.28), while use for cooking (HR, 1.14; 95 % CI, 0.85 to 1.52) was not. Compared with participants in the unhealthy group, those in the healthy and intermediate groups had considerably lower CMM risk, with adjusted HRs (95 % CI) of 0.17 (0.09 to 0.31) and 0.39 (0.29 to 0.53), respectively, regardless of the household air pollution category. Importantly, when participants adhered to a healthy lifestyle, exposure to household air pollution was no longer significantly associated with a higher risk of CMM (adjusted HR 1.77, 95 % CI 0.51 to 6.12; P = 0.369). CONCLUSIONS: Household usage of polluting fuels was significantly associated with a higher risk of CMM, and adherence to a healthy lifestyle may mitigate this adverse effect. From a broader perspective, our findings underscore the importance of public health policies and interventions targeting multiple exposures (air pollution, physical activity, smoking, etc.) in enhancing the prevention of detrimental cardiometabolic health effect.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Multimorbilidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Jubilación , Culinaria , Estilo de Vida Saludable , China/epidemiología
11.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 48-56, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162679

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between vegetarianism and depression is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between a meatless diet and the presence of depressive episodes among adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed with baseline data from the ELSA-Brasil cohort, which included 14,216 Brazilians aged 35 to 74 years. A meatless diet was defined from in a validated food frequency questionnaire. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) instrument was used to assess depressive episodes. The association between meatless diet and presence of depressive episodes was expressed as a prevalence ratio (PR), determined by Poisson regression adjusted for potentially confounding and/or mediating variables: sociodemographic parameters, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, several clinical variables, self-assessed health status, body mass index, micronutrient intake, protein, food processing level, daily energy intake, and changes in diet in the preceding 6 months. RESULTS: We found a positive association between the prevalence of depressive episodes and a meatless diet. Meat non-consumers experienced approximately twice the frequency of depressive episodes of meat consumers, PRs ranging from 2.05 (95%CI 1.00-4.18) in the crude model to 2.37 (95%CI 1.24-4.51) in the fully adjusted model. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design precluded the investigation of causal relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive episodes are more prevalent in individuals who do not eat meat, independently of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Nutrient deficiencies do not explain this association. The nature of the association remains unclear, and longitudinal data are needed to clarify causal relationship.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Dieta , Humanos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Prevalencia , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología
12.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 1-7, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162684

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how Bipolar Disorder (BD) affects employment is limited by cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal designs. The aims for this study are to examine condition-related and other clinical predictors of longitudinal employment status and stability in those with BD compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Participants were 358 individuals with BD and HC who were enrolled in the Heinz C. Prechter Longitudinal Study of BD. Participants completed self-report measurements of employment, symptoms, health, personality, life events, and neuropsychological tests at study enrollment, yearly and/or every two months. Repeated measures logistic regression was used to predict employment status and stability. RESULTS: Those with BD were less likely to be employed than HC. Significant predictors of unemployment in BD include having BD type I, younger age, less years with BD, higher depression, worse processing speed, and worse mental and physical health. Of those with BD, 64 % demonstrated greater employment instability compared to 37 % of HC. History of psychosis, worse memory, physical health, and greater disruption of negative life events significantly predicted employment instability. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this study include the generalizability of this sample, a large reliance of self-report measures, and a lack of employment-related factors such as job-type, functioning, performance, and satisfaction. Lastly, the effects of medication, treatment adherence, and treatment optimization were not assessed in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight that different aspects of BD are important for being employed versus maintaining stable employment. These findings indicate the need for more effective treatment strategies beyond symptom management.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Humanos , Trastorno Bipolar/epidemiología , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Transversales , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Empleo/psicología
13.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 57-64, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183815

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parents play a critical role in adolescents' psychological adjustment, especially in stress response. Few studies have investigated parental impact on adolescents' psychological adjustment in the pandemic. The longitudinal study examined how parental psychosocial factors at the surging period of the pandemic (T1) in China predicted adolescents' anxiety and depression concurrently and at the remission periods three (T2) and six months (T3) later. METHODS: Middle and high school students and their parents from three schools in Shanghai, China, completed online surveys on March 10, 2020 (T1), June 16, 2020 (T2), and Sep 25, 2020 (T3). Adolescents' anxiety/depression levels were assessed by matching self- and parent-reports at T1, T2, T3, and parents reported their psychological state (emotion and psychopathology), pandemic response (appraisal and coping), and perceived social support (PSS) at T1. RESULTS: Parental positive/negative emotions, anxiety, depression, control-appraisal, forward- and trauma-focus coping style and PSS were all significantly related to their children's anxiety/depression at T1. All factors, except coping style, predicted adolescents' anxiety/depression at T2 and T3, even after controlling for T1 adjustment levels. Parental positive emotion and depression had the strongest impact on adolescents' adjustment. LIMITATIONS: Some participants didn't complete the surveys at later time points, and the participants were only recruited in Shanghai. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that parents' psychosocial factors played a pivotal role on adolescents' psychological adjustment during COVID-19, highlighting the need to provide help to parents who were suffering from potential psychological distress.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ajuste Emocional , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Estudios Longitudinales , China/epidemiología , Padres/psicología
14.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 196-200, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183822

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Personality traits may confer vulnerability to psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the association between personality traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) course. The present study investigates personality traits, OCD symptom severity, and illness duration as a predictor of OCD remission. METHODS: 166 treatment-seeking adults with OCD, recruited as part of the Brown Longitudinal Obsessive-Compulsive Study, completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory 3 (NEO-FFI) and were in episode for OCD at time of NEO-FFI completion. Participants were followed for up to 3 years. RESULTS: Results suggest individuals with OCD had a 21 % likelihood of reaching remission over the course of 3 years. Greater OCD symptom severity and longer illness duration were associated with a decreased likelihood of remission. Among the five factors of personality, only low extraversion was associated with a decreased rate of remission. Neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were not associated with remission. LIMITATIONS: As this was an observational study, treatment was not controlled precluding examination of treatment on course. Further, data collected on age of onset and symptom severity during follow up were retrospective and therefore are also subject to recall bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide preliminary support that personality traits are potential factors impacting course and symptom presentation. Future research is necessary to determine the mechanisms in which personality traits may influence the presentation and course of OCD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo , Humanos , Adulto , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/terapia , Personalidad , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Personalidad/terapia , Inventario de Personalidad
15.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 91-97, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The course of depression is variable; however, few studies examined the relationship between long-term cumulative depressive symptoms and adverse health outcomes in the elderly. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) over 24 years and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) over 16 years. Cumulative depressive symptoms were estimated by calculating the areas under the curve based on the Center for Epidemiological Research Depression scale assessed at four examinations. Outcomes include cognitive decline, incident dementia, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 8284 American (mean age: 60.1 years; male: 35.4 %) and 4314 British (60.1 years; 42.4 %) were included in the analysis. The median follow-up was 16.1 years in the HRS and 9.9 years in the ELSA. Similar results were observed in two cohorts. Comparing with the first tertile of cumulative depressive symptoms, the third tertile experienced faster cognitive decline (p = 0.013 in the ELSA and p < 0.001 in the HRS), increased risk of dementia (both p < 0.001), CVD (both p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (p = 0.002 in the HRS). Strong dose-response relationships were observed. We did not found clearly association between cumulative depressive symptoms and incident cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that long-term cumulative depressive symptoms were associated with subsequent faster cognitive decline and greater risks for dementia, CVD and all-cause mortality, but not cancer. These findings provide insights on potential effective strategy that may improve health in the elderly, future clinical trials are needed to determine causality.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Depresión/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Demencia/psicología , Factores de Riesgo
16.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 413-420, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202299

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mother-child cohesion and friendship quality have been shown to be protective factors against the development of children's depressive symptoms. However, the possible direct and indirect pathways from these two important interpersonal relationships to children's depressive symptoms need to be further elucidated. Moreover, these associations have not been examined from a developmental perspective. Therefore, this study examined the direct and indirect relations among developmental trajectories of mother-child cohesion, friendship quality, and depressive symptoms in children. METHODS: A total of 4078 Chinese children (45.2 % girls, Mage = 9.90 years, SD = 0.73) participated in assessments at five time points across 2.5 years, employing six-month intervals. Latent growth curve modeling was conducted to examine the direct and indirect relations among the developmental trajectories of mother-child cohesion, friendship quality, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The developmental trajectories of both mother-child cohesion and friendship quality were negatively and directly associated with the developmental trajectory of children's depressive symptoms. The developmental trajectory of friendship quality was indirectly associated with the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms through the mediating role of mother-child cohesion. LIMITATIONS: This study did not investigate father-child cohesion and other important psychological mechanisms linking interpersonal relationships to depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The findings documented the direct and indirect relations among mother-child cohesion, friendship quality, and depressive symptoms from a developmental perspective, which suggested that prevention and intervention efforts target improving mother-child cohesion and friendship quality to reduce children's depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Amigos , Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Masculino , Amigos/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Estudios Longitudinales
17.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 436-441, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202300

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that depression may be a risk factor for dementia in older adults, but the link between depressive symptoms and brain health earlier in life is less understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between long-term depressive symptoms in young to mid-adulthood and a measure of brain age derived from structural MRI. METHODS: From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, we identified 649 participants (age 23-36 at baseline) with brain MRI and cognitive testing. Long-term depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD) six times across 25 years and analyzed as time-weighted averages (TWA). Brain age was derived using previously validated high dimensional neuroimaging pattern analysis, quantifying individual differences in age-related atrophy. Elevated depressive symptoms were defined as CES-D ≥16. Linear regression was used to test the association between TWA depressive symptoms, brain aging, and cognition. RESULTS: Each standard deviation (5-points) increment in TWA depression symptoms over 25 years was associated with one-year greater brain age (ß: 1.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.57 to 1.71). Participants with elevated TWA depressive symptoms had on average a 3-year greater brain age (ß: 2.75, 95 % CI: 0.43 to 5.08). Moreover, elevated depressive symptoms were associated with higher odds of poor cognitive function in midlife (OR: 3.30, 95 % CI: 1.37 to 7.97). LIMITATIONS: Brain age was assessed at one time, limiting our ability to evaluate the temporality of depressive symptoms and brain aging. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated depressive symptoms in early adulthood may have implications for brain health as early as in midlife.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Depresión , Humanos , Anciano , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Depresión/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Envejecimiento/psicología , Cognición , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Estudios Longitudinales
18.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 428-435, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208686

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation in the expression of neurotrophins is implicated in the pathophysiology of several mental disorders. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can be measured in hair and might represent a marker of adequate neuroplasticity regulation. In early developmental periods, neuroplasticity regulation might be particularly important, but BDNF markers have not yet been analyzed in this regard. We used the hair-BDNF concentration (HBC) to investigate the prediction of emerging symptoms of anxiety/depressive and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the developmentally crucial period from preschool to school age. METHODS: 117 children (58 girls, 59 boys) participated in a longitudinal study at the ages of 4-5 (T1) and 8 (T2) years. At T1, HBC was measured in a 3 cm hair segment. At T1 and T2, symptom domains were assessed using a multi-method (clinical interview, questionnaire) and multi-informant approach. RESULTS: T1 HBC was significantly negatively associated with T1 anxiety/depressive symptoms (r = -0.27) and predicted T2 anxiety disorder symptoms (r = -0.34) after controlling for the T1 symptoms. T1 HBC also predicted T2 depressive disorder symptoms (r = -0.18) but was not associated with ADHD symptom development. LIMITATIONS: BDNF hair analysis is a new method with a not yet large number of studies on methodological issues. Our study adds evidence to the validity of the method. CONCLUSIONS: Prediction of anxiety/depressive symptom development by HBC was shown. As this study was the first to use HBC in this context, cross-validation is necessary and worthwhile. HBC might prove to constitute a useful, non-invasive early marker of risk for anxiety/depressive disorders in childhood.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo , Humanos , Niño , Preescolar , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Longitudinales , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Cabello , Biomarcadores
19.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104809, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152626

RESUMEN

Dementia prevalence is increasing worldwide. Thus, the global impact of cognitive impairment and dementia have become significant public health issues. This study assessed the patterns of and investigated risk factors associated with cognitive decline over time in community-dwelling Korean adults (age ≥65 years). We enrolled 1,369 older adult respondents without cognitive decline in the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2016) in South Korea. The risk of first-ever mild-to-moderate or severe cognitive decline during the 10-year follow-up (2006-2016) was comparatively evaluated between the cognitive decline group (comprising participants with mild-to-moderate or severe cognitive decline; n = 728) and the normal cognition group (participants without a cognitive decline event; n = 641). The cognitive decline-free survival rates for up to ten years were measured using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The generalized estimation equations model was used to analyze changes in K-MMSE over time from 2006 to 2016. The adjusted Cox proportional hazards model revealed that increased age, female, lower education level, no religious status, and living in a small city were factors that were associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline, as were health-related factors, including lower handgrip strength, a higher number of chronic diseases, and depressive symptoms. Regular exercise, non-drinking status, and active social engagements reduced the risk of cognitive decline. The identified risk factors could facilitate the development of cognitive decline-prevention programs incorporating individualized risk-modification interventions to prevent cognitive decline in older adults.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Vida Independiente , Estudios Longitudinales , Fuerza de la Mano , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Cognición , Factores de Riesgo
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 39-42, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168999

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have recommended the use of booster vaccinations. The relationship between the degree of adverse vaccine reactions and elevated antibody titers is of interest; however, no studies have investigated the temporal changes in antibody titers based on repeated measurements after a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 62 healthcare workers who received a third dose of the BNT162b2 at Okayama University Hospital, Japan. Venous blood draw and fingertip whole blood test sample collection were conducted at the early (3-13 days) and 1-month time points; only FWT sample collection was conducted at the 2-month time point. Information on adverse reactions within 1 week after vaccination was also obtained. The association between fever of 37.5 °C or higher and antibody titers after the third dose of BNT162b2 was examined using a mixed-effects model and Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: A trend toward higher antibody titers in the early period after vaccination was observed in the febrile individuals, but the differences were not significant at 1 and 2 months post-vaccination (the partial regression coefficient for fever was 8094.3 [-1910.2, 18,098.8] at 1 month after vaccination, and 1764.1 [-4133.9, 7662.1] at 2 months after vaccination in the adjusted models). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the presence of fever after the third vaccine does not predict a sustained elevation in serum antibody titers.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Humanos , Vacuna BNT162 , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , Pandemias , COVID-19/prevención & control , Anticuerpos Antivirales
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