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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 85-92, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190653

RESUMEN

Antisocial behaviors in adolescents are present and prevalent around the world and have harmful consequences for individuals and societies. The research focused on antisocial behaviors in young people has been very fruitful, but studies are usually fragmented and focused on specific problem behaviors either in school or outside of school. Although victim-offender overlap was described in many studies, most projects focused either on victims or on offenders. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted to discover patterns of antisocial behavior from a comprehensive perspective, including different problem behaviors in and out of schools, focusing on both victimization and offending. A sample of 450 early adolescents was followed-up during one school year. Latent class and latent transition analyses were performed and identified four groups of students. These groups were: low antisocial, highly antisocial and victimized, high bullying victimization, and high offending outside of school. Transition analyses showed that the low antisocial and offenders outside of school groups were relatively stable over time. Students in the high bullying victimization group transitioned to different groups, and students in the highly antisocial and victimized group either remained in the highly antisocial group or transitioned to high offending outside of school. Findings suggest that single antisocial behaviors are not common and students who display one problem behavior usually display other problem behaviors. Early adolescents who are involved in antisocial behaviors in one time period frequently remain involved one year later. It is therefore possible that the antisocial potential of some adolescents is expressed in different contexts. This has important implications for research and practice that need to adopt a more holistic and comprehensive approach


Las conductas antisociales de los adolescentes están presentes en todo el mundo y tienen consecuencias perjudiciales para individuos y sociedades. La investigación centrada en las conductas antisociales de los jóvenes ha sido muy fructífera, pero los estudios están generalmente fragmentados y se centran en comportamientos problemáticos específicos, ya sea en la escuela o fuera de la escuela. Aunque la superposición víctima-agresor se ha descrito en muchos estudios, la mayoría se ha centrado en las víctimas o en los agresores. Este estudio longitudinal prospectivo se ha realizado para descubrir patrones de conducta antisocial desde una perspectiva integral, que incluye diferentes comportamientos problemáticos dentro y fuera de la escuela, centrándose tanto en la victimización como en la agresión. Se ha seguido una muestra de 450 estudiantes durante un año escolar y se han realizado análisis de clases latentes y de transiciones latentes, identificando cuatro grupos de estudiantes: bajo antisocial, altamente antisocial y victimizado, alta victimización por bullying y alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela. Los análisis de transición mostraron que el grupo bajo antisocial y el grupo alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela eran relativamente estables en el tiempo. Los estudiantes del grupo alta victimización por bullying hicieron la transición a diferentes grupos y los estudiantes del grupo altamente antisocial y victimizado permanecieron en su grupo o pasaron al grupo alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela. Los resultados indican que no son frecuentes las conductas antisociales aisladas y que los estudiantes que muestran un comportamiento problemático, generalmente, presentan otros comportamientos problemáticos. Los adolescentes que están implicados en conductas antisociales en un momento temporal con frecuencia siguen implicados un año después. Por lo tanto, es posible que el potencial antisocial de algunos adolescentes se exprese en diferentes contextos. El estudio tiene importantes implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica, ya que tienen que adoptar un enfoque más holístico e integral


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 20(3): 183-191, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of COVID-19 and the lack of vaccine made extraordinary actions such as social distancing necessary. While some individuals experience the restrictions on daily life as a heavy burden, others adapt to the situation and try to make the best of it. The present longitudinal study investigated the extent and predictors of the burden induced by the outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany. METHOD: Data were assessed in October 2019 using the DASS-21 and the PMH-Scale, and in March 2020 adding a six-item measure of burden and a 2-item rating of sense of control. RESULTS: In a sample of 436 participants, about 28% stayed in self-quarantine, 22 persons had relevant symptoms and one person was positively tested for COVID-19. Most participants experienced medium to high levels of burden but tried to make the best of it. Stress symptoms in 2019 predicted a higher level of burden and PMH predicted a lower level of burden in March 2020. Remarkably, depression and anxiety symptoms did not significantly predict burden. The protective effect of PMH and the negative impact of stress symptoms were mediated by perceived sense of control. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize the protective effect of PMH in extraordinary situations such as the current outbreak of COVID-19


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El brote COVID-19 y la falta de vacuna hicieron necesarias acciones extraordinarias como la distancia social. Algunas personas experimentan las restricciones en la vida diaria como sobrecarga emocional y otras se adaptan a la situación, tratando de sacar lo mejor de ella. Se investigó el alcance y predictores de sobrecarga emocional inducida por el COVID-19 en Alemania. MÉTODO: Se evaluaron niveles de estrés y salud mental positiva en octubre de 2019 con DASS-21 y Escala-PMH, y en marzo de 2020, agregando medidas de sobrecarga emocional y percepción de control. RESULTADOS: En una muestra de 436 participantes, el 28% permaneció en cuarentena, 22 personas tuvieron síntomas relevantes y una dio positivo en COVID-19. La mayoría experimentaron niveles de sobrecarga emocional medio-alto, aunque trataron de sobrellevar la situación lo mejor posible. Los síntomas de estrés en octubre 2019 predijeron un nivel de sobrecarga más elevado en marzo 2020 y, contrariamente, los niveles de salud mental positiva en octubre 2019 predijeron un menor nivel de sobrecarga emocional en marzo 2020. Sorprendentemente, los síntomas de depresión y ansiedad no predijeron la sensación de sobrecarga posterior. El efecto protector de la salud mental positiva y el impacto negativo de los síntomas de estrés fueron mediados por la percepción de control. CONCLUSIONES: Se resalta el efecto protector de la salud mental positiva en situaciones extraordinarias como el brote COVID-19


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Pandemias , Cuarentena/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Alemania Occidental/epidemiología
3.
AIDS Res Ther ; 17(1): 59, 2020 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012282

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals faced increasing pressure, where people living with HIV risked to either acquire SARS-CoV-2 and to interrupt the HIV continuum of care. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational study. We compared the numbers of medical visits performed, antiretroviral drugs dispensed and the number of new HIV diagnosis and of hospitalizations in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH) followed by the Spedali Civili of Brescia between the bimester of the COVID-19 pandemic peak and the bimester of October-November 2019. Data were retrieved from administrative files and from paper and electronic clinical charts. Categorical variables were described using frequencies and percentages, while continuous variables were described using mean, median, and interquartile range (IQR) values. Means for continuous variables were compared using Student's t-tests and the Mann-Whitney test. Proportions for categorical variables were compared using the χ2 test. RESULTS: As of December 31st, 2019, a total of 3875 PLWH were followed in our clinic. Mean age was 51.4 ± 13 years old, where 28% were females and 18.8% non-Italian. Overall, 98.9% were on ART (n = 3834), 93% were viro-suppressed. A total of 1217 and 1162 patients had their visit scheduled at our out-patient HIV clinic during the two bimesters of 2019 and 2020, respectively. Comparing the two periods, we observed a raise of missed visits from 5 to 8% (p < 0.01), a reduction in the number of new HIV diagnosis from 6.4 in 2019 to 2.5 per month in 2020 (p = 0.01), a drop in ART dispensation and an increase of hospitalized HIV patients due to COVID-19. ART regimens including protease inhibitors (PIs) had a smaller average drop than ART not including PIs (16.6 vs 21.6%, p < 0.05). Whether this may be due to the perception of a possible efficacy of PIs on COVID19 is not known. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience highlights the importance of a resilient healthcare system and the need to implement new strategies in order to guarantee the continuum of HIV care even in the context of emergency.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Antirretrovirales/administración & dosificación , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios de Cohortes , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3827-3830, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018835

RESUMEN

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), the most common of the inherited ataxias, is a degenerative disease that progressively affects walking and other functions leading to significant impairment associated with a shortened lifespan. It is important to monitor the progression of ataxia over periods of time for clinical and therapeutic interventions. This study was aimed at investigating the use of our instrumented measurement scheme of utilizing a motion detecting spoon in a self-feeding activity to quantify the longitudinal effect of FRDA on upper limb function. Forty individuals diagnosed with FRDA (32.8±14.9 years old) were recruited in a 12-month longitudinal study consisting of equal number of males and females (20). A set of biomarkers was extracted from the temporal and texture analysis of the movement time series data that objectively detected subtle changes during follow-up testing. The results indicated that both analyses generated features that resembled clinical ratings. Although the diagnosis and severity related performances were readily observed by temporal features, the longitudinal progression was better captured by the textural features (p = 0.029). The estimation of severity by mean of random forest regression model and LASSO exhibited a high degree of parity with the standard clinical scale (rho = 0.73, p < 0.001).


Asunto(s)
Ataxia de Friedreich , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Ataxia de Friedreich/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Caminata , Adulto Joven
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e170, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021194

RESUMEN

AIMS: Early puberty is associated with an increased risk of self-harm in adolescent females but results for males are inconsistent. This may be due to the use of subjective measures of pubertal timing, which may be biased. There is also limited evidence for the persistence of pubertal timing effects beyond adolescence, particularly in males. The primary aim of the current study was therefore to examine the association between pubertal timing and self-harm in both sexes during adolescence and young adulthood, using an objective measure of pubertal timing (age at peak height velocity; aPHV). A secondary aim was to examine whether this association differs for self-harm with v. without suicidal intent. METHODS: The sample (n = 5369, 47% male) was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective birth cohort study. Mixed-effects growth curve models were used to calculate aPHV. Lifetime history of self-harm was self-reported at age 16 and 21 years, and associated suicidal intent was examined at age 16 years. Associations were estimated using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for a range of confounders. Missing data were imputed using Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations. RESULTS: Later aPHV was associated with a reduced risk of self-harm at 16 years in both sexes (females: adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.96; males: OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.88). Associations were similar for self-harm with and without suicidal intent. There was some evidence of an association by age 21 years in females (adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.80-1.04), although the findings did not reach conventional levels of significance. There was no evidence of an association by age 21 years in males (adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.74-1.31). CONCLUSIONS: Earlier developing adolescents represent a group at increased risk of self-harm. This increased risk attenuates as adolescents transition into adulthood, particularly in males. Future research is needed to identify the modifiable mechanisms underlying the association between pubertal timing and self-harm risk in order to develop interventions to reduce self-harm in adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Pubertad/psicología , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4933, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004787

RESUMEN

The influence of seasons on biological processes is poorly understood. In order to identify biological seasonal patterns based on diverse molecular data, rather than calendar dates, we performed a deep longitudinal multiomics profiling of 105 individuals over 4 years. Here, we report more than 1000 seasonal variations in omics analytes and clinical measures. The different molecules group into two major seasonal patterns which correlate with peaks in late spring and late fall/early winter in California. The two patterns are enriched for molecules involved in human biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, cardiovascular health, as well as neurological and psychiatric conditions. Lastly, we identify molecules and microbes that demonstrate different seasonal patterns in insulin sensitive and insulin resistant individuals. The results of our study have important implications in healthcare and highlight the value of considering seasonality when assessing population wide health risk and management.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Resistencia a la Insulina/fisiología , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/fisiología , Microbiota/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Adulto , Anciano , Glucemia/análisis , Glucemia/metabolismo , California , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Metabolómica , Persona de Mediana Edad , RNA-Seq
7.
J Dent Hyg ; 94(5): 44-52, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008949

RESUMEN

Purpose: Examining the long-term outcomes of education programs delivered online can help assess the impact of the program on graduates and the value of the delivery format. The purpose of this study was to measure the overall outcomes of an online dental hygiene degree completion program and identify key alumni outcomes.Methods: A 35 item electronic survey was delivered via email to all graduates (2009-2017) of an online degree completion program based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, two years following program completion. Survey items included Likert scale, closed and open-ended questions focusing on career characteristics, leadership, scholarly activities, evidence- and community-based practices, professional confidence, and transformative learning. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.Results: Of the nine alumni cohorts (n=75), 50 graduates participated in the survey for a response rate of 67%. Eighty-two percent of respondents felt they had more career options after graduation and reported post-degree career activities that included dental hygiene instruction (36%), public health (32%), and administration (14%). There was a statistically significant increase in the instructor/educator role of the participants post-graduation (p = 0.000). The majority (94%) indicated the program improved their competency in areas of leadership and evidence-based practice and all (100%) indicated a greater responsibility to use their professional skills to address oral health disparities in their communitiesConclusion: Graduates of the online degree completion program reported ongoing activities in key areas of leadership, evidence- and community-based practice. Future research should focus on ensuring that program goals reflect the evolving dental hygiene profession and program delivery practices meet the needs of the working professional student.


Asunto(s)
Higienistas Dentales , Higiene Bucal , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Michigan , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 232-237, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004720

RESUMEN

Background: Dental trauma can determine the occurrence of sequelae in the deciduous tooth and due to the anatomical proximity to the germ of the successor permanent tooth, it frequently causes changes to the developing teeth. Aims: The objective of this study was to analyze clinically and radiographically traumatized primary teeth and permanent successors in children aged 0-8 years. Materials and Methods: Initially, a sample selection of medical records was made, designating the patients who fit the requirements; 247 patients were analyzed, totaling 379 traumatized primary teeth and 162 successive permanent teeth. Statistical Analysis: The results were developed using the Proportion Test and the Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Results: Injuries to hard tissue prevailed (57%), with emphasis on coronary enamel fracture (49.1%). After clinical and radiographic examinations, 78% of traumatized primary teeth maintained pulpal vitality. At the clinical evaluation, the frequency of the developmental disorders observed in permanent successors was 10.5%, with enamel hypocalcification being the most common sequela. 17.3% of the clinical changes in the successor permanent teeth were caused by trauma to the supporting tissue, with the intrusive dislocation being responsible for the largest number of damages (37.5%). Conclusion: Based on the results found, it was concluded that the trauma occurring in the primary dentition were recorded and monitored more precisely and about the evaluated successive permanent teeth, except for the prevalence of sequelae found, the other factors are in agreement with the findings in the literature.


Asunto(s)
Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental , Avulsión de Diente , Niño , Preescolar , Dentición Permanente , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Diente Primario
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036461

RESUMEN

Spanish children were locked down for 72 days due to COVID-19, causing severe disruption to their normal life. The threat posed by COVID-19 continues and clinicians, administrators, and families need to know the life conditions associated with more psychological problems to modify them and minimize their effect on mental health. The goal was to study the life conditions of adolescents during lockdown and their association with psychological problems. A total of 226 parents of 117 girls and 109 boys (mean age: 13.9; Standard deviation: 0.28) from the community that were participants in a longitudinal study answered an online questionnaire about life conditions during lockdown and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Stepwise regression analyses controlling by previous reports of SDQ were performed. Conduct, peer, prosocial, and total problems scores increased after lockdown. After adjusting for previous measures of psychopathology, worse adolescents' mental health during COVID-19 lockdown was associated with unhealthy activities, worsening of the relationships with others, and dysfunctional parenting style. It seems important to mitigate psychological stress in a situation of isolation due to a state of emergency by keeping the adolescent active and maintaining their daily habits and routines in a non-conflictive atmosphere and give support to parents.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Coronavirus , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , España/epidemiología
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066008

RESUMEN

University students were confronted with abrupt changes to their daily lives by the COVID-19 lock-down. We investigated Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) and anxiety levels, and the association between perceived impact on well-being, studies, and daily lives and anxiety levels, adjusted for gender, age, social class and affiliation. Early in the lock-down all students of the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (N = 12,429) were invited to a voluntary longitudinal health survey. Participation rate was 20% (n = 2437): 70% females, median age 25 yrs. (IQR 23-28). A total of 10% reported a deterioration of well-being compared to pre-Corona. LCA yielded three classes varying in perceived COVID-19 impact: 1 (low, n = 675), 2 (moderate, n = 1098), and 3 (strong, n = 656). Adjusted proportion of moderate to severe anxiety by class were 45% (95% CI: 28.0-62.0), 15.5% (95% CI: 13.1-17.9), and 5.1% (95% CI: 4.7-5.6), respectively. Multivariate regression analyses yielded an OR for moderate to severe anxiety of 3.88 (95% CI: 2.5-6.0, class 2) and 22.43 (95% CI: 14.5-34.6, class 3) compared to class-1. The investigated association implies that containment measures have a selective effect on anxiety in students. The diversity of students' perception and associated anxiety should be monitored and considered in future response to pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Suiza/epidemiología , Universidades , Adulto Joven
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3196-3199, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018684

RESUMEN

Attention lapses (ALs) are common phenomenon, which can affect our performance and productivity by slowing or suspending responsiveness. Occurrence of ALs during continuous monitoring tasks, such as driving or operating machinery, can lead to injuries and fatalities. However, we have limited understanding of what happens in the brain when ALs intrude during such continuous tasks. Here, we analyzed fMRI data from a study, in which participants performed a continuous visuomotor tracking task during fMRI scanning. A total of 68 ALs were identified from 20 individuals, using visual rating of tracking performance and video-based eye-closure. ALs were found to be associated with increased BOLD fMRI activity partially in the executive control network, and sensorimotor network. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of deactivations.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3367-3370, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018726

RESUMEN

Continuous high frequency Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a standard therapy for several neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS is expected to further improve treatment by providing adaptive, on-demand therapy. Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the stimulation electrodes are the most often used feedback signal in closed-loop DBS. However, closed-loop DBS based on LFPs requires simultaneous recording and stimulating, which remains a challenge due to persistent stimulation artefacts that distort underlying LFP biomarkers. Here we first investigate the nature of the stimulation-induced artefacts and review several techniques that have been proposed to deal with them. Then we propose a new method to synchronize the sampling clock with the stimulation pulse so that the stimulation artefacts are never sampled, while at the same time the Nyquist-Shannon theorem is satisfied for uninterrupted LFP recording. Test results show that this method achieves true uninterrupted artefact-free LFP recording over a wide frequency band and for a wide range of stimulation frequencies.Clinical relevance-The method proposed here provides continuous and artefact-free recording of LFPs close to the stimulation target, and thereby facilitates the implementation of more advanced closed-loop DBS using LFPs as feedback.


Asunto(s)
Artefactos , Estimulación Encefálica Profunda , Encéfalo , Estudios Longitudinales
13.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 10 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028688

RESUMEN

The objective was to analyze the longitudinal distribution, epidemiological characteristics, and local prevention and control measures of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in six cities in Henan Province, China, from 21 January 2020 to 17 June 2020: Xinyang City (including Gushi County), Nanyang City (including Dengzhou City), Zhumadian City (including Xincai County), Zhengzhou City (including Gongyi City), Puyang City, and Anyang City (including Hua County). Data were collected and analyzed through the COVID-19 information published on the official websites of the health commissions in the six selected cities of Henan Province. As of 17 June 2020, the cumulative incidence rate of COVID-19 in Henan Province was 1.33/100,000, the cumulative cure rate was 98.27%, the cumulative mortality rate was 1.73%, the age range of diagnosed cases was 5 days to 85 years old, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.09:1. The confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Henan Province were mainly imported cases from Hubei, accounting for 87.74% of all cases, of which the highest proportion was 70.50% in Zhumadian. The contact cases and local cases increased in a fluctuating manner over time. In this paper, epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in Henan Province were analyzed from the onset of the outbreak to the effective control within 60 days, and effective and distinctive prevention and control measures in various cities were summarized to provide a favorable useful reference for the further formulation and implementation of epidemic prevention and control and a valuable theoretical basis for effectively avoiding a second outbreak.IMPORTANCE Epidemic prevention and control in China have entered a new stage of normalization. This article analyzes the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in Henan Province and summarizes the effective disease prevention and control means and measures at the prefecture level; the normalized private data provide a theoretical reference for the formulation and conduct of future prevention and control work. At the same time, these epidemic prevention and control findings can also be used for reference in other countries and regions.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Salud Urbana/tendencias , Adulto Joven
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5184-5187, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019153

RESUMEN

Long-term preclinical study available extracranial brain activator (ECBA) system, ECBAv2, is proposed for the non-anesthetic canine models. The titanium-packaged module shows enhanced durability, even after a year of implantation in the scalp. In addition, the wearable helmet type base station provides a stable experimental environment without anesthesia. In this work, HFS stimulation is induced to six canine models for 30 minutes every day over 4 weeks (10Hz, 40Hz and no stimulation for each pair of subjects). Pre- and post-HFS stimulation PET-CT image shows remarkable increases of glucose metabolism in the temporal and parietal lobes. Moreover, both the 40-Hz and 10-Hz groups shows noticeable increase and the former group has more increments than the latter. Our results establish that HFS stimulation definitely worked as facilitating brain activity which may affect memory and sensory skills, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Cráneo , Animales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Perros , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Cuero Cabelludo
15.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 6859157, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029401

RESUMEN

Despite several efforts globally, the problem of perinatal mortality remained an unsolved agenda. As a result, it continued to be an essential part of the third sustainable development goals to end preventable child deaths by 2030. With a rate of 33 per 1000 births, Ethiopia has the highest level of perinatal mortality in the world. Thus, determining the magnitude and identifying the determinants are very crucial for evidence-based interventions. A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in Southwest Ethiopia among 3474 pregnant women to estimate the magnitude of perinatal mortality. Then, a case-control study among 120 cases and 360 controls was conducted to identify the determinants of perinatal mortality. Data were collected by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables having a significant association with perinatal mortality at p < 0.05. The perinatal mortality rate was 34.5 (95% CI: 28.9, 41.1) deaths per 1000 births. Attending ≥4 ANC visits (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.91), having good knowledge on key danger signs (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.75), and having a skilled attendant at birth (AOR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61) were significantly associated with a reduction of perinatal mortality. Being a primipara (AOR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.90, 6.00), twin births (AOR = 5.29; 95% CI: 1.46, 19.21), previous history of perinatal mortality (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.27, 8.72), and obstetric complication during labor (AOR = 4.27; 95% CI: 2.40, 7.59) significantly increased perinatal mortality. In conclusion, the magnitude of perinatal mortality in the study area was high as compared to the national target for 2020. Care during pregnancy and childbirth and conditions of pregnancy and labor were identified as determinants of perinatal mortality. Hence, interventions need to focus on increasing knowledge of danger signs and utilization of skilled maternity care. Special emphasis needs to be given to mothers with a previous history of perinatal mortality, twin pregnancies, and having obstetric complications.


Asunto(s)
Atención Perinatal , Mortalidad Perinatal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Competencia Clínica , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Conocimiento , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Complicaciones del Trabajo de Parto , Paridad , Embarazo , Embarazo Gemelar , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e00181920, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053060

RESUMEN

The continent of the Americas has the greatest number of people infected and deaths associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the world. Brazil occupies the 2nd position in numbers of infected cases and deaths, preceded only by the United States. Older adults and those with pre-existing chronic illnesses are more vulnerable to the consequences of the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has serious consequences for health services. Therefore, an assessment of the pandemic's effect on the older Brazilian population is urgently needed. The study examines the prevalence of COVID-19 related symptoms, care-seeking, and cancellation of surgery or other scheduled medical care among a nationally representative sample of Brazilians aged 50 and over derived from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) and a telephone follow-up survey (the ELSI-COVID-19 initiative) between late May and early June 2020. About 10.4% of older adults reported any fever, dry cough or difficulty breathing in the 30 days prior to the interview, with the highest prevalence in the North region (50%). Among individuals with symptoms, only 33.6% sought care. Individuals living in the South or Southeast regions were significantly less likely to seek care for COVID-19 related symptoms. Nearly one in six participants had to cancel scheduled surgery or other medical care; this proportion was higher among women, those with more education, and people with multiple chronic conditions. This paper is among the first to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on health care use in Brazil among older adults. Results highlight the need to adapt health care delivery (such as through telemedicine) to ensure the continuity of care as well as the urgent need for wide dissemination of information to guide the population on disease prevention measures and how to obtain healthcare when needed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Visita a Consultorio Médico/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Visita a Consultorio Médico/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e00183120, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053061

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic (caused by the SARS-CoV-2) is a public health emergency of international concern that particularly affects older people. Brazil is one of the countries most affected by the pandemic, ranking second with the highest number of confirmed cases and deaths worldwide as of mid-June 2020. The ELSI-COVID-19 initiative is based on telephone interviews with participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil), conducted on a nationally representative sample of the population aged 50 or older. This initiative aims to provide information on adherence to preventive measures (social distancing, wearing masks, and handwashing/hygiene); reasons for leaving the house, when that was the case; difficulties obtaining medications, medical diagnosis of COVID-19, and receipt of confirmatory results; use of health-care services (recent care-seeking, care-seeking location, care receipt, among other aspects); and mental health (sleep, depression, and loneliness). The first round of telephone interviews was conducted between May 26 and June 8, 2020. The second and third rounds are expected to occur within the coming months. This article presents this initiative methodology and some sociodemographic characteristics of the 6,149 participants in the survey first round, relative the Brazilian population within the same age group.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Neumonía Viral , Teléfono , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Adhesión a Directriz , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e00193920, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053062

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of social distancing, the use of face masks and hand washing when leaving home among Brazilian adults aged 50 or over. Data from 6,149 telephone interviews were used, conducted between May 26 and June 8, 2020 among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil). Social distancing was defined by not having left home in the last seven days. Only 32.8% of study participants did not leave home during the period considered, 36.3% left between one and two times, 15.2% between three and five times and 15.7% left every day. The main reasons for leaving home were to buy medicine or food (74.2%), to work (25.1%), to pay bills (24.5%), for health care (10.5%), to exercise (6.2%), and to meet family or friends (8.8%). Among those who left home, 97.3% always wore face masks and 97.3% always performed hand washing. Women left home less often than men. Men left home more often to work and exercise while women left home more often to seek healthcare. Men (odds ratio - OR = 1.84), those with higher education (OR = 1.48 and 1.95 for 5-8 and 9 years, respectively) and urban residents (OR = 1.54) left home more frequently to perform essential activities, regardless of age or other characteristics. Results show low adherence to social distancing, but high prevalence in the reported use of face masks and hand washing.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfección de las Manos , Máscaras , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Distancia Social , Adulto , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
19.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 842-849, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Strict confinement and social distancing measures have been imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic in many countries. The aim was to assess the temporal evolution of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis and lockdown from two surveys, separated by one month, performed in Spain. METHODS: Symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and the psychological impact of the situation were longitudinally analyzed using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES) respectively. RESULTS: There was a total of 4,724 responses from both surveys. Symptomatic scores of anxiety, depression and stress were exhibited by 37.22%, 46.42% and 49.66% of the second survey respondents, showing a significant increase compared to the first survey (32.45%, 44.11% and 37.01%, respectively). There was no significant longitudinal change of the IES scores, with 48.30% of the second survey participants showing moderate to severe impact of the confinement. Constant news consumption about COVID-19 was found to be positively associated with symptomatic scores in the different scales, and daily physical activity to be negatively associated with DASS-21 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated a temporal increase of anxiety, depression and stress scores during the COVID-19 lockdown. Factors such as age, consumption of information about COVID-19 and physical activity seem to have an important impact on the evolution of psychological symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Depresión/psicología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , España/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1308-1312, 2020 Aug 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867441

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the prospective association between consumption pattern of sugar-sweetened beverages and childhood periodontal health. Methods: This study was based on a 4-year longitudinal cohort of children from Bengbu, Anhui province. Pattern of sugar-sweetened beverages was determined by group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) through annual child-reported questionnaire. Association between sugar-sweetened beverages pattern with plague index and gingivitis was explored through multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results: A total of 997 children including 418 boys and 579 girls were included in this study, with an average age of (11.00±0.70) years at the final wave. Four consumption patterns on sugar-sweetened beverages were identified by GBTM: persistent low group (80.70%), gradually decreasing group (12.40%), decreasing after increasing group (2.20%) and gradually increasing group (4.70%). Compared with the persistent low group (1.08±0.70), the Plague index among gradually increasing group (1.73±0.80) was significantly higher (t=4.00, P<0.001). The prevalence of gingivitis was significantly higher among children in the gradually increasing group (12.80%) than that in the persistent low group (3.00%) (χ(2)=12.40, P<0.001). After controlling for related confounders, results suggested that Plague index increased by 0.58 (95%CI: 0.27-0.89) and 0.38 (95%CI: 0.03-0.73) in the gradually increasing group and "decreasing follow the increase" group, respectively when compared with the persistent low group. The risk for gingivitis was 4.42 times (95%CI: 1.65-12.20, P=0.003) higher in the gradually increasing group. Conclusion: Our data suggested that children with higher sugar-sweetened beverages consumption during the transition period from childhood to adolescence were under higher risk for periodontal diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Bebidas Azucaradas/efectos adversos , Bebidas Azucaradas/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo
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