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1.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 50(1): 14-21, Ene.-Mar. 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229293

RESUMEN

Introducción el suicidio sigue siendo una de las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. Debido a la relación entre la conducta suicida y el trastorno mental, nuestro objetivo es determinar el número de personas que recibían atención por la Red de Salud Mental entre el total de suicidios consumados entre 2017 y 2022 en Gran Canaria, así como las características de dicha población y de la atención recibida. Material y métodos estudio longitudinal observacional retrospectivo en el que la población de estudio fue extraída del total de suicidios de la base de datos del Instituto de Medicina Legal de Gran Canaria. Posteriormente, los datos fueron cotejados por las bases de datos de la Red de Salud Mental. Por último, se realizó un análisis estadístico univariante y los resultados fueron comparados en función del sexo y la atención en la Unidad de Salud Mental Comunitaria. Resultados solo un 39,4% había recibido atención por parte de la unidad de salud mental, siendo la mayoría mujeres (55,3% vs. 34,6%), con una media de edad de 50,9 años para ambos sexos. Los antecedentes de intentos previos fueron mucho más frecuentes en la población que recibía atención (45,4% vs. 7%), así como la atención en urgencias (42% vs. 5,7%) y los ingresos hospitalarios (25,3% vs. 0,7%). Conclusión menos de la mitad de las personas fallecidas tuvieron contacto con una unidad de salud mental comunitaria. Además, la atención por esta es mayor entre aquellas personas con intentos previos y entre el sexo femenino, siendo el diagnóstico más frecuente el de los trastornos afectivos monopolares. (AU)


Introduction Suicide remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Due to the relationship between suicidal behavior and mental disorder, our aim is to determine the number of people who received care by the Mental Health Network among the total number of suicides consummated between 2017 and 2022 in Gran Canaria, as well as the characteristics of that population and the care received. Material and methods Longitudinal observational retrospective study in which the study population was extracted from the total number of suicides in the database of the Legal Medicine Institute. Subsequently, the data were cross-checked by the Mental Health Network databases. Finally, a univariate statistical analysis was carried out and the results were compared according to sex and care in the Community Mental Health Unit. Results Only 39.4% had received care at the Mental Health Unit, the majority being women (55.3% vs. 34.6%), with a mean age of 50.9 years for both sexes. History of previous attempts was much more frequent in the population receiving care (45.4% vs. 7%), as well as emergency care (42% vs. 5.7%) and hospital admissions (25.3% vs. 0.7%). Conclusion Less than half of the deceased persons had contact with a Community Mental Health Unit. In addition, care by this unit was higher among those with previous attempts and among the female sex, with the most frequent diagnosis being monopolar affective disorders. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Suicidio , Enfermos Mentales , Trastornos Mentales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , España/epidemiología
2.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 58(1): [100815], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229687

RESUMEN

Introducción: La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica dispone de una guía encargada de la prevención y tratamiento, denominada Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease, la cual anualmente se actualiza y cataloga la rehabilitación pulmonar, dentro de las opciones de tratamiento. Objetivo: Describir los efectos en variables clínicas, de capacidad funcional, de ansiedad/depresión y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, después de un programa de rehabilitación pulmonar, de acuerdo con la clasificación GOLD 2020 en una clínica de Cali. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal donde se incluyeron 79 pacientes divididos en 3 grupos (B, C y D). Resultados: La edad media fue de 70 años; el 69% eran hombres. La cantidad de días hospitalizados fue mayor para el grupo C y D, con un promedio de 8 y 13 días, respectivamente (p≤0,000). La capacidad funcional evidenció una mayor distancia en el grupo C (421m) y la menor distancia para el grupo D (328m), p≤0,006. En la ansiedad y depresión, el grupo D logró obtener mejorías al igual que en el cuestionario de calidad de vida. Conclusión: El grupo C presentó mayor capacidad funcional y mejor calidad de vida, el grupo B tuvo mejores resultados en las variables clínicas, y el grupo D tuvo peor condición clínica, capacidad funcional y calidad de vida. Al finalizar la rehabilitación pulmonar el grupo D presentó mayores cambios en la capacidad funcional y calidad de vida.(AU)


Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has a guide in charge of prevention and treatment, called the Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease, which is annually updated and catalogs pulmonary rehabilitation, within the treatment options. Objective: To describe the effects on clinical variables, functional capacity, anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, after a pulmonary rehabilitation program, according to the GOLD 2020 classification in a Cali clinic. Materials and methods: Descriptive, longitudinal study where 79 patients divided into 3 groups were included (B, C and D). Results:The mean age was 70 years, 69% men. The number of hospitalized days was greater for groups C and D with an average of 8 and 13 days, respectively (p≤0.000). The functional capacity showed a greater distance in group C (421m) and the shortest distance for group D (328m), p≤0.006. In anxiety and depression, group D managed to obtain improvements as well as in the quality of life questionnaire. Conclusion: Group C presented greater functional capacity and better quality of life, group B had better results in clinical variables, and group D had worse clinical condition, functional capacity and quality of life. At the end of pulmonary rehabilitation, group D presented greater changes in functional capacity and quality of life.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/rehabilitación , Calidad de Vida , Ejercicio Físico , Colombia , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Longitudinales , Rehabilitación
3.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100424], Ene-Mar, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Español, Portugués, Francés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230365

RESUMEN

Objective: This review aimed to summarize longitudinal research about the interplay between sleep, mental health, and positive well-being in adolescents. Method: Multiple search strategies were applied until 28th January 2023 to identify relevant research published in peer-reviewed journal articles or available grey literature. A final set of 63 studies were included in the systematic review and 42 in the meta-analysis. Results: Results highlighted that long sleep duration, good sleep quality, and low insomnia symptoms were bidirectionally related to lower internalizing (Sleep T1 → Internalizing symptoms T2: r = -.20, p < .001; Internalizing symptoms T1 → Sleep T2: r = -.21, p < .001) and externalizing (Sleep T1 → Externalizing symptoms T2: r = -.15, p < .001; Externalizing symptoms T1→ Sleep T2: r = -.17, p < .001) symptoms, and to higher levels of psychological well-being (Sleep T1 → Psychological well-being T2: r = .15, p < .001; Psychological well-being T1 → Sleep T2: r = .15, p < .05). Moreover, good sleep was positively related to higher subjective well-being at a later time point (r = .18, p < .001). Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest a bidirectional relation between different aspects of sleep, mental health, and positive well-being.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Psicología del Adolescente , Sueño , Salud Mental , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Salud del Adolescente , Psicología , Psicología Clínica , Estudios Longitudinales
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 333: 115760, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301285

RESUMEN

The nature of the relationship between sleep problems and dementia remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between sleep measures and dementia in older adults (≥ 65) using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and further investigated the causal association in Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. In total of 7,223 individuals, 5.7 % developed dementia (1.7 % Alzheimer's disease (AD)) within an average of 8 (± 2.9) years. Cox regression models and MR were employed. Long sleep duration (>8 h) was associated with 64 % increased risk of incident dementia and 2-fold high risk of AD compared to ideal sleep duration (7-8 h). This association was particularly evident in older-older adults (≥70 years) and those who consumed alcohol. Short sleep duration (<7 h) was associated with lower risk of incident dementia among older-older but higher risk among younger-older adults. Sleep disturbances and perceived sleep quality were not associated with dementia or AD. The MR study did not reveal causal associations between sleep duration and dementia. These findings suggest that self-reported short sleep in younger-older and long sleep in older-older adults and those with frequent alcohol consumption are associated with dementia. Early detection of these sleep patterns may help identify individuals at higher dementia risk.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Humanos , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/complicaciones , Estudios de Seguimiento , Estudios Longitudinales , Duración del Sueño , Incidencia , Sueño , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/complicaciones
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 333: 115744, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301287

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Depression and loneliness co-occur frequently. This study examined interactive changes between depression and loneliness among older adults prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic from a longitudinal network perspective. METHODS: This network study was based on data from three waves (2016-2017, 2018-2019, and 2020) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Depression and loneliness were measured with the eight-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-8) and three item version of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, respectively. A network model was constructed using an Ising Model while network differences were assessed using a Network Comparison Test. Central symptoms were identified via Expected Influence (EI). RESULTS: A total of 4,293 older adults were included in this study. The prevalence and network of depression and loneliness did not change significantly between the baseline and pre-pandemic assessments but increased significantly from the pre-pandemic assessment to during COVID-19 assessment. The central symptom with the strongest increase from pre-pandemic to pandemic assessments was "Inability to get going" (CESD8) and the edge with the highest increase across depression-loneliness symptom communities was "Lack companionship" (UCLA1) - "Inability to get going" (CESD8). Finally, "Feeling depressed" (CESD1) and "Everything was an effort" (CESD2) were the most central symptoms over the three assessment periods. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant changes in the depression-loneliness network model. The most changed symptoms and edges could be treatment targets for reducing the risk of depression and loneliness in older adults.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Soledad , Humanos , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Depresión/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales
6.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malnutrition in lung transplantation (LT) candidates increases postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of malnutrition could attenuate adverse prognostic factors. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition using GLIM criteria in LT candidates and clinically characterize those with malnutrition. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted from 2000 to 2020 of LT candidates who underwent complete nutritional assessment (nutritional screening, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, blood laboratory tests and malnutrition diagnosis using GLIM criteria). RESULTS: Obstructive diseases (45.6%), interstitial diseases (36.6%) and cystic fibrosis/non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (15.4%) were the main conditions assessed for LT. Of the 1060 candidates evaluated, 10.6% were underweight according to BMI, 29% were at risk of malnutrition and 47% were diagnosed with malnutrition using GLIM criteria. Reduced muscle mass was the most frequent GLIM phenotypic criterion. Malnutrition was more prevalent in patients with cystic fibrosis/non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (84.5%) and obstructive (45.4%) and interstitial (31.3%) diseases. GLIM criteria detected some degree of malnutrition in all diseases requiring LT and identified patients with higher CRP levels and worse respiratory function, anthropometric measurements and visceral protein and lipid profiles. CONCLUSIONS: LT candidates present a high prevalence of malnutrition using the GLIM algorithm. GLIM criteria detected malnutrition in all diseases requiring LT and defined patients with worse clinical-analytical profiles.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiectasia , Fibrosis Quística , Trasplante de Pulmón , Desnutrición , Humanos , Fibrosis Quística/complicaciones , Fibrosis Quística/cirugía , Liderazgo , Estudios Longitudinales , Evaluación Nutricional , Estudios Prospectivos , Estado Nutricional , Bronquiectasia/complicaciones , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/epidemiología , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Desnutrición/epidemiología
7.
Injury ; 55(3): 111336, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350305

RESUMEN

Falls are a significant public health issue globally. However, studies with nationally representative samples have yet to be done to understand falls among older adults in the Philippines and Viet Nam. Using a biopsychosocial perspective, this study investigated the prevalence of falls and their associated factors among community-dwelling older adults in these countries. Cross-sectional data were drawn from the baseline survey of the Longitudinal Study of Ageing and Health in the Philippines (2018, N = 4,606) and the Longitudinal Study of Ageing and Health in Viet Nam (2018, N = 4,378). The outcome variables were any falls in the past year. Independent variables included sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education, living in urban areas, living alone, social network size), biophysical factors (vision, chronic conditions, functional impairments, pain locations, insomnia symptoms, sleep medications, grip strength, walking speed, postural control), and psychological factors (depressive symptoms). Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 17.7 % and 7.3 % of older Filipino and Vietnamese adults fell in the year before the study. Significant factors associated with the odds of any falls among Filipino older adults were having a higher level of education, living in urban areas, living with others, experiencing more functional impairments, reporting one or more pain locations, and having poor grip strength. In Viet Nam, having more chronic conditions, experiencing more functional impairments, and reporting two or more pain locations were found to be associated with higher odds of any falls. The population in the Philippines and Viet Nam is aging rapidly. Findings from this study are timely in identifying at-risk individuals and preparing for effective fall prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Vida Independiente , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Longitudinales , Vietnam/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Filipinas/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Dolor
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339197

RESUMEN

Alterations in the gut microbiome are associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can be used as a diagnostic measure. However, longitudinal data of the gut microbiome and knowledge about its prognostic significance for the development and progression of AD are limited. The aim of the present study was to develop a reliable predictive model based on gut microbiome data for AD development. In this longitudinal study, we investigated the intestinal microbiome in 49 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients over a mean (SD) follow-up of 3.7 (0.6) years, using shotgun metagenomics. At the end of the 4-year follow-up (4yFU), 27 MCI patients converted to AD dementia and 22 MCI patients remained stable. The best taxonomic model for the discrimination of AD dementia converters from stable MCI patients included 24 genera, yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.87 at BL, 0.92 at 1yFU and 0.95 at 4yFU. The best models with functional data were obtained via analyzing 25 GO (Gene Ontology) features with an AUROC of 0.87 at BL, 0.85 at 1yFU and 0.81 at 4yFU and 33 KO [Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) ortholog] features with an AUROC of 0.79 at BL, 0.88 at 1yFU and 0.82 at 4yFU. Using ensemble learning for these three models, including a clinical model with the four parameters of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype, yielded an AUROC of 0.96 at BL, 0.96 at 1yFU and 0.97 at 4yFU. In conclusion, we identified novel and timely stable gut microbiome algorithms that accurately predict progression to AD dementia in individuals with MCI over a 4yFU period.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudios Longitudinales , Pronóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Biomarcadores
9.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 48(2): 85-91, Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229320

RESUMEN

Objective As calculated by the severity scores, an unknown number of patients are admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with a very high risk of death. Clinical studies have poorly addressed this population, and their prognosis is largely unknown. Design Post hoc analysis of a multicenter, cohort, longitudinal, observational, retrospective study (CIMbA). Setting Sixteen Portuguese multipurpose ICUs. Patients Patients with a Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) predicted hospital mortality above 80% on admission to the ICU (high-risk group); A comparison with the remaining patients was obtained. Interventions None. Main Variables of Interest Hospital, 30 days, 1 year mortality. Results We identified 4546 patients (59.9% male), 12.2% of the whole population. Their SAPS II predicted hospital mortality was 89.0±5.8%, whilst the observed mortality was lower, 61.0%. This group had higher mortality, both during the first 30 days (aHR 3.52 [95% CI 3.34–3.71]) and from day 31 to day 365 after ICU admission (aHR 1.14 [95%CI 1.04–1.26]), respectively. However, their hospital standardized mortality ratio was similar to the other patients (0.69 vs. 0.69, P=.92). At one year of follow-up, 30% of patients in the high-risk group were alive. Conclusions Roughly 12% of patients admitted to the ICU for more than 24h had a SAPS II score predicted mortality above 80%. Their hospital standardized mortality was similar to the less severe population and 30% were alive after one year of follow-up. (AU)


Objetivo Según las escalas de gravedad, un número indeterminado de pacientes ingresan en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) con riesgo de muerte muy elevado. Este grupo ha sido poco abordado en los estudios clínicos y se desconoce en gran medida su pronóstico. Diseño Análisis post-hoc de estudio multicéntrico, de cohortes, longitudinal, observacional y retrospectivo (CIMbA). Âmbito Dieciséis UCI polivalentes portuguesas. Pacientes Pacientes con mortalidad hospitalaria prevista en el Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) superior al 80% nel ingreso en la UCI (grupo de alto riesgo); se compararon con los restantes. Intervenciones Ninguna. Variables de interés principals Mortalidad hospitalaria, a 30 días y 1 año. Resultados Se identificaron 4546 pacientes (59.9% hombres), 12.2% da población. La mortalidad hospitalaria estimada por lo SAPS II fue de 89.0±5.8%, aunque la observada fue inferior, 61.0%. Este grupo presentó mayor mortalidad, tanto durante los primeros 30 días (aHR 3.52 [IC 95%: 3.34–3.71]) y desde el día 31 hasta el día 365 después del ingreso en UCI (aHR 1.14 [IC 95%: 1.04–1.26]). Sin embargo, su índice de mortalidad hospitalaria estandarizada fue similar a los otros pacientes (0.69 vs. 0.69; P=.92). Al primer año de seguimiento, 30% de los pacientes de alto riesgo estaban vivos. ConclusionesAproximadamente 12% de los pacientes ingresados en la UCI durante más de 24 horas tenían una mortalidad prevista por SAPS II superior al 80%. Su mortalidad hospitalaria estandarizada fue similar a la de la población menos grave y el 30% estaban vivos después de un año de seguimiento. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad , Medición de Riesgo , Cuidados Posteriores/estadística & datos numéricos , Epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Portugal/epidemiología
10.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(2): 143-149, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230310

RESUMEN

Background Vitamin D deficiency associates with the risk of developing many diseases, including cancer. At the molecular level, vitamin D appears to have an antineoplastic effect. However, the role of vitamin D deficiency in cancer pathogenesis remains unelucidated and numerous studies have resulted in discordant results. This study aimed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency during melanoma diagnosis increases the risk of developing non-cutaneous second primary cancers (SPC). Materials and methods A retrospective study on 663 patients diagnosed with melanoma between 1 January 2011 and 31 October 2022. The effect of each variable on the development of a subsequent non-cutaneous cancer was performed using Kaplan–Meier curves and differences were assessed by log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazard univariate and multivariate models were used to quantify the effect of each variable in the time to develop a non-cutaneous neoplasia. Results Out of 663 patients, 34 developed a non-cutaneous SPC. There was no statistically significant association between vitamin D levels and non-cutaneous SPC development (log-rank, p=0.761). Age>60 years, stage III/IV, and nodular melanoma subtype were significantly associated with the development of a SPC. After multivariate analysis, only age>60 years (HR 3.4; HR CI 95%: 1.5–7.6) and nodular melanoma subtype (HR 2.2; HR CI 95%: 1.0–4.8) were included in the final model. Conclusions Our results suggest that vitamin D deficiency is not associated with an increased risk of developing non-cutaneous SPC in melanoma patients. However, age over 60 years and nodular melanoma subtype increase the risk for non-cutaneous SPC development (AU)


Antecedentes El déficit de vitamina D se asocia con un mayor riesgo de padecer varias enfermedades, incluido el cáncer. Molecularmente, esta parece tener un efecto antineoplásico. Sin embargo, el papel que juega en la patogénesis del cáncer no está bien esclarecido y hay resultados dispares en los estudios publicados. El objetivo del presente fue determinar si unos niveles de vitamina D deficientes en el momento del diagnóstico del melanoma aumentaba el riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer no cutáneo (CNC). Material y método Se diseñó un estudio retrospectivo de 663 pacientes diagnosticados de melanoma entre el 1 de enero de 2011 y el 31 de octubre de 2022. El efecto de cada una de las variables seleccionadas en el desarrollo de un CNC durante el seguimiento tras el diagnóstico del melanoma se realizó mediante el estudio de supervivencia con el método de Kaplan-Meier y las diferencias se evaluaron con la prueba de los rangos logarítmicos. Se elaboraron modelos uni y multivariados de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para cuantificar el efecto de cada valor de las variables de estudio en el tiempo para desarrollar un CNC. Resultados De los 663 pacientes, 34 desarrollaron un CNC tras el melanoma. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos definidos por los niveles de vitamina D (log-rank, p = 0,761). Sin embargo, una edad > 60, el estadio III/IV, y el tipo nodular se asociaron significativamente al desarrollo de un CNC. Tras el análisis multivariado, solo la edad > 60 (hazard ratio [HR] 3,4; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% HR:1,5-7,6) y el subtipo nodular de melanoma (HR 2,2; IC 95% HR:1,0-4,8) se mantuvieron en el modelo predictivo final. Conclusiones Nuestros resultados sugieren que unos niveles de vitamina D deficientes en el diagnóstico de melanoma no se asocian a un mayor riesgo de desarrollar un CNC. Sin embargo, en una edad > 60 y el subtipo nodular sí que aumentan el riesgo de desarrollar un CNC (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Neoplasias Cutáneas/sangre , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología , Melanoma/sangre , Melanoma/patología , Vitamina D/sangre , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 115(2): t143-t149, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-230311

RESUMEN

Antecedentes El déficit de vitamina D se asocia con un mayor riesgo de padecer varias enfermedades, incluido el cáncer. Molecularmente, esta parece tener un efecto antineoplásico. Sin embargo, el papel que juega en la patogénesis del cáncer no está bien esclarecido y hay resultados dispares en los estudios publicados. El objetivo del presente fue determinar si unos niveles de vitamina D deficientes en el momento del diagnóstico del melanoma aumentaba el riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer no cutáneo (CNC). Material y método Se diseñó un estudio retrospectivo de 663 pacientes diagnosticados de melanoma entre el 1 de enero de 2011 y el 31 de octubre de 2022. El efecto de cada una de las variables seleccionadas en el desarrollo de un CNC durante el seguimiento tras el diagnóstico del melanoma se realizó mediante el estudio de supervivencia con el método de Kaplan-Meier y las diferencias se evaluaron con la prueba de los rangos logarítmicos. Se elaboraron modelos uni y multivariados de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para cuantificar el efecto de cada valor de las variables de estudio en el tiempo para desarrollar un CNC. Resultados De los 663 pacientes, 34 desarrollaron un CNC tras el melanoma. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos definidos por los niveles de vitamina D (log-rank, p = 0,761). Sin embargo, una edad > 60, el estadio III/IV, y el tipo nodular se asociaron significativamente al desarrollo de un CNC. Tras el análisis multivariado, solo la edad > 60 (hazard ratio [HR] 3,4; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% HR:1,5-7,6) y el subtipo nodular de melanoma (HR 2,2; IC 95% HR:1,0-4,8) se mantuvieron en el modelo predictivo final. Conclusiones Nuestros resultados sugieren que unos niveles de vitamina D deficientes en el diagnóstico de melanoma no se asocian a un mayor riesgo de desarrollar un CNC. Sin embargo, en una edad > 60 y el subtipo nodular sí que aumentan el riesgo de desarrollar un CNC (AU)


Background Vitamin D deficiency associates with the risk of developing many diseases, including cancer. At the molecular level, vitamin D appears to have an antineoplastic effect. However, the role of vitamin D deficiency in cancer pathogenesis remains unelucidated and numerous studies have resulted in discordant results. This study aimed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency during melanoma diagnosis increases the risk of developing non-cutaneous second primary cancers (SPC). Materials and methods A retrospective study on 663 patients diagnosed with melanoma between 1 January 2011 and 31 October 2022. The effect of each variable on the development of a subsequent non-cutaneous cancer was performed using Kaplan–Meier curves and differences were assessed by log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazard univariate and multivariate models were used to quantify the effect of each variable in the time to develop a non-cutaneous neoplasia. Results Out of 663 patients, 34 developed a non-cutaneous SPC. There was no statistically significant association between vitamin D levels and non-cutaneous SPC development (log-rank, p=0.761). Age>60 years, stage III/IV, and nodular melanoma subtype were significantly associated with the development of a SPC. After multivariate analysis, only age>60 years (HR 3.4; HR CI 95%: 1.5–7.6) and nodular melanoma subtype (HR 2.2; HR CI 95%: 1.0–4.8) were included in the final model. Conclusions Our results suggest that vitamin D deficiency is not associated with an increased risk of developing non-cutaneous SPC in melanoma patients. However, age over 60 years and nodular melanoma subtype increase the risk for non-cutaneous SPC development (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Neoplasias Cutáneas/sangre , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología , Melanoma/sangre , Melanoma/patología , Vitamina D/sangre , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3613, 2024 02 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351162

RESUMEN

There is scarce data on energy expenditure in ill children with different degrees of malnutrition. This study aimed to determine resting energy expenditure (REE) trajectories in hospitalized malnourished children during and after hospitalization. We followed a cohort of children in Bangladesh and Malawi (2-23 months) with: no wasting (NW); moderate wasting (MW), severe wasting (SW), or edematous malnutrition (EM). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry at admission, discharge, 14-and-45-days post-discharge. 125 children (NW, n = 23; MW, n = 29; SW, n = 51; EM, n = 22), median age 9 (IQR 6, 14) months, provided 401 REE measurements. At admission, the REE of children with NW and MW was 67 (95% CI [58, 75]) and 70 (95% CI [63, 76]) kcal/kg/day, respectively, while REE in children with SW was higher, 79 kcal/kg/day (95% CI [74, 84], p = 0.018), than NW. REE in these groups was stable over time. In children with EM, REE increased from admission to discharge (65 kcal/kg/day, 95% CI [56, 73]) to 79 (95% CI [72, 86], p = 0.0014) and was stable hereafter. Predictive equations underestimated REE in 92% of participants at all time points. Recommended feeding targets during the acute phase of illness in severely malnourished children exceeded REE. Acutely ill malnourished children are at risk of being overfed when implementing current international guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posteriores , Desnutrición , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Enfermedad Aguda , Alta del Paciente , Metabolismo Basal , Metabolismo Energético , Caquexia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077442, 2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355178

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that sleep is disrupted after stroke, with worse sleep relating to poorer motor outcomes. It is also widely acknowledged that consolidation of motor learning, a critical component of poststroke recovery, is sleep-dependent. However, whether the relationship between disrupted sleep and poor outcomes after stroke is related to direct interference of sleep-dependent motor consolidation processes, is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to understand whether measures of motor consolidation mediate the relationship between sleep and clinical motor outcomes post stroke. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a longitudinal observational study of up to 150 participants diagnosed with stroke affecting the upper limb. Participants will be recruited and assessed within 7 days of their stroke and followed up at approximately 1 and 6 months. The primary objective of the study is to determine whether sleep in the subacute phase of recovery explains the variability in upper limb motor outcomes after stroke (over and above predicted recovery potential from the Predict Recovery Potential algorithm) and whether this relationship is dependent on consolidation of motor learning. We will also test whether motor consolidation mediates the relationship between sleep and whole-body clinical motor outcomes, whether motor consolidation is associated with specific electrophysiological sleep signals and sleep alterations during subacute recovery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial has received both Health Research Authority, Health and Care Research Wales and National Research Ethics Service approval (IRAS: 304135; REC: 22/LO/0353). The results of this trial will help to enhance our understanding of the role of sleep in recovery of motor function after stroke and will be disseminated via presentations at scientific conferences, peer-reviewed publication, public engagement events, stakeholder organisations and other forms of media where appropriate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05746260, registered on 27 February 2023.


Asunto(s)
Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Recuperación de la Función/fisiología , Sueño , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular/métodos , Extremidad Superior
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e078129, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365294

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between oral frailty (OF), nutrient intake and calf circumference (CC) in middle-aged and older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Residents of four model districts of Shika town, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, using data from November 2017 to February 2018. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and ninety-four residents aged ≥50 years in four model districts of Shika town. The OF total score ≥3 was defined as OF. Participants were divided into OF and non-OF groups and divided into the low-CC/kg and the high-CC/kg groups. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is to use a two-way analysis of covariance to analyse the interaction between the two CC/kg groups and the two OF groups on nutrition intake. The secondary outcome is to use multiple regression analysis to investigate the nutrients significantly related to CC/kg when stratified by OF, with age, sex, body mass index, drinking status, smoking status and regular exercise as input covariates. RESULTS: A two-way analysis of covariance revealed a significant interaction between the two CC/kg groups and the two OF groups on animal protein intake (p=0.039). Multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni analysis revealed a significantly lower animal protein intake in the OF group than in the non-OF group with a low CC/kg (p=0.033) but not in the group with a high CC/kg. The multiple regression analysis stratified by OF revealed a positive correlation between animal protein intake and CC/kg (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The present results revealed a significantly lower animal protein intake in the OF group than in the non-OF group in the low-CC/kg group, but no such difference was observed in the high-CC/kg group. Further longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Persona de Mediana Edad , Animales , Humanos , Anciano , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Longitudinales , Ingestión de Energía
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3896, 2024 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365930

RESUMEN

Mechanisms through which most known Alzheimer's disease (AD) loci operate to increase AD risk remain unclear. Although Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is known to regulate lipid homeostasis, the effects of broader AD genetic liability on non-lipid metabolites remain unknown, and the earliest ages at which metabolic perturbations occur and how these change over time are yet to be elucidated. We examined the effects of AD genetic liability on the plasma metabolome across the life course. Using a reverse Mendelian randomization framework in two population-based cohorts [Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, n = 5648) and UK Biobank (n ≤ 118,466)], we estimated the effects of genetic liability to AD on 229 plasma metabolites, at seven different life stages, spanning 8 to 73 years. We also compared the specific effects of APOE ε4 and APOE ε2 carriage on metabolites. In ALSPAC, AD genetic liability demonstrated the strongest positive associations with cholesterol-related traits, with similar magnitudes of association observed across all age groups including in childhood. In UK Biobank, the effect of AD liability on several lipid traits decreased with age. Fatty acid metabolites demonstrated positive associations with AD liability in both cohorts, though with smaller magnitudes than lipid traits. Sensitivity analyses indicated that observed effects are largely driven by the strongest AD instrument, APOE, with many contrasting effects observed on lipids and fatty acids for both ε4 and ε2 carriage. Our findings indicate pronounced effects of the ε4 and ε2 genetic variants on both pro- and anti-atherogenic lipid traits and sphingomyelins, which begin in childhood and either persist into later life or appear to change dynamically.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Niño , Humanos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Genotipo , Estudios Longitudinales , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3981, 2024 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368474

RESUMEN

Antarctica provides a unique environment for studying human adaptability, characterized by controlled conditions, limited sensory stimulation, and significant challenges in logistics and communication. This longitudinal study investigates the relationship between stress indicators, with a specific focus on mean sleep heart rate, during a COVID-19 quarantine and subsequent 83 days long summer Antarctic expedition at the J. G. Mendel Czech Antarctic Station. Our novel approach includes daily recordings of sleep heart rate and weekly assessments of emotions, stress, and sleep quality. Associations between variables were analyzed using the generalized least squares method, providing unique insights into nuances of adaptation. The results support previous findings by providing empirical evidence on the stress reducing effect of Antarctic summer expedition and highlight the importance of previous experience and positive emotions, with the novel contribution of utilizing physiological data in addition to psychological measures. High-frequency sampling and combination of psychological and physiological data addresses a crucial gap in the research of stress. This study contributes valuable knowledge to the field of psychophysiology and has implications for expedition planners, research organizations, teams in action settings, pandemic prevention protocols, global crises, and long-duration spaceflight missions. Comprehensive insights promote the well-being and success of individuals in extreme conditions.


Asunto(s)
Expediciones , Humanos , Regiones Antárticas , Estudios Longitudinales , Sueño , Psicofisiología
17.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1295433, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371232

RESUMEN

Background: One of the biggest challenges facing older adults is cognitive decline and social participation has always been considered a protective factor. However, it is not clear whether social participation predicts cognitive function in this population, rather than depressive symptoms, self-reported health, and activities of daily life, with sufficient capacity to detect unique effects. Methods: This study included adults aged 45 and above in China (N = 5,258) who participated in a large national older adult health survey and provided data from 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018. The unique associations between the predictors of social participation and cognitive function over time and context were evaluated in the Latent Growth Model (LGM). Results: Among the 5,258 participants in our study, an overall cognitive decline was observed. Social participation predicts two dimensions of cognitive function, with a degree of impact comparable to depressive symptoms, self-reported health, and activities of daily life. Among them, social participation exhibits a noteworthy prognostic impact on episodic memory during the same period. The regression coefficient is approximately 0.1 (p < 0.05) after controlling other mixed variables (depressive symptoms, self-reported health, and activities of daily life). In contrast, social participation is also a significant predictor of mental intactness in the same period, with a regression coefficient of 0.06 (p < 0.05), even if all mixed variables are controlled. Conclusion: Over time, the correlation strength of social participation is comparable to other recognized cognitive function prediction indicators, indicating that promoting social participation among middle-aged and older Chinese adults is a meaningful way to improve cognitive function degradation, which has important policy and practical significance.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Participación Social , Persona de Mediana Edad , Humanos , Anciano , Participación Social/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Envejecimiento/psicología , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología
18.
Biometrics ; 80(1)2024 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372401

RESUMEN

We propose a kernel-based estimator to predict the mean response trajectory for sparse and irregularly measured longitudinal data. The kernel estimator is constructed by imposing weights based on the subject-wise similarity on L2 metric space between predictor trajectories, where we assume that an analogous fashion in predictor trajectories over time would result in a similar trend in the response trajectory among subjects. In order to deal with the curse of dimensionality caused by the multiple predictors, we propose an appealing multiplicative model with multivariate Gaussian kernels. This model is capable of achieving dimension reduction as well as selecting functional covariates with predictive significance. The asymptotic properties of the proposed nonparametric estimator are investigated under mild regularity conditions. We illustrate the robustness and flexibility of our proposed method via extensive simulation studies and an application to the Framingham Heart Study.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales
19.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(2): e6070, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372962

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dementia is associated with individual vision impairment (VI) and hearing impairment (HI). However, little is known about their associations with motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a pre-dementia stage. We investigated the association of VI, HI, and dual sensory impairment (DSI) with MCR and to further evaluate causal relationships using Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: First, an observational study was conducted in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of VI, HI, and DSI with MCR using the logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Second, evaluate the causal association between VI and HI with MCR using MR analysis. The GWAS data was used for genetic instruments, including 88,250 of European ancestry (43,877 cases and 44,373 controls) and 504,307 with "white British" ancestry (100,234 cases and 404,073 controls), respectively; MCR information was obtained from the GWAS with 22,593 individuals. Inverse variance weighted was the primary method and sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the robustness of MR methods. RESULTS: In the observational study, VI (HR: 1.767, 95%CI: 1.331-2.346; p < 0.001), HI (HR: 1.461, 95%CI: 1.196-1.783; p < 0.001), and DSI (HR: 1.507, 95%CI: 1.245-1.823; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with increased risk of MCR. For the MR, no causal relationship between VI (OR: 0.902, 95% CI: 0.593-1.372; p = 0.631) and HI (OR: 1.016, 95% CI: 0.989-1.043; p = 0.248) with MCR risk, which is consistent with the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: VI, HI, and DSI were significantly associated with MCR, but MR analysis failed to provide evidence of their causal relationship. Emphasized the importance of sensory impairment screening in identifying high-risk populations for dementia.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Longitudinales , Audición , Síndrome , Cognición
20.
Psychooncology ; 33(2): e6306, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372968

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is considered an integral part of therapy in many hematological and non-hematological malignancies. The procedure can be highly stressful for patients. The primary objective of this study was to compare stress assessments in HSCT patients, depending on their stress coping style (CS) and type of treatment (autologous vs. allogeneic HSCT). METHODS: A short longitudinal study was conducted between May 2021 and June 2023 among patients with hematological cancers undergoing HSCT. The study involved four time points: the day of admission to hospital - T1, the day before HSCT - T2, 6 days after HSCT - T3, and the day of discharge - T4. Participants completed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) on T1, and the Distress Thermometer (DT) on T1-T4. Descriptive statistics and a repeated measures ANOVA were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 128 participants completed the study: 54.2% female, mean age 48.7 years. They were divided into: (1) five groups based on their CS: task-oriented, emotion-oriented, avoidance-oriented, mix-oriented, differential-oriented; (2) two groups based on treatment type. The analyses showed significant differences in stress between the CS study groups (p = 0.001). The emotion-oriented group had the highest stress levels during the hospitalization period. There was also a significant time effect (p < 0.001): stress levels increased during the hospitalization period, peaking 6 days after HSCT, and decreased at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Stress levels depend on coping styles and time points during the hospitalization period, which should be taken into account in planning psychological interventions for HSCT patients.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Estudios Longitudinales , Estrés Psicológico
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