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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e57581, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224578

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever as características sociodemográficas e de saúde de mulheres e homens com 75 anos ou mais de idade, no baseline e follow-up de quatro anos e verificar para mulheres e homens as mudanças nas condições de saúde. Métodos: estudo longitudinal com 109 idosos de 75 anos ou mais de idade de um município no Triângulo Mineiro. A coleta dos dados, realizada em dois momentos (2014-2018), ocorreu no domicílio com a aplicação de instrumentos validados no Brasil. Procederam-se às análises descritiva e teste t pareado (p<0,05). Os projetos foram aprovados pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa com Seres Humanos. Resultados: verificaram-se, em ambos os sexos, aumento do número de morbidades e diminuição do escore total das atividades instrumentais da vida diária. Entre as mulheres observou-se, ainda, aumento do número de quedas e do escore de fragilidade. Conclusão: ao longo do seguimento houve piora nas condições de saúde dos idosos, sendo mais expressiva entre as mulheres.


Objective: to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of women and men aged 75 or over, at baseline and after four years of follow-up, and to ascertain changes in their health status. Methods: in this longitudinal study of 109 elderly people aged 75 or over from a city in the Triângulo Mineiro, data were collected at two points (2014 and 2018), at home, by applying instruments validated for use in Brazil. Descriptive analysis and paired t-tests were performed (p < 0.05). The projects were approved by the human research ethics committee. Results: in both genders, the number of morbidities increased and the total score for instrumental activities of daily living decreased. Among women, the number of falls and frailty score also increased. Conclusion: the older people's health status worsened over the course of follow-up, more so among the women.


Objetivo: describir las características sociodemográficas y de salud de mujeres y hombres de 75 años o más, en la base de referencia y el seguimiento durante cuatro años, y verificar los cambios en las condiciones de salud de mujeres y hombres. Métodos: estudio longitudinal con 109 personas mayores, de 75 años o más, de un municipio del Triângulo Mineiro. La recolección de datos, realizada en dos momentos (2014-2018), se realizó en sus domicilios aplicando instrumentos validados en Brasil. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y prueba t pareada (p <0.05). Los proyectos fueron aprobados por el Comité de Ética en Investigación con Humanos. Resultados: en ambos os sexos, hubo un aumento en el número de morbilidades y una disminución en la puntuación total de las actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria. Entre las mujeres, se observó asimismo un aumento en el número de caídas y la puntuación de fragilidad. Conclusión: a lo largo del seguimiento, las condiciones de salud de las personas mayores empeoraron, más expresivamente entre las mujeres.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Estado de Salud , Enfermería Geriátrica , Estudios Longitudinales , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045512, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479929

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The association between community cultural engagement and mental health and well-being is well established. However, little is known about whether such associations are influenced by area characteristics. This study therefore examined whether the association between engagement in community cultural assets (attendance at cultural events, visiting museums and heritage sites) and subsequent well-being (life satisfaction, mental distress and mental health functioning) is moderated by neighbourhood deprivation. DESIGN: Data were drawn from Understanding Society: The UK Household Longitudinal Study waves 2 and 5. Participating households' addresses were geocoded into statistical neighbourhood zones categorised according to their level of area deprivation. SETTING: General population. PARTICIPANTS: UK general adult population, with a total sample of 14 783. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Life satisfaction was measured with a seven-point scale (1: completely unsatisfied to 7: completely satisfied). Mental distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire 12. Mental health functioning was measured using 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). RESULTS: Using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, we found that engagement in cultural assets was consistently and positively associated with subsequent life satisfaction and mental health functioning and negatively associated with mental distress. Importantly, such associations were independent of individuals' demographic background, socioeconomic characteristics and regional location. The results also show that relationships between engagement in community cultural assets and well-being were stronger in more deprived areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that engagement in community cultural assets is associated with better well-being, with some evidence that individuals in areas of high deprivation potentially may benefit more from these engagements. Given that causal mechanisms were not tested, causal claims cannot be generated from the results. However, the results suggest that place-based funding schemes that involve investment in areas of higher deprivation to improve engagement rates should be explored further to see if they can help promote better well-being among residents.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Salud Mental , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Satisfacción Personal , Reino Unido
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Asunto(s)
Inseguridad Alimentaria , Infecciones por VIH , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1614, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479524

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescent multiple risk behaviour (MRB) is associated with negative outcomes such as police arrests, unemployment and premature mortality and morbidity. What is unknown is whether MRB is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in adulthood. We test whether adolescent MRB is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in young adulthood and whether it is moderated by early life SES variables. METHODS: Prospective cohort studies; British Cohort Study 1970 (BCS70) and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), born in 1991-1992, were used and two comparable MRB variables were derived. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between MRB and young adult SES. The moderating effect of three early life SES variables was assessed using logistic regression models with and without interaction parameters. Evidence to support the presence of moderation was determined by likelihood ratio tests ≤p = 0.05. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. RESULTS: Adolescents had a median of two risk behaviours in BCS70 and three in ALSPAC. Adolescent MRB was negatively associated with young adult SES (university degree attainment) in BCS70 (OR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.86) and ALSPAC (OR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.88). There was a dose response relationship, with each additional risk behaviour resulting in reduced odds of university degree attainment. MRB was associated occupational status at age 34 in BCS70 (OR 0.86 95% CI: 0.82, 0.90). In BCS70, there was evidence that maternal education (p = 0.03), parental occupational status (p = 0.009) and household income (p = 0.03) moderated the effect of adolescent MRB on young adult SES in that the negative effect of MRB is stronger for those with low socioeconomic backgrounds. No evidence of moderation was found in the ALSPAC cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence appears to be a critical time in the life course to address risk behaviours, due to the likelihood that behaviours established here may have effects in adulthood. Intervening on adolescent MRB could improve later SES outcomes and thus affect health outcomes later in life. Evidence for a moderation effect in the BCS70 but not ALSPAC suggests that more detailed measures should be investigated to capture the nuance of contemporary young adult SES.


Asunto(s)
Asunción de Riesgos , Clase Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 117, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In England, the onset of COVID-19 and a rapidly increasing infection rate resulted in a lockdown (March-June 2020) which placed strict restrictions on movement of the public, including children. Using data collected from children living in a multi-ethnic city with high levels of deprivation, this study aimed to: (1) report children's self-reported physical activity (PA) during the first COVID-19 UK lockdown and identify associated factors; (2) examine changes of children's self-reported PA prior to and during the first UK lockdown. METHODS: This study is part of the Born in Bradford (BiB) COVID-19 Research Study. PA (amended Youth Activity Profile), sleep, sedentary behaviours, daily frequency/time/destination/activity when leaving the home, were self-reported by 949 children (9-13 years). A sub-sample (n = 634) also self-reported PA (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children) pre-pandemic (2017-February 2020). Univariate analysis assessed differences in PA between sex and ethnicity groups; multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with children's PA. Differences in children's levels of being sufficiently active prior to and during the lockdown were examined using the McNemar test; and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors explaining change. RESULTS: During the pandemic, White British (WB) children were more sufficiently active (34.1%) compared to Pakistani Heritage children (PH) (22.8%) or 'Other' ethnicity children (O) (22.8%). WB children reported leaving the home more frequently and for longer periods than PH and O children. Modifiable variables related to being sufficiently active were frequency, duration, type of activity, and destination away from the home environment. There was a large reduction in children being sufficiently active during the first COVID-19 lockdown (28.9%) compared to pre-pandemic (69.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Promoting safe extended periods of PA everyday outdoors is important for all children, in particular for children from ethnic minority groups. Children's PA during the first COVID-19 UK lockdown has drastically reduced from before. Policy and decision makers, and practitioners should consider the findings in order to begin to understand the impact and consequences that COVID-19 has had upon children's PA which is a key and vital behaviour for health and development.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Grupos Étnicos , Ejercicio Físico , Autoinforme , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiología
6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 516-521, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495054

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and post-traumatic stress in a sample of Brazilians and their relationship with sex, age, and work situation, and compare if these symptoms change with 8 weeks of quarantine. METHODS: Online survey to collect epidemiological data and apply the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Eight weeks later, the researchers requested the same requirements to complete the BAI and IES-R and compare the results. RESULTS: The sample of 287 answered the first and second questionnaires, being 72.8% women, with a median age of 22 years. In the first interview, the median BAI was 12 (7-19) and the median IES-R was 27.0 (15-40); in the second, the median BAI was 11 (6-22) and the IES-R was 30 (15-41) with p<00001 and 0.09, respectively. Anxiety levels were worse in females (p<0.0001 for both BAI and IES-R) and in those who worked/studied in the area of health (p=0.001 for BAI and 0.01 for IES-R). There was a negative correlation between age and anxiety (p<0.0001 for BAI and IES-R). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of anxiety that lowered after 8 weeks were found. Anxiety was worse in females, in younger people, and in those who worked/studied in the area of health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e071, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495135

RESUMEN

This study investigated the factors associated with new carious lesions in one-to five-year-old children with developmental disabilities. This was a retrospective cohort that evaluated 64 dental charts of individuals with caries or fillings in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the occurrence of a new carious lesion or restoration. Gender, age, mother's education, sugar consumption, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic drugs, use of asthma drugs, history of asthma, bronchitis, reflux or seizures and having at least one sibling were covariates. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios with their respective 95% confidence interval. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was 79.49 months (95%CI: 64.37 to 92.61). Increase in sucrose consumption increased the rate of caries recurrence (HR = 1.16; 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.30). Individuals who had poor oral hygiene had higher rate of new dental caries (HR = 3.88; 95%CI: 1.22 to 12.37) compared to those with good oral hygiene. The presence of mouth breathing decreased the rate of recurrence of the disease when compared to the nasal breathing (HR = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.15 to 0.70). Oral health-related behaviors and nasal respiration influenced the rate of dental caries recurrence in individuals with developmental disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Niño , Preescolar , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Higiene Bucal , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 924, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488749

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease which can also involve joints. It is often associated with burdensome comorbidities which negatively impact prognosis and quality of life (QoL). Biologic agents have been shown to be effective in controlling disease progression, but their use is associated with higher costs compared with traditional systemic treatments. The economic analysis of the CANOVA (EffeCtiveness of biologic treAtmeNts for plaque psOriasis in Italy: an obserVAtional longitudinal study of real-life clinical practice) study aims to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of biologics in a real-world context in Italy. METHODS: The annualised overall direct costs of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis management, the annualised cost of biologic drugs and the cost per responder in the Italian National Health System perspective were assessed. More specifically, the cost per response and cost per sustained response of the most prescribed biologic therapies for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis within the CANOVA study were assessed using the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) at several score levels (75, 90 and 100%). RESULTS: The most frequently used biologic therapies for plaque psoriasis were secukinumab, ustekinumab, adalimumab originator, and ixekizumab. Cost of biologics was the driver of expenditure, accounting for about 98% of total costs. Adalimumab originator was the biologic with the lowest cost per responder ratio (range: €7848 - €31,378), followed by secukinumab (range: €9015 - €33,419). Ustekinumab (range: €11,689 - €39,280) and ixekizumab (range: €11,092 - €34,289) ranked respectively third and fourth, in terms of cost-effectiveness ratio. As concerns the cost per sustained response analysis, secukinumab showed the lowest value observed (€21,375) over the other options, because of its high response rate (86% vs. 60-80%), which was achieved early in time. CONCLUSION: Biologic therapy is a valuable asset for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Concomitant assessment of treatment costs against the expected therapeutic response over time can provide physicians and payers additional insights which can complement the traditional risk-benefit profile assessment and drive treatment decisions.


Asunto(s)
Psoriasis , Calidad de Vida , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Terapia Biológica , Humanos , Italia , Estudios Longitudinales , Psoriasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508007

RESUMEN

Several studies have been devoted to establishing the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health across gender, age, and ethnicity. However, much less attention has been paid to the differential effect of COVID-19 according to different personalities. We do this using the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS), a large-scale panel survey representative of the UK population. The UKHLS allows us to assess the mental health of the same respondent before and during the COVID-19 period based on their "Big Five" personality traits and cognitive skills. We find that during the COVID-19 period, individuals who have more extravert and open personality traits report a higher mental health deterioration, while those scoring higher in agreeableness are less affected. The effect of openness is particularly strong: One more SD predicts up to 0.23 more symptoms of mental health deterioration in the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) test during the COVID-19 period. In particular, for females, cognitive skills and openness are strong predictors of mental health deterioration, while for non-British White respondents, these predictors are extraversion and openness. Neuroticism strongly predicts worse mental health cross-sectionally, but it does not lead to significantly stronger deterioration during the pandemic. The study's results are robust to the inclusion of potential confounding variables such as changes in physical health, household income, and job status (like unemployed or furloughed).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos Mentales , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Personalidad , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido/epidemiología
10.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 710-717, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516174

RESUMEN

Physical fatigability, or susceptibility to physical fatigue, is strongly associated with aging, disease, and disability. Over the lifecourse, personality traits are also connected to numerous age-related vulnerabilities and resistance-yet, their longitudinal association with fatigability remains unknown. Well-functioning community-dwelling volunteers aged ≥50 (N = 995) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) were assessed over an average of 2 years on personality traits (NEO-PI-R; openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) and perceived fatigability [Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) after a 5-min slow treadmill walk; 6 (low) to 20 (high) exertion]. Linear and multinomial logistic regression models examined cross-sectional associations [treating fatigability continuously and by RPE category: low (6-7), intermediate (8-9), and high (10+)]. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) tested longitudinal associations. All models were adjusted for demographics and comorbid conditions. In cross-sectional models, openness, ß = -.09 RPE (SE =.03); p < .01, conscientiousness, ß = -.07 (.03); p < .05, and extraversion, ß = -.10 (.03); p < .01, were negatively associated with fatigability. In parallel, lower openness, OR: .98, 95% CI [.96-1.00], conscientiousness, OR: .98, 95% CI [.96-1.00], and extraversion, OR: .97, 95% CI [.95-.99], corresponded with higher odds of having high versus low fatigability. In longitudinal models (mean follow-up time 2 ± 2 years), openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion associations remained significant and did not change over time (Trait × Year p values > .34). Together, findings suggest that personality plays a role in the perceived tolerance of fatigue in well-functioning older adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Fatiga/psicología , Vida Independiente/psicología , Personalidad , Anciano , Baltimore , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino
11.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 752-766, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516176

RESUMEN

Views on aging (VoA) are meaningful predictors of well-being, health, cognitive impairment, and mortality. One underlying pathway could be that negative VoA promote perceived stress. However, little is known about the role of stress perceptions as an antecedent of personal VoA. In this study, we therefore investigated the longitudinal reciprocal association between perceived stress and three established constructs representing personal VoA: (a) subjective age; (b) attitude toward own aging (ATOA); and (c) aging-related cognitions comprising social loss, physical decline, and continuous growth. We also examined whether these associations are moderated by chronological age. Two adjacent measurement occasions (2014 and 2017) of the German Ageing Survey with 4,588 individuals aged between 40 and 95 years were analyzed. Cross-lagged models controlling for VoA and perceived stress at baseline, chronological age, subjective health, depressive symptoms, education, gender, region of residence, and year of individual study entry revealed significant reciprocal longitudinal relations between VoA and perceived stress. For three of the five VoA indicators, the pathway from perceived stress to subsequent VoA was of the same magnitude as the reversed pathway. With increasing chronological age, ATOA was less strongly associated with subsequent stress perceptions. Moreover, the impact of higher perceived stress on an older subjective age was weaker with advancing age. In conclusion, the trend in prior subjective aging research to conceptualize stress in midlife and old age exclusively as a consequence of VoA needs reconsideration, as higher perceived stress levels also seem to be a risk factor for less favorable personal VoA. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Actitud , Cognición , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
12.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12273, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520073

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how many workplace COVID-19 preventive measures were maintained during repeated outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate a longitudinal change of implementation of workplace preventive measures responding to COVID-19 in Japan. METHODS: An online longitudinal study was conducted using a cohort of full-time employees in Japan, starting in March 2020 (T1), with follow-up surveys in May (T2), August (T3), and November (T4) 2020. A repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the difference among the four surveys in the mean number of 23 predetermined items of the measures implemented. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 800 employees. The mean number of the implemented measures increased from T1 to T2, but did not change from T2 to T3, then decreased from T3 to T4. The number of workplace preventive measures significantly increased from T1 to T2 for 21 items (P < .001), and significantly decreased from T3 to T4 for 14 items (P < .001 to P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: While the preventive measures responding to COVID-19 in the workplace were well-implemented during the earlier phase of the outbreak, they seem to have been relaxed after a huge outbreak (T3 to T4: August to November 2020). Workplaces should be encouraged to continue the preventive measures over repeated outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Implementación de Plan de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Japón , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/virología , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
13.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 144, 2021 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530932

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The model of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC model) characterises the life management strategies that contribute to successful development. Although the SOC model is an important developmental theory, until now there has been no Polish version of a measurement tool for SOC strategies. The studies conducted so far have consistently indicated a relationship between the use of these strategies and well-being. In contrast, the relationship between SOC strategies and impulsivity has not yet been empirically examined, although there are theoretical premises to assume its existence. The aim of the study was to compare the use of SOC strategies in early, middle and late adulthood, and to investigate the relationship between the use of SOC strategies and well-being and impulsivity, using a newly developed Polish version of the SOC Questionnaire (SOC48-PL). METHODS: The study applied a quantitative approach. The sample comprised 589 Poles from three age groups: early adulthood (n = 186, 20-35 years), middle adulthood (n = 165, 40-55 years) and late adulthood (n = 238, 60-85 years). In the study, in addition to the SOC48-PL questionnaire, the Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS) and the Short UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (S UPPS-P) were used. RESULTS: Developmental differences in the use of SOC strategies are rather slight, with considerable individual differences within age groups. The study revealed some indications of a 'developmental peak' of SOC strategies in middle adulthood. The use SOC strategies is positively related to well-being. In turn, the relationship between the use of SOC strategies and impulsivity is negative, especially for two dimensions of impulsivity: lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance. CONCLUSIONS: The results only slightly confirm the assumed age-related differences in the use of SOC strategies and point to a large role of individual differences. The revealed positive relationships of SOC strategy use with well-being and negative with impulsivity are consistent with expectations. With the present study, the SOC48-PL questionnaire may find application in further studies on the SOC model involving the Polish population, as well as in the measurement of SOC strategies in psychological practice. Furthermore, the identified associations of SOC strategies with well-being and impulsivity can be taken as initial indications for the development of interventions based on teaching the use of SOC strategies. Cross-cultural comparisons, long-term longitudinal studies on changes in the use of SOC strategies over the life course, and combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in the analysis of the use of SOC strategies in practice are worth mentioning as directions for further research.


Asunto(s)
Mecanismos de Defensa , Conducta Impulsiva , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Polonia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 667, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome is inherently dynamic and its dynamic nature plays a critical role in maintaining health and driving disease. With an increasing number of longitudinal microbiome studies, scientists are eager to learn the comprehensive characterization of microbial dynamics and their implications to the health and disease-related phenotypes. However, due to the challenging structure of longitudinal microbiome data, few analytic methods are available to characterize the microbial dynamics over time. RESULTS: We propose a microbial trend analysis (MTA) framework for the high-dimensional and phylogenetically-based longitudinal microbiome data. In particular, MTA can perform three tasks: 1) capture the common microbial dynamic trends for a group of subjects at the community level and identify the dominant taxa; 2) examine whether or not the microbial overall dynamic trends are significantly different between groups; 3) classify an individual subject based on its longitudinal microbial profiling. Our extensive simulations demonstrate that the proposed MTA framework is robust and powerful in hypothesis testing, taxon identification, and subject classification. Our real data analyses further illustrate the utility of MTA through a longitudinal study in mice. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed MTA framework is an attractive and effective tool in investigating dynamic microbial pattern from longitudinal microbiome studies.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional , Microbiota , Animales , Estudios Longitudinales , Ratones
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3839-3851, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468677

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns and associations with socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, nutritional status, lipid profile and inflammatory profile in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample using baseline data (2014) from the Longitudinal Study on Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Eating Habits and Adolescent Health. A total of 1,438 adolescents (10 to 14 years old) from public schools in the city of João Pessoa, Brazil, participated in the study. Data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics, nutritional status, lifestyle and the results of biochemical tests. Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall method and dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis. Associations of interest were estimated using multiple logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were found: "Traditional", "Snacks" and "Western". These patterns were associated with age, socioeconomic status, parental education and lifestyle. The "Traditional" pattern was associated lower adiposity and a better lipid profile. However, with the increase in age, greater frequencies of the "Snacks" and "Western" patterns were found. The present findings underscore the need for strategies that encourage healthy behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050480, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475179

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify mental health prospective trajectories before and after a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associations with somatic symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective Study. SETTING: Population-based study drawn from a probability-based internet panel of over 100 000 Israelis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18 years or more, representative of the adult Israeli population. The participants were measured at two time points (time 1 (T1) pre-second lockdown N=1029; response rate=76.17%; time 2 (T2) post-second lockdown N=764; response rate=74.24%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trajectories of anxiety and adjustment disorder based on clinical cut-off score for probable diagnoses across T1-T2, somatic symptoms at T2. The four trajectories: stable-low, (no probable diagnosis), stable-high (stable probable diagnosis), exacerbation (no probable diagnosis at T1, probable diagnosis at T2), recovery (probable diagnosis at T1, no probable diagnosis at T2). RESULTS: Three anxiety trajectories predicted probable somatic symptoms (stable-high OR=6.451; exacerbation OR=5.379; recovery OR=2.025) compared with the stable-low trajectory. The three adjustment disorder trajectories also predicted somatic symptoms (stable-high OR=4.726; exacerbation OR=6.419; recovery OR=4.666) compared with the stable-low trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show elevated somatic symptoms among those whose mental health trajectories were poor, exacerbated and those who recovered following the second lockdown. The presentation of somatic symptoms may mask psychological vulnerabilities, even among those who appear to have recovered from the stressor. This indicates that lockdown may be a double-edged sword and should be carefully administered given these populations vulnerabilities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Síntomas sin Explicación Médica , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 373, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479575

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of genodermatoses in which deficient ectodysplasin A signalling leads to maldevelopment of skin appendages, various eccrine glands, and teeth. Individuals with HED often have disrupted epithelial barriers and, therefore, were suspected to be more susceptible to coronavirus infection. METHODS: 56 households with at least one member who had coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) were enrolled in a longitudinal study to compare the course of illness, immune responses, and long-term consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in HED patients (n = 15, age 9-52 years) and control subjects of the same age group (n = 149). RESULTS: In 14 HED patients, mild or moderate typical COVID-19 symptoms were observed that lasted for 4-45 days. Fever during the first days sometimes required external cooling measures. The course of COVID-19 was similar to that in control subjects if patients developed antibodies blocking the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Five out of six HED patients with completely abrogated ectodysplasin A signalling (83%) suffered from chronic, in two cases very severe fatigue following COVID-19, while only 25% of HED patients with residual activity of this pathway and 21% of control subjects recovering from COVID-19 experienced postinfectious fatigue. Hair loss after COVID-19 was also more frequent among HED patients (64%) than in the control group (13%). CONCLUSIONS: HED appears to be associated with an increased risk of long-term consequences of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Preventive vaccination against COVID-19 should be recommended for individuals affected by this rare genetic disorder.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Displasia Ectodermal Anhidrótica Tipo 1 , Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica , Adolescente , Adulto , Alopecia , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Adulto Joven
19.
Hematology ; 26(1): 656-662, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493174

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation dysfunction is an evident factor in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), appearing even in COVID-19 patients with normal inflammation indices. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics of coagulation function indices in COVID-19 patients to investigate possible mechanisms through the comparison of non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included 143 patients whose clinical characteristics, coagulation function, and other indices such as inflammatory factors were collected and compared based on disease severity. RESULTS: Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels were evidently higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group. Among non-severe COVID-19 patients, the aforementioned indicators depicted increasing trends, but the fibrinogen level alone was higher than normal. However, in severe COVID-19 patients, values of all three indices were higher than normal. In severe COVID-19 patients, fibrinogen and D-dimer were correlated with several inflammation indices during the early stage of the disease. However, no correlation between fibrinogen and inflammatory factors was observed in non-severe COVID-19 patients at any time point. DISCUSSION: Results revealed that the hypercoagulability tendency of severe COVID-19 patients was more evident. The relationship between coagulation function and inflammatory factors showed that changes in coagulation function in severe COVID-19 patients may be related to abnormal increase in inflammatory factors at an early stage; however, in non-severe COVID-19 patients, there might be other factors leading to abnormal coagulation. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory factors were not the only cause of abnormal coagulation function in COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea , COVID-19/sangre , Coagulación Intravascular Diseminada/sangre , Trombofilia/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/complicaciones , Coagulación Intravascular Diseminada/etiología , Femenino , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Fibrinógeno/análisis , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tiempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Trombofilia/etiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501560

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the longer-term psychological impact of COVID-19 in healthcare workers (HCWs). PURPOSE: We examined the 10-week trajectory of insomnia symptoms in HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: HCWs completed a web-based survey at baseline (9 April-11 May 2020) and every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The main outcome was the severity of insomnia symptoms in the past week. Multivariable-adjusted generalized estimating equation analyses examined factors associated with insomnia symptoms. RESULTS: n = 230 completed surveys at baseline. n = 155, n = 130, n = 118, n = 95, and n = 89 completed follow-ups at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. Prevalence of insomnia symptoms of at least moderate severity was 72.6% at baseline, and 63.2%, 44.6%, 40.7%, 34.7%, and 39.3% at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with increased odds of insomnia symptoms were younger age (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-1.00), working in a COVID-facing environment (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.15-2.67) and hours worked (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06-1.27). CONCLUSIONS: The initial high rates of insomnia symptoms improved as time passed from the peak of local COVID-19 cases but four out of ten HCWs still had moderate-to-severe insomnia symptoms ten weeks after baseline.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Ansiedad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Salud Mental , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología
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