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2.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(1): 65-70, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393323

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of integrated pulmonary index (IPI) in predicting the pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients admitted to emergency departments (ED) with dyspnea. BACKGROUND: The acute dyspnea is one of the most common chief complaints in EDs. PE is a potentially fatal disease and the delay in specific therapy increases the worst outcomes. METHODS: This study is a prospective methodological study, in which we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the IPI in predicting PE in patients admitted to ED with dyspnea. ROC analysis was used for estimating the accuracy of IPI and OCRS. RESULTS: Of the 144 patients included in the study, there were 20 (13.9 %) PE patients. In the ROC analysis, the best cut-off point for IPI was ≤ 2. For this cut-off point, the sensitivity and specificity of IPI were 100.0 % and 96.0 %, respectively. Besides, the accuracy of IPI was 96.5 % with a +LR of 24.8 and a -LR of 0.0. CONCLUSION: IPI was a potential candidate for evaluating the respiratory status, and a limiting tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic tests and save time in determining the treatment course in dyspneic patients at ED (Tab. 5, Fig. 3, Ref. 34).


Asunto(s)
Disnea , Embolia Pulmonar , Enfermedad Aguda , Disnea/diagnóstico , Disnea/etiología , Humanos , Pulmón , Estudios Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/complicaciones , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 73-78, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397854

RESUMEN

In adults, distal humerus fractures are infrequent and frequently intra-articular. Customarily encompass both medial and lateral columns. Operative management gives constructive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcome in intra articular distal humerus fractures in adults treated by different hardware. This prospective study consists of 20 purposively selected patients with intra articular distal humerus fractures treated by surgical intervention with different hardware who were admitted to Mymensingh Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh in between November 2016 to October 2018. Surgical approaches were standard dorsal with or without olecranon osteotomy. The mean age of the patients was 32.3 years, range between 18-55 years. The maximum patients i.e. 85% were between 18-45 years. Seventy percent (70%) of the cases admitted were due to Road traffic accident (RTA). Most of the patients were males 14(70%) with right upper limb was involved in 13(65%) cases. Mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 81.5 post-operatively. According to Mayo Elbow Performance (MEP) score clinical outcome was excellent in 20%, good in 50%, fair in 25% and poor in 10% of patients. Distal humerus fractures are censorious in nature. Proper anatomical articular reconstruction and stable fixation by surgical intervention helps in fruitful results.


Asunto(s)
Articulación del Codo , Fracturas del Húmero , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Articulación del Codo/cirugía , Fijación Interna de Fracturas , Humanos , Fracturas del Húmero/cirugía , Húmero , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 159-163, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397868

RESUMEN

Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the commonest anorectal problems in worldwide. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is the treatment choice due to less post-operative pain and early recovery. The aim of this study was to assess outcomes after Stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH). This cross-sectional prospective study was performed in Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, Dhaka from January 2016 to December 2017. Ninety patients with symptomatic hemorrhoidal diseases were included in this study. Data collected in data collection sheet regarding demographic data, severity of symptoms, post-operative complains of patient and outcome of patients which were then analyzed. Total 90 patients were included in this study. Age ranged from 18-50 years. Male were 59(65.56%) and female were 31(34.44%). 2° hemorrhoids were 11(12.22%), 3° hemorrhoids were 63(70%), 4° hemorrhoids were 16(17.78%). Post-operative complications were mild pain 73(81.11%), moderate pain 13(14.45%), severe pain 4(4.44%), early bleeding 23(25.56%), retention of urine 16(17.78%), early urgency 15(16.67%), infection 4(4.44%), constipation 9(10%), late recurrence 4(4.44%). Outcomes of stapled hemorrhoidopexy were satisfactory in most patients. Early recovery, low complication rate, minimal post-operative pain was encountered in treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids by stapled hemorrhoidopexy.


Asunto(s)
Hemorroides , Grapado Quirúrgico , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hemorroides/epidemiología , Hemorroides/cirugía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor Postoperatorio/epidemiología , Dolor Postoperatorio/etiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
5.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205140p1-7501205140p11, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399062

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: The most frequently used measures of facial emotion recognition (FER) are insufficiently comprehensive, reliable, valid, and efficient; moreover, the impact of gender on scoring has not been controlled. OBJECTIVE: To develop a computerized adaptive test of FER for adults with schizophrenia. DESIGN: First, we selected photographs from a published database. Second, items that fitted well to a Rasch model were used to form the item bank. Third and last, we determined the best administration mode for prospective users to achieve both high reliability and efficiency. SETTING: Psychiatric hospitals and the community. PARTICIPANTS: Adults living with schizophrenia (n = 351) and adults without diagnosed mental illness (n = 101). RESULTS: After removal of misfit items (infit or outfit ≥1.4), the remaining 165 items were selected to form an item bank. Among them, 39 showed severe gender bias, so the item difficulties were adjusted accordingly. On the basis of the item bank, two administration modes were recommended for prospective users. The reliable mode required approximately 128 items (nearly 20 min) to achieve reliability (.72-.81), similar to that of the entire item bank. The efficient mode required approximately 73 items (approximate 11 min) to provide acceptable reliability (.69-.73) for the seven domain scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our newly developed measure provides comprehensive, valid, and unbiased (to examinees' gender) assessments of FER in adults living with schizophrenia. In addition, the administration modes can be flexibly changed to optimize the reliability or efficiency for prospective users. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This newly developed FER measure can help occupational therapists identify deficits in recognizing specific basic emotions and plan corresponding interventions to manage the impact on their clients' social functions.


Asunto(s)
Reconocimiento Facial , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sexismo
6.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397501

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Development of the maternal antenatal attachment (MAA) constitutes an important aspect of the transition into motherhood. Early identification of women at risk of developing a poor MAA provides possibilities for preventive interventions targeting maternal mental health and the emerging mother-infant relationship. In this study, we investigate the relative importance of an extensive set of psychosocial, pregnancy-related, and physiological factors measured in the first trimester of pregnancy for MAA measured in third trimester. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among pregnant women in Danish general practice (GP). Data were obtained in the first and the third trimester from pregnancy health records and electronic questionnaires associated with routine GP antenatal care visits. The Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) was used to assess maternal antenatal attachment. The relative importance of potential determinants of maternal antenatal attachment was assessed by the relative contribution of each factor to the fit (R2) calculated from multivariable regression models. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1328 women. Low antenatal attachment (Total MAAS ≤ 75) was observed for 513 (38.6%) women. Perceived social support (having someone to talk to and having access to practical help when needed) emerged as the most important determinant. Furthermore, scores on the MAAS decreased with worse self-rated health, poor physical fitness, depression, increasing age, having given birth previously, and higher education. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women reporting lack of social support and general low physical and mental well-being early in pregnancy may be at risk for developing a poor MAA. An approach targeting both psychosocial and physiological well-being may positively influence expectant mothers' successful adaptation to motherhood.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Relaciones Materno-Fetales/psicología , Salud Mental , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Adulto , Dinamarca , Femenino , Medicina General , Humanos , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Apego a Objetos , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Apoyo Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244532, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411707

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The first cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Brazil were diagnosed in February 2020. Our Emergency Department (ED) was designated as a COVID-19 exclusive service. We report our first 500 confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia patients. METHODS: From 14 March to 16 May 2020, we enrolled all patients admitted to our ED that had a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Infection was confirmed via nasopharyngeal swabs or tracheal aspirate PCR. The outcomes included hospital discharge, invasive mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital death, among others. RESULTS: From 2219 patients received in the ED, we included 506 with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We found that 333 patients were discharged home (65.9%), 153 died (30.2%), and 20 (3.9%) remained in the hospital. A total of 300 patients (59.3%) required ICU admission, and 227 (44.9%) needed invasive ventilation. The multivariate analysis found age, number of comorbidities, extension of ground glass opacities on chest CT and troponin with a direct relationship with all-cause mortality, whereas dysgeusia, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-ii receptor blocker and number of lymphocytes with an inverse relationship with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This was a sample of severe patients with COVID-19, with 59.2% admitted to the ICU and 41.5% requiring mechanical ventilator support. We were able to ascertain the outcome in majority (96%) of patients. While the overall mortality was 30.2%, mortality for intubated patients was 55.9%. Multivariate analysis agreed with data found in other studies although the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-ii receptor blocker as a protective factor could be promising but would need further studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the Brazilian registry of clinical trials: RBR-5d4dj5.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , /terapia , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estaciones del Año
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245057, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411843

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and loneliness in the general population. More specifically, the study focused on prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms, the extent to which individuals with existing symptoms recovered or not, the prevalence of subtypes of loneliness, and the extent to which loneliness before and during this pandemic was associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. METHODS: Data was extracted from the longitudinal LISS panel, based on a probability sample of the Dutch population, with assessments on loneliness in October 2019 (T1) and June 2020 (T4), and anxiety and depression symptoms in November 2019 (T2), March 2020 (T3) and June 2020 (T4; Ntotal = 4,084). Loneliness was examined with the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and anxiety and depression symptoms with the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). RESULTS: Repeated measures multivariate logistic regression analyses (RMMLRA) showed a statistical significant lower prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms after the outbreak (T4 = 15.3%) than before (T2 = 16.8%) and during the COVID-19 outbreak (T3 = 17.2%). According to the Reliable Change Index, the distribution of recovery categories (remission, improvement, unchanged and worsening symptoms) after the outbreak did not differ significantly from the distribution of these categories before the outbreak. RMMLRA revealed that the prevalence of emotional loneliness increased significantly after the outbreak (T1 = 18.4%, T4 = 24.8%). Among individuals who were not lonely before and after the outbreak the prevalence of symptoms decreased significantly (T2 = 7.0%, T4 = 4.4%) and, likewise, among those who were not lonely anymore after the outbreak (T2 = 21.5%, T4 = 14.5%). However, the prevalence of symptoms increased significantly among those who became lonely during the pandemic (T2 = 17.9%, T4 = 26.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that this pandemic did not negatively affect the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms nor the normal recovery of symptoms among the general population during the first four months, but that emotional loneliness increased.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(1): 48-53, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394945

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preparedness efforts among a diverse set of pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) within the United States. METHODS: We conducted a prospective multicenter survey of PED medical director(s) from selected children's hospitals recruited through a long established national research network. The questionnaire was developed by physicians with expertise in pediatric emergency medicine, disaster readiness, human factors, and survey development. Thirty-five children's hospitals were identified for recruitment through an established national research network. RESULTS: We report on survey responses from 25 (71%) of 35 PEDs, of which 64% were located within academic children's hospitals. All PEDs witnessed decreases in non-COVID-19 patients, 60% had COVID-19-dedicated units, and 32% changed their unit pediatric patient age to include adult patients. All PEDs implemented changes to their staffing model, with the most common change impacting their physician staffing (80%) and triaging model (76%). All PEDs conducted training for appropriate donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE), and 62% reported shortages in PPE. The majority implemented changes in the airway management protocols (84%) and cardiac arrest management in COVID patients (76%). The most common training modalities were video/teleconference (84%) and simulation-based training (72%). The most common learning objectives were team dynamics (60%), and PPE and individual procedural skills (56%). CONCLUSIONS: This national survey provides insight into PED preparedness efforts, training innovations, and practice changes implemented during the start of COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatric emergency departments implemented broad strategies including modifications to staffing, workflow, and clinical practice while using video/teleconference and simulation as preferred training modalities. Further research is needed to advance the level of preparedness and support deep learning about which preparedness actions were effective for future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Planificación en Desastres , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Pandemias , Personal de Hospital/educación , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Planificación en Desastres/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación a Distancia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Pediátricos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal , Estudios Prospectivos , Entrenamiento Simulado , Telecomunicaciones , Triaje , Estados Unidos
10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 2, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397463

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) have a high fatality rate likely due to a dysregulated immune response. Corticosteroids could attenuate this inappropriate response, although there are still some concerns regarding its use, timing, and dose. METHODS: This is a nationwide, prospective, multicenter, observational, cohort study in critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted into Intensive Care Units (ICU) in Spain from 12th March to 29th June 2020. Using a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting, we compared relevant outcomes between patients treated with early corticosteroids (before or within the first 48 h of ICU admission) with those who did not receive early corticosteroids (delayed group) or any corticosteroids at all (never group). Primary endpoint was ICU mortality. Secondary endpoints included 7-day mortality, ventilator-free days, and complications. RESULTS: A total of 691 patients out of 882 (78.3%) received corticosteroid during their hospital stay. Patients treated with early-corticosteroids (n = 485) had lower ICU mortality (30.3% vs. never 36.6% and delayed 44.2%) and lower 7-day mortality (7.2% vs. never 15.2%) compared to non-early treated patients. They also had higher number of ventilator-free days, less length of ICU stay, and less secondary infections than delayed treated patients. There were no differences in medical complications between groups. Of note, early use of moderate-to-high doses was associated with better outcomes than low dose regimens. CONCLUSION: Early use of corticosteroids in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is associated with lower mortality than no or delayed use, and fewer complications than delayed use.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Anciano , Enfermedad Crítica , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , España/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 156-164, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413813

RESUMEN

Behavioral lifestyle factors are associated with cardiometabolic disease and obesity, which are risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate whether physical activity, and the timing and balance of physical activity and sleep/rest, were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity. Data from 91,248 UK Biobank participants with accelerometer data and complete covariate and linked COVID-19 data to July 19, 2020, were included. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity-in relation to overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), balance between activity and sleep/rest, and variability in timing of sleep/rest-was assessed with adjusted logistic regression. Of 207 individuals with a positive test result, 124 were classified as having a severe infection. Overall physical activity and MVPA were not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas a poor balance between activity and sleep/rest was (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.81]). This finding was related to higher daytime activity being associated with lower risk (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93) but higher movement during sleep/rest being associated with higher risk (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.42) of severe infection. Greater variability in timing of sleep/rest was also associated with increased risk (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.35). Results for testing positive were broadly consistent. In conclusion, these results highlight the importance of not just physical activity, but also quality sleep/rest and regular sleep/rest patterns, on risk of COVID-19. Our findings indicate the risk of COVID-19 was consistently approximately 1.2-fold greater per approximately 40-minute increase in variability in timing of proxy measures of sleep, indicative of irregular sleeping patterns.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Descanso , Sueño , Acelerometría , Anciano , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Reino Unido/epidemiología
12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e6, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416045

RESUMEN

AIMS: There is compelling evidence for gradient effects of household income on school readiness. Potential mechanisms are described, yet the growth curve trajectory of maternal mental health in a child's early life has not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to examine the relationships between household incomes, maternal mental health trajectories from antenatal to the postnatal period, and school readiness. METHODS: Prospective data from 505 mother-child dyads in a birth cohort in Singapore were used, including household income, repeated measures of maternal mental health from pregnancy to 2-years postpartum, and a range of child behavioural, socio-emotional and cognitive outcomes from 2 to 6 years of age. Antenatal mental health and its trajectory were tested as mediators in the latent growth curve models. RESULTS: Household income was a robust predictor of antenatal maternal mental health and all child outcomes. Between children from the bottom and top household income quartiles, four dimensions of school readiness skills differed by a range of 0.52 (95% Cl: 0.23, 0.67) to 1.21 s.d. (95% CI: 1.02, 1.40). Thirty-eight percent of pregnant mothers in this cohort were found to have perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in the subclinical and clinical ranges. Poorer school readiness skills were found in children of these mothers when compared to those of mothers with little or no symptoms. After adjustment of unmeasured confounding on the indirect effect, antenatal maternal mental health provided a robust mediating path between household income and multiple school readiness outcomes (χ2 126.05, df 63, p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.031, CFI = 0.980, SRMR = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant mothers with mental health symptoms, particularly those from economically-challenged households, are potential targets for intervention to level the playing field of their children.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Renta , Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Madres/psicología , Conducta Social , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Singapur , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200104, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439937

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological characteristics and good research practices of COVID-19 interventional studies developed in Brazil in the first months of the pandemic. METHODS: We reviewed the bulletin of the National Research Ethics Committee - Coronavirus Special Edition (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa - CONEP-COVID) (May 28, 2020) and the databases of the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos - ReBEC) to identify interventional studies registered in Brazil that assessed drug type, biological therapy, or vaccines. We described their methodological characteristics and calculated their power for different effect magnitudes. RESULTS: A total of 62 studies were included, 55 retrieved from the CONEP website, and 7 from registry databases. The most tested pharmacological interventions in these studies were: chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, convalescent plasma, tocilizumab, sarilumab, eculizumab, vaccine, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, n-acetylcysteine, nitazoxanide, ivermectin, and lopinavir/ritonavir. Out of 22 protocols published on registry databases until May 2020, 18 (82%) were randomized clinical trials, and 13 (59%) had an appropriate control group. However, 9 (41%) of them were masked, and only 5 (24%) included patients diagnosed with a specific laboratory test (for example, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction - RT-PCR). Most of these studies had power > 80% only to identify large effect sizes. In the prospective follow-up, 60% of the studies available at CONEP until May 2020 had not been published on any registry platform (ICTRP/ReBEC/ClinicalTrials) by July 21, 2020. CONCLUSION: The interventions evaluated during the Brazilian research response reflect those of international initiatives, but with a different distribution and a large number of studies assessing hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine. Limitations in methodological design and sample planning represent challenges that could affect the research outreach.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Brasil , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
14.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3399, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439951

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to identify the predictors of functional decline in hospitalized individuals aged 70 or over, between: baseline and discharge; discharge and follow-up, and baseline and three-month follow-up. METHOD: a prospective cohort study conducted in internal medicine services. A questionnaire was applied (clinical and demographic variables, and predictors of functional decline) at three moments. The predictors were determined using the binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: the sample included 101 patients, 53.3% female, mean age of 82.47 ± 6.57 years old. The predictors that most contributed to decline in hospitalization were the following: previous hospitalization (OR=1.8), access to social support (OR=4.86), cognitive deficit (OR=6.35), mechanical restraint (OR=7.82), and not having a partner (OR=4.34). Age (OR=1.18) and medical diagnosis (OR=0.10) were the predictors between discharge and follow-up. Being older, delirium during hospitalization (OR=5.92), and presenting risk of functional decline (OR=5.53) were predictors of decline between the baseline and follow-up. CONCLUSION: the most relevant predictors were age, previous hospitalization, cognitive deficit, restraint, social support, not having a partner, and delirium. Carrying out interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of these predictors can be an important contribution in the prevention of functional decline.


Asunto(s)
Delirio , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Alta del Paciente , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 44(1): 14-27, 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412620

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the current status of the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis in respiratory medicine and improve the understanding of the clinical characteristics of HIV-negative pulmonary cryptococcosis in China. Methods: A prospective multi-center open cohort study was designed to screen for pulmonary cryptococcosis in the general wards and intensive care units of the Department of Respiratory Diseases in 22 hospitals. The HIV-negative patients with positive cryptococcal etiological diagnosis based on smear culture, antigen detection and histopathology were enrolled in the study. The clinical data of enrolled patients were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 457 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis were enrolled, among which 3.28% (15/457) were disseminated infections. The case fatality rate was 0.88% (4/457). The majority of the cases were diagnosed by histopathological examinations (74.40%, 340/457) and cryptococcus antigen detection (37.64%, 172/457). Patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis accounted for 2.04‰ (457/223 748) of the total hospitalized patients in the Department of Respiratory Diseases during the same period, and the ratio was the highest in south and east China. Meanwhile, 70.24% (321/457) of the patients had no underlying diseases, while 87.75% (401/457) were found to have immunocompetent status. Cough and expectoration were the most common clinical symptoms in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. However, 25.16% (115/457) of the patients had no clinical symptom or physical signs. In terms of imaging features on pulmonary CT, multiple pulmonary lesions were more common than isolated lesions, and there were more subpleural lesions than perihilar or medial lesions. Morphologically, most of the lesions were middle-sized nodules (1-5 cm) or small-sized nodules (3 mm to 1 cm). The sensitivity of serum cryptococcus antigen test was 71.99% (203/282). Moreover, antigen-positive patients differed from antigen-negative patients in terms of basic immune status, clinical symptoms, imaging features and infection types. Meanwhile, immunocompromised patients differed from immunocompetent patients in terms of clinical symptoms, physical signs, infection-related inflammation indicator levels, imaging features, serum cryptococcus antigen positive rate and prognosis. Conclusions: The majority of cases of HIV-negative pulmonary cryptococcosis in China had no underlying disease or immunocompromised status, and the overrall prognosis was favorable. However, early diagnosis of HIV-negative pulmonary cryptococcosis remains challenging due to the complicated manifestations of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Criptococosis/diagnóstico , Cryptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Seronegatividad para VIH , Antígenos Fúngicos , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Tos , Criptococosis/epidemiología , Humanos , Inmunocompetencia , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Prospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
16.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(1): 41-47, 2021 Jan 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412641

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of A1-UV aspheric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation over the postoperative 5 years. Methods: Prospective cohort study. The subjects came from a finished multicenter, randomized and controlled clinical trial with a follow-up period of 1 year from April to November 2012. The clinical research centers were Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Peking University Third Hospital, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, and Daping Hospital of Army Medical University. Cataract patients in the experimental group were implanted with A1-UV type IOL, while cataract patients in the control group were implanted with SN60WF type IOL, and monocular patients were enrolled. From April to May 2018, patients enrolled in the previous study were recalled for follow-up and continued observation. The visual acuity, spherical equivalent, postoperative complications, non-contact intraocular pressure and subjective evaluation results were statistically analyzed preoperatively, at 1 to 2 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 5 years after operation. The main statistical methods included Mann Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, independent sample t test, chi square test and Fisher exact test. Results: A total of 42 subjects (22 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group) completed 5-year continuous observation. Among the 42 subjects, 28 were female and 14 were male. The age was (70±9) years, and the time from surgery to recall was (5.77±0.19) years. The age, gender distribution, left/right eye distribution, axial length, IOL power and nucleus hardness classification data of the experimental group and the control group were balanced and comparable (all P>0.05). At different visiting time points, there was no significant difference in the best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), best corrected near visual acuity (BCNVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA) and uncorrected near visual acuity (UCNVA) between the groups (all P>0.05). At 5 years after operation, the UCDVA, BCDVA and BCNVA of the two groups were significantly improved compared with the baseline [all P<0.01; UCDVA was improved from 0.75 (0.30 to 1.30) to 0.10 (-0.10 to 0.70) in the experimental group and from 0.75 (0.30 to 1.60) to 0.20 (-0.10 to 0.80) in the control group; BCDVA was from 0.60 (0.10 to 1.00) to 0.00 (-0.10 to 0.54) in the experimental group and from 0.60 (0.10 to 1.60) to 0.10 (-0.10 to 0.50) in the control group; BCNVA was from 0.55 (0.00 to 1.10) to 0.10 (-0.10 to 0.60) in the experimental group and from 0.55 (0.10 to 1.60) to 0.10 (-0.20 to 0.60) in the control group], but there was no significant change in the UCNVA (both P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the spherical equivalent, intraocular pressure, subjective evaluation of visual adverse symptoms, distance vision spectacle independence and comprehensive evaluation of satisfaction between the groups (all P>0.05). In the experimental group, one eye (4.5%) had an abnormal pupil, one eye (4.5%) had an abnormal IOL with a few particles on the surface of the IOL but no glistening, and 3 eyes (13.6%) had posterior capsular opacification (PCO); in the control group, one eye (5.0%) had an abnormal cornea, five eyes (25.0%) had abnormal IOLs [one eye (5.0%) had IOL calcification, and four eyes (20.0%) had IOL glistening], and one eye (5.0%) had PCO with posterior capsular folds and IOL tilt. There was no significant difference in PCO and IOL abnormality between the two groups (both P>0.05), but there was significant difference in the occurrence of IOL glistening (P=0.04). Conclusion: The long-term effect of A1-UV aspheric IOL on improving the UCDVA is stable and good, with high subjective satisfaction of patients, a low incidence of PCO, no glistening and good biocompatibility, over the postoperative 5 years. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 41-47).


Asunto(s)
Opacificación Capsular , Implantación de Lentes Intraoculares , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Estudios Prospectivos , Diseño de Prótesis , Agudeza Visual
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044497, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408218

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Accurate triage is an important first step to effectively manage the clinical treatment of severe cases in a pandemic outbreak. In the current COVID-19 global pandemic, there is a lack of reliable clinical tools to assist clinicians to perform accurate triage. Host response biomarkers have recently shown promise in risk stratification of disease progression; however, the role of these biomarkers in predicting disease progression in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. Here, we present a protocol outlining a prospective validation study to evaluate the biomarkers' performance in predicting clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective validation study assesses patients infected with COVID-19, in whom blood samples are prospectively collected. Recruited patients include a range of infection severity from asymptomatic to critically ill patients, recruited from the community, outpatient clinics, emergency departments and hospitals. Study samples consist of peripheral blood samples collected into RNA-preserving (PAXgene/Tempus) tubes on patient presentation or immediately on study enrolment. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) will be performed on total RNA extracted from collected blood samples using primers specific to host response gene expression biomarkers that have been previously identified in studies of respiratory viral infections. The RT-PCR data will be analysed to assess the diagnostic performance of individual biomarkers in predicting COVID-19-related outcomes, such as viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome or bacterial pneumonia. Biomarker performance will be evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research protocol aims to study the host response gene expression biomarkers in severe respiratory viral infections with a pandemic potential (COVID-19). It has been approved by the local ethics committee with approval number 2020/ETH00886. The results of this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Enfermedad Crítica/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Triaje/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Clin Imaging ; 69: 45-49, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652457

RESUMEN

THE AIM OF THIS WORK: The aim of this work was to estimate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting malignant invasion of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) by underlying breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study included 70 female patients with breast cancer with a mean age of 45.8 years (range: 28-68). DWI of the breast was done for all patients. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were automatically constructed. The mean ADC values of NAC were independently measured by two observers who are experts in breast imaging and correlated with the results of histopathological examinations. RESULTS: Both observers found a significantly lower ADC value of malignant NAC invasion (n = 18) when compared with free NAC (n = 52), with mean ADC value for malignant NAC invasion was 0.86 ± 0.35 × 10-3 mm2/s and 0.84 ± 0.08 × 10-3 mm2/s for observer one and two respectively versus mean ADC value of 1.34 ± 0.25 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.4 ± 0.26 × 10-3 mm2/s for free NAC by observer one and two respectively (P-value =0.001). Observer one found that a cutoff ADC value of 1.05 × 0-3 mm2/s can predict malignant NAC invasion with 0.975 AUC, 92.8% accuracy, 94.4% sensitivity, and 92.3% specificity. Observer two found that a cutoff ADC value of 0.95 × 10-3 mm2/s can predict malignant NAC invasion with 0.992 AUC, 95.7% accuracy, 88.9% sensitivity, and 98.1% specificity. CONCLUSION: DWI can predict malignant NAC invasion in patients with breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Pezones , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico por imagen , Difusión , Imagen de Difusión por Resonancia Magnética , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pezones/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Rol , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(1): 107-122, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112262

RESUMEN

Objective: Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infected men. The relationship between health status, sex steroids and body composition is poorly known in HIV. The aim was to investigate the association between health status (comorbidities/frailty), body composition, and gonadal function in young-to-middle-aged HIV-infected men. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: HIV-infected men aged <50 years and ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy were enrolled. Serum total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, LH and FSH by immunoassay. Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated by Vermeulen equation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scan. Multimorbidity (MM) and frailty were defined as ≥3 comorbidities and by a 37-item index, respectively. Results: A total of 316 HIV-infected men aged 45.3 ± 5.3 years were enrolled. Body fat parameters were inversely related to cFT and TT, and directly related to E1 and E2/testosterone (TS) ratio. Patients with MM had lower cFT (P < 0.0001) and TT (P = 0.036), and higher E1 (P < 0.0001) and E2/TS ratio (P = 0.002). Frailty was inversely related to cFT (R2 = 0.057, P < 0.0001) and TT (R2 = 0.013, P = 0.043), and directly related to E1 (R2 = 0.171, P < 0.0001), E2 (R2 = 0.041, P = 0.004) and E2/TS ratio (R2 = 0.104, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Lower TT and cFT, higher E1, E2/TS ratio and visceral fat were independently associated to poor health status and frailty, being possible hallmarks of unhealthy conditions in adult HIV-infected men. Overall, MM, frailty and body fat mass are strictly associated to each other and to sex steroids, concurring together to functional male hypogonadism in HIV.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo , Estrona/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/fisiopatología , Hipogonadismo/fisiopatología , Testosterona/sangre , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Composición Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Fragilidad/fisiopatología , Fragilidad/virología , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Estado de Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Multimorbilidad , Estudios Prospectivos
20.
Waste Manag ; 120: 675-686, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223249

RESUMEN

The profitable impact on ecological system made the upcycling of plastic waste as one of the captivating issues in scientific world. The current work highlights the sustainable approach to transform the plastic waste comprises of bottles, used cups and polyethylene bags via simple heating to fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots). The obtained C-dots have displayed the absorption peaks around at 260 nm with size ranging between 5 and 30 nm. The upcycling has produced the structural changes in plastic waste and affected the optical properties of C-dots. The three types of used plastic waste as precursor have displayed excellent emission properties with peak positioned around 422 nm and quantum yield (QY) values ∼62, 65 and 64% for C-dots generated from plastic polybags, cups and bottles (P-CDs, C-CDs and B-CDs) respectively. The toxicity profiling of C-dots has been successfully tested by employing multi-assay biocompatible activities i.e. antibacterial and antifungal activities. The potential prospective of C-dots derived from plastic waste have further been explored in analytical applications involving selective copper metal ion sensing in aqueous media. The outcomes of the current studies have highlighted the potential accomplishment in preserving environment fate and giving response towards the budding social hitch of plastic waste.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Puntos Cuánticos , Colorantes , Plásticos , Estudios Prospectivos
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