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1.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 45(5): 289-297, jun.-jul. 2021. tab, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186896

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Describir las características y la evolución de los pacientes con bronquiolitis ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Comparar el tratamiento administrado pre y pospublicación de la guía de práctica clínica de la Academia Americana de Pediatría. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo y observacional realizado entre septiembre de 2010 y septiembre de 2017. Configuración: Unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Pacientes: Menores de un año con bronquiolitis grave. Intervenciones: Se compararon 2 períodos (2010-14 y 2015-17), antes y después de la modificación del protocolo de manejo de la bronquiolitis en el hospital, según las guías de la Academia Americana de Pediatría. Principales variables: Sexo, edad, comorbilidades, gravedad, etiología, tratamiento administrado, infecciones bacterianas, soporte respiratorio e inotrópico, estancia y mortalidad. Resultados: Se recogieron 706 pacientes, 414 (58,6%) varones, con una mediana de edad de 47 días (RIC 25-100,25). Mediana de escala de gravedad de bronquiolitis (BROSJOD) al ingreso: 9 puntos (RIC 7-11). La etiología por virus respiratorio sincitial se dio en 460 (65,16%) pacientes. El primer período (2010-14) incluyó 340 pacientes y el segundo (2015-17), 366 pacientes. En el segundo período se administraron más nebulizaciones de adrenalina y suero salino hipertónico, y más tratamiento con corticoides. Se usó más ventilación no invasiva y menos ventilación mecánica convencional y precisaron menos soporte inotrópico, sin diferencias significativas. La tasa de antibioterapia disminuyó de forma estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,003). Conclusiones: Pese a la disminución en la antibioterapia, se debería limitar la utilización de nebulizaciones y corticoides en estos pacientes, como recomienda la guía


Objective: To describe the characteristics and evolution of patients with bronchiolitis admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit, and compare treatment pre- and post-publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guide. Design: A descriptive and observational study was carried out between September 2010 and September 2017. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit. Patients: Infants under one year of age with severe bronchiolitis. Interventions: Two periods were compared (2010-14 and 2015-17), corresponding to before and after modification of the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for the management of bronchiolitis in hospital. Main variables: Patient sex, age, comorbidities, severity, etiology, administered treatment, bacterial infections, respiratory and inotropic support, length of stay and mortality. Results: A total of 706 patients were enrolled, of which 414 (58.6%) males, with a median age of 47 days (IQR 25-100.25). Median bronchiolitis severity score (BROSJOD) upon admission: 9 points (IQR 7-11). Respiratory syncytial virus appeared in 460 (65.16%) patients. The first period (2010-14) included 340 patients and the second period (2015-17) 366 patients. More adrenalin and hypertonic saline nebulizations and more corticosteroid treatment were administered in the second period. More noninvasive ventilation and less conventional mechanical ventilation were used, and less inotropic support was needed, with no significant differences. The antibiotherapy rate decreased significantly (P = .003). Conclusions: Despite the decrease in antibiotherapy, the use of nebulizations and glucocorticoids in these patients should be limited, as recommended by the guide


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Bronquiolitis/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Enfermedad Aguda/terapia , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico/estadística & datos numéricos , Academias e Institutos/normas , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/etiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Algoritmos
2.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00365, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060496

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The initial surge of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted national recommendations to delay nonurgent endoscopic procedures. The objective of this study was to provide real-world data on the impact of COVID-19 on endoscopic procedures in a safety-net healthcare system and cancer center affiliated with a tertiary academic center. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used a combination of electronic health record data and a prospective data tool created to track endoscopy procedures throughout COVID-19 to describe patient and procedural characteristics of endoscopic procedures delayed during the initial COVID-19 surge. RESULTS: Of the 480 patients identified, the median age was 57 years (interquartile range 46-66), 55% (n = 262) were male, and 59% self-identified as white. Colonoscopy was the most common type of delayed procedure (49%), followed by combined esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy (22%), and EGD alone (20%). Colorectal cancer screening was the most common indication for delayed colonoscopy (35%), and evaluation of suspected bleeding (30%) was the most common indication for delayed combined EGD and colonoscopy. To date, 46% (223/480) of delayed cases have been completed with 12 colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers diagnosed. Sociodemographic factors, procedure type, and sedation type were not significantly associated with endoscopy completion. The median time to endoscopy after delayed procedure was 88 days (interquartile range 63-119) with no differences by procedure type. DISCUSSION: To minimize potential losses to follow-up, delayed, or missed diagnoses and to reduce progression of gastrointestinal diseases, all efforts should be used to ensure follow-up in those whose endoscopic procedures were delayed because of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Diagnóstico Tardío , Endoscopía Gastrointestinal/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Anciano , Femenino , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Washingtón/epidemiología
3.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 05 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073591

RESUMEN

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) is the main cell entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), thus playing a critical role in causing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The role of smoking habit in the susceptibility to infection is still controversial. In this study we correlated lung ACE-2 gene expression with several clinical/pathological data to explore susceptibility to infection. This is a retrospective observational study on 29 consecutive COVID-19 autopsies. SARS-CoV-2 genome and ACE-2 mRNA expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction in lung tissue samples and correlated with several data with focus on smoking habit. Smoking was less frequent in high than low ACE-2 expressors (p = 0.014). A Bayesian regression also including age, gender, hypertension, and virus quantity confirmed that smoking was the most probable risk factor associated with low ACE-2 expression in the model. A direct relation was found between viral quantity and ACE-2 expression (p = 0.028). Finally, high ACE-2 expressors more frequently showed a prevalent pattern of vascular injury than low expressors (p = 0.049). In conclusion, ACE-2 levels were decreased in the lung tissue of smokers with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. These results point out complex biological interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and ACE-2 particularly concerning the aspect of smoking habit and need larger prospective case series and translational studies.


Asunto(s)
Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/patología , Pulmón/metabolismo , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/genética , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Fumadores
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 513, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings, sputum smear conversion is used to document treatment response. Many People living with HIV (PLHIV) are smear-negative at baseline. The Xpert MTB/RIF test can indirectly measure bacterial load through cycle threshold (ct) values. This study aimed to determine if baseline Xpert MTB/RIF could predict time to culture negativity in PLHIV with newly diagnosed TB. METHODS: A subset of 138 PLHIV from the 'SOUTH' study on outcomes related to TB and antiretroviral drug concentrations were included. Bacterial load was estimated by Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT) culture time-to-positivity (TTP) and Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) colony counts. Changes in TTP and colony counts were analyzed with Poisson Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) and multilevel ordered logistic regression models, respectively, while time to culture negativity analysed with Cox proportional hazard models. ROC curves were used to explore the accuracy of the ct value in predicting culture negativity. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients (58.7%) were males, median age 34 (IQR 29  ̶ 40) years, median CD4 cell count of 180 (IQR 68  ̶ 345) cells/µL and 77.5% were ART naive. The median baseline ct value was 25.1 (IQR 21.0  ̶ 30.1). A unit Increase in the ct value was associated with a 5% (IRR = 1.05 95% CI 1.04  ̶ 1.06) and 3% (IRR = 1.03 95% CI 1.03  ̶ 1.04) increase in TTP at week 2 and 4 respectively. With LJ culture, a patient's colony grade was reduced by 0.86 times (0R = 0.86 95% CI 0.74  ̶ 0.97) at week 2 and 0.84 times (OR = 0.84 95% CI 0.79  ̶ 0.95 P = 0.002) at week 4 for every unit increase in the baseline ct value. There was a 3% higher likelihood of earlier conversion to negativity for every unit increase in the ct value. A ct cut point ≥28 best predicted culture negativity at week 4 with a sensitivity of 91. 7% & specificity 53.7% while a cut point ≥23 best predicted culture negativity at week 8. CONCLUSION: Baseline Xpert MTB/RIF ct values predict sputum conversion in PLHIV on anti-TB treatment. Surrogate biomarkers for sputum conversion in PLHIV are still a research priority.


Asunto(s)
Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Esputo/microbiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/sangre , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Uganda/epidemiología
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 514, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074256

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (TM) bloodstream infection is common in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients with extreme immunodeficiency in Southeast Asia and South China, however, clinical case study on TM bloodstream infection is scarce. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of TM bloodstream infection in hospitalized AIDS patients and determined the outcomes of hospitalization after diagnosis in our hospital over the past 5 years. METHODS: From January 2015 to July 2020, 87 cases of TM detected by blood culture in patients admitted to our center were collected. The admission complaints, blood cells, biochemistry, CD4 and CD8 cell counts and 1,3-ß-D-glucan (BDG), procalcitonin (PCT), CRP level on the day of blood culture test, and outcomes during hospitalization were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed for the risk factors for poor prognosis (60 cases). Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between peripheral blood cells, albumin and the time required for TM turnaround in blood culture. The difference was statistically significant when the P value was < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients were collected, with a median age of 34 years, a median hemoglobin of 94 g/L and CD4 count of 7/µl. The rate of TM bloodstream infection among all in-hospital patients increased from 0.99% in 2015 to 2.09% in 2020(half year). Patients with TM bloodstream infection with CD8 count < 200/µl had a 12.6-fold higher risk of poor prognosis than those with CD8 count > 200/µl (p = 0.04), and those with BDG < 100 pg/mL had a 34.9-fold higher risk of poor prognosis than those with BDG > 100 pg/mL (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: TM bloodstream infection is becoming more common in advanced AIDS patients in endemic areas. For those patients with extremely low CD4 and CD8 cell counts below 200/µl is with an increased risk of poor prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/epidemiología , Fungemia/epidemiología , Micosis/epidemiología , Talaromyces/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/diagnóstico , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Fungemia/diagnóstico , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Micosis/diagnóstico , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 511, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074268

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Discontinuation of tuberculosis treatment (DTT) among children in sub-Saharan Africa is a major obstacle to effective tuberculosis (TB) control and has the potential to worsen the emergence of multi-drug resistant TB and death. DTT in children is understudied in Uganda. We examined the level and factors associated with DTT among children at four large health facilities in Kampala Capital City Authority and documented the reasons for DTT from treatment supporters and healthcare provider perspectives. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of records for children < 15 years diagnosed and treated for TB between January 2018 and December 2019. We held focus group discussions with treatment supporters and key informant interviews with healthcare providers. We defined DTT as the stoppage of TB treatment for 30 or more consecutive days. We used a stepwise generalized linear model to assess factors independently associated with DTT and content analysis for the qualitative data reported using sub-themes. RESULTS: Of 312 participants enrolled, 35 (11.2%) had discontinued TB treatment. The reasons for DTT included lack of privacy at healthcare facilities for children with TB and their treatment supporters, the disappearance of TB symptoms following treatment initiation, poor implementation of the community-based directly observed therapy short-course (CB-DOTS) strategy, insufficient funding to the TB program, and frequent stock-outs of TB drugs. DTT was more likely during the continuation phase of TB treatment compared to the intensive phase (Adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 5.22; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.76-17.52) and when the treatment supporter was employed compared to when the treatment supporter was unemployed (aOR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.34-11.38). CONCLUSION: Many children with TB discontinue TB treatment and this might exacerbate TB morbidity and mortality. To mitigate DTT, healthcare providers should ensure children with TB and their treatment supporters are accorded privacy during service provision and provide more information about TB symptom resolution and treatment duration versus the need to complete treatment. The district and national TB control programs should address gaps in funding to TB care, the supply of TB drugs, and the implementation of the CB-DOTS strategy.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Terapia por Observación Directa , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Uganda/epidemiología
7.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 67, 2021 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078273

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease highly contagious, is prevalent in all age and sex groups infecting the respiratory system. The present study seeks to investigate the epidemiology and effective factors in mortality of patients with COVID-19 in Ardabil province, northwestern Iran. METHODS: In a retrospective study, the hospitalized patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 between February to August 2020 were enrolled. The data registration portal was designated according to Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education guidelines. In this portal, demographic information, clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging data were registered for patients in all hospitals in the same format. The Hosmer-Lemeshow strategy was used for variable selection in a multiple model. RESULTS: Of the patients involved 2812(50.3%) were male and 150 (2.7%) had contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19 in the last 14 days. Pre-existing comorbidity was reported in 1310 (23.4%) patients. Of all patients, 477(8.5%) died due to COVID-19. the result of the multiple logistic regression model indicated that after adjusting for other factors, higher age (OR = 3.11), fever or chills (OR = 1.61), shortness of breath (OR = 1.82), fatigue (OR = 0.71), headache (OR = 0.64), runny nose (OR = 1.54), Skeletal muscle pain (OR = 1.53), hospitalization (OR = 5.66), and hospitalization in ICU (OR = 5.12) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization had the strongest effect on mortality followed by hospitalization in ICU, and higher age. This study showed that having some extra-pulmonary symptoms in contrast with pulmonary symptoms can predict as good prognostic factors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(5): 503-510, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080570

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The goal of current study was to evaluate prevalence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTI) following flexible ureteroscopy (f-URS) and to determine predictive factors for those UTIs. METHODS: A total of 420 patients with urolithiasis that underwent f-URS between August 2018 and August 2019 were enrolled in the study. Peri-operative characteristics of patients with and without postoperative UTIs were compared using univariate analyses. Predictive factors for UTIs following f-URS were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Forty-one (9.8%) out of 420 patients had postoperative urinary infection after f-URS and those patients were classified as group 1. Group 2 consisted of 379 patients that did not develop postoperative UTIs. The percentage of female gender was 58.5% vs 42% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.042). The preoperative UTI history rate was 51.2% vs 20.8% (p<0.001) and preoperative double J stent (DJS) insertion rate 39% vs 17.7% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001). Univariate regression analyses showed that the female gender (OR=1.98), history of UTI (OR=3.99), and preoperative DJS insertion (OR=2.98) significantly increased the possibility of postoperative UTI (p<0.05). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that history of UTI (OR=3.41, 95%CI:1.73-6.72, p<0.001) and preoperative DJS insertion (OR=2.30, 95%CI:1.13-4.68, p=0.021) were independent risk factors for infectious complications following f-URS. If both factors are present, the probability of infection is 55.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Even if f-URS is considered a safe procedure, the risk of postoperative infectious complications is far from negligible. We found that the presence of UTI history and preoperative DJS were independent risk factors for UTI after f-URS.


Asunto(s)
Litotricia , Infecciones Urinarias , Femenino , Humanos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ureteroscopios , Ureteroscopía/efectos adversos , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología , Infecciones Urinarias/etiología
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045317, 2021 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083336

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain the trends of injury mortality during the COVID-19 period in southern China. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective analysis to compare the mortality changes of all-cause injury and transport injuries, poisoning, falls, fire/heat/hot substances, drowning, self-harm and interpersonal violence, which were further stratified by sex and age. Comparisons were made between the COVID-19 period (between January 2020 and June 2020) and control period (between January 2019 and June 2019) in Guangdong province. We used the negative binomial models to explore the associations of deaths during the COVID-19 period, according to the different sex and age strata. RESULTS: The all-cause injury mortality in Guangdong province decreased significantly from 28.65 per 100 000 population during the control period to 23.24 per 100 000 population during COVID-19 pandemic period. Similar results were found in specific injury categories. Mortality of self-harm increased by 139.26% in the 10-14 year group during the COVID-19 period as compared with the control period. Although mortality changes in some groups were not statistically significant, some increases were noteworthy during the COVID-19 period (ie, self-harm, transport injury and falls) in the 70-79 year group. The corresponding increase in mortality rate was 16.83%, 3.32% and 4.92%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The mortality of all-cause injury, transport injury and drowning during the COVID-19 pandemic was consistently decreased. However, the increase in mortality associated with falls, fire/heat/hot substance injury and self-harm in specific age populations warrant the targeted control and prevention measures for the population at risk.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidio , Heridas y Lesiones , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049488, 2021 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083350

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to a large New York City medical centre at 3 and 6 months after hospitalisation and describe their healthcare usage, symptoms, morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort through manual chart review of the electronic medical record. SETTING: NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, a quaternary care academic medical centre in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: The first 1190 consecutive patients with symptoms of COVID-19 who presented to the hospital for care between 1 March and 8 April 2020 and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcriptase PCR assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and frequency of follow-up encounters, self-reported symptoms, morbidity and mortality at 3 and 6 months after presentation, respectively; patient disposition information prior to admission, at discharge, and at 3 and 6 months after hospital presentation. RESULTS: Of the 1190 reviewed patients, 929 survived their initial hospitalisation and 261 died. Among survivors, 570 had follow-up encounters (488 at 3 months and 364 at 6 months). An additional 33 patients died in the follow-up period. In the first 3 months after admission, most encounters were telehealth visits (59%). Cardiopulmonary symptoms (35.7% and 28%), especially dyspnoea (22.1% and 15.9%), were the most common reported symptoms at 3-month and 6-month encounters, respectively. Additionally, a large number of patients reported generalised (26.4%) or neuropsychiatric (24.2%) symptoms 6 months after hospitalisation. Patients with severe COVID-19 were more likely to have reduced mobility, reduced independence or a new dialysis requirement in the 6 months after hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported persistent symptoms up to 6 months after diagnosis. These results highlight the long-term morbidity of COVID-19 and its burden on patients and healthcare resources.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalización , Humanos , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 248, 2021 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090347

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) is a rare histological subtype of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. The current study evaluates the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of SRC. METHODS: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1973 to 2016. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of patients who had SRC were compared with those of patients who had non-SRC using Cox regression and propensity score methods. RESULTS: Of 22,781 gallbladder adenocarcinomas retrieved, 377 (1.7%) were SRC and the other 22,404 were non-SRC. SRC was more significantly associated with older age, female gender, poor differentiation, advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and advanced AJCC stage. The 5-year OS and CSS in the SRC group were 7.2 and 6.5%, respectively, both of which were significantly worse than the 13.2 and 13.3% seen in the SRC group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.012, respectively). This survival disadvantage persisted in multivariable analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.256, P = 0.021 and HR = 1.211, P = 0.036] and after propensity score matching (OS: HR = 1.341, P = 0.012 and CSS: HR = 1.625, P = 0.005). Surgery in combination with chemotherapy improved OS of gallbladder SRC patients compared with surgery alone (HR = 0.726, P = 0.036) or chemotherapy alone (HR = 0.433, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with SRC of the gallbladder have distinct clinicopathological features with poor prognosis. Surgery in combination with chemotherapy can improve survival.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células en Anillo de Sello , Neoplasias Gástricas , Anciano , Carcinoma de Células en Anillo de Sello/cirugía , Femenino , Vesícula Biliar , Humanos , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 552, 2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090431

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how continuity of care for hospitalized patients varies among hospitals. We describe the number of different general internal medicine physicians seeing hospitalized patients during a medical admission and how that varies by hospital. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of a national 20% sample of Medicare inpatients from 01/01/16 to 12/31/18. In patients with routine medical admissions (length of stay of 3-6 days, no Intensive Care Unit stay, and seen by only one generalist per day), we assessed odds of receiving all generalist care from one generalist. We calculated rates for each hospital, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics in a multi-level logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among routine medical admissions with 3- to 6-day stays, only 43.1% received all their generalist care from the same physician. In those with a 3-day stay, 50.1% had one generalist providing care vs. 30.8% in those with a 6-day stay. In a two-level (admission and hospital) logistic regression model controlling for patient characteristics and length of stay, the odds of seeing just one generalist did not vary greatly by patient characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, comorbidity or reason for admission. There were large variations in continuity of care among different hospitals and geographic areas. In the highest decile of hospitals, the adjusted mean percentage of patients receiving all generalist care from one physician was > 84.1%, vs. < 24.1% in the lowest decile. This large degree of variation persisted when hospitals were stratified by size, ownership, location or teaching status. CONCLUSIONS: Continuity of care provided by generalist physicians to medical inpatients varies widely among hospitals. The impact of this variation on quality of care is unknown.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales , Medicare , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
13.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 164, 2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090452

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has recently emerged as a viable management option for peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM). CRS and HIPEC is a complex, multidisciplinary and resource-intensive surgical procedure. It has a steep learning curve and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The expertise is mostly limited to few dedicated high-volume centers located in developed countries. We present a single institutional experience of 232 cases of CRS and HIPEC performed at a tertiary care cancer center in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC). METHODS: A multidisciplinary PSM program was initiated in 2015 at a high-volume public-sector tertiary care cancer center in North India catering largely to patients belonging to low- and middle-income groups. Perioperative protocols were developed, and a prospective structured database was created to capture data. All patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC between January 2015 and December 2020 were identified, and the data was retrospectively analyzed for clinical spectrum, surgical details, and perioperative morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-two patients underwent CRS and HIPEC during the study period. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (56.5%) was the most common malignancy treated, followed by pseudomyxoma peritonei (18.5%), colorectal carcinoma (13.4%), and malignant mesothelioma (5.6%). Optimal CRS could be achieved in 94.4% of patients. Cisplatin and mitomycin were the most common drugs used for HIPEC. A total of 28.0% of patients had morbidity including deep vein thrombosis, subacute intestinal obstruction, sepsis, burst abdomen, lymphocele, urinoma, acute renal failure, and enterocutaneous fistula. The overall treatment-related mortality was 3.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the current study indicate that it is feasible to establish a successful CRS and HIPEC program for PSM in government-funded hospitals in LMIC facing resource constraints. The most common indication for CRS and HIPEC were carcinoma of the ovary followed by pseudomyxoma peritonei and colorectal carcinoma. Overall morbidity and mortality in the current series are comparable to global standards, reported from high-income countries. A protocol-based multidisciplinary team approach, optimal patient selection, and surgical expertise can help achieve optimal outcomes in government-funded hospitals in LMIC.


Asunto(s)
Hipertermia Inducida , Neoplasias Peritoneales , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción , Países en Desarrollo , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica , India/epidemiología , Neoplasias Peritoneales/tratamiento farmacológico , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 250, 2021 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported whether a biopsy in emergency gastroscopy (EG) increased the risk of rebleeding in patients with Forrest I acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) combined with suspected malignant gastric ulcer (SMGU). This study aims to conduct a multicenter retrospective cohort study using propensity score matching to verify whether a biopsy in EG increases the risk of rebleeding in patients diagnosed with Forrest I ANVUGIB combined with SMGU. METHODS: Using the data for propensity-matched patients, logistic regression models were fitted using rebleeding as the dependent variable. Survival time was defined as the length of time the patient experienced from visiting the emergency department to rebleeding. We used the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method to analyze the 30-day survival of the patients with and without a biopsy after matching, and the log-rank test was performed to examine the differences in survival. RESULTS: With the use of propensity score matching, 308 patients who underwent a biopsy in EG were matched with 308 patients who did not. In the five logistic regression models, there were no significant group differences in the risk of rebleeding in patients with Forrest I ANVUGIB combined with SMGU between the biopsy and no-biopsy groups. The probability of survival was not significantly different between the no-biopsy and biopsy groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter, retrospective propensity score matching cohort study, compared with patients without a biopsy, patients with a biopsy during EG had no increased risk of rebleeding, and there was no significant difference in the rate of rebleeding.


Asunto(s)
Úlcera Gástrica , Biopsia , Estudios de Cohortes , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiología , Gastroscopía , Humanos , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Úlcera Gástrica/complicaciones
15.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 128(6): 317-322, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096931

RESUMEN

Periodontitis has been considered the sixth complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of periodontal treatment on diabetes-related healthcare costs in patients with diabetes. Data on 41,598 adults (45.7% female) with at least 1 insurance claim in 2012 for diabetes-related treatment were included in the analysis. The impact of periodontal treatment on diabetes-related healthcare costs was analysed by means of fixed effect models for panel data. The median diabetes-related healthcare costs per patient in 2012, including costs for diagnosis, treatment, medication, and hospitalisation, were €38.45 per quarter (interquartile range €11.52 - €263.14). The fixed effects models showed a reduced expenditure on diabetes-related costs of €12.03 [95%CI €-15.77; €-8.29] per quarter following periodontal treatment. These results support the relevance and necessity of good periodontal care for patients with diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Adulto , Atención Odontológica , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Femenino , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(21): 1560-1565, 2021 Jun 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098682

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the occurrence of rod fracture after surgery for lumbosacral deformity associated sacral agenesis and discuss the relevant salvage methods. Methods: The clinical records of 19 patients who underwent surgical treatment for lumbosacral deformity associated sacral agenesis from January 2001 to January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed, including 11 boys and 8 girls. The average age was (9.6±5.2) years. The outcomes of surgical correction and internal fixation were evaluated by postoperative regular follow-up. We also recorded the time and position of rod fracture occurrence. The Cobb angle, coronal balance and sagittal balance were measured and compared to analyze the corresponding salvage methods and revision outcomes. Results: Three patients encountered rod fracture during follow-up, so the incidence of rod fracture after surgery for lumbosacral deformity associated sacral agenesis was 15.8%(3/19). Based on their own conditions, we formulated the individualized strategy and performed the revision surgery through the posterior-only approach. The most critical step was abundant bone-grafting and fusion in the defected sacroiliac joint. After revision, the scoliotic Cobb angle improved in two patients (91.5° vs 47.5°, 49.0° vs 28.0°) and coronal balance improved in one patient (40.3 mm vs 24.3 mm). No complication reoccurred during follow-up. Conclusion: The rod fracture after surgery for lumbosacral deformity associated sacral agenesis is quite common, which is probably correlated with its unique deformed structure and biomechanical characteristics. The individualized salvage methods and adequate bone-grafting and fusion for the defected sacroiliac joint will guarantee the reconstruction and maintenance of spine balance after revision.


Asunto(s)
Anomalías Múltiples , Meningocele , Fusión Vertebral , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Región Sacrococcígea/anomalías
17.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 426-432, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098691

RESUMEN

Objective: To identify factors associated with persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) after scleral buckling and to evaluate surgical outcomes of patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: Cross-sectional study and cohort study. This study included 104 patients (104 eyes) who underwent scleral buckling for repair of RRD between January 2016 and June 2017. Several statistically significant risk factors associated with SRF were screened out with univariate analysis. Then independent risk factors were determined with multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Examinations were taken preoperatively, at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, and thereafter every six months. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of persistent SRF on optical coherence tomography at 1 month. Results: Persistent SRF occurred in 69.2% (72/104) of patients. In multivariate analysis, younger age (OR=32.860, 95%CI=3.636-296.986, P=0.002), high myopia (OR=7.229, 95%CI=1.217-42.94, P=0.03) and macula-involving retinal detachment (OR=357.397, 95%CI=29.761-4292.0, P=0.000) were associated with persistent SRF. Best corrected visual acuity in patients with SRF at 1 month (0.71±0.18 vs. 0.58±0.11; t=4.047, P<0.01) and 3 months (0.55±0.15 vs. 0.43±0.12; t=3.914, P<0.01) was worse than that in patients with absence of SRF. Best corrected visual acuity in patients with SRF was 0.44±0.16 at 6 months, 0.37±0.12 at 12 months and 0.36±0.10 at the last follow-up, with no significant difference from patients without SRF at the three time points (0.39±0.13, 0.38±0.12 and 0.35±0.09; t=1.643, -0.202, 0.464; P>0.05). Conclusions: RRD patients with younger age, high myopia and macular involvement were more likely to develop persistent SRF after scleral buckling. The presence of persistent SRF slowed visual recovery but did not influence the final visual outcomes. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 426-432).


Asunto(s)
Desprendimiento de Retina , Líquido Subretiniano , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Desprendimiento de Retina/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Curvatura de la Esclerótica , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Agudeza Visual
18.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 433-439, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098692

RESUMEN

Objective: To observe the efficacy of macular buckling in the treatment of highly myopic traction maculopathy. Methods: Retrospective case series study. The patients with high myopia who underwent macular buckling at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University from June 2014 to June 2019 were enrolled, including 136 males and 212 females. The age was (56.68±11.59) years old. The outcomes measured included retinal reattachment rate, foveoschisis recovery rate, macular hole closure rate, postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), axial length (AL), and complications. The measurements were recorded preoperatively and at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years postoperatively. The data was statistically analyzed using paired t test. Results: A total of 378 eyes were included, including 216 eyes with foveoschisis and macular detachment and 162 eyes with macular holes and macular detachment. Among them, 296 eyes underwent macular buckling, and the other 82 eyes underwent macular buckling combined with pars plana vitrectomy. During the follow-up period, 373 eyes (98.68%) achieved retinal reattachment; in patients with foveoschisis, 204 eyes (94.44%) were recovered; in patients with macular holes, 89 eyes (54.09%) achieved closure. All the postoperative results of BCVA were better than the preoperative value (1.459±0.841). BCVA continued to increase from postoperative month 1, remained stable at 1 year, and reached 0.908±0.606 at 3 years (t=6.896, P<0.01). All the postoperative results of AL were shorter than the preoperative value. The AL shortened by (4.423±1.740)mm at one month (t=33.144, P<0.01), increased gradually thereafter, remained stable at 1 year, and shortened by (2.101±1.643) mm at three years (t=6.392, P<0.01). The common complications included transient high intraocular pressure in 98 eyes (25.92%), epiretinal hemorrhage in 67 eyes (17.72%), and vitreous hemorrhage in 9 eyes (2.38%), which all resolved spontaneously within 1 month. In the early postoperative period, all patients had a certain degree of eye movement limitation, and 39 eyes (10.31%) had diplopia which resolved within 6 months without treatment. The strabismus surgery was arranged to treat esotropia in 6 eyes (1.58%). The macular buckle was removed from 1 eye (0.26%) because of the inability to tolerate diplopia. There were 8 eyes (2.11%) requiring a second operation to adjust the position of the buckle. The macular buckle was also removed from 4 eyes (1.05%) due to the implant rejection. Conclusion: Macular buckling can effectively shorten the AL, resolve posterior scleral staphyloma, and improve vision in the treatment of highly myopic traction maculopathy. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 433-439).


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Macular , Miopía Degenerativa , Desprendimiento de Retina , Perforaciones de la Retina , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miopía Degenerativa/cirugía , Desprendimiento de Retina/cirugía , Perforaciones de la Retina/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Curvatura de la Esclerótica , Tracción , Agudeza Visual , Vitrectomía
19.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 447-453, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098694

RESUMEN

Objective: To developed an image analysis system of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) examination results based on deep learning technology, and to evaluate its effect in identifying various types of corneal pathologies and quantified indices. Methods: A total of 4 026 patients (5 617 eyes), including 1 977 males and 2 049 females, aged (45±23) years, were enrolled in Qingdao Eye Hospital from January 2011 to August 2019. The AS-OCT images were used as a training dataset, which were labeled with location information of 16 corneal pathologies (including corneal epithelial defect, corneal epithelial thickening, corneal thinning and so on) by clinical experts, as well as the tissue stratification of the corneal epithelium and stroma. The labeled AS-OCT images were used to train the corneal pathology detection model and corneal stratification model based on deep convolutional neural network algorithm. Then 1 709 AS-OCT images of the affected eyes were collected as a validation dataset. Compared with the artificial labeling results, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were evaluated in the corneal pathology detection model, and the overlapping rate (Dice coefficient) between the labeled area of the model and the artificial labeling area was used to evaluate the corneal stratification model. Results: The results of 5 617 training sets showed that there were 1 472 cases of corneal epithelial defect, 2 416 cases of corneal epithelial thickening, 2 001 cases of corneal thinning, 780 cases of corneal lordosis, 2 064 cases of corneal thickening, 358 cases of subepithelial blisters, 486 cases of subepithelial opacity, 1 010 cases of corneal ulcer, 3 635 cases of stromal opacity, 1 060 cases of posterior elastic layer fold, 137 cases of posterior elastic layer detachment, 665 cases of keratic precipitate, 176 cases of corneal perforation, 127 cases of corneal foreign body, 299 cases of after lamellar keratoplasty (LKP) and 234 cases of after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Among 1 709 images, 1 596 were manually labeled. The average sensitivity and specificity of the corneal pathology detection model were 96.5% and 96.1% compared with the results of manual labeling. Fifteen samples were missed for detection, and the rate was 0.93%. The average Dice coefficients of the corneal stratification model for the corneal epithelium and stroma were 0.985 and 0.917, respectively. Conclusions: Our artificial intelligence-based diagnosis system with AS-OCT is able to give quantified information and location information of corneal lesions with high accuracy, which can help ophthalmologists improve the efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 447-453).


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Queratocono , Inteligencia Artificial , Femenino , Humanos , Queratocono/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica
20.
J Int Med Res ; 49(6): 3000605211020636, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098752

RESUMEN

To date, only a few reports have described the regression of lumbar disc herniation, which may be because of a failure to follow up patients treated conservatively. We report a case of a 25-year-old man who presented with a 2-month history of pain and soreness owing to lumbar disc herniation. He was managed conservatively, and his presenting symptoms and scoliosis gradually decreased over approximately 5 months. Two years later, he returned unexpectedly and was advised to undergo magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed regression of the disc herniation; the patient also confirmed that the pain had not recurred. After 8 months, he underwent repeat magnetic resonance imaging, and the findings pertaining to disc herniation were normal. Our findings suggest that previous cases should be retrospectively studied to establish a prediction model for the outcomes of conservative treatment in patients with lumbar disc herniation. We also emphasize the significance of selecting suitable patients for conservative treatment to obtain the best therapeutic outcomes. The CARE guidelines have been followed in the reporting of this case.


Asunto(s)
Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral , Desplazamiento del Disco Intervertebral , Adulto , Humanos , Desplazamiento del Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Desplazamiento del Disco Intervertebral/cirugía , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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