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3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 69, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638883

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. This study reports crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, population weighted prevalence for the state, and prevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression models were used to establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. For the analysis, we considered collection period and site, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. RESULTS The proportion of positive tests for SARS-Cov-2, without any adjustment, was 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95%CI 3.1-4.5%). We found lower estimates after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity: 3.6% (95%CI 2.7-4.4%) for the non-weighted prevalence, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.6-4.1%) for the weighted prevalence. Collection period was the variable most significantly associated with crude prevalence: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the younger the blood donor, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the education level, the higher the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 antibody. We found similar results for weighted prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Our findings comply with some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, as the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; and the higher prevalence among both the youngest, for moving around more than older age groups, and the less educated, for encountering more difficulties in following social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, we may infer that Rio de Janeiro is far from reaching the required levels of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200351, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638891

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Estimates of the number of individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are important for health planning and establishment of expectations regarding herd immunity. METHODS: Seven testing rounds of a serological survey were conducted at 1-week intervals between April 19 and May 31, 2020 in Teresina municipality. RESULTS Over the 7 weeks, serological positivity increased from 0.56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18%-1.30%) to 8.33% (95% CI: 6.61%-10.33%), representing 33-53 persons infected for each reported case. CONCLUSIONS: Serological screening may be an important tool for understanding the immunity of a population and planning community interventions.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Enfermedades Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Intervalos de Confianza , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Reacciones Falso Positivas , Humanos , Inmunidad Colectiva , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 461, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611400

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Uganda has experienced seven Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks and four Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) outbreaks between 2000 and 2019. We investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for Marburg virus and ebolaviruses in gold mining communities around Kitaka gold mine in Western Uganda and compared them to non-mining communities in Central Uganda. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered and human blood samples were collected from three exposure groups in Western Uganda (gold miners, household members of miners, non-miners living within 50 km of Kitaka mine). The unexposed controls group sampled was community members in Central Uganda far away from any gold mining activity which we considered as low-risk for filovirus infection. ELISA serology was used to analyse samples, detecting IgG antibodies against Marburg virus and ebolaviruses (filoviruses). Data were analysed in STATA software using risk ratios and odds ratios. RESULTS: Miners in western Uganda were 5.4 times more likely to be filovirus seropositive compared to the control group in central Uganda (RR = 5.4; 95% CI 1.5-19.7) whereas people living in high-risk areas in Ibanda and Kamwenge districts were 3.6 more likely to be seropositive compared to control group in Luweeero district (RR = 3.6; 95% CI 1.1-12.2). Among all participants, filovirus seropositivity was 2.6% (19/724) of which 2.3% (17/724) were reactive to Sudan virus only and 0.1% (1/724) to Marburg virus. One individual seropositive for Sudan virus also had IgG antibodies reactive to Bundibugyo virus. The risk factors for filovirus seropositivity identified included mining (AOR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-8.5), male sex (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.01-9.5), going inside mines (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.2-8.2), cleaning corpses (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.04-9.1) and contact with suspect filovirus cases (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.04-14.5). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that filovirus outbreaks may go undetected in Uganda and people involved in artisan gold mining are more likely to be exposed to infection with either Marburg virus or ebolaviruses, likely due to increased risk of exposure to bats. This calls for active surveillance in known high-risk areas for early detection and response to prevent filovirus epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Ebolavirus/inmunología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/diagnóstico , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Enfermedad del Virus de Marburg/diagnóstico , Enfermedad del Virus de Marburg/epidemiología , Marburgvirus/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Quirópteros/virología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedad del Virus de Marburg/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mineros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(6): 444-447, 2020 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641207

RESUMEN

Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a veterinary pathogen that infects domestic animals as well as wild animals such as wild boar and feral swine, was recently reported to infect human and led to endophthalmitis and encephalitis. A retrospective seroepidemiologic survey was conducted using 1,335 serum samples collected from patients with encephalitis and ELISA positive rates were 12.16%, 14.25%, and 6.52% in 2012, 2013, and 2017, respectively. The virus neutralizing antibody titers of positive samples correlated well with ELISA results. The pseudorabies virus antibody positive rate of patients with encephalitis were higher than that of healthy people in 2017. The above results suggest that some undefined human encephalitis cases may be caused by PRV infection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Encefalitis/inmunología , Herpesvirus Suido 1/inmunología , Seudorrabia/inmunología , Adulto , Animales , China , Encefalitis/virología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Seudorrabia/sangre , Seudorrabia/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
7.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720942695, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674696

RESUMEN

Introduction: The primary care clinic plays a major role in triage for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), where seroprevalence in the setting of primary care clinic remains less clear. As a point-of-care immunodiagnostic test for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the serosurvey represents an alternative to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to measure the magnitude of COVID-19 outbreak in the communities lacking sufficient diagnostic capability for PCR testing. Methods: We assessed seropositivity for the SARS-CoV-2 IgG between April 21 and May 20, 2020, at 2 primary care clinics in Tokyo, Japan. Results: The overall positive percentage of SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 3.83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.76-5.16) for the entire cohort (n = 1071). The 23 special wards of central Tokyo exhibited a significantly higher prevalence compared with the other areas of Tokyo after classification by residence (P = .02, 4.68% [3.08-6.79] vs 1.83 [0.68-3.95] in central and suburban Tokyo, respectively). In central Tokyo, the southern area showed the highest seroprevalence compared with the other areas (7.92% [3.48-15.01]), corresponding to the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 patients by PCR test reported by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Conclusion: The seroprevalence surveyed in this study was too low for herd immunity, suggesting the need for robust disease control and prevention. A regional-level approach, rather than state- or prefectural-level, could be of importance in ascertaining detailed profiles of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Tokio/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Immunity ; 53(1): 1-5, 2020 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610080

RESUMEN

The development, validation, and appropriate application of serological assays to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are essential to determining seroprevalence of this virus in the United States and globally and in guiding government leadership and the private sector on back-to-work policies. An interagency working group of the US Department of Health and Human Services convened a virtual workshop to identify knowledge gaps and key outstanding scientific issues and to develop strategies to fill them. Key outcomes of the workshop included recommendations for (1) advancing serology assays as a tool to better understand SARS-CoV-2 infection and (2) conducting crucial serology field studies to advance an understanding of immunity to SARS-CoV-2, leading to protection and duration of protection, including the correlation between serological test results and risk of reinfection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre
9.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(5): 419-423, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611913

RESUMEN

Conducting population-based serosurveillance for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) will estimate and monitor the trend of infection in the adult general population, determine the socio-demographic risk factors and delineate the geographical spread of the infection. For this purpose, a serial cross-sectional survey would be conducted with a sample size of 24,000 distributed equally across four strata of districts categorized on the basis of the incidence of reported cases of COVID-19. Sixty districts will be included in the survey. Simultaneously, the survey will be done in 10 high-burden hotspot cities. ELISA-based antibody tests would be used. Data collection will be done using a mobile-based application. Prevalence from the group of districts in each of the four strata will be pooled to estimate the population prevalence of COVID-19 infection, and similarly for the hotspot cities, after adjusting for demographic characteristics and antibody test performance. The total number of reported cases in the districts and hotspot cities will be adjusted using this seroprevalence to estimate the expected number of infected individuals in the area. Such serosurveys repeated at regular intervals can also guide containment measures in respective areas. State-specific context of disease burden, priorities and resources should guide the use of multifarious surveillance options for the current COVID-19 epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Prevalencia , Proyectos de Investigación , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
10.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(5): 444-449, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611915

RESUMEN

Background & objectives: Since the beginning of the year 2020, the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacted humankind adversely in almost all spheres of life. The virus belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. SARS-CoV-2 causes the disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with mild-to-severe respiratory illness. The currently available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of COVID-19 are mainly based on molecular assays. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is the only diagnostic method currently recommended by the World Health Organization for COVID-19. With the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2, it is necessary to utilize other tests, which would determine the burden of the disease as well as the spread of the outbreak. Considering the need for the development of such a screening test, an attempt was made to develop and evaluate an IgG-based ELISA for COVID-19. Methods: A total of 513 blood samples (131 positive, 382 negative for SARS-CoV-2) were collected and tested by microneutralization test (MNT). Antigen stock of SARS-CoV-2 was prepared by propagating the virus in Vero CCL-81 cells. An IgG capture ELISA was developed for serological detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in serum samples. The end point cut-off values were determined by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Inter-assay variability was determined. Results: The developed ELISA was found to be 92.37 per cent sensitive, 97.9 per cent specific, robust and reproducible. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.44 and 98.14 per cent, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: This indigenously developed IgG ELISA was found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in human serum samples. This assay may be used for determining seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in a population exposed to the virus.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Curva ROC , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
11.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700672

RESUMEN

Most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 are mild or asymptomatic. Therefore, many cases remain unrecorded. We determined seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 3,186 regular blood donors in three German federal states between 9 March and 3 June 2020. The IgG seroprevalence was 0.91% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.24) overall, ranging from 0.66% (95% CI: 0.13-1.19) in Hesse to 1.22% (95% CI: 0.33-2.10) in Lower-Saxony.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Factores de Tiempo
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(29): e269, 2020 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715672

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from many countries have shown that the number of undiagnosed missing cases is much larger than that of confirmed cases, irrespective of seroprevalence levels. Considering the strategy of Korea entailing massive testing and contact tracing from the beginning of epidemic, the number of undiagnosed missing cases in Korea may be negligible. This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 among individuals who were never diagnosed with COVID-19 in Daegu, the epicenter of COVID-19 epidemic in Korea. METHODS: Serologic testing for immunoglobulin G antibody based on immunochromatographic assay was conducted in 103 patients and 95 guardians aged 18 to 82 years without any history of COVID-19 diagnosis, who visited outpatient clinics of a single university-affiliated hospital from May 25 to June 5, 2020. RESULTS: The estimated seroprevalence was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.3%-12.2%) with 15 positive cases. Among them, only one had a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed case among their close contacts and 13 did not experience COVID-19-related symptoms. Seroprevalence was similar between patients and guardians. Based on this figure, the number of undiagnosed missing cases in Daegu was estimated to be a dozen times more than the number of confirmed cases based on PCR testing. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitation of a small and unrepresentative sample, this is the first study on seroprevalence of COVID-19 in Korea. Our study suggested that the number of undiagnosed missing cases was substantial even with the stringent strategy adopted in Korea, similar to that of other countries.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Enfermedades no Diagnosticadas/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , República de Corea/epidemiología , Pruebas Serológicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enfermedades no Diagnosticadas/virología , Adulto Joven
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e021419, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609243

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to do a serological survey on three rickettsial species: Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri, two species of the spotted fever group (SFG) that are considered to be great importance for public health; and Rickettsia bellii, a species of unknown pathogenicity that infects a variety of human-biting ticks. Serum samples from 273 dogs were tested using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A total of 52 samples (19.04%) were seropositive for at least one of the three Rickettsia spp. antigens. Thirty-eight (73.07%), twelve (23.07%) and one (1.92%) of these dogs showed homologous reactions to R. bellii, R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. Our results showed that the seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. was relatively low. However, the positive serological tests indicated that these dogs had become infected by these agents at some point in their lives. Lastly, our study adds to the previous knowledge on the epidemiology of rickettsiosis in the state of Goiás by doing the first record of detection of anti-R. rickettsii, R. parkeri and R. bellii antibodies by IFA among dogs, thus indicating that these agents may be circulating in the dog population analyzed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Infecciones por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Rickettsiosis Exantemáticas/veterinaria , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/sangre , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , Humanos , Rickettsia/fisiología , Infecciones por Rickettsia/sangre , Infecciones por Rickettsia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Rickettsia/veterinaria , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e022719, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609246

RESUMEN

We evaluated the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the serum samples collected from domestic cats in Belém, Pará, Brazil. We also correlated the presence of T. gondii antibodies with environmental variables and cat-owner habits. Four-hundred and forty-seven serum samples from domestic cats were analyzed. The sera were tested using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Among the animals analyzed, 21.92% (98/447) were seropositive. A statistically significant association was found in relation to age and serology among the animals over 1 year old (p<0.01): in the group up to 1 year old, 12.82% (20/156) of the animals were positive, and in the group over 1 year old, 26.80% (78/291) were positive. Our results show that the cats in Belém, Pará region have anti-T. gondii antibodies, and their owners are not aware of toxoplasmosis or how to prevent its transmission.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Gatos , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3500, 2020 07 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641730

RESUMEN

Health care workers (HCW) are a high-risk population to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection from patients or other fellow HCW. This study aims at estimating the seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of HCW from a large hospital in Spain. Of the 578 participants recruited from 28 March to 9 April 2020, 54 (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1-12.0) were seropositive for IgM and/or IgG and/or IgA against SARS-CoV-2. The cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (presence of antibodies or past or current positive rRT-PCR) was 11.2% (65/578, 95% CI: 8.8-14.1). Among those with evidence of past or current infection, 40.0% (26/65) had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19. Here we report a relatively low seroprevalence of antibodies among HCW at the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Spain. A large proportion of HCW with past or present infection had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19, which calls for active periodic rRT-PCR testing in hospital settings.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , ARN Viral/sangre , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , España/epidemiología
16.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727884

RESUMEN

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important for determining SARS-CoV-2 exposures within both individuals and populations. We validated a SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain serological test using 834 pre-pandemic samples and 31 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors. We then completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the community.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/inmunología , Pandemias , Philadelphia/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/sangre , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/inmunología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Dominios Proteicos/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Adulto Joven
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(30): 988-992, 2020 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730237

RESUMEN

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR)* reported an estimated 40 million persons living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 285,000 deaths from complications of chronic infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Most chronic HBV infections, indicated by the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) on serologic testing, are acquired in infancy through perinatal or early childhood transmission (2). To prevent perinatal and childhood infections, WHO recommends that all infants receive at least 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), including a timely birth dose (HepB-BD)† (1). In 2016, the SEAR Immunization Technical Advisory Group endorsed a regional hepatitis B control goal with a target of achieving hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence of ≤1% among children aged ≥5 years by 2020, which is in line with the WHO Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021 (2,3). The South-East Asia Regional Vaccine Action Plan 2016-2020 (SEARVAP) (4) identified the acceleration of hepatitis B control as one of the eight regional goals for immunization. The plan outlined four main strategies for achieving hepatitis B control: 1) achieving ≥90% coverage with 3 doses of HepB (HepB3), 2) providing timely vaccination with a HepB birth dose (HepB-BD), 3) providing catch-up vaccination of older children, and 4) vaccinating adult populations at high risk and health care workers (1,4). In 2019, SEAR established a regional expert panel on hepatitis B to assess countries' HBV control status. This report describes the progress made toward hepatitis B control in SEAR during 2016-2019. By 2016, all 11 countries in the region had introduced HepB in their national immunization programs, and eight countries had introduced HepB-BD. During 2016-2019, regional HepB3 coverage increased from 89% to 91%, and HepB-BD coverage increased from 34% to 54%. In 2019, nine countries in the region achieved ≥90% HepB3 coverage, and three of the eight countries that provide HepB-BD achieved ≥90% HepB-BD coverage. By December 2019, four countries had been verified to have achieved the hepatitis B control goal. Countries in the region can make further progress toward hepatitis B control by using proven strategies to improve HepB-BD and HepB3 coverage rates. Conducting nationally representative hepatitis B serosurveys among children will be key to tracking and verifying the regional control targets.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B Crónica/prevención & control , Asia Sudoriental/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Objetivos , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B/administración & dosificación , Hepatitis B Crónica/epidemiología , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e000820, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490893

RESUMEN

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most important protozoa parasites worldwide. Although many seroprevalence studies have been performed in domestic and wild species, data on the cumulative incidence and the spatial distribution of T. gondii in animals are extremely scarce. In the present study, dogs from Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, were followed for one year and their blood samples were collected on three moments: days 1, 180, and 360. The sera were submitted to the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) to detect IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Age and sex were compared with IFAT results through statistical tests. Spatial analysis was used to detect clusters of seropositive dogs. Among the 350 dogs that were seronegative on day 1, 53 became seropositive in subsequent samplings; thus, cumulative incidence was 15.1% exposed dogs/year. Age and sex were not associated with serological results. The spatial analysis revealed that seropositive dogs were distributed in all the studied areas, with a significant cluster in a zone with poor sanitary conditions and low socioeconomic status. T. gondii is frequent and widely distributed in the urban area of Botucatu, and impoverished areas are possibly associated with high levels of environmental contamination by this parasite.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta/veterinaria , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Análisis Espacial , Toxoplasmosis Animal/diagnóstico
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e001120, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490894

RESUMEN

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, factors associated with seropositivity to Leishmania infection in dogs and spatial analysis in six municipalities in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 462 dogs, 77 in each municipality, and used for serological analysis [dual path platform (DPP®) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]. Clinical signs of dogs were evaluated and associated factors for Leishmania infection were analyzed using robust Poisson regression model. A seroprevalence of 42.8% (198/462, IC: 95% = 38.6%-47.6%) was detected in dogs that tested positive in both tests, ranging from 29.8% to 55.8%, with higher prevalence in the municipality of Cabrobó (55.8%; P = 0.006). About 67% (132/198) of the seropositive dogs showed one or more clinical signs suggestive of canine leishmaniasis (CanL), such as lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions and conjunctivitis, which were associated with seropositivity. High seroprevalence levels were identified in urban and rural areas in all the municipalities, and the buffer for sand flies around cases covered almost these entire areas. Spatial analysis revealed a significant cluster, showing a relative risk of 1.88 in the urban area of Cabrobó. The higher density of seropositive dogs in urban areas indicates the need effective control measures against CanL to prevent the emergence of canine and human diseases.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Leishmania infantum/inmunología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/veterinaria , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Perros , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Femenino , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Análisis Espacial
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520089

RESUMEN

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Neospora/inmunología , Factores de Edad , Animales , Coccidiosis/diagnóstico , Coccidiosis/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Caballos , Jordania/epidemiología , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Factores Sexuales
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