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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 508, 2021 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059011

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C infections and transmission are a serious challenge to all healthcare systems. We studied seroprevalence rates of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases (TTD) among blood bank donors in Jordan from 2014 to 2019 as a follow-up study of our previously published work. In addition, we wanted to explore the efficacy of the mandatory vaccination of infants against hepatitis B virus (HBV) which was implemented by the Ministry of Health since 1995 for the eradication of HBV infection in Jordan. METHODS: We reviewed blood bank donors' records at King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) from January 1st, 2014, until December 31st, 2019. Results of seropositivity prevalence rates for HBsAg, anti-HBcore, and anti-HCV, using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were compared to seropositivity rates from our previously published data. In addition, our results were compared to data obtained from other blood banks in Jordan, as well as compared to published information from blood banks in neighboring countries. RESULTS: The prevalence rates (%) of seropositive blood donors for viral hepatitis for the years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019, were as follows: HBsAg rates were 0.3386, 0.2108, 0.1801, 0.1898, 0.2068, and 0.2741; anti-HBcore rates were 4.1112, 3.2271, 2.9748, 2.8405, 2.6879 and 3.0986; and anti-HCV rates were 0.1129, 0.0486, 0.0548, 0.0654, 0.0782, and 0.0839, respectively. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of HBsAg, Anti-HBcore and Anti-HCV antibodies in 2019 (one sample z-score test, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates of hepatitis B and C infections among Jordanian blood bank donors showed a steady decline between 2009 and 2017, and these rates were much lower in Jordan than in neighboring countries. However, an increase in the prevalence rates of hepatitis B and C infections among blood bank donors was documented in 2019. While the reasons for this increase are not clear yet, these findings highlight the importance of renewed efforts to increase public health awareness of HBV and implement effective measures to prevent the transmission and infection with HBV, including national vaccination programs.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Reacción a la Transfusión/epidemiología , Bancos de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Hepacivirus/inmunología , Hepacivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis B/sangre , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Virus de la Hepatitis B/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/prevención & control , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/sangre , Humanos , Jordania/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Reacción a la Transfusión/sangre , Reacción a la Transfusión/prevención & control , Reacción a la Transfusión/virología , Vacunas contra Hepatitis Viral/administración & dosificación
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1073, 2021 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The infection fatality rate (IFR) of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the most discussed figures in the context of this pandemic. In contrast to the case fatality rate (CFR), the IFR depends on the total number of infected individuals - not just on the number of confirmed cases. In order to estimate the IFR, several seroprevalence studies have been or are currently conducted. METHODS: Using German COVID-19 surveillance data and age-group specific IFR estimates from multiple international studies, this work investigates time-dependent variations in effective IFR over the course of the pandemic. Three different methods for estimating (effective) IFRs are presented: (a) population-averaged IFRs based on the assumption that the infection risk is independent of age and time, (b) effective IFRs based on the assumption that the age distribution of confirmed cases approximately reflects the age distribution of infected individuals, and (c) effective IFRs accounting for age- and time-dependent dark figures of infections. RESULTS: Effective IFRs in Germany are estimated to vary over time, as the age distributions of confirmed cases and estimated infections are changing during the course of the pandemic. In particular during the first and second waves of infections in spring and autumn/winter 2020, there has been a pronounced shift in the age distribution of confirmed cases towards older age groups, resulting in larger effective IFR estimates. The temporary increase in effective IFR during the first wave is estimated to be smaller but still remains when adjusting for age- and time-dependent dark figures. A comparison of effective IFRs with observed CFRs indicates that a substantial fraction of the time-dependent variability in observed mortality can be explained by changes in the age distribution of infections. Furthermore, a vanishing gap between effective IFRs and observed CFRs is apparent after the first infection wave, while an increasing gap can be observed during the second wave. CONCLUSIONS: The development of estimated effective IFR and observed CFR reflects the changing age distribution of infections over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Further research is warranted to obtain timely age-stratified IFR estimates, particularly in light of new variants of the virus.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Anciano , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049876, 2021 06 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112645

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in secondary schools after their reopening in May 2020. DESIGN: Repeated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study after the reopening of schools and 4 months later. SETTING: Secondary school in Dresden, Germany. PARTICIPANTS: 1538 students grades 8-12 and 507 teachers from 13 schools. INTERVENTIONS: Serial blood sampling and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody assessment. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in study population. Number of undetected cases. RESULTS: 1538 students and 507 teachers were initially enrolled, and 1334 students and 445 teachers completed both study visits. The seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 0.6% in May/June and the same in September/October. Even in schools with reported COVID-19 cases before the lockdown of 13 March, no clusters could be identified. Of 12 persons with positive serology five had a known history of confirmed COVID-19; 23 out of 24 participants with a household history of COVID-91 were seronegative. CONCLUSIONS: Schools do not play a crucial role in driving the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in a low-prevalence setting. Transmission in families occurs very infrequently, and the number of unreported cases is low in this age group. These observations do not support school closures as a strategy fighting the pandemic in a low-prevalence setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00022455.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Instituciones Académicas , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Estudiantes
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626609, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084161

RESUMEN

Accurate detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies provides a more accurate estimation of incident cases, epidemic dynamics, and risk of community transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study specifically targeting different populations to examine the performance of pandemic control in Taiwan: symptomatic patients with epidemiological risk and negative qRT-PCR test (Group P), frontline healthcare workers (Group H), healthy adult citizens (Group C), and participants with prior virologically-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection in 2003 (Group S). The presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 total and IgG antibodies in all participants were determined by Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 test and Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, respectively. Sera that showed positive results by the two chemiluminescent immunoassays were further tested by three anti-SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow immunoassays and line immunoassay (MIKROGEN recomLine SARS-CoV-2 IgG). Between June 29 and July 25, 2020, sera of 2,115 participates, including 499 Group P participants, 464 Group H participants, 1,142 Group C participants, and 10 Group S participants, were tested. After excluding six false-positive samples, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence were 0.4, 0, and 0% in Groups P, H, and C, respectively. Cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was observed in 80.0% of recovered SARS participants. Our study showed that rigorous exclusion of false-positive testing results is imperative for an accurate estimate of seroprevalence in countries with previous SARS outbreak and low COVID-19 prevalence. The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was extremely low among populations of different exposure risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 in Taiwan, supporting the importance of integrated countermeasures in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 before effective COVID-19 vaccines available.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , Reacciones Cruzadas , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/inmunología , Taiwán/epidemiología
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e272-e274, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097664

RESUMEN

The estimated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seroprevalence in children was found to be 9.46% for the Washington Metropolitan area. Hispanic/Latinx individuals were found to have higher odds of seropositivity. While chronic medical conditions were not associated with having antibodies, previous fever and body aches were predictive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Prueba Serológica para COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adolescente , COVID-19/etnología , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , District of Columbia/epidemiología , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Virginia/epidemiología , West Virginia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e001921, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133615

RESUMEN

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite of worldwide distribution that can infect several species of homeothermic animals. Few studies have evaluated the exposure of captive wild animals to T. gondii. This study involved a serological survey of anti-T. gondii antibodies in mammals kept in Cuba's National Zoo (PZN) and in the Rio de Janeiro Zoo (RIOZOO) in Brazil. The study consisted of a total of 231 serum samples from mammals, 108 from PZN and 123 from RIOZOO. All the samples were subjected to IgG anti-T. gondii testing by means of the inhibition ELISA method and the modified agglutination test, respectively. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 85.2% samples from PZN and 32.5% samples from RIOZOO. At the PZN, Perissodactyla (92.3%) was the order with the highest serological prevalence rate, whereas at the RIOZOO, the order Primates (46.7%) stood out (p<0.05). In addition to this association, the origin of the PZN animals was also associated with T. gondii infection. This finding demonstrates the need for constant veterinary monitoring of captive wild mammals in order to link the serological diagnosis with clinical alterations indicative of toxoplasmosis.


Asunto(s)
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Animales , Animales de Zoológico , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios , Brasil/epidemiología , Cuba/epidemiología , Mamíferos , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmosis Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología
7.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 181-190, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061782

RESUMEN

In recent years, and now especially with the arrival of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increased interest in understanding the role of bats in the dynamics of transmission and origin of this pandemic agent. To date, no systematic reviews have been published on this topic. This systematic review aimed to summarize and highlight the frequency of bat infections reported in currently available observational studies for coronavirus. The purpose of this study was also to examine the differences between the pool prevalence by technique and country. We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess coronavirus (CoV) infection in bats and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We carried out random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In all, 824 articles were retrieved (1960-2021). After screening by abstract/title, 43 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of these, 33 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From the total of studies, the pool prevalence by RT-PCR (n=14,295 bats) for CoV was 9.8% (95% CI 8.7-10.9%); Italy reported the highest pooled prevalence (44.9%, 95% CI 31.6-58.1%), followed by the Philippines (29.6%). Regarding the ELISA, the pool prevalence for coronavirus from 15 studies, including 359 bats, was 30.2% (95% CI 14.7-45.6%). The results for coronaviruses with the MIF were significantly lower, 2.6% (95% CI 1.5-3.7%). A considerable proportion of infected bats tested positive, particularly by molecular tests. This essential condition highlights the relevance of bats and the need for future studies to detail their role as potential reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2. In this meta-analysis, bats were positive in almost 10% by RT-PCR, suggesting their relevance and the need to understand their potential participation in maintaining wild zoonotic transmission.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/veterinaria , Quirópteros/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , SARS-CoV-2 , Animales , Sesgo , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Intervalos de Confianza , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
8.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072254

RESUMEN

Registered cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the German human population increased rapidly during the second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in winter 2020/21. Since domestic cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, the occurrence of trans-species transmission needs to be monitored. A previous serosurvey during the first wave of the pandemic detected antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 0.65% of feline serum samples that were randomly sampled across Germany. In the here-presented follow-up study that was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021, the seroprevalence rose to 1.36% (16/1173). This doubling of the seroprevalence in cats is in line with the rise of reported cases in the human population and indicates a continuous occurrence of trans-species transmission from infected owners to their cats.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Animales , Animales Domésticos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Gatos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Gatos , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Zoonosis/diagnóstico , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
9.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54288

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To evaluate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection in pauci-symptomatic and asymptomatic people, the associated epidemiological factors, and IgG antibody kinetic over a 5-month period to get a better knowledge of the disease transmissibility and the rate of susceptible persons that might be infected. Methods. Seroprevalence was evaluated by a cross-sectional study based on the general population of Santa Fe, Argentina (non-probabilistic sample) carried out between July and November 2020. A subgroup of 20 seropositive individuals was followed-up to analyze IgG persistence. For the IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detection, the COVID-AR IgG® ELISA kit was used. Results. 3 000 individuals were included conforming asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic groups (n=1 500 each). From the total sample, only 8.83% (n=265) presented reactivity for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2. A significant association was observed between positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and a history of contact with a confirmed case; the transmission rate within households was approximately 30%. In the pauci-symptomatic group, among the seropositive ones, anosmia and fever presented an OR of 16.8 (95% CI 9.5-29.8) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.6-4.6), respectively (p <0.001). In asymptomatic patients, IgG levels were lower compared to pauci-symptomatic patients, tending to decline after 4 months since the symptoms onset. Conclusion. We observed a low seroprevalence, suggestive of a large population susceptible to the infection. Anosmia and fever were independent significant predictors for seropositivity. Asymptomatic patients showed lower levels of antibodies during the 5-month follow-up. IgG antibodies tended to decrease over the end of this period regardless of symptoms.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la seroprevalencia de la infección por el virus causante de la COVID-19 en personas paucisintomáticas y asintomáticas, los factores epidemiológicos asociados y la cinética de los anticuerpos IgG durante un período de cinco meses para conocer mejor la transmisibilidad de la enfermedad y la tasa de personas susceptibles a estar infectadas. Métodos. Se evaluó la seroprevalencia mediante un estudio transversal basado en la población general de Santa Fe, Argentina (muestra no probabilística) llevado a cabo entre julio y noviembre del 2020. Se realizó un seguimiento de un subgrupo de 20 personas seropositivas para analizar la persistencia de los anticuerpos IgG. Para la detección de los anticuerpos IgG contra SARS-COV-2, se empleó el kit ELISA COVID-AR IgG®. Resultados. Hubo 3 000 participantes divididos en un grupo asintomático y un grupo paucisintomático (n=1 500 cada grupo). De la muestra total, solo 8,83% (n=265) presentó una reactividad de IgG contra el SARS-CoV-2. Se observó una asociación significativa entre anticuerpos IgG positivos contra el SARS-CoV-2 y antecedente de contacto con un caso confirmado. La tasa de transmisión en el hogar fue de 30% aproximadamente. En el grupo paucisintomático, entre las personas seropositivas, la anosmia y la fiebre presentaron un OR de 16,8 (IC 95% 9,5-29,8) y 2,7 (IC 95% 1,6-4,6), respectivamente (p <0,001). En los pacientes asintomáticos, los niveles de IgG fueron inferiores en comparación con los pacientes paucisintomáticos, con tendencia a la baja pasados cuatro meses desde la aparición de los síntomas. Conclusiones. Se observó una seroprevalencia baja, indicadora de una gran población susceptible a la infección. La anosmia y la fiebre fueron factores predictivos independientes de relevancia para la seropositividad. Los pacientes asintomáticos mostraron niveles inferiores de anticuerpos durante el seguimiento de cinco meses. Los anticuerpos IgG tendieron a disminuir hacia el final del período con independencia de los síntomas.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a soroprevalência de anticorpos contra a COVID-19 em indivíduos paucissintomáticos e assintomáticos, os fatores epidemiológicos associados e a cinética dos anticorpos da classe IgG em um período de 5 meses, visando aprimorar o conhecimento sobre a transmissibilidade da doença e a taxa de suscetíveis à infecção. Métodos. Inquérito transversal de soroprevalência realizado na população geral (amostra não probabilística) de Santa Fé, na Argentina, entre julho e novembro de 2020. Um subgrupo de 20 indivíduos soropositivos foi acompanhado para analisar a persistência de anticorpos IgG. O kit de ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) COVID-AR IgG® foi usado para a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2. Resultados. A amostra compreendeu 3 000 indivíduos, divididos entre assintomáticos e paucissintomáticos (n = 1.500 por grupo). Deste total, somente 8,83% (n = 265) apresentaram reatividade, com a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2. Observou-se uma associação significativa entre a presença de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2 e histórico de contato com caso confirmado. A taxa de transmissão intradomiciliar foi de aproximadamente 30%. No grupo paucissintomático, entre os soropositivos, o odds ratio (OR) para anosmia foi de 16,8 (IC 95% 9,5–29,8), e para febre, 2,7 (IC 95% 1,6–4,6) (p <0,001). Os indivíduos assintomáticos apresentaram níveis de IgG mais baixos que os paucissintomáticos, com uma tendência de declínio após 4 meses do início dos sintomas. Conclusões. Observou-se uma soroprevalência baixa de anticorpos contra a COVID-19 na população estudada, o que indica um grande número de pessoas suscetíveis à infecção. Anosmia e febre foram preditores importantes independentes de soropositividade. Os assintomáticos apresentaram níveis mais baixos de anticorpos aos 5 meses de acompanhamento. Houve uma tendência de redução dos anticorpos IgG ao final deste período, independentemente da presença de sintomas.


Asunto(s)
Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Betacoronavirus , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Anosmia , Epidemiología , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Argentina , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Epidemiología
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e000321, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076043

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from free-range chickens in the metropolitan area of Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil's central-west region. The seroprevalence rate was found to be 96%, according to an indirect hemagglutination assay. Brain and heart samples were processed by peptic digestion for a mice bioassay. The tissues were homogenized and the resulting samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which revealed that 64% of them contained the parasite's DNA. The mice bioassay revealed 15 isolates, 8 of them tachyzoites isolates from the peritoneal lavage and 7 from brain cysts. T. gondii genotypes were determined through PCR-RFLP, using the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, alt. SAG2, Apico and CS3. Three genotypes were identified, inclued ToxoDB #65, and the other two are not yet described in the literature. Hence, we conclude that the isolates obtained from the metropolitan area of Goiânia showed relatively low genetic diversity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Roedores , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Animales , Brasil , Pollos , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Ratones , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmosis Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e022620, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076050

RESUMEN

Efforts to control a zoonotic disease such as visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum can be successful if they rely on comprehensive data on animal infection. In Bahia state, Brazil, human VL is endemic, yet some areas have no epidemiological data on canine L. infantum infection and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) to date. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study describing the spatial distribution and characterizing canine L. infantum infection in two districts of the municipality of Muritiba, where human cases have occurred. Brazilian official serodiagnostic protocol (ELISA and immunochromatographic tests), PCR and clinical examination were performed in 351 owned dogs. A seroprevalence of 15.7% (55/351) was found, and L. infantum identified in 88.8% (32/36) of PCR tested samples. Spatial distribution of positive dogs indicated infection in both urban and rural districts. There was no association between seropositivity and sex or breed, but dogs older than 2 years were 3.8 times more likely to be seropositive (95% CI 1.57 - 9.18) than younger dogs. Among seropositive dogs, 80% (44/55) had clinical manifestations of CanL: 75% (33/44) presented dermatopathy, 50% (22/44) emaciation, and 29.5% (13/44) ophthalmopathy. This is the first report on canine seroprevalence and natural L. infantum infection in Muritiba, Bahia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis Visceral , Leishmaniasis , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Humanos , Leishmaniasis/veterinaria , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/veterinaria , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071948

RESUMEN

Since the dramatic rise of the coronavirus infection disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients receiving dialysis have emerged as especially susceptible to this infection because of their impaired immunologic state, chronic inflammation and the high incidence of comorbidities. Although several strategies have thus been implemented to minimize the risk of transmission and acquisition in this population worldwide, the reported severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence varies across studies but is higher than in the general population. On the contrary, the screening for hepatitis viruses (HBV and HCV) has seen significant improvements in recent years, with vaccination in the case of HBV and effective viral infection treatment for HCV. In this sense, a universal SARS-CoV-2 screening and contact precaution appear to be effective in preventing further transmission. Finally, regarding the progress, an international consensus with updated protocols that prioritize between old and new indicators would seem a reasonable tool to address these unexpended changes for the nephrology community.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Virus de Hepatitis , Humanos , Diálisis Renal , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 244, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104292

RESUMEN

Introduction: acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are responsible for significant proportions of illnesses and deaths annually. Most of ARIs are of viral etiology, with human coronaviruses (HCoVs) playing a key role. This study was conducted prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to provide evidence about the sero-epidemiology of HCoVs in rural areas of Ghana. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted as part of a large epidemiological study investigating the occurrence of respiratory viruses in 3 rural areas of Ghana; Buoyem, Kwamang and Forikrom. Serum samples were collected and tested for the presence of IgG-antibodies to three HCoVs; HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63 using immunofluorescence assay. Results: of 201 subjects enrolled into the study, 97 (48.3%) were positive for all three viruses. The most prevalent virus was HCoV-229E (23%; 95% CI: 17.2 - 29.3), followed by HCoV-OC43 (17%; 95% CI: 12.4 - 23.4), then HCoV-NL63 (8%, 95% CI: 4.6 - 12.6). Subjects in Kwamang had the highest sero-prevalence for HCoV-NL63 (68.8%). human coronaviruses-229E (41.3%) and HCoV-OC43 (45.7%) were much higher in Forikrom compared to the other study areas. There was however no statistical difference between place of origin and HCoVs positivity. Although blood group O+ and B+ were most common among the recruited subjects, there was no significant association (p = 0.163) between blood group and HCoV infection. Conclusion: this study reports a 48.3% sero-prevalence of HCoVs (OC43, NL63 and 229E) among rural communities in Ghana. The findings provide useful baseline data that could inform further sero-epidemiological studies on SARS-CoV-2 in Africa.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus Humano 229E/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus Humano NL63/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus Humano OC43/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e051415, 2021 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103324

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, using the Abbott antinucleocapsid IgG chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) assay, in five prespecified healthcare worker (HCW) subgroups following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: An 800-bed tertiary-level teaching hospital in the south of Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: Serum was collected for anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG using the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG CMIA qualitative assay, as per the manufacturer's specifications.The groups were as follows: (1) HCWs who had real-time PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 infection (>1-month postpositive RT-PCR); (2) HCWs identified as close contacts of persons with COVID-19 infection and who subsequently developed symptoms (virus not detected by RT-PCR on oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab); (3) HCWs identified as close contacts of COVID-19 cases and who remained asymptomatic (not screened by RT-PCR); (4) HCWs not included in the aforementioned groups working in areas determined as high-risk clinical areas; and (5) HCWs not included in the aforementioned groups working in areas determined as low-risk clinical areas. RESULTS: Six of 404 (1.49%) HCWs not previously diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection (groups 2-5) were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 at the time of recruitment into the study.Out of the 99 participants in group 1, 72 had detectable IgG to SARS-CoV-2 on laboratory testing (73%). Antibody positivity correlated with shorter length of time between RT-PCR positivity and antibody testing.Quantification cycle value on RT-PCR was not found to be correlated with antibody positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in HCWs who had not previously tested RT-PCR positive for COVID-19 was low compared with similar studies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
15.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 60(6): 539-543, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058810

RESUMEN

Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of celiac disease in susceptible population, and to analyze the relationship between demographic characteristics, dietary habits, lifestyle and serological positivity so as to provide guidance for the prevention and treatment of celiac disease in Southern China. Methods: A total of 1 273 individuals who participated in Guangdong Province Health Screening Program in 2015, were selected as serologically positive subjects of celiac disease, including people with irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, diarrhea, anemia, low BMI, short stature, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis and bristol grade=6 or 7. All subjects were tested for serum IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (TTGA), IgA antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides(DGPA) and IgG against deamidated gliadin peptides (DGPG). Dietary habits, lifestyle and demographic characteristics were compared in subgroups. Results: The seroprevalence of celiac disease in susceptible population was 0.94% (95%CI 0.54%-1.64%) including 0.08% (1/1 273) for TTGA, 0.47% (6/1 273) for DGPA, and 0.39% (5/1 273) for DGPG. The seropositive rate was 3.6% (1/28) in patients with psoriasis, 2.1% (2/95) in the low BMI group, 1.9% (1/53) in T1DM group, 1.8% (3/169) in diarrhea group and 1.1% (5/463) in RA group. No significant difference was found in age, gender, high carbohydrate diet or lifestyle between the negative and the positive subjects. Conclusions: In Southern China, the seropositive rate of celiac disease is 0.94% in susceptible population, which prompts an urgent need of serological screening for early diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Celíaca , Enfermedad Celíaca/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Celíaca/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Gliadina , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 131, 2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090486

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in pediatric population are very limited, mostly because of the higher rate of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases among children. Updated data on COVID-19 prevalence are needed for their relevance in public health and for infection control policies. In this single-centre cross-sectional study we aimed to assess prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection through IgG antibodies detection in an Italian pediatric cohort. METHODS: The study was conducted in January 2021 among both inpatients and outpatients referring to Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health "Burlo Garofolo" in Trieste, Friuli Venezia-Giulia, Italy, who needed for blood test for any reason. Collected samples were sent to Italian National Institute of Health for analysis through chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). RESULTS: One hundred sixty-nine patients were included in the study, with a median age of 10.5 ± 4.1 years, an equal distribution for sex (49.7% female patients), and a 55.6% prevalence of comorbidities. Prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 trimeric Spike protein IgG antibodies was 9.5% (n = 16), with a medium titre of 482.3 ± 387.1 BAU/mL. Having an infected cohabitant strongly correlated with IgG positivity (OR 23.83, 95% CI 7.19-78.98, p < 0.0001), while a cohabitant healthcare worker wasn't associated with a higher risk (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.4-5.86, p 0.46). All of the 5 patients who had previously tested positive to a nasopharyngeal swab belonged to the IgG positive group, with a 3-month interval from the infection at most. CONCLUSION: We assessed a 9.5% SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a pediatric cohort from Friuli Venezia-Giulia region in January 2021, showing a substantial increase after the second peak of the pandemic occurred starting from October 2020, compared to 1% prevalence observed by National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) in July 2020.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Lactante , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/virología , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062965

RESUMEN

Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite with high prevalence worldwide. More than 40 million individuals in the United States carry this parasite. T. gondii infection causes toxoplasmosis, which is the leading cause of death associated with foodborne diseases in the United States. T. gondii infects humans through different routes, and it is capable of invading a wide range of tissues in the human body following the infection. Methods: The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii among adults in the United States and its association with cardiovascular health using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2009-2010). Considering the limitation of studies investigating the relationship between T. gondii and cardiovascular biomarkers, this study was focused on assessing the association of T. gondii to nine cardiovascular biomarkers. First, those biomarkers were investigated individually using several statistical tests and models. Second, we developed an overall cardiovascular biomarker index (OCBI) from eight critical biomarkers to better explain the T. gondii potential cumulative effect on the cardiovascular system. These analyses were adjusted for demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors. Results:T. gondii IgG antibody-positive participants had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0022), triglycerides (p = 0.0399), C-reactive protein (p = 0.0422), gamma glutamyl transferase (p = 0.0400), and fasting glucose (p = 0.0213) than the negative participants. In addition, the positive participants had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0431) than the negative participants. Adjusting for age, T. gondii positive had a significant negative association with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0026) and a significant positive association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0179), triglycerides (p = 0.0154), and gamma glutamyl transferase (p = 0.0026). With the exception of the low-density lipoprotein, these associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors. These results potentially indicate the role of T. gondii in driving cardiovascular-related biomarkers toward dysfunction. The analysis also revealed a significant difference in the OCBI among positive and negative participants (p = 0.0020), with the (cumulative) odds of positive participants having a higher level of OCBI being 0.71 times lower than the odds for negative participants (OR = 0.29). Conclusions: Positive T. gondii IgG antibody was significantly associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular-related biomarkers, including systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and gamma glutamyl transferase. T. gondii-positive individuals were more likely to have a lower cardiovascular biomarkers index than the negative individuals. Finally, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among U.S. adults was associated with demographic characteristics including age, ethnicity, country of birth, and occupation.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Cardiovascular , Toxoplasma , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Encuestas Nutricionales , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(5): 1165-1174, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958053

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in health care personnel. METHODS: The Mayo Clinic Serology Screening Program was created to provide a voluntary, two-stage testing program for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to health care personnel. The first stage used a dried blood spot screening test initiated on June 15, 2020. Those participants identified as reactive were advised to have confirmatory testing via a venipuncture. Venipuncture results through August 8, 2020, were considered. Consent and authorization for testing was required to participate in the screening program. This report, which was conducted under an institutional review board-approved protocol, only includes employees who have further authorized their records for use in research. RESULTS: A total of 81,113 health care personnel were eligible for the program, and of these 29,606 participated in the screening program. A total of 4284 (14.5%) of the dried blood spot test results were "reactive" and warranted confirmatory testing. Confirmatory testing was completed on 4094 (95.6%) of the screen reactive with an overall seroprevalence rate of 0.60% (95% CI, 0.52% to 0.69%). Significant variation in seroprevalence was observed by region of the country and age group. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies through August 8, 2020, was found to be lower than previously reported in other health care organizations. There was an observation that seroprevalence may be associated with community disease burden.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Prueba Serológica para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros Médicos Académicos , Adulto , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Prueba Serológica para COVID-19/métodos , Prueba Serológica para COVID-19/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 497, 2021 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: African tick bite fever (ATBF) caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks is one of the zoonotic tick-borne fevers from the spotted fever group (SFG) of rickettsiae, which is an emerging global health concern. There is paucity of information regarding the occurrence and awareness of the disease in endemic rural livestock farming communities living in livestock-wildlife interface areas in South Africa. METHODS: The purpose of the study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices on ticks and ATBF infection from a community living in livestock-wildlife interface areas in South Africa. A focus group discussion (FGD) was carried out followed by verbal administration of a standardized semi-structured questionnaire a month later to 38 rural livestock farmers (23 from Caquba area and 15 from Lucingweni area where A. hebraeum was absent). An FGD was conducted in Caquba (situated at the livestock-wildlife interface where Amblyomma hebraeum was prevalent on cattle and infected with Rickettsia africae) in the O.R. Tambo district of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. RESULTS: Results from the FGD and questionnaire survey showed that participants from the two rural communities were not aware of ATBF and were not aware that ticks are vectors of the disease. Respondents from Caquba reported of having frequent exposure to tick bites (91.3%, 21/23) specifically from the anthropophilic A. hebrauem which they were able to identify as Qwelagqibe in IsiXhosa (their vernacular). Thirteen out of 15 (86.7%) of respondents from Lucingweni reported that they had never been bitten by ticks, which corresponded with the absence of A. hebraeum from their locality as evidenced from results of a concurrent study on prevalence of ticks on livestock in the area. Both communities confirmed to being "very concerned" of tick bites and we presume this was more related to the localized wounds from the bites than to the diseases transmitted by the ticks. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend future studies encompassing seroprevalence of ATBF in Caquba and other communities at risk in South Africa including establishing surveillance systems to monitor the seasonal infection rates in ticks, cattle and humans.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Mordeduras y Picaduras de Insectos/prevención & control , Rickettsia , Rickettsiosis Exantemáticas/prevención & control , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Bovinos , Femenino , Grupos Focales/métodos , Humanos , Mordeduras y Picaduras de Insectos/microbiología , Ganado/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Población Rural , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Rickettsiosis Exantemáticas/microbiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/microbiología , Garrapatas/microbiología , Adulto Joven
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