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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246463, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355899

RESUMEN

Abstract Quilombola communities are present in many Brazilian states living in precarious health conditions. This is due to geographic isolation, limitations to the access of the area in which they live in, and the lack of quality in the service when it is needed to be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life of women from a quilombola community in northeastern Brazil. It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. 160 adult women were first interviewed through a form to collect a profile and then it was applied the WHOQOL Quality of Life questionnaire - bref. It was observed that the women were on average 40.7 years old (±17.25), married, self-declared black, who did not finish elementary school, housewife, had no income, with their own masonry house, with up to 6 rooms, supplied by a box of community treated water. Quality of Life had median scores in the domains: physical (3.18), psychological (3.4), social relationships (3.45) and environment (2.59). With this research, it was possible to characterize the quilombola community of Santa Luzia do Norte-AL regarding the difficulties of access to health and income generation, issues that affect their health condition. The problems described in this study can contribute to health actions being planned and carried out in order to improve socioeconomic and health conditions in this community, considering the social, political and environmental context, valuing their traditional knowledge and practices.


Resumo As comunidades quilombolas, estão presentes em diversos estados brasileiros, vivendo em condições de saúde mais precárias. Isto ocorre por conta do isolamento geográfico, das limitações de acesso e da falta de qualidade no serviço quando este é prestado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida de mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola do nordeste brasileiro. Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Foram entrevistadas 160 mulheres adultas, através de um formulário para a coleta de perfil e do questionário de Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL - bref. Foi observado que as mulheres tinham em média 40,7 anos (±17,25), casadas, autodeclaradas negras, com fundamental incompleto, do lar, sem renda, com moradia de alvenaria, própria, com até 6 cômodos, abastecidas por caixa de água comunitária, tratada. A Qualidade de Vida, apresentou escores medianos nos domínios: físico (3,18), psicológico (3,4), relações sociais (3,45) e meio ambiente (2,59). Com a realização desta pesquisa foi possível caracterizar a comunidade quilombola de Santa Luzia do Norte-AL quanto as dificuldades de acesso a saúde e geração de renda, fatos que repercutem na sua condição de saúde. Os problemas descritos neste estudo podem contribuir para que ações de saúde sejam planejadas e efetivadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições socioeconômicas e de saúde nessa comunidade, considerando-se o contexto social, político e ambiental, valorizando seus saberes e práticas tradicionais.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Calidad de Vida , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248778, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339371

RESUMEN

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the socio-environmental characteristics, executive and nutritional functions in children aged 6 to 7 years, from public schools in Alagoas, Brazil. A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed involving 64 children of the mentioned age group, from public schools located in Alagoas: Maceió, on the coast; Major Isidoro, in the hinterland and Palmeira dos Índios, in the country. Such analyzes were made through the application of neuropsychological tests and anthropometric assessment with children and food and socio-environmental surveys with their parents. As for the type of housing, 100% were made of masonry, with a bathroom present in 98.4%. All children reported with the habit of bathing in the river / lagoon, presented some pathology. There was no significant difference between cities in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics evaluated, with the same result occurring with the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases in children. The subtests of WISC-IV, were below the average in all municipalities, and the TAC and SCC were classified within the average. However, even though the ranking were divided between below average and average, it is possible to identify from the subtests of WISC-IV, that the general IQ showed a cognitive level below the average. There was also no significant difference in the anthropometric assessment (weight, height, BMI and IMCI) between the evaluated students. The average weight was 23.3 kg to 25 kg, the height between 1.23 m to 1.24 m, the BMI between 16.4 to 17; the IMCI from 2.8 to 3.0. Children were classified within the average. Regarding micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and vitamins A, C, D, B1, B9 and B12) and calories, there was also no significant difference between the cities evaluated. The same occurred with macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids). This study showed that in general there was no difference between the students of the three municipalities. Probably, even though they are all public schools and from different cities, children have similar social conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características socioambientais, funções executivas e nutricionais de crianças de 6 a 7 anos, de escolas públicas de Alagoas, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo envolvendo 64 crianças, na referida faixa etária, de escolas públicas localizadas em Alagoas: Maceió, no litoral; Major Isidoro, no sertão e Palmeira dos Índios, no país. Tais análises foram feitas por meio da aplicação de testes neuropsicológicos e avaliação antropométrica com crianças e inquéritos alimentares e socioambientais com seus pais. Quanto ao tipo de habitação, 100% eram de alvenaria, com banheiro presente em 98,4%. Todas as crianças relataram o hábito de tomar banho no rio / lagoa, apresentavam alguma patologia. Não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios quanto às características sociodemográficas avaliadas, ocorrendo o mesmo resultado com os fatores associados à ocorrência de doenças em crianças. Os subtestes do WISC-IV, ficaram abaixo da média em todos os municípios, e o TAC e SCC foram classificados dentro da média. Porém, mesmo que a classificação tenha sido dividida entre abaixo da média e média, é possível identificar a partir dos subtestes do WISC-IV, que o QI geral apresentou um nível cognitivo abaixo da média. Também não houve diferença significativa na avaliação antropométrica (peso, altura, IMC e AIDPI) entre os alunos avaliados. O peso médio foi de 23,3 kg a 25 kg, a altura entre 1,23 ma 1,24 m, o IMC entre 16,4 a 17; A AIDPI de 2.8 a 3.0. As crianças foram classificadas dentro da média. Em relação aos micronutrientes (Ca, Fe, K, Mg e Na e vitaminas A, C, D, B1, B9 e B12) e calorias, também não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios avaliados. O mesmo ocorreu com os macronutrientes (proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios). Este estudo mostrou que de maneira geral não houve diferença entre os alunos dos três municípios. Provavelmente, mesmo sendo todas escolas públicas e de diferentes cidades, as crianças têm condições sociais semelhantes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Ingestión de Energía , Función Ejecutiva , Sodio , Brasil , Estudios Transversales
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMEN

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Cariotipificación
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249209, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339360

RESUMEN

Abstract Alo vera is a centenary remedy use for minor wounds and burns, but its mechanism of wound healing has not been know since. This article will evaluate and gather evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the use of aloe vera in the treatment of burns. A systematic review was carried out on the databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, in the last 7 years, with the descriptors: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". 16 articles were found. After using the exclusion criteria; research in non-humans and literature review; 5 articles were selected. The article Teplick et al. (2018) performed an in vitro clinical experiment in A. Vera solution, and demonstrated that there was proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in addition to being protective in the death of keratonocytes. That is, it accelerates the healing of wounds. Muangman et al. (2016), evaluated 50 patients with 20% of the total body surface area burned with second-degree burns, between 18-60 years old, with half of the group receiving gauze dressings with soft paraffin containing 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate and the other half receiving polyester dressings containing extracts of medicinal plants mainly Aloe Vera. It had positive results, a higher healing speed and shorter hospital stay compared to the control group. Hwang et al. (2015) investigated the antioxidant effects of different extracts from 2,4,6,8,12 months of Aloe Vera. And the 6-month concentrated extract of 0.25 mg / mL had a higher content of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent / g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent / g extract) and the greater ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM equivalent ferrous sulfate / mg extract), that is, greater potential for free radical scavenging and also a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), suggesting evidence of a bioactive potential of A. vera . However, in the article Kolacz et al. (2014) suggested as an alternative treatment the use of Aloe Vera dressing in combination with honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, glycerin vegetable oil, beeswax and myrrh, without obtaining significant and conclusive results that would allow the conventional treatment of burns to be subsidized. Finally, in the article by Zurita and Gallegos (2017), it carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with 321 people, both sexes between 17-76 years of age, of an inductive nature, exploring the experience of this population and their behavioral attitudes regarding the treatment of dermatoses. Aloe vera had 13.8% cited by individuals in the treatment of acne and 33.6% in the treatment of burns. Even with evidence that suggests the efficacy in the treatment of burns with the use of Aloe Vera extract, further clinical trials with larger sample space on the use of Aloe vera dressings in medium burns are suggested for further conclusions.


Resumo Alo vera é um remédio centenário usado para pequenas feridas e queimaduras, mas seu mecanismo de cicatrização de feridas não foi conhecido desde então. Este artigo avaliará e reunirá evidências da eficácia e segurança do uso de aloe vera no tratamento de queimaduras. Realizada revisão Sistemática nas bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, nos últimos 7 anos, com os descritores: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". Foram encontrados 16 trabalhos. Após utilizarmos os critérios de exclusão; pesquisa em nao humanos e revisão da literatura ; foram selecionados 5 artigos. O artigo Teplick et al. (2018) realizou um experimento clinico in vitro em solução de A. Vera, e demonstrou que houve proliferação e migração celular de fibroblastos e queratinócitos de pele humana, além de ser protetor na morte de queratonócitos. Ou seja, acelera a cicatrização das feridas. Já Muangman et al. (2016), avaliou 50 pacientes com 20% do total da área superficial corporal queimada com queimaduras de segundo grau, entre 18-60 anos, tendo metade do grupo como controle recebendo curativos de gaze com parafina mole contendo 0,5% acetado de clorexidina e a outra metade recebendo curativos com poliéster contendo extratos de plantas medicinais principalmente Aloe Vera. Teve resultados positivos, uma maior velocidade de cicatrização e menor tempo de internação comparado ao grupo controle. Já Hwang et al. (2015) investigou os efeitos antioxidante de diferentes extratos de 2,4,6,8,12 meses da Aloe Vera. E o extrato com 6 meses concentrado de 0,25 mg/mL teve maior teor de flavanóides (9,750 mg equivalente catequina / g extrato) e polifenóis (23,375 mg equivalente ácido gálico / g extrato) e o maior poder antioxidante redutor férrico (0,047 mM de sulfato ferroso equivalente / extrato mg), ou seja, maior potencial de eliminação de radicais livres e também efeito proteror contra o estresse oxidativo induzido por hidroperóxido de terc-butila (t-BHP), sugerindo indícios de um potencial bioativo da A. vera. Porém, no artigo Kolacz et al. (2014) sugeriu como tratamento alternativo o uso do curativo com Aloe Vera em conjunto de mel, lanolina, azeite de oliva, óleo de gérmen de trigo, raiz de marshmallow, absinto, raiz de confrei, casca de carvalho branco, lobelia inflata, glicerina vegetal, cera de abelha e mirra, não obtendo resultados significativos e conclusivos que permitam subsidiar o tratamento convencional das queimaduras. Por fim, no artigo de Zurita and Gallegos (2017), realizou um estudo descritivo transversal com 321 pessoas, ambos os sexos entre 17-76 anos, de natureza indutiva, explorando a vivência dessa população e suas atitudes comportamentais quanto ao tratamento de dermatoses. Aloe vera teve 13,8% citada pelos indivíduos no tratamento de acne e 33,6% no tratamento de queimaduras. Mesmo tendo evidências que sugerem a eficácia no tratamento de queimaduras com o uso do extrato da Aloe Vera, sugere-se mais ensaios clínicos com espaço amostral maior sobre o uso de curativos de Aloe vera em médio queimados para maiores conclusões.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Plantas Medicinales , Quemaduras/tratamiento farmacológico , Aloe , Cicatrización de Heridas , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Estudios Transversales
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640

RESUMEN

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Pakistán/epidemiología , Aves de Corral , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Pollos , Estudios Transversales
6.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

RESUMEN

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Mutación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Receptores beta de Hormona Tiroidea/genética , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/genética , Tirotropina , Tiroxina , Triyodotironina , Adulto Joven
7.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 104-112, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130571

RESUMEN

Some studies have suggested that diabetes may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, whether prediabetes is also associated with osteoarthritis has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and osteoarthritis. This meta-analysis included relevant observational studies from Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. A random-effect model after incorporation of the intra-study heterogeneity was selected to pool the results. Ten datasets from six observational studies were included, which involved 41 226 general adults and 10 785 (26.2%) of them were prediabetic. Pooled results showed that prediabetes was not independently associated with osteoarthritis [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.14, p=0.06, I2=0%]. Sensitivity limited to studies with adjustment of age and body mass index showed consistent result (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.14, p=0.09, I2=0%). Results of subgroup analyses showed that prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in cross-sectional or cohort studies, in studies including Asian or non-Asian population, or in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup difference>0.10). Besides, prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in men or in women, in studies with prediabetes defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or HbA1c (approximately 39-46 mmol/mol). Moreover, prediabetes was not associated with overall osteoarthritis, and knee or hip osteoarthritis. Current evidence does not support that prediabetes is independently associated with osteoarthritis in adult population.


Asunto(s)
Intolerancia a la Glucosa , Osteoartritis , Estado Prediabético , Adulto , Glucemia/metabolismo , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Osteoartritis/complicaciones , Osteoartritis/epidemiología , Estado Prediabético/complicaciones , Estado Prediabético/epidemiología , Estado Prediabético/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo
8.
AIDS Care ; 34(3): 301-309, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615903

RESUMEN

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is not yet included in India's national AIDS program, with demonstration projects for MSM in planning stages. In order to support PrEP roll-out for MSM, we assessed: (1) associations between guideline-informed PrEP eligibility, HIV risk perception, and perceived PrEP benefits and costs, with willingness to use PrEP (WTUP); and (2) correlates of non-WTUP among PrEP-eligible MSM. Data were collected from MSM (n = 197) sampled from cruising sites in Mumbai and Chennai. More than half (58.4%) reported inconsistent condom use with male partners, 88.3% >1 male partner, and 48.6% engaging in sex work (all past month). Overall, 76.6% reported they would "definitely use" PrEP. Among 92.9% deemed PrEP-eligible, 79.2% reported WTUP. In adjusted analyses, PrEP eligibility (aOR = 5.31, 95% CI 1.11, 25.45), medium (aOR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.03, 5.63) or high (aOR = 13.08, 95% CI 1.29, 132.27) perceived HIV risk, and greater perceived benefits (aOR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24) were associated with higher odds of WTUP. Among PrEP-eligible MSM, non-WTUP was associated with low HIV risk perception and lower perceived benefits. Facilitating accurate risk assessment and promoting awareness of PrEP benefits and eligibility criteria may increase PrEP uptake among MSM in India.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , India , Masculino , Percepción
9.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 71, 2022 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488344

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that, worldwide, 9% of deaths occur as a result of insufficient physical activity (PA) practice. Practicing PA can prevent and/or reduce the deleterious effects of different types of diseases and can improve general health aspects related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL). PURPOSE: To analyze the relationship of different PA domains with different HRQoL domains over a two-year period. METHODS: This is an observational study with a two-year longitudinal design. The sample, composed of adults, was selected from a randomization of the streets of the different regions (north, south, east, west and center) covering individuals from all areas of the city. To assess the practice of PA, the Baecke questionnaire was used. The instrument Medical Outcomes Study SF-36-Item Short Form Health Survey was used to assess the HRQoL domains. Linear regression models were used to analyzed the association of different PA domains with changes in HRQoL. Multivariate statistical models were adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic status, marital status, the respective PA score at baseline, smoking, body mass index, and morbidity. RESULTS: 331 adults were evaluated. There was a decrease in the practice of PA in the occupational domain and an increase in the leisure/locomotion domain. Regarding HRQoL, there was an increase in the scores of body pain and mental health, and a decrease in scores of general health, vitality, social aspects and emotional aspects. The PA practice in the occupational domain was inversely related to functional capacity (ß = - 7.2 [CI 95% - 13.0; - 1.4]). The practice of PA through sports in leisure time was positively associated with vitality (ß = 5.5 [CI 95% 0.2; 10.7]) and mental health (ß = 15.2 [CI 95% 6.8; 23.7]). PA practice during leisure and locomotion was inversely associated with functional capacity (ß = - 5.68 [CI 95% - 10.7; - 0.6]) and positively associated with vitality ß = 4.8 [CI 95% 0.8; 8.7]) and mental health (ß = 8.4 [CI 95% 2.0; 14.9]). The total PA practice was inversely associated with functional capacity (ß = - 3.8 [CI 95% - 6.5; - 1.2]) and positively associated with pain in the body (ß = 4.9 [CI 95% 0.3; 9.4]), vitality (ß = 2.9 [CI 95% 0.7; 5.0]) and mental health (ß = 5.7 [CI 95% 2.2; 9.2]). CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that practicing PA continuously within a period of two years can positively affect some physical aspects and some mental aspects related to HRQoL, but not all of them. A strategy for public policy actions is to explore these variables by domain and thus detect the real needs and improvements that can be made for the population.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Humanos , Dolor , Calidad de Vida/psicología
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 199, 2022 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643521

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects up to one-fifth of women of reproductive age and causes anovulatory subfertility. Some studies have recommended that an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level greater than 3.8-5 ng/mL can be used for diagnosing PCOS. This study aims to analyse serum AMH levels among PCOS women of reproductive age to use AMH as a biomarker predictor along with other Rotterdam criteria. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 98 women visiting the fertility center of a private hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, were screened. Data were obtained from 51 PCOS newly diagnosed women aged 28.24 years (SD ± 4.84 years) meeting at least two of the Rotterdam criteria and specific inclusion criteria. Baseline variables, menstrual cycle length, ovarian morphology on ultrasound, hirsutism, sex hormones, gonadotropin, and serum AMH levels were analysed during the follicular phase (1-5 days) of the menstrual cycle. Serum AMH was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A high serum AMH level (7.23 ± 4.67 ng/ml) was recorded with normal sex hormone levels. Women with oligo-/amenorrhea had a significant mean difference for luteinizing hormone (p = 0.02) and AMH levels (p = 0.03) when compared with women of normal menstrual cycle length. PCOS women with high AMH levels (≥ 3.9 ng/ml) showed a significant difference in ovarian morphology (p < 0.05) when compared with the normal AMH group. CONCLUSIONS: An elevated serum AMH level can be used as a strong predictor to reflect the certainty of PCOS diagnosis among women of reproductive age when study concurrently with the other Rotterdam criteria.


Asunto(s)
Hormona Antimülleriana , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hormona Luteinizante , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/complicaciones , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/diagnóstico
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(5): 574-582, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644970

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its associated factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 385 RA patients [including 72 (18.7%) male and 313 (81.3%) female] who received abdominal sonographic examination from August 2015 to May 2021 at Department of Rheumatology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital. There were 28 RA patients at 16-29 years old and 32, 80, 121, 99, 25 at 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, ≥ 70 years old, respectively. Demographic and clinical data were collected including age, gender, history of alcohol consumption, disease duration, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, RA disease activity indicators and previous medications. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the associated factors of NAFLD in RA patients. Results: The prevalence of NAFLD was 24.2% (93/385) in RA patients, 26.3% (21/80) in 40-49 age group and 33.1% (40/121) in 50-59 age group. There were 22.1% (85/385) and 3.6% (14/385) RA patients with overweight and obese, in which the prevalence of NAFLD was 45.9% (39/85) and 78.6% (11/14) respectively, which was 2.6 folds and 4.5 folds that of RA patients with normal BMI. Although there was no significant difference of age, gender and RA disease activity indicators between RA patients with or without NAFLD, those with NAFLD had higher proportions of metabolic diseases including obese (11.8% vs. 1.0%), central obesity (47.3% vs. 16.8%), hypertension (45.2% vs. 29.8%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (24.7% vs. 12.0%), consistent with higher levels of total cholesterol [(5.33±1.31) mmol/L vs. (4.73±1.12) mmol/L], triglyceride [(1.51±1.08) mmol/L vs. (0.98±0.54) mmol/L] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [(3.37±0.97) mmol/L vs. (2.97±0.78) mmol/L, all P<0.05]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that BMI (OR=1.314) and triglyceride (OR=1.809) were the independent factors positively associated with NAFLD in RA patients. Conclusion: NAFLD is a common comorbidity in RA patients, especially in those with middle-aged, overweight or obese, which is associated with high BMI or high triglyceride. Screening and management of NAFLD in RA patients especially those with overweight, obese or dyslipidemia should be emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Artritis Reumatoide/complicaciones , Artritis Reumatoide/epidemiología , LDL-Colesterol , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Triglicéridos , Adulto Joven
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 849173, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646794

RESUMEN

Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endemic fluorosis. We analyzed associations between oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms (PON1 rs662, CAT rs769217, rs2300182, and SOD2 rs11968525) and skeletal fluorosis, and examined potential gene-environment interactions with dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium intake. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Zhijin County, Guizhou Province of China. Skeletal fluorosis was identified according to the Chinese Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis. Dietary information was assessed through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a 75-item food frequency questionnaire. The genotype was detected by high throughput TaqMan-MGB RT-PCR technology. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated using an unconditional logistic regression model. Results: Intake of vitamin E, zinc, and selenium was found to be inversely associated with the risk of skeletal fluorosis. The multivariable-adjusted ORs were 0.438 (95% CI: 0.268 to 0.715, P-trend < 0.001) for vitamin E, 0.490 (95% CI: 0.298 to 0.805, P-trend = 0.001) for zinc, and 0.532 (95% CI: 0.324 to 0.873, P-trend = 0.010) for selenium when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. The relationship for vitamin C was not observed after adjustment for risk factors. Furthermore, participants with PON1 rs662 AA genotype had a significantly decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis compared with those with the GG genotype (OR = 0.438, 95% CI: 0.231 to 0.830). GG + AG genotype carriers were 2.212 times more likely to have skeletal fluorosis than AA carriers (OR = 2.212, 95% CI: 1.197 to 4.090). Compared with AA carriers, AG carriers had a 2.182 times higher risk of skeletal fluorosis (OR = 2.182, 95% CI: 1.143 to 4.163). Although we observed the risk of skeletal fluorosis was higher with a lower intake of antioxidant nutrients, the potential interactions between nutrient intake and genetic polymorphisms were not observed. Conclusion: Participants with a higher intake of vitamin E, zinc, and selenium have a lower likelihood of skeletal fluorosis. In addition, the PON1 rs662 polymorphism is related to skeletal fluorosis.


Asunto(s)
Arildialquilfosfatasa , Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas , Antioxidantes , Arildialquilfosfatasa/genética , Enfermedades Óseas Metabólicas/genética , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Nutrientes , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Selenio , Vitamina E , Zinc
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(10): 3745-3750, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647857

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to predict the potential testicular damage of COVID-19 by comparing the hormones FSH, LH, and TT before COVID-19 with values measured after COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 348 patients - who were followed up in our urology clinic for varicocele, premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction and infertility, had FSH, LH and TT levels measured one year before COVID-19 and were positive for COVID-19 after a Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) tests - were included in the study. Presence of pneumonia compatible with COVID-19, hospitalization in the intensive care unit and FSH, LH and TT values before and after COVID-19 were recorded, along with lung computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: The post-COVID-19 LH value (9.72±3.27 mIU/mL) of the patients was significantly higher than the pre-COVID-19 LH value (5.72±2.50 mIU/mL) (p<0.001). The post-COVID-19 TT (253.85±88.03 ng/dl) value was significantly lower than the pre-COVID-19 TT value (351.08±106.19 ng/dl) (p<.001). In addition, while there was a mean decrease of 127.8 ng/dl in TT level in patients with pneumonia, a decrease of 39.03 ng/dl was observed in patients without pneumonia (p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 may cause an increase in serum LH levels while decreasing TT levels. Additionally, those with COVID-19 pneumonia may experience a greater decrease in serum TT levels than those with COVID-19 without pneumonia.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hormona Folículo Estimulante , Hormona Luteinizante , Testículo , Testosterona , COVID-19/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Hormona Folículo Estimulante/sangre , Humanos , Hormona Luteinizante/sangre , Masculino , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagen , Testosterona/sangre
14.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(2): 20-25, 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648059

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection is the second-leading reason for consults in primary health care. Bacterial urinary tract infections are the most common, of which Escherichia coli is the main etiologic agent. Antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance complicate effective community treatment, especially if resistance is caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production. WHO recommends that antimicrobial susceptibility be evaluated in different regions of the world at different times. Community-acquired E. coli's susceptibility to colistin has not yet been studied in Cuba, and mcr-1 gene screening is necessary. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate community-acquired uropathogenic E. coli isolates' susceptibility to antibiotics, including colistin, and identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study that included 281 community-acquired uropathogenic E. coli isolates (153 from the Isle of Youth Special Municipality's Hygiene, Epidemiology, and Microbiology Center and 128 from Microbiology Laboratories of 7 institutions in Havana) from June 2016 through July 2018. We used the disk diffusion method to determine susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin. The disk elution method was used to determine susceptibility to colistin. The combined disk method was used to identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Estimates were made regarding the frequency and percentages of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance, as well as multidrug-resistance patterns. RESULTS: Of the 281 isolates, 68.3% (192/281) were resistant to ampicillin, 54.8% (154/281) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 49.5% (139/281) were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to colistin was not detected. On the other hand, 14.2% (40/281) were susceptible to the 8 antibiotics we evaluated, 22.1% (62/281) showed resistance to only 1 antibiotic, and 63.7% (179/281) were resistant to 2 or more antibiotics. In the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase determination, 34.5% (97/281) had inhibition zones ≤14 mm with cefazolin. Of those with inhibition zones, 64.9% (63/97) were positive in the phenotype test, and 35.1% (34/97) were negative. In extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria, 1.6% (1/63) were resistant to fosfomycin, and 3.2% (2/63) were resistant to nitrofurantoin. The most common multidrug-resistance pattern (22.9%; 30/131) was to ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. CONCLUSIONS: Uropathogenic E. coli resistance to the antibiotics most frequently used in community medical practice is quite common, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria is the mechanism for beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. Multidrug-resistance patterns include resistance to the antibiotics most used in community-acquired infections. Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are the most active in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing bacteria. All the isolates were susceptible to colistin.


Asunto(s)
Fosfomicina , Infecciones Urinarias , Escherichia coli Uropatógena , Ampicilina/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Cefazolina/uso terapéutico , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapéutico , Colistina/farmacología , Colistina/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Cuba , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Fosfomicina/farmacología , Fosfomicina/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nitrofurantoína/uso terapéutico , Sulbactam/uso terapéutico , Sulfametoxazol/uso terapéutico , Trimetoprim/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología , Infecciones Urinarias/microbiología , beta-Lactamasas/uso terapéutico
15.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 20: eAO6896, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649054

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is an association between the level of progesterone on the day of administration of human chorionic gonadotropin and clinical and laboratory characteristics, in addition to the results of in vitro fertilization of patients with a good prognosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comprising 103 women who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, between November 2009 and May 2015, aged ≤35 years, with no comorbidities, with fresh embryo transfer. Data were collected from patient medical records. RESULTS: There was a weak positive correlation between the level of progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin and the number of follicles larger than 14mm (ß=0.02, p=0.001), retrieved oocytes (ß=0.01, p=0.01) and oocytes in metaphase II (MII) (ß=0.02, p=0.02); that is, the increase in progesterone level has a slight association with increased values of these variables. Body mass index was inversely correlated with progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (ß=-0.01, p=0.02). No association was found between the level of progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin and the protocols used for controlled ovarian stimulation, quality of transferred embryos and the pregnancy rate. CONCLUSION: There is an association between the value of progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration with body mass index, number of follicles larger than 14mm, number of retrieved oocytes and oocytes in metaphase II. Unlike embryo quality and pregnancy rate, which do not have a statistically significant relation with this value in the population studied.


Asunto(s)
Gonadotropina Coriónica , Ovulación , Progesterona , Técnicas Reproductivas Asistidas , Gonadotropina Coriónica/administración & dosificación , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre , Reproducción
16.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 8381819, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677854

RESUMEN

First aid is one of the most important life-saving skills a health provider specifically or anybody generally must have. It can be defined as the first treatment one provides at the site of the accident to the injured person until full medical treatment is available. In some emergency situations, simple first aid can make a life-or-death difference. Aim. This study is designed to evaluate the knowledge of first aid among medical students at KSAU-HS in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. The cross-sectional study is conducted in KSAU-HS, Riyadh, about the knowledge of first aid among medical students. A self-administered structured questionnaire is used for the purpose of data collection. The main variables are as follows: to compare the knowledge of first aid between male and female medical students, among different years of study, and identify the percentage that have knowledge of first aid. Results. Out of 326 students, 10 students (3.1%) scored excellent, 99 (30.4%) good, 136 (41.7%) average, 75 (23%) poor, and 6 (1.8%) very poor. Conclusion. The level of knowledge improved with the advancement in years, but this was not sufficient, and more training should be given to all medical students on first aid.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Primeros Auxilios , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 55(3): 263-272, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678000

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Infections with hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) are a major public health problem and lead to serious complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, anti-HDV immunoglobulin G, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and dual and triple hepatitis virus infections in Mongolia. METHODS: A total of 2313 participants from urban and rural regions were randomly recruited for this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was used to identify the risk factors for hepatitis virus infections, and the seromarkers were measured using immunoassay kits. RESULTS: Among all participants, the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HDV was 15.6%, 36.6%, and 14.3%, respectively. The infection rates were significantly higher in females and participants with a lower education level, rural residence, older age, and a history of blood transfusion. HBV and HCV co-infection was found in 120 (5.2%) participants and HBV, HCV, and HDV triple infection was detected in 67 (2.9%) participants. The prevalence of elevated AFP was 2.7%, 5.5%, and 2.6% higher in participants who were seropositive for HBsAg (p=0.01), anti-HCV (p<0.001), and anti-HDV (p=0.022), respectively. Elevated AFP was more prevalent in participants co-infected with HBV and HCV (5.8%, p=0.023), HBV and HDV (6.0%, p<0.001), and triple-infected with HBV, HCV, and HDV (7.5%) than in uninfected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half (49.8%) of the study population aged ≥40 years were infected with HBV, HCV, or HDV, and 22.4% had dual or triple infections.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Virosis , Anciano , Biomarcadores de Tumor , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Anticuerpos Antihepatitis , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C/complicaciones , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C , Virus de la Hepatitis Delta , Humanos , Mongolia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Virosis/complicaciones , alfa-Fetoproteínas
18.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 55(3): 297-306, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678004

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is increasing in developing countries. This study aimed to decompose the socioeconomic inequality of CVD in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 20 519 adults who enrolled in the Ardabil Non-Communicable Disease cohort study. Principal component analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used, respectively, to estimate socioeconomic status and to describe the relationships between CVD prevalence and the explanatory variables. The relative concentration index, concentration curve, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition model were used to measure and decompose the socioeconomic inequality. RESULTS: The overall age-adjusted prevalence of CVD was 8.4% in northwest Iran. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older adults, overweight or obese adults, and people with hypertension and diabetes were more likely to have CVD. Moreover, people with low economic status were 38% more likely to have CVD than people with high economic status. The prevalence of CVD was mainly concentrated among the poor (concentration index, -0.077: 95% confidence interval, -0.103 to -0.060), and 78.66% of the gap between the poorest and richest groups was attributed to differences in the distribution of the explanatory variables included in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The most important factors affecting inequality in CVD were old age, chronic illness (hypertension and diabetes), marital status, and socioeconomic status. This study documented stark inequality in the prevalence of CVD, wherein the poor were more affected than the rich. Therefore, it is necessary to implement policies to monitor, screen, and control CVD in poor people living in northwest Iran.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Hipertensión , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Irán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 74(3): 313-317, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678114

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of functional constipation in children presenting to Specialized Sam Pediatric Center (SSPC) Sana'a city. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in SSPC during 7 months 2014. Of the 5625 patients seen for different causes through that period, 450 (8%) had functional constipation were included in the study and met the Rome III criteria for constipation. Information regarding age, gender, duration of constipation consistency of stool, infrequent defecation, painful evacuation, fecal incontinence and fecal mass in rectum, and/or soiling were collected. RESULTS: Age ranged from 0-18 years. Prevalence of functional constipation in children was 450 (8%) with duration ≥2 months (230 [51%] females, 220 [49%] males). Prevalence of constipation in age group of 5-10 years was 41.33% and it was 32, 67% in age group 2-5 years. The most common complaints were dry hard stool was found in 97% of the patients, infrequent defecation in 70%, painful evacuation stools in 60% and fecal incontinence in 20%. Large fecal mass in rectum, and/or soiling was found in 20%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of constipation of all visits to pediatric outpatient clinics was high. It was more prevalent, in the age groups of 5-10 years and 2-5 years than in the other age groups and females more affected than males. The most common symptom and signs was dry, hard stool followed by infrequent defecation, painful stools, fecal incontinence then fecal mass in rectum, and/or soiling.


Asunto(s)
Incontinencia Fecal , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Estreñimiento/diagnóstico , Estreñimiento/epidemiología , Estreñimiento/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Incontinencia Fecal/complicaciones , Incontinencia Fecal/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Dolor/complicaciones , Prevalencia , Yemen
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 198, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685097

RESUMEN

Introduction: gender-based violence remains one of the most persistent human rights abuse in the world and with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and its attendant mitigating protocols; Gender-based violence (GBV) could be on the rise with changes in its pattern and presentation. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of GBV among victims presenting in a tertiary health facility in South-East Nigeria during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: this was a retrospective cross-sectional study, among 710 victims of GBV, who reported and received care at the GBV unit in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-east Nigeria. A pro forma designed by the researchers was used to collect secondary data from GBV facility screening forms and folders of all patients that reported any form of GBV over a 3-year period (2018 - 2020). Results: majority (89.9%) of victims of GBV were females and over a half (51.4%) of the cases were in the age group 20-39 years. In total, 56.8% of the GBV cases had been sexually abused. The pattern of GBV over the three years period under study revealed an increase in proportion for both sexual and physical/emotional violence, with a peak in 2019 and a reduction of cases in 2020. Persons below 19 years of age were 23 times more likely to experience sexual violence, than those between 40-59 years of age (AOR: 23.332; 95% CI: 11.037 -49.325) p<0.001. Males were 11 times more likely to experience physical/emotional violence than females (AOR: 11.136; 95% CI: 4.685-26.471) p<0.001. Age, gender, urban dwelling and year of occurrence were significant predictors of GBV. Conclusion: GBV is a cause for concern in Enugu Nigeria; affecting mainly young female victims in their prime. There is an increase in reported cases of GBV in Enugu Nigeria with sexual abuse being more prevalent.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Violencia de Género , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
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