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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 512, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074249

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Migrants are a high priority group for TB control measures due to their high exposure to risk factors such as poverty and social vulnerability. The study aimed to identify factors associated with latent TB among international migrants living in four Brazilian state capitals. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in September and October 2020 in a sample of 903 international migrants living in four Brazilian state capitals: Boa Vista/RR (458), Manaus/AM (136), São Paulo/SP (257), and Curitiba/PR (52). Data were collected with a questionnaire consisting of open and closed questions on personal characteristics, information on TB, and use of preventive measures. Tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed, with reading after 72 h by trained nurses and using 5 mm induration as the positive cutoff. Chi-square test (X2) and Fisher's exact test, both two-tailed, were used to compare statistically significant levels of association between the migrants´ sociodemographic characteristics, vulnerability, and latent TB infection (LTBI). Binary logistic regression was applied to calculate odds ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals. For all the tests, type I error of 5% was defined as statistically significant (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Prevalence of LTBI among migrants was 46.1% in Manaus/AM, 33.3% in São Paulo/SP, 28.1% in Curitiba/PR, and 23.5% in Boa Vista/RR. Factors associated with latent infection were age, male gender, and brown or indigenous race. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed high prevalence of latent TB among international migrants.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis Latente/epidemiología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Prueba de Tuberculina/efectos adversos
2.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 26-35, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077142

RESUMEN

Academic women in the Arab world, especially Saudi women, have numerous barriers inhibiting their leadership power at the workplace. The current study explores the perceived and real barriers to workplace empowerment among women at Saudi universities. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at 15 Saudi governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select (5587 participants) The data collection started from the beginning of April to the beginning of September 2020. SPSS 23.0 was used to analyze data using descriptive statistics. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the real barriers to women empowerment at the workplace. The study showed that 52.1% of the study participants had moderate workplace empowerment, and only 10.2% have a low level. Regarding perceived barriers to workplace empowerment, 42.6% of the participants agree that male dominance was a barrier. Moreover, 36.2% of the participants agreed and strongly agree that the customs and traditions are a barrier to women empowerment at the workplace. Multiple linear regression showed that age, followed by years of experience (p <0.000), were the most significant demographic predictors of women empowerment at the workplace. Moreover, positive attitude, high self-esteem, and good knowledge (p <0.000) were considered other variables that positively predict women's empowerment at the workplace. The experience of gender-based violence (p <0.000) was a negative predictor of women empowerment at the workplace. The study concluded that around 62.3% of Saudi female academics and administrative staff have moderate or low workplace empowerment at Saudi Universities. Male dominance is perceived as the highest barrier.


Asunto(s)
Empoderamiento , Autonomía Personal , Poder Psicológico , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Arabia Saudita , Universidades
3.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 50-59, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077144

RESUMEN

The KSA 2030 vision makes special reference to women's empowerment as an important strategy for Saudi community transformation. Studies related to women's empowerment, especially in the Saudi context, are still not enough and unclear. The current study explored the predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitudes among Saudi academic and administrative staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 15 Saudi government-owned universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 5587 participants during the period April to September 2020. The study instrument consisting of three main parts; basic demographic data, questionnaire assessed the knowledge regarding women's empowerment, and women empowerment attitude scale. The results showed good knowledge of empowerment among the women with 75.5% of the participants demonstrating good knowledge. The total women empowerment attitude was positive among 65.9% of the participants. The association between demographic data and women empowerment knowledge and attitude showed a significant association with marital status, residence, education, and occupation (p <0.05). Linear regression on marital status, education, residence, and occupation, are confirmed as significant predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitude (p <0.05). Mother's education level is shown as a predictor for women empowerment attitude (p>0.005). Three-quarters of Saudi academic and administrative staff have a good women empowerment knowledge score, and more than two-thirds have a positive attitude. Demographic characteristics are important predictors for women empowerment knowledge and attitude. The results of this study will help decision-makers to design and implement goal-directed women empowerment programs.


Asunto(s)
Personal Administrativo/psicología , Empoderamiento , Docentes/psicología , Poder Psicológico , Mujeres Trabajadoras/psicología , Adulto , Actitud , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Conocimiento , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autonomía Personal , Arabia Saudita , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
4.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 60-68, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077145

RESUMEN

Women in Saudi Arabia constitute nearly 50% of the population, but their participation in economic and social activities are far below the kingdom's potential. According to the 2030 vision, women empowerment is an essential requirement for community transformation and development. The study aims to explore women empowerment among academic and administrative staff in Saudi Universities. A cross-sectional research design was conducted at 15 Saudi governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select 5587 participants. The data collection starts from April to September 2020. The current study results illustrate statistically significant differences between academic and administrative staff in the total women empowerment score and all of its dimensions (p <0.05). The majority of academic staff (84.4%) have high personal empowerment compared to 73.7% of the administrative staff. The study concluded that women empowerment is higher among academics compared to administrative staff in Saudi Universities.


Asunto(s)
Personal Administrativo/psicología , Empoderamiento , Docentes/psicología , Poder Psicológico , Mujeres Trabajadoras/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autonomía Personal , Arabia Saudita , Autoimagen , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
5.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 69-78, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077146

RESUMEN

The study aimed to explore the role of self-esteem and self-efficacy in women empowerment among academic and administrative staff at Saudi universities. A cross-sectional design was carried out at 15 governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 5587 participants. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the predictive relation. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, general self-efficacy scale, and women empowerment scale. The results indicated that study participants' self-esteem was equally distributed between moderate (49.8%) and high (50.2%). Also, 66.9% of the participants had high self-efficacy, and 86.8% had high total women's empowerment. Regression coefficient showed that self-esteem (B=0.521, b=0.127, t=13.785 and p <0.001) and self-efficacy (B=2.388, b=0.702, t=76.049 and p <0.001) are important predictors of the total women empowerment. However, self-efficacy was observed to be the most dominant predictor (t=76.049). The total model summary shows that 73.4% of the women empowerment level can be predicted through self-esteem and self-efficacy. The study results can be used as a base to build women empowerment programs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and help to achieve the 2030 KSA vision regarding women empowerment.


Asunto(s)
Empoderamiento , Autoimagen , Autoeficacia , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Arabia Saudita , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1063, 2021 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088290

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and an anxiety-provoking event. There are few studies to identify potential risk and protective factors related to anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We collected information on demographic data and lifestyles by a web-based survey of 19,802 participants from 34 provinces in China during COVID-19 pandemic. Level of anxiety was evaluated using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. We used ordinal multivariable logistic regression to estimate the associations of anxiety level with potential risk and protective factors. We further developed a new score to simplify the assessment of anxiety during COVID-19 crisis. RESULTS: Among 19,802 participants, we found that those who were front-line medical personnel, suffered from chronic disease, with present symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection or contact history had 112, 93, 40 and 15% increased risk of higher anxiety level; while those with knowledge about personal protective measures or wore masks had 75 and 29% lower risk of higher anxiety level respectively. We developed a risk score by calculating the sum of single score of 17 factors. Each one increase of the risk score was associated with a 297% increase in anxiety index score. In categorical analysis, low risk (the risk score between 1 to 2), the moderate risk group (the risk score of 3) and high risk group (the risk score ≥ 4) had - 0.40 (95% CI: - 1.55, 0.76), 1.44 (95% CI: 0.27, 2.61) and 9.18 (95% CI: 8.04, 10.33) increase in anxiety index score, and 26% (95% CI: - 7, 72%), 172% (95% CI: 100, 270%), and 733% (95% CI: 516, 1026%) higher risk of anxiety respectively, when compared with the very low risk group (the risk score of 0). The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.72, 0.74) for the model fitted the developed risk score, with the cut-off point of 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed protective and risk factors associated with anxiety, and developed a simple method of identifying people who are at an increased risk of anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1060, 2021 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been a major human threat for a year. A large number of people have been infected and killed globally, including hill tribe people living in remote and border areas between Thailand and Myanmar. Different expectations of and experiences with the implemented disease prevention and control measures by local, national and international organizations have been widely reported. This study aimed to understand the experiences and expectations regarding the disease prevention and control measures that were implemented among hill tribe people in Thailand. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected from participants aged 20 and older who belonged to the hill tribes living on the border of northern Thailand and Myanmar. A semistructured questionnaire was used to guide interviews. Information was extracted for thematic analysis by the NVivo program. RESULTS: Fifty-seven participants (36 female, 21 male) were interviewed; 27 participants were Thai Yai, 14 participants were Yunnan Chinese, 8 participants were Akha, and 8 participants were from other tribes. The average age was 45.8 years (min = 20 years, max = 90 years). Thirty participants had never attended school, and the other 27 participants had received education at different levels, from primary school to higher education. Forty participants were unemployed, 13 worked as agriculturists, and the other 4 were attending school. Both positive experiences, such as improving personal hygiene practices, maintaining close contact and increasing relationships among family members and demonstrating the leadership of the villager leaders, and negative experiences, including interruption of social interactions, family financial problems, poor access to medical care services, and invisible people to the government, were found. Different expectations were observed regarding organizations at the local, national, and international levels. Expectations at the local level included villagers and community leaders taking action to strongly contribute to prevention and control measures and to prevent unscreened people from entering the village. Obtaining accurate information about the disease and being financially supported were expectations at the national level, while closing borders to protect cases from overflowing into their villages was an international-level expectation. CONCLUSION: Although hill tribes reside in very remote rural areas, they experience both positive and negative effects of the disease prevention and control measures implemented by organizations. Their expectations are formally and informally voiced to policy makers at the local, national and international levels.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Motivación , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mianmar , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Tailandia
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044262, 2021 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088706

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This research investigated whether certain population segments might be more psychologically vulnerable in different phases of a pandemic. Specifically, the research examined how disparities in wealth might be associated with differences in emotional well-being before, during, versus after the nationwide COVID-19 outbreak in China. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: In this large-scale cross-sectional study, three rounds of nationally representative data collection (N=27 760) were conducted immediately before (December 2019), in the midst of (February 2020), versus immediately after (April 2020) the countrywide COVID-19 outbreak in China. Participants' emotional well-being, wealth (income, property ownership) and demographic information were measured using established instruments. Statistical analyses examined relationships between disparities in different types of wealth and emotional well-being across the pandemic phases. RESULTS: Although the onset of the coronavirus outbreak substantially degraded emotional well-being, having a higher income was associated with better emotional well-being during the outbreak. Property owners experienced a larger drop in emotional well-being during the outbreak than non-owners; however, the former was not emotionally worse off than the latter during the outbreak. After the nationwide COVID-19 outbreak had been contained and the economy reopened, those with more wealth of either type again became better off in emotional well-being than those with less. The highest income segment even experienced better emotional well-being after the end of the nationwide outbreak than prior to the outbreak. In contrast, the lowest income segment became worse off in emotional well-being after the nationwide outbreak ended than before the outbreak began. CONCLUSION: People with less wealth tend to be emotionally worse off throughout the different phases of a disease outbreak. In particular, even after an outbreak has been contained, the poor are less able to restore their psychological well-being. Policies and interventions are needed to address disparities in mental health in the age of pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedad , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 516, 2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090387

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA), chronic widespread pain (CWP) and overweight/obesity are public health problems that often coincide, and there is a multifactorial and unclear relationship between them. The study aimed to (1) investigate pain sensitivity, assessed by pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), among women and men with knee pain and (2) associations with, respectively, radiographic KOA (rKOA), CWP, and overweight/obesity. METHODS: Baseline data from an ongoing longitudinal study involving 280 individuals with knee pain in the 30-60 age group. Pain sensitivity was assessed by PPTs on eight different tender points using a pressure algometer. The participants' knees were x-rayed. Self-reported CWP and number of pain sites were assessed with a pain figure, and overweight/obesity was measured using body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), and body fat percentage, assessed with a bioimpedance. Associations were analysed using regression analyses. RESULTS: Women reported lower PPTs than men (p < 0.001), but no PPTs differences were found between those with and without rKOA. Low PPTs was associated with female sex, more pain sites, CWP, and a higher VFA and body fat percentage. The tender points second rib and the knees were most affected. The prevalence of CWP was 38 %. CONCLUSIONS: The modifiable factors, increased VFA, and body fat could be associated with increased pain sensitivity among individuals with knee pain. Longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate the associations.


Asunto(s)
Osteoartritis de la Rodilla , Umbral del Dolor , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Articulación de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/epidemiología
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1067, 2021 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090404

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In December 2020, Public Health England with NHS Test and Trace initiated a pilot study in which close contacts of people with confirmed COVID-19 were given the option to carryout lateral flow device antigen tests at home, as an alternative to self-isolation for 10-14 days. In this study, we evaluated engagement with daily testing, and assessed levels of adherence to the rules relating to behaviour following positive or negative test results. METHODS: We conducted a service evaluation of the pilot study, examining survey responses from a subset of those who responded to an evaluation questionnaire. We used an online cross-sectional survey offered to adult contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases who consented to daily testing. We used a comparison group of contacts who were not offered testing and instead self-isolated. RESULTS: Acceptability of daily testing was lower among survey respondents who were not offered the option of testing and among people from ethnic minority groups. Overall, 52% of respondents reported being more likely to share details of people that they had been in contact with following a positive test result, if they knew that their contacts would be offered the option of daily testing. Only 2% reported that they would be less likely to provide details of their contacts. On the days that they were trying to self-isolate, 19% of participants reported that they left the house, with no significant group differences. Following a negative test, 13% of respondents reported that they increased their contacts, but most (58%) reported having fewer risky contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that daily testing is potentially acceptable, may facilitate sharing contact details of close contacts among those who test positive for COVID-19, and promote adherence to self-isolation. A better understanding is needed of how to make this option more acceptable for all households. The impact of receiving a negative test on behaviour remains a risk that needs to be monitored and mitigated by appropriate messaging. Future research should examine attitudes and behaviour in a context where infection levels are lower, testing is more familiar, and restrictions on activity have been reduced.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Inglaterra , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , Proyectos Piloto
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 323, 2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to differing assessment systems across UK medical schools, making meaningful cross-school comparisons on undergraduate students' performance in knowledge tests is difficult. Ahead of the introduction of a national licensing assessment in the UK, we evaluate schools' performances on a shared pool of "common content" knowledge test items to compare candidates at different schools and evaluate whether they would pass under different standard setting regimes. Such information can then help develop a cross-school consensus on standard setting shared content. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study in the academic sessions 2016-17 and 2017-18. Sixty "best of five" multiple choice 'common content' items were delivered each year, with five used in both years. In 2016-17 30 (of 31 eligible) medical schools undertook a mean of 52.6 items with 7,177 participants. In 2017-18 the same 30 medical schools undertook a mean of 52.8 items with 7,165 participants, creating a full sample of 14,342 medical students sitting common content prior to graduation. Using mean scores, we compared performance across items and carried out a "like-for-like" comparison of schools who used the same set of items then modelled the impact of different passing standards on these schools. RESULTS: Schools varied substantially on candidate total score. Schools differed in their performance with large (Cohen's d around 1) effects. A passing standard that would see 5 % of candidates at high scoring schools fail left low-scoring schools with fail rates of up to 40 %, whereas a passing standard that would see 5 % of candidates at low scoring schools fail would see virtually no candidates from high scoring schools fail. CONCLUSIONS: Candidates at different schools exhibited significant differences in scores in two separate sittings. Performance varied by enough that standards that produce realistic fail rates in one medical school may produce substantially different pass rates in other medical schools - despite identical content and the candidates being governed by the same regulator. Regardless of which hypothetical standards are "correct" as judged by experts, large institutional differences in pass rates must be explored and understood by medical educators before shared standards are applied. The study results can assist cross-school groups in developing a consensus on standard setting future licensing assessment.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Facultades de Medicina , Estudios Transversales , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Reino Unido
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 552, 2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090431

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how continuity of care for hospitalized patients varies among hospitals. We describe the number of different general internal medicine physicians seeing hospitalized patients during a medical admission and how that varies by hospital. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of a national 20% sample of Medicare inpatients from 01/01/16 to 12/31/18. In patients with routine medical admissions (length of stay of 3-6 days, no Intensive Care Unit stay, and seen by only one generalist per day), we assessed odds of receiving all generalist care from one generalist. We calculated rates for each hospital, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics in a multi-level logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among routine medical admissions with 3- to 6-day stays, only 43.1% received all their generalist care from the same physician. In those with a 3-day stay, 50.1% had one generalist providing care vs. 30.8% in those with a 6-day stay. In a two-level (admission and hospital) logistic regression model controlling for patient characteristics and length of stay, the odds of seeing just one generalist did not vary greatly by patient characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, comorbidity or reason for admission. There were large variations in continuity of care among different hospitals and geographic areas. In the highest decile of hospitals, the adjusted mean percentage of patients receiving all generalist care from one physician was > 84.1%, vs. < 24.1% in the lowest decile. This large degree of variation persisted when hospitals were stratified by size, ownership, location or teaching status. CONCLUSIONS: Continuity of care provided by generalist physicians to medical inpatients varies widely among hospitals. The impact of this variation on quality of care is unknown.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales , Medicare , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 324, 2021 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092225

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is evidence of negative attitudes among health professionals towards people with mental illness but there is also a knowledge gap on what training must be given to these health professionals during their education. The purpose of this study is to compare the attitudes of students of health sciences: nursing, medical, occupational therapy, and psychology. METHODS: A comparative and cross-sectional study in which 927 final-year students from health sciences university programmes were evaluated using the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes (both MICA-2 and MICA-4) scale. The sample was taken in six universities from Chile and Spain. RESULTS: We found consistent results indicating that stigma varies across university programmes. Medical and nursing students showed more negative attitudes than psychology and occupational therapy students in several stigma-related themes: recovery, dangerousness, uncomfortability, disclosure, and discriminatory behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents a relevant description of the attitudes of each university programme for education against stigma in the formative years. Results show that the biomedical understanding of mental disorders can have negative effects on attitudes, and that education based on the psychosocial model allows a more holistic view of the person over the diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Trastornos Mentales , Chile , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , España
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 603331, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095044

RESUMEN

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern. This study aimed to assess the psychological outcomes and their influencing factors among medical and non-medical University students during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey using structured questionnaires was conducted from February 20 to March 20, 2020. Psychological outcomes were assessed according to the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Influencing factors were assessed by COVID-19 knowledge, mindful coping scale, and sense of control scale. Results: Our sample is comprised of 563 University students (male = 172, mean age = 21.52). Among them, 382 are medical students. Among the participants, 12.26, 18.47, and 8.53% have moderate to severe levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, respectively. Compared with the non-medical students, the medical students had a higher knowledge level of COVID-19, a higher sense of awareness, and fewer mental health symptoms. After controlling the covariance, perceived constraints of sense of control were negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress among both medical and non-medical students. Prevention of negative emotions by mindful coping was negatively associated with depression and anxiety among non-medical students. Knowledge of COVID-19 is not associated with mental distress among medical and non-medical students. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic in China, the mental health of University students was affected. Our findings suggested that a sense of control is a protective factor for both medical and non-medical students, while mindful coping is a protective factor for only non-medical students.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estudiantes de Medicina , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 659797, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095063

RESUMEN

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China is essentially under control. Under global scrutiny, China has started reviving the social, cultural, and working lives of its inhabitants. However, localized outbreaks of COVID-19 are occurring, indicating that the country still needs to follow disease prevention and control measures. Previous studies have assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the general public in China regarding COVID-19 during the pandemic. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Chinese residents regarding COVID-19 after periods of lockdown. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the KAP and other factors among the residents of Shaanxi Province during the post-lockdown period. Methods: A cross-sectional, network questionnaire survey was conducted in Shaanxi Province from October 1-30, 2020. A total of 1,175 urban residents were interviewed via Wen Juan Xing, an online questionnaire tool. A self-developed online KAP COVID-19 questionnaire was developed in this study. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: general information, knowledge, attitude, and practice. Descriptive statistics and binomial logistic regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results: The majority of the participants were knowledgeable about COVID-19. They had optimistic attitudes and behaved appropriately toward COVID-19. Education was an associated factor for the knowledge of residents and the knowledge of COVID-19 was high among people with high academic qualifications. Attitudes were more positive in residents who lived with elderly people, women, and children. The score of practice was higher in residents with positive attitudes and high academic qualifications. There was a positive correlation between age and practice. Conclusion: We found that the KAP of residents in Shaanxi was at a relatively high level during the post-lockdown period. Although the lockdown was lifted, the epidemic is not over. Thus, it is necessary to develop targeted health education programs for residents with different demographic characteristics in Shaanxi.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Anciano , Niño , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Población Urbana
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 664905, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095068

RESUMEN

Objective: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is currently available. This timely survey was conducted to provide insight into on the willingness of healthcare workers (HCWs)to receive the vaccine and determine the influencing factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional online survey. An online questionnaire was provided to all participants and they were asked if they would accept a free vaccine. The questionnaire gathered general demographic information, and included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12); Myers-Briggs Type Indicator questionnaire (MBTI); Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21); and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The data were collected automatically and electronically. Univariate analysis was done between all the variables and our dependent variable. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to examine and identify the associations between the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine with the associated variables. Results: We collected 505 complete answers. The participants included 269 nurses (53.27%), 206 clinicians (40.79%), 15 administrative staff (2.97%), and 15 other staff (2.97%). Of these, 76.63% declared they would accept the vaccine. The major barriers were concerns about safety, effectiveness, and the rapid mutation in the virus. Moreover, four factors were significantly associated with the willingness to receive the vaccine: (a) "understanding of the vaccine" (odds ratio (OR):2.322; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.355 to 3.979); (b) "worried about experiencing COVID-19" (OR 1.987; 95% CI: 1.197-3.298); (c) "flu vaccination in 2020" (OR 4.730; 95% CI: 2.285 to 9.794); and (d) "living with elderly individuals" (OR 1.928; 95% CI: 1.074-3.462). Conclusions: During the vaccination period, there was still hesitation in receiving the vaccine. The results will provide a rationale for the design of future vaccination campaigns and education efforts concerning the vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 679254, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095077

RESUMEN

Background: COVID-19 transmission was significant among Healthcare workers worldwide. In March 2020, Qatar started reporting numbers of COVID-19 positive cases among workers in Primary Health Care Corporation (PHCC). The study estimates the burden of the aforementioned infections and examines the demographic characteristics associated with the recorded positivity rates. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among Primary healthcare workers between March 1st and October 31st, 2020. The study examined the positivity rate of the different types of Primary healthcare workers and, analyzed the demographic characteristics of the infected persons. Results: 1,048 (87.4%) of the infected Health Care Workers (HCWs) belonged to the age group below 45 years, and 488 (40.7%) HCWs were females. 450 (37.5%) were HCWs clinical staff working in one of the 27 PHCC Health Centers (HCs) Despite the increased patient footfall and risk environment, the COVID dedicated HCs had an attack rate of 10.1%, which is not significantly different from the average attack rate of 8.9% among staff located in other HCs (p = 0.26). Storekeepers, engineering & maintenance staff, housekeeping staff, support staff, and security staff (outsourced non-clinical positions) had the highest positivity rates, 100, 67.2, 47.1, 32.4, and 29.5% respectively. Conclusion: The elevated risk of infection among outsourced non-clinical healthcare workers can be explained by environmental factors such as living conditions. Furthermore, better containment within clinical healthcare workers can be attributed to strict safety training and compliance with preventative measures which is recommended to be implemented across all settings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Qatar/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(6): 517-524, 2021 Jun 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098666

RESUMEN

Objective: To determine the correlation between the diabetes mellitus control and periodontitis. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey using stratified system sampling model design. The target population was the patients with diabetes investigated from May to July 2018 in Huangpu District of Shanghai. In the present study, severe periodontitis was defined as at least at two sites in different quadrants with probing depth (PD)≥6 mm and clinical attachment loss (CAL)≥ 5 mm. Edentulous induced by periodontitis were also classified as severe periodontitis and the others were classified as non-severe periodontitis subjects. Diabetes control levels were divided into the following three groups: poorly controlled group [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)>7.5% and fasting blood glucose (FPG)>7.0 mmol/L], well controlled group (6.5%≤HbA1c≤7.5% or 6.1 mmol/L≤FPG≤7.0 mmol/L) and ideally controlled group (HbA1c<6.5% and FPG<6.1 mmol/L). SPSS 25.0 was used for statistical analysis. Chi square test was used for demographic data and frequency distribution, α=0.05, two-sided test. Ordinal regression model was used for PD and diabetes control status to balance confounding factors (including age, gender, education and smoking status). After matching the propensity scores between severe periodontitis group and non-severe periodontitis group, logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the level of diabetes control and periodontitis. Results: A total of 5 220 adults over the age of 18 with a medical history of diabetes participated in the survey, of which 3 064 subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) who were given both oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this study. Statistics showed that the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis was 10.57% (324/3 064). In the severe periodontitis group, 79.01% (256/324) of the subjects were over 65 years old, 55.56% (180/324) were male, 58.33% (189/324) had lower education level than high school level, and 21.91% (71/324) were smokers, which were significantly higher than those in the non-severe periodontitis group (P<0.01). In different T2DM status groups, the percentage of severe periodontitis increased with the aggravation of T2DM status. In severe periodontitis group, the proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was higher. T2DM patients with poor glycemic control accounted for 68.52% (222/324) in severe periodontitis group, which was significantly higher than the proportion of non-severe periodontitis group of 60.99% (1 671/2 740) (P<0.05). The regression coefficient of PD was 0.191, and PD had a significant negative effect on the level of blood glucose (P<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between diabetes glycemic control and severe periodontitis (OR=2.800, P<0.05). Conclusions: In Huangpu District of Shanghai, among T2DM patients, the age of severe periodontitis group was higher than that of non-severe periodontitis group, most of them were male, with lower education level and higher proportion of smoking. The severity of diabetes was related to periodontitis and the proportion of severe periodontitis was higher in patients with poor glycemic control.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Periodontitis , Adulto , Anciano , Glucemia , China , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Periodontitis/complicaciones
19.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(6): 532-538, 2021 Jun 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098668

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the correlation between clinical periodontal indexes of periodontitis and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a non-diabetic elderly population in four communities of Shijingshan, Beijing. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Questionnaires, blood biochemical examinations, and periodontal indexes were conducted in elderly people (35 to 84 years old) in four communities of Shijingshan, Beijing between May and July 2005. Non-diabetic patients with fasting blood glucose<6.1 mmol/L, postprandial blood glucose<7.8 mmol/L, and ≥ 10 remaining teeth were included. Patients with diabetes, fasting blood glucose ≥6.1 mmol/L or postprandial blood glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L, and total residual teeth less than 10 were excluded. A total of 362 study subjects met the inclusion criteria. The survey subjects were selected by convenient sampling method. The mean full-mouth probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), attachment loss (AL), and plaque index (PLI), as well as PD≥4 mm% (the number of sites with PD≥4 mm as a percentage of the total number of sites in full mouth), PD≥5 mm%, PD≥6 mm%, AL≥3 mm%, AL≥4 mm%, AL≥5 mm% and AL≥6 mm% were used for the analysis. Serum creatinine values was used to calculate GFR. GFR≥90 ml/(min·1.73 m2) was defined as normal group and GFR<90 ml/(min·1.73 m2) was defined as reduced group. Univariate analysis was conducted between two groups. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with GFR as dependent variable and adjusted for risk factors such as age, sex, smoking, waist-hip ratio and physical activity. Results: There were 164 subjects in the normal GFR group (45.3%) and 198 in the reduced GFR group (54.7%). Percentage of males in the reduced GFR group, 118 in total, accounting for 59.6%, were significantly higher than in the normal GFR group (73, 44.5%)(P=0.004). The median of age, uric acid, triglyceride, and waist-to-hip ratio (65 years, 323 mmol/L, 1.73 mmol/L, 0.90) were significantly higher in the reduced GFR group than in the normal GFR group (54 years, 277 mmol/L, 1.45 mmol/L, 0.88) (P<0.05). The median of PD mean, AL mean, BI mean, PD≥4 mm%, AL≥3 mm%, and AL≥4 mm% in the reduced GFR group were 2.80 mm, 2.52 mm, 2.06, 20.4%, 46.5%, and 30.4%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the GFR normal group (2.60 mm, 2.37 mm, 1.93, 16.6%, 42.9%, 28.9%) (P<0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, gender, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio and physical activity, the results of logistic regression analysis showed that PD mean, AL mean, PD≥4 mm%, PD≥5 mm%, PD≥6 mm%, AL≥3 mm% and AL≥4 mm% of clinical periodontal indexes were significantly correlated with reduced GFR in this population (OR values were 1.765, 1.879, 1.430, 1.713, 1.771, 1.428, 1.445, respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions: In the non-diabetic elderly population in communities of Shijingshan, Beijing, clinical periodontal indexes reflecting the degree of periodontal tissue destruction were associated with a decreased level of GFR.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Beijing , China , Estudios Transversales , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 419-425, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098690

RESUMEN

Objective: To study the macular choroidal volume (MCV) of patients with highly myopic foveoschisis and its clinical value. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 39 outpatients (39 eyes) with highly myopic foveoschisis were included from January 2016 to December 2020 in Peking University People's Hospital, including 18 males and 21 females. Their age was (59.3±6.7) years old. Thirty-nine highly myopic patients (39 eyes) with no macular complications were enrolled as control group. The age, gender, and refractive error were matched between two groups. Medical history information and eye examination information including refractive error, axial length and best corrected visual acuity were recorded. All patients had undergone high-resolution enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography to measure the retinal and choroidal thickness of multiple parts of the macular zone. According to the image characteristics, myopic foveoschisis patients were divided into the inner and outer myopic foveoschisis subgroups, and the MCV characteristics were analyzed. The independent sample t test, Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were used. Results: The subfoveal choroidal thickness was (74.9±59.3) and (155.6±47.1) µm, and MCV was (2.3±0.8) and (5.3±1.0) mm3 in the foveoschisis group and the control group, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (t=-6.649, -15.229; P<0.01). Although no correlation was found between subfoveal choroidal thickness and central foveal thickness in both groups (r=0.103, 0.214; P>0.05), MCV was negatively correlated with macular retinal volume (MRV) in the foveoschisis group (y=-2.90x+18.48; r2=0.47, P= 0.01). In the control group, there was a positive correlation between MCV and MRV (y=0.74x+2.02; r2=0.64, P=0.01). The best corrected visual acuity was positively associated with MCV in patients with foveoschisis (r=0.677, P<0.05). The MCV of inner (19 eyes) and outer (15 eyes) foveoschisis subgroups was (2.80±0.81) and (1.92±0.27) mm3, and the difference was statistically significant (t=4.610, P<0.05). Conclusions: The MCV significantly decreased in patients with highly myopic foveoschisis. The smaller the MCV, the scarcer the blood supply of the outer retina, the more serious the foveoschisis, and the larger the MRV. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57:419-425).


Asunto(s)
Miopía Degenerativa , Retinosquisis , Anciano , Coroides/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Retinosquisis/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Agudeza Visual
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