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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 147: 382-391, 2025 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003056

RESUMEN

Arsenic-related oxidative stress and resultant diseases have attracted global concern, while longitudinal studies are scarce. To assess the relationship between arsenic exposure and systemic oxidative damage, we performed two repeated measures among 5236 observations (4067 participants) in the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort at the baseline and follow-up after 3 years. Urinary total arsenic, biomarkers of DNA oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)), lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-isoPGF2α)), and protein oxidative damage (protein carbonyls (PCO)) were detected for all observations. Here we used linear mixed models to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between arsenic exposure and oxidative damage. Exposure-response curves were constructed by utilizing the generalized additive mixed models with thin plate regressions. After adjusting for potential confounders, arsenic level was significantly and positively related to the levels of global oxidative damage and their annual increased rates in dose-response manners. In cross-sectional analyses, each 1% increase in arsenic level was associated with a 0.406% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.379% to 0.433%), 0.360% (0.301% to 0.420%), and 0.079% (0.055% to 0.103%) increase in 8-isoPGF2α, 8-OHdG, and PCO, respectively. More importantly, arsenic was further found to be associated with increased annual change rates of 8-isoPGF2α (ß: 0.147; 95% CI: 0.130 to 0.164), 8-OHdG (0.155; 0.118 to 0.192), and PCO (0.050; 0.035 to 0.064) in the longitudinal analyses. Our study suggested that arsenic exposure was not only positively related with global oxidative damage to lipid, DNA, and protein in cross-sectional analyses, but also associated with annual increased rates of these biomarkers in dose-dependent manners.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Estrés Oxidativo , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxicoguanosina , Arsénico/toxicidad , Biomarcadores/orina , China , Estudios Transversales , Daño del ADN , Pueblos del Este de Asia , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 11-27, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-556

RESUMEN

La formación docente es esencial dentro del proceso de educación inclusiva permitiendo responder a la diversidad de los estudiantes a partir de estrategias que promuevan su aprendizaje y participación. Este estudio analiza la formación en inclusión de 253 docentes de instituciones públicas mediante el Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). Los resultados indican niveles bajos de formación en las dimensiones concepciones, apoyos y metodologías. Lo que sugiere que no existe una preparación integral del profesorado para la inclusión y los planes de formación deben abordar desde aspectos conceptuales hasta la implementación de ajustes en el aula. (AU)


Teacher training is essential within the inclusive education process, allowing students to respond to diversity through strategies that promote their learning and participation. This study analyzes the inclusion training of 253 teachers in public institutions, through the Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). The results indicate low levels of training in the conceptual dimensions, supports and methodologies. This suggests that there is no comprehensive preparation of teachers for inclusion and training plans should address conceptual aspects to the implementation of adjustments in the classroom. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Formación del Profesorado/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales
3.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 11-27, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229226

RESUMEN

La formación docente es esencial dentro del proceso de educación inclusiva permitiendo responder a la diversidad de los estudiantes a partir de estrategias que promuevan su aprendizaje y participación. Este estudio analiza la formación en inclusión de 253 docentes de instituciones públicas mediante el Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). Los resultados indican niveles bajos de formación en las dimensiones concepciones, apoyos y metodologías. Lo que sugiere que no existe una preparación integral del profesorado para la inclusión y los planes de formación deben abordar desde aspectos conceptuales hasta la implementación de ajustes en el aula. (AU)


Teacher training is essential within the inclusive education process, allowing students to respond to diversity through strategies that promote their learning and participation. This study analyzes the inclusion training of 253 teachers in public institutions, through the Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). The results indicate low levels of training in the conceptual dimensions, supports and methodologies. This suggests that there is no comprehensive preparation of teachers for inclusion and training plans should address conceptual aspects to the implementation of adjustments in the classroom. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Formación del Profesorado/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales
4.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100512], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-231875

RESUMEN

Purpose: In children under 20 years, refractive development targets a cycloplegic refractive error of +0.5 to +1.5D, while presbyopes over 40 years generally have non-cycloplegic errors of ≥ +1D. Some papers suggest these periods are separated by a period of myopic refractive error (i.e., ≤ –0.50D), but this remains unclear. Hence, this work investigates the mean cycloplegic refractive error in adults aged between 20 – 40 years. Methods: In 2002 a cross-sectional study with stratified cluster sampling was performed on the population of Tehran, providing cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error data for the right eyes of 3,576 participants, aged 30.6 ± 18.6 years (range: 1–86 years). After grouping these data into age groups of 5 years, the refractive error histogram of each group was fitted to a Bigaussian function. The mean of the central, emmetropized peak was used to estimate the mean refractive error without the influence of myopia. Results: The mean cycloplegic refractive error at the emmetropized peak decreased from +1.10 ± 0.11D (95 % confidence interval) to +0.50 ± 0.04D before 20 years and remains stable at that value until the age of 50 years. The non-cycloplegic refractive error also sees a stable phase at 0.00 ± 0.04D between 15 – 45 years. After 45 – 50 years both cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error become more hypermetropic over time, +1.14 ± 0.12D at 75 years. Conclusions: The cycloplegic refractive error in adults is about +0.50D between 20 – 50 years, disproving the existence of the myopic period at those ages.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Visión Ocular , Pruebas de Visión , Errores de Refracción , Emetropía , Estudios Transversales , Irán
5.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 171-178, May-Sep, 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-232712

RESUMEN

En este estudio transversal se investiga la asociación entre los principales síntomas del Trastorno bipolar (TB) y las dificultades asociadas a las estrategias de regulación emocional (ERE) adaptativas y desadaptativas. Además, este estudio examina los efectos mediadores de las ERE con el mindfulness rasgo y el TB. Método. Veinticuatro adultos con TB completaron la Escala de Conciencia de Atención Plena (MAAS), el Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI-II), la Escala de Autoevaluación de Manía de Altman (ARSM), el Inventario de Ansiedad Rasgo (STAI-R), y el Cuestionario de Regulación Emocional Cognitiva (CERQ). Resultados. El análisis de regresión múltiple mostró cómo la depresión se relacionaba significativa y positivamente con la autoculpabilización, mientras que la ansiedad rasgo estaba positivamente asociada con la autoculpabilización y el catastrofismo. En segundo lugar, el análisis de mediación mostró un efecto de mediación significativo para la autoculpabilidad en la relación entre mindfulness y depresión (a*b = -.15; ICB 95% [-.36, -.03]) y entre mindfulness y ansiedad rasgo (a*b = -.09; ICB 95% [-.27, -.01]). Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados informan del papel de la auto-culpabilidad y el catastrofismo en el TB y de cómo éstas podrían mediar significativamente entre el mindfulness rasgo y el TB. Estos resultados sugieren que una práctica de meditación enfocada en el catastrofismo y la autoculpabilidad puede ser especialmente útil para reducir los síntomas en los pacientes bipolares.(AU)


This cross-sectional study investigates the association between the main symptoms of Bipolar disorder (BD) and emotional regulation dif-ficulties in adaptive and maladaptive emotional regulation strategies (ERS). In addition, this study examines the possible mediating effects of ERS with dispositional mindfulnessand bipolar symptoms. Method.Twenty-four adults diagnosed with BD completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Altman Mania Self-Assessment Scale (ARSM), the Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-R), and the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Results. First, mul-tiple regression analysis showed how depression was significantly positively related to self-blame, whereas trait anxietywas positively associated with self-blame and catastrophizing. Second, the results of the mediation analy-sis have shown a significant mediation effect for the self-blamein the rela-tionship between mindfulnessand depression (a*b = -.15; BCI 95% [-.36, -.03]) and between mindfulnessand trait anxiety (a*b = -.09; BCI 95% [-.27, -.01]). Conclusions. Our results report the role of self-blame and catastrophiz-ing in BD and how these might significantly mediate between dispositional mindfulness and symptoms of depression and anxiety. These results suggest that a meditation practice focused on reducing catastrophizing and self-blame may be especially helpful for symptoms of depression and anxiety in bipolar patients.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Catastrofización , Ansiedad , Depresión , Trastorno Bipolar , Atención Plena , Estudios Transversales , Psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Escala de Ansiedad ante Pruebas
6.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 242-253, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-232719

RESUMEN

Objetivo: La Escala de Fatiga de Chalder (CFS) es una escala breve para evaluar fatiga que se utiliza en España, pero que no ha sido validada en su población. El objetivo del estudio fue adaptar y evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española de la CFS (Sp-CFS). Método: La muestra la conformaron 3,671 participantes (3.190 de la población general y 481 pacientes), con edades entre 18 y 86 años (M = 28.43; DT = 12.71), siendo el 67.6% mujeres. Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se probaron en un diseño transversal utilizando validación cruzada (análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio) y estimación de la invarianza (sexo y condición clínica). Resultados: Un modelo de cuatro factores (baja energía, problemas de sueño, problemas de concentración y disfunción cognitiva subjetiva) en lugar de un modelo original de dos factores (fatiga física y mental) proporcionó mejores índices de bondad de ajuste a los datos. La consistencia interna y la estabilidad de la escala fueron excelentes. Su validez convergente se apoyó en su asociación significativa con la ansiedad, la depresión, el estrés y los síntomas positivos y negativos del espectro de la psicosis. El instrumento no mostró diferencias significativas entre sexos ni condiciones clínicas, y discriminó entre la población general y los pacientes, obteniendo estos últimos puntajes significativamente mayores. Conclusiones: Sp-CFS es una escala fiable y válida para medir la fatiga en población general y clínica española.(AU)


Objective:The Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) is a brief self-report screening scale for fatigue that is used in Spain but has not been validated for the Spanish population. The aim of this study was to adapt and evalu-ate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the CFS (Sp-CFS). Method:The sample consisted of 3,671 participants (3,190 from the general population and 481 patients), aged 18 to 86 years (M=28.43; DT=12.71), 67.6% of whom were women. Psychometric properties of the scale were tested in a cross-sectional design using cross-validation (explora-tory and confirmatory factor analysis) and estimation of invariance (sex and clinical condition). Results:A four-factor model (low energy, sleep problems, concentration problems and subjective cognitive dysfunction) rather than an original two-factor model (physical and mental fatigue) pro-vided better indices of goodness of fit to the data. The internal consistencyand stability of the scale were excellent. Its convergent validity was sup-ported by its significant association with anxiety, depression, stress, and the positive and negative symptoms of the psychosis spectrum. The instru-ment did not show significant differences between sexes or clinical condi-tions, and it discriminated between the general population and the patients, with the latter obtaining significantly greater scores. Conclusions: Sp-CFS is a reliable and valid scale for measuring a transdiagnostic construct such as fatigue in Spanish general and clinical populations.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Psicometría , Fatiga , Disfunción Cognitiva , Atención , España , Psicología , Estudios Transversales
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e49422, 2024 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986127

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Retrospecting the trust gaps and their dynamics during the pandemic is crucial for understanding the root causes of postpandemic challenges and offers valuable insights into preparing for future public health emergencies. The COVID-19 pandemic eroded people's trust in strangers and acquaintances, while their trust in family members remained relatively stable. This resulted in 2 trust gaps, namely, the family members-strangers trust gap and the family members-acquaintances trust gap. Widening trust gaps impede social integration and undermine the effective management of public health crises. However, little is known about how digital media use shaped trust gaps during a pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationships between digital media use, negative emotions, the family members-strangers trust gap, and the family members-acquaintances trust gap during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. We test the mediating role of negative emotions between digital media use and 2 trust gaps and compare the indirect effect of digital media use on 2 trust gaps through negative emotions. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in China between January 31, 2020, and February 9, 2020. A total of 1568 adults participated in the survey. Questions related to digital media use, negative emotions, trust in family members, trust in acquaintances, and trust in strangers during the pandemic were asked. Regression analyses were performed to test the associations between the examined variables. We used a 95% bootstrap CI approach to estimate the mediation effects. RESULTS: Digital media use was positively associated with negative emotions (B=0.17, SE 0.03; P<.001), which in turn were positively associated with the family members-strangers trust gap (B=0.15, SE 0.03; P<.001). Likewise, digital media use was positively associated with negative emotions (B=0.17, SE 0.03; P<.001), while negative emotions were positively associated with the family members-acquaintances trust gap (B=0.08, SE 0.03; P=.01). Moreover, the indirect effect of digital media use on the family members-strangers trust gap (B=0.03, SE 0.01; 95% CI 0.01-0.04) was stronger than that on the family members-acquaintances trust gap (B=0.01, SE 0.01; 95% CI 0.003-0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that negative emotions resulting from the frequent use of digital media are a key factor that accounts for the widening trust gaps. Considering the increasing reliance on digital media, the findings indicate that the appropriate use of digital media can prevent the overamplification of negative emotions and curb the enlargement of trust gaps. This may help restore social trust and prepare for future public health crises in the postpandemic era.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Emociones , Pandemias , Confianza , Humanos , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Confianza/psicología , Estudios Transversales , China/epidemiología , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Familia/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , SARS-CoV-2 , Internet
8.
Clin J Sport Med ; 34(4): 376-380, 2024 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986527

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical assessment findings between elite athletic populations with and without a clinical diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional case-control study. SETTING: Elite ballet and sport. PARTICIPANTS: Ten male and female professional ballet dancers and athletes with a clinical diagnosis of PAIS and were matched for age, sex, and activity to 10 professional ballet dancers and athletes without PAIS. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Posterior ankle pain on body chart and a positive ankle plantarflexion pain provocation test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Single-leg heel raise (SLHR) endurance test, range of motion testing for weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion, passive ankle plantarflexion, and first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion, and Beighton score for generalized joint hypermobility. Participants also completed the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) questionnaire. RESULTS: The group with PAIS achieved significantly fewer repetitions on SLHR capacity testing ( P = 0.02) and were more symptomatic for perceived ankle instability according to CAIT scores ( P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Single-leg heel raise endurance capacity was lower, and perceived ankle instability was greater in participants with PAIS. The management of this presentation in elite dancers and athletes should include the assessment and management of functional deficits.


Asunto(s)
Articulación del Tobillo , Baile , Inestabilidad de la Articulación , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Humanos , Masculino , Baile/fisiología , Femenino , Inestabilidad de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Articulación del Tobillo/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Talón/fisiopatología , Atletas , Traumatismos del Tobillo/fisiopatología , Resistencia Física/fisiología , Adolescente
9.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e086697, 2024 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986551

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Organ donation entails saving or transforming lives through the provision of organs, either from living donors or deceased individuals. In Jordan, low donation rates are attributed to religious misconceptions, limited education and insufficient awareness of the burden on patients with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the attitudes of the Jordanian population towards the practicality and effectiveness of introducing an opt-out organ donation system through legislative measures, with the aim of increasing donation rates. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study used a designed self-administered questionnaire. Data were subsequently analysed using IBM SPSS software. SETTING: The study encompassed all 12 cities located in Jordan. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from 1146 Jordanian participants, excluding individuals under the age of 18. RESULTS: Approximately 36.6% reported organ or blood donation while 18.9% participated in awareness campaigns. Many (75.7%) perceived insufficient awareness about the importance of organ donation, and 67.1% noted a scarcity of online donor registration platforms. Only 12.0% of participants discussed organ donation with healthcare providers. As anticipated, only 9.0% were registered donors while 67.7% expressed acceptance of organ donation, with 55.3% willing to enrol in donor programmes. Religion influenced 54.2% of organ donation decisions. There are associations between agreement for a new enactment and prior organ or blood donation or discussions with healthcare providers. However, religion affected willingness to donate organs. Most importantly, refusal to be a donor after death was associated with religion, occupation and awareness levels. CONCLUSION: Despite the population's understanding and support for the concept of organ donation, the willingness towards donating their own organs is limited. To boost organ donation rates and acceptance of the new enactment, we recommend conducting educational campaigns, improving online registration platforms, enhancing healthcare provider engagement, collaborating with religious communities and advocating for supportive policies.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Jordania , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Donantes de Tejidos/psicología , Adolescente , Anciano
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 779, 2024 Jul 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992712

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In developed countries, orthodontists utilize social media platforms as a pivotal component of their marketing strategies. However, there exists a gap in understanding the broader perspective of healthcare professionals on the utilization of social media in healthcare service delivery. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the perceptions of healthcare professionals in Turkey regarding the integration of social media within healthcare service delivery. MATERIALS & METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted between January and February 2023, surveyed 378 members of the Turkish Orthodontic Society. The survey consisted of two parts: a demographic questionnaire with 28 items and a 21-item "Social Media Marketing Activities Scale," developed with input from three experts. Data analysis will include an explanatory factor analysis. This study provides a snapshot of orthodontists' perspectives on social media marketing practices. RESULTS: When participants' views of patient communication through social media were examined, 19.8% said they "thought it was right" and 80.2% said they "thought it was wrong". The treatment and treatment alternatives shared with patients through social media were implemented in 16.5% of cases and not implemented in 83.5% of cases. When examining the social media accounts used by participants to communicate with patients, 56.8% used personal accounts, 43.2% used professional accounts, and when analyzing the social media accounts they used for promotional purposes, 15.8% had personal accounts, 84.2% of them used professional accounts. More than half (59.8%) of orthodontists believed that communicating with patients on social media could cause legal problems. The majority of orthodontists (88.7%) followed their competitors. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of participants' use of social media posts for advertising purposes was low, and it was determined that the main reason for this was the prohibition of advertising in the provision of health services.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Ortodoncistas , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Ortodoncistas/psicología , Adulto , Turquía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mercadotecnía
11.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1607104, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993179

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study used repeated cross-sectional data from three national surveys in Vietnam to determine tobacco smoking prevalence from 2010 to 2020 and disparities among demographic and socioeconomic groups. Methods: Tobacco smoking temporal trends were estimated for individuals aged 15 and over and stratified by demographic and socioeconomic status (SES). Prevalence estimates used survey weights and 95% confidence intervals. Logistic regression models adjusted for survey sample characteristics across time were used to examine trends. Results: Tobacco smoking prevalence dropped from 23.8% in 2010 to 22.5% in 2015 and 20.8% in 2020. The adjusted OR for 2015 compared to 2010 was 0.87, and for 2020 compared to 2010 was 0.69. Smoking decreased less for employed individuals than unemployed individuals in 2020 compared to 2010. Smoking was higher in the lower SES group in all 3 years. Higher-SES households have seen a decade-long drop in tobacco use. Conclusion: This prevalence remained constant in lower SES households. This highlights the need for targeted interventions to address the specific challenges faced by lower-SES smokers and emphasizes the importance of further research to inform effective policies.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Tabaco , Humanos , Vietnam/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Prevalencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/tendencias , Anciano , Factores Socioeconómicos , Clase Social
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 750, 2024 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997702

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Post graduate master's degree qualifications are increasingly required to advance allied health profession careers in education, clinical practice, leadership, and research. Successful awards are dependent on completion of a research dissertation project. Despite the high volume of experience gained and research undertaken at this level, the benefits and impact are not well understood. Our study aimed to evaluate the perceived impact and legacy of master's degree training and research on allied health profession practice and research activity. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey design was used to collect data from allied health professionals working in the United Kingdom who had completed a postgraduate master's degree. Participants were recruited voluntarily using social media and clinical interest group advertisement. Data was collected between October and December 2022 and was analysed using descriptive statistics and narrative content analysis. Informed consent was gained, and the study was approved by the university research ethics committee. RESULTS: Eighty-four responses were received from nine allied health professions with paramedics and physiotherapists forming the majority (57%) of respondents. Primary motivation for completion of the master's degree was for clinical career progression (n = 44, 52.4%) and formation of the research dissertation question was predominantly sourced from individual ideas (n = 58, 69%). Formal research output was low with 27.4% (n = 23) of projects published in peer reviewed journal and a third of projects reporting no output or dissemination at all. Perceived impact was rated highest in individual learning outcomes, such as improving confidence and capability in clinical practice and research skills. Ongoing research engagement and activity was high with over two thirds (n = 57, 67.9%) involved in formal research projects. CONCLUSION: The focus of master's degree level research was largely self-generated with the highest perceived impact on individual outcomes rather than broader clinical service and organisation influence. Formal output from master's research was low, but ongoing research engagement and activity was high suggesting master's degree training is an under-recognised source for AHP research capacity building. Future research should investigate the potential benefits of better coordinated and prioritised research at master's degree level on professional and organisational impact.


Asunto(s)
Técnicos Medios en Salud , Educación de Postgrado , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Reino Unido , Técnicos Medios en Salud/educación , Técnicos Medios en Salud/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Empleos Relacionados con Salud/educación , Adulto
13.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 536, 2024 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a common comorbidity of osteoarthritis (OA). Joint pain is the main clinical manifestation of OA. Knowledge about the relationship between hypertension and OA pain is limited. This study aimed to investigate whether blood pressure parameters are associated with knee pain severity in individuals with or at risks for OA. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 2598 subjects (60.7% female, aged 45-79 years) collected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Blood pressure parameters included blood pressure stage, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP). Radiographic evaluation using Kellgren-Lawrence system and pain severity evaluation using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) were performed for right knee. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between blood pressure parameters and knee pain severity. RESULTS: For the overall sample, blood pressure stage, SBP, and PP were positively correlated with WOMAC and NRS pain scores when adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) (p ≤ 0.024) and were inversely correlated with KOOS score (p ≤ 0.004). After further adjusting for all covariates, PP remained a positive correlation with WOMAC score (p = 0.037) while other associations between blood pressure parameters and pain scores did not reach the statistical significance. In female, higher blood pressure stage, SBP, and PP were significantly associated with increased WOMAC and NRS scores and decreased KOOS score after adjustments of age and BMI (p ≤ 0.018). When adjusting for all covariates, the correlations of PP with WOMAC, KOOS and NRS scores remained significant (p = 0.008-0.049). In male sample, SBP was positively correlated with WOMAC score when adjusting for age and BMI (p = 0.050), but other associations between blood pressure parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant. No significant correlation was observed in male when further adjusting for other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PP is a risk factor for knee pain and mainly affects females, which suggested that controlling PP may be beneficial in preventing or reducing knee pain in females with or at risks for OA.


Asunto(s)
Artralgia , Presión Sanguínea , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla , Dimensión del Dolor , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/epidemiología , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/fisiopatología , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Artralgia/fisiopatología , Artralgia/epidemiología , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Articulación de la Rodilla/fisiopatología , Articulación de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Estudios Transversales
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 811, 2024 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient safety culture is the result of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and patterns of behavior that determine the commitment, style, and proficiency of health providers' safety management. Globally, millions of adverse events occur annually, with a significant burden on low- and middle-income countries. The burden of injuries and other harm to patients from adverse events is likely one of the top 10 causes of death and disability worldwide. This study aimed to assess patient safety culture and its associated factors in regional public hospitals in Addis Ababa. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 494 healthcare professionals working at regional public hospitals in Addis Ababa. The data were collected using a pretested structured self-administered questionnaire from June 3 to July 30, 2023. The data were entered into Epi info version 7.2 and exported to SPSS version 26.0 for analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the patient safety culture (dependent variables) and socio-demographic factors, health care providers and system's. Multicollinearity was checked using VIF, and the adequacy of the final model was assessed using the Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. RESULT: Overall, 48.8% (95% CI: 44.3-53.1) of participants had a good patient safety culture, for a response rate of 93.3%. Factors significantly associated with patient safety culture, as identified through factor analysis, included having 6-10 years of experience (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.13-2.88), having more than 11 years of experience (AOR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.27-9.56), reporting adverse events (AOR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.45), participating in patient safety programs (AOR = 3.64, 95% CI = 1.91-6.92), and working in obstetrics and pediatric wards (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23-0.94) and (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.097-0.44), respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall level of patient safety culture in regional public hospitals was low (< 75%). Factors such as having 6 or more years of experience, reporting adverse events, participating in patient safety programs, and working in obstetrics and pediatric wards were significantly associated with patient safety culture.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Públicos , Seguridad del Paciente , Administración de la Seguridad , Humanos , Etiopía , Hospitales Públicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Seguridad del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Masculino , Adulto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cultura Organizacional , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Persona de Mediana Edad
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 807, 2024 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997715

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is a critical measure of the quality of healthcare services provided by healthcare facilities. However, very few studies, particularly in Ethiopia, which includes the study area, have specifically examined these discrepancies among people who use outpatient care. In this study, satisfaction levels and associated factors were compared between insured and uninsured patients receiving outpatient services at public health institutions in Hadiya Zone, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based comparative cross-sectional study design was employed on 630 patients using multistage and systematic random sampling. Data were collected using a pretested and structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results of the analysis were presented in text, tables, and graphs as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict associations between predictors and the outcome variable. Statistical significance was declared at p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: Overall, 344(55.48%) patients were satisfied with the service they received, of which 206(65.8%) out of 313 with a 95% CI [60.7-71.2%] were insured and 138(44.95%) out of 307 with a 95% CI [39.4-5.1%] were uninsured. Among insured patients, factors associated with higher satisfaction included having a family size less than five members [AOR = 3.3, 95% CI; 1.5, 7.4], perceived fair waiting time to be seen[AOR = 2.35, 95% CI; 1.02, 5.5], perceived short waiting time to be seen[AOR = 8.12, 95% CI; 1.6, 41.3], having all ordered laboratory tests available within the facility[AOR = 7.89, 95% CI; 3.5, 17.5], having some ordered laboratory tests within the facility[AOR = 2.97, 95% CI; 1.25, 7.01] having all prescribed medications available within the facility[AOR = 16.11, 95% CI; 6.25, 41.5], having some prescribed medications available within the facility[AOR = 13.11, 95% CI; 4.7, 36.4]. Among non-insured patients, factors associated with higher satisfaction included urban residency, a fair and short perceived time to be seen, having ordered laboratory tests within the facility, and having prescribed drugs within the facility. CONCLUSION: This study identified lower overall satisfaction, particularly among uninsured patients. Enrollment in the CBHI program significantly impacted satisfaction, with both groups reporting lower levels compared to enrollment periods. Access to essential services, wait times, and socio-demographic factors identified as associated factors with patient satisfaction regardless of insurance status.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Pacientes no Asegurados , Satisfacción del Paciente , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Masculino , Satisfacción del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Pacientes no Asegurados/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 362, 2024 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997774

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin is known for its multifaceted attributes, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) is a recent marker that reflects the balance between inflammation and immune response. Despite the wealth of information available on bilirubin's diverse functionalities, the potential correlation between the total bilirubin (TB) levels and SII has not been investigated so far. METHODS: Leveraging data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey spanning 2009-2018, the TB levels were categorized using tertiles. Employing the chi-squared test with Rao and Scott's second-order correction and Spearman's rank correlation analysis, the association between TB and SII was examined. The potential nonlinearities between TB and SII were evaluated using restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis. Weighted linear regression, adjusted for covariates, was used to explore the correlation between TB and SII, with further subgroup analyses. RESULTS: A total of 16,858 participants were included, and the findings revealed significant SII variations across TB tertiles (p < 0.001). The third tertile (Q3) exhibited the lowest SII level at 495.73 (295.00) 1000 cells/µL. Spearman rank correlation disclosed the negative association between TB and SII. RCS analysis exposed the lack of statistically significant variations in the nonlinear relationship (p > 0.05), thereby providing support for a linear relationship. Weighted linear regression analysis underscored the negative correlation between TB and SII (ß 95% CI - 3.9 [- 5.0 to - 2.9], p < 0.001). The increase in the TB levels is associated with a significant linear trend toward decreasing SII. After controlling for relative covariates, this negative correlation increased (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis confirmed the significant negative TB-SII association. CONCLUSION: A notable negative correlation between TB and SII implies the potential protective effects of bilirubin in inflammation-related diseases.


Asunto(s)
Bilirrubina , Inflamación , Encuestas Nutricionales , Bilirrubina/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Inflamación/sangre , Inflamación/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Anciano , Estudios Transversales
17.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 388, 2024 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997784

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The detrimental mental health effects which emerged from COVID-19 have profoundly affected healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of traumatic stress and loneliness on the fears of contracting and dying from COVID-19, and anxiety and depression of HCWs during the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was completed by HCWs in a province of Turkey. The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Impact of Events Scale-Revised and numerical rating scales (for fears of COVID-19 and loneliness) were used and a bootstrap approach was used in the analyses with SPSS PROCESS macro software. RESULTS: Of the HCWs evaluated, 150 (34.4%) were doctors, with a mean duration of work experience of 10.6 ± 7.5 years. The results indicated that fear of contracting COVID-19 was directly related to anxiety (ß = 0.244, p < 0.001) and depression (ß = 0.135, p < 0.01) and that traumatic stress and loneliness mediated the relationships between the fear of contracting COVID-19 and anxiety (ß = 0.435, p < 0.001; ß = 0.235, p < 0.001, respectively) and depression (ß = 0.365, p < 0.001; ß = 0.294, p < 0.001, respectively). The fear of dying from COVID-19 was determined to be directly associated with anxiety (ß = 0.190, p < 0.001) but not with depression (ß = 0.066, p = 0.116), and traumatic stress and loneliness mediated the relationships between the fear of dying from COVID-19 and anxiety (ß = 0.476, p < 0.001; ß = 0.259, p < 0.001, respectively) and depression (ß = 0.400, p < 0.001; ß = 0.311, p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The study results demonstrated the important roles of traumatic stress and loneliness in exacerbating the negative consequences of fears of COVID-19 on anxiety and depression, and provide insights for identifying HCWs at greater risk.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , COVID-19 , Depresión , Miedo , Soledad , Humanos , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Soledad/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Adulto , Turquía/epidemiología , Miedo/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal de Salud/psicología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(7): 475, 2024 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954081

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Financial toxicity is used to describe the financial hardship experienced by cancer patients. Financial toxicity may cause negative consequences to patients, whereas little is known in Chinese context. This study aimed to explore the level of financial toxicity, coping strategies, and quality of life among Chinese patients with hematologic malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study among 274 Chinese patients with hematologic malignancies from November 2021 to August 2022 in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Clinical data were extracted from electronic clinical records. Data on financial toxicity, coping strategies, and quality of life were collected using PRO measures. Chi-square or independent t test and multivariate logistic regression were performed to explore the associated factors of financial toxicity and quality of life, respectively. Effects of financial toxicity on coping strategies were examined using Chi-square. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 50.2 (± 14.6) years. Male participants accounted for 57.3%. About half of the participants reported high financial toxicity. An average median of ¥200,000 on total medical expenditures since the diagnosis was reported. The average median monthly out-of-pocket health expenditure relating to cancer treatment was ¥20,000 (range ¥632-¥172,500) after reimbursement. Reduce daily living expenses (64.9%), borrowing money (55.7%), and choosing cheaper regimens (19.6%) were the commonly used strategies to cope with financial burden. Financial toxicity was negatively associated with quality of life (ß = 0.071, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Financial toxicity was not uncommon in patients with hematological malignancies. Reducing daily living expenses, abandoning treatment sessions, and borrowing money were the strategies commonly adopted by participants to defray cancer costs. Additionally, participants with high level of financial toxicity tended to have worse quality of life. Therefore, actions from healthcare providers, policy-makers, and other stakeholders should be taken to help cancer patients mitigate their financial toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Gastos en Salud , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/psicología , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/economía , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto , China , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Costo de Enfermedad , Estrés Financiero/psicología , Habilidades de Afrontamiento
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 281: 116649, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954910

RESUMEN

Limited evidence has suggested a relationship between phthalate exposure and biological aging. This study investigated the association between phthalate exposure and biological aging, focusing on the mediating role of inflammation and the interaction with dietary nutrient intake. Data were analyzed from a nationwide cross-sectional survey comprising 12,994 participants aged 18 and above. Eight phthalate metabolites were detected in spot urine samples. Biological aging was assessed using the Klemera-Doubal method-biological age (KDM-BA) acceleration, phenotypic age (PA) acceleration, and homeostatic dysregulation (HD). The systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) evaluated systemic inflammation. The individual and combined associations between phthalate exposure and biological aging were assessed using linear regression, weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, and quantile g-computation (qgcomp). The participants had a mean age of 47 years, with 50.7 % male and 44.8 % non-Hispanic white. Most phthalate metabolites were positively correlated with KDM-BA acceleration (ß = 0.306-0.584), PA acceleration (ß = 0.081-0.281), and HD (ß = 0.016-0.026). Subgroup analysis indicated that men, older individuals, and non-Hispanic whites are particularly sensitive populations. WQS regression and qgcomp analyses consistently indicated a positive association between mixed phthalate exposure and HD, highlighting MEHHP as the most significant contributing metabolite. Mediation analyses showed inflammation partially mediated the association between phthalate metabolites and biological aging. Significant interactions regarding biological aging were found between specific phthalate metabolites and dietary nutrients (carotenoids, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, and selenium) intake. These findings indicated that the association between phthalate exposure and biological aging was mediated by inflammation, with nutrient intake mitigating this effect.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Biomarcadores , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Inflamación , Ácidos Ftálicos , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/orina , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inflamación/inducido químicamente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Adulto , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta , Contaminantes Ambientales/orina , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Adolescente
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