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1.
Medwave ; 19(8): e7698, 2019 Sep 25.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596838

RESUMEN

Observational studies evaluate variables of interest in a sample or a population, without intervening in them. They can be descriptive if they focus on the description of variables, or analytical when comparison between groups is made to establish associations through statistical inference. Cross-sectional studies and ecologicalalso called correlationalstudies are two observational methodological designs. Cross-sectional studies collect the data of the exposure variable and the outcome at the same time, to describe characteristics of the sample or to study associations. Ecological studies describe and analyze correlations among different variables, and the unit of analysis is aggregated data from multiple individuals. In both types of studies, associations of interest for biomedical research can be established, but no causal relationships should be inferred. This is the second of a methodological series of articles on general concepts in biostatistics and clinical epidemiology developed by the Chair of Scientific Research Methodology at the School of Medicine, University of Valparaíso, Chile. In this review, we address general theoretical concepts about cross-sectional and ecological studies, including applications, measures of association, advantages, disadvantages, and reporting guidelines. Finally, we discuss some concepts about observational designs relevant to undergraduate and graduate students of health sciences.


Asunto(s)
Bioestadística/métodos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Humanos
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 49-67, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1021754

RESUMEN

Introdução:A Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica tem apresentado alta mortalidade em todo o mundo, associada a fatores de risco cardiovascular como o excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal.Objetivo:Avaliar os índices antropométricos e pressão arterial em adolescentes e adultos jovens do município de Santa Cruz-RN.Método:Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, do tipo transversal, realizado com 86 indivíduos com idade média de 19,0 ± 0,97 anos. Foram avaliados o Índice deMassa Corporal (IMC), Relação Cintura Estatura (RCE), Relação Cintura Quadril (RCQ), Índice de Conicidade (IC) e Pressão Arterial (PA). Os dados foram analisados no programa SPSS versão 23.0, apresentados em percentual, média e desvio padrão. O teste T deStudentfoi aplicado para avaliar a diferença entre as médias, a correlação entre medidas antropométricas e a pressão arterial pela correlação de Pearson.Resultados:A prevalência maior foi do sexo feminino, 81,4%. A obesidade esteve mais presente nos meninos adolescentes do que nas meninas, 33,3 e 13,9% respectivamente, bem como nos adultos jovens 28,6% em homens e 11,8% em mulheres. A RCE se mostrou mais elevada nas meninas e mulheres adultas (0,46 ± 0,07, 0,50 ± 0,08). Em contrapartida, a RCQ e IC se mostraram maiores nos meninos(0,79 ± 0,06; 1,12 ± 0,74) e nos homens adultos(0,82 ± 0,09; 1,15 ± 0,12) respectivamente. Em ambos os grupos houve correlação positiva moderada entre o IMC e a RCE com a PA (p<0,05).Conclusão:Os índices antropométricosapresentaram correlação positiva com a elevação da pressão arterial, destacando-se o IMC e a RCE nos adolescentes e adultos jovens (AU).


Introduction:Systemic arterial hypertension has presented high mortality worldwide, associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and abdominal obesity.Objective:To evaluate the anthropometric indexes and blood pressure in adolescents and young adults in the municipality of Santa Cruz-RN.Methods:This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of 86 individuals with a mean age of 19.0 ± 0.97 years. Body mass index (BMI), Waist Stature Ratio (WSR), Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Conicity Index (CI) and Blood Pressure (BP) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0, presented in percentage, mean and standard deviation. The T test was applied to evaluate the difference between the means, the correlation between anthropometric measures and blood pressure by the Pearson correlation.Results:The highest prevalence was female, 81.4%. Obesity was more present in adolescent boys than in girls, 33.3 and 13.9% respectively, as well as in young adults, 28.6% in men and 11.8% in women. The WSR was higher in girls and adult women (0.46 ± 0.07, 0.50 ± 0.08). On the other hand, WHR and CI were higher in boys(0.79 ± 0.06, 1.12 ± 0.74)and in adult males (0.82 ± 0.09, 1.15 ± 0.12) respectively. In both groups there was a moderate positive correlation between BMI and WSR with BP (p <0.05).Conclusion:The anthropometric indices showed a positive correlation with the elevation of blood pressure, especially BMI, WSR in adolescents and young adults (AU).


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Antropometría/métodos , Adolescente , Presión Arterial , Hipertensión , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Adulto Joven
3.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 517-526, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040109

RESUMEN

Patients with mental disorders are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders compared to the general population. Objective: To evaluate cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study, conducted at the Psychosocial Care Centers. Socioeconomic, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data were collected using a standard form. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the Framingham risk score. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined by the World Health- Organization (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and associations were evaluated by the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, as well as Odds Ratio. The significance level adopted for all statistical tests was 5%. Results: The chance of individuals diagnosed with MS be at intermediate-to-high cardiovascular risk was greater (12.22, 8.01 and 6.23 times higher according to WHO, NCEP and IDF criteria, respectively) than those without MS. Conclusion: A high percentage of patients with mental disorders were at intermediate / high cardiovascular risk, and this was significantly associated with MS


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Síndrome Metabólico , Trastornos Mentales , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Índice de Masa Corporal , Salud Mental , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Análisis Estadístico , Factores de Riesgo , Diabetes Mellitus , Circunferencia Abdominal , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , HDL-Colesterol
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5771-5775, 2019 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), also known as congenital hip dislocation or congenital hip dysplasia is usually diagnosed at birth. Studies on DDH at high-altitude are rare. Tibetans live mainly at altitudes above 3,500 m, and the prevalence of DDH in this population is not currently known. This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated risk factors for DDH in Tibet. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between 1st June 2015 and 30 June 2016, infants in Tibet aged between 0-6 months and from ten districts at different altitudes in Shigatse, Tibet were referred to our hospital for the assessment of DDH. All the infants underwent clinical evaluation for DDH and ultrasound testing using the Graf method. RESULTS There were 606 infants who met the study inclusion criteria, including 253 female infants and 353 male infants, of which 106 infants had DDH. The prevalence of DDH in Shigatse, Tibet was approximately 174.9/1000 infants (106/606). Altitude was strongly associated with increased risk of DDH in Tibet (r=0.82, P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS This is the first epidemiological study of DDH in the Tibetan population. The results showed that DDH is prevalent among native Tibetan people in Shigatse, and there was a significant correlation between altitude and the prevalence of DDH. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism of the association between altitude and the increased incidence of DDH in infants.


Asunto(s)
Luxación Congénita de la Cadera/epidemiología , Altitud , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Tibet/epidemiología
5.
Saudi Med J ; 40(6): 601-609, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219496

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE:  To explores cultural differences between generations of faculty and students in undergraduate medical education and to develop an educational framework for stakeholders involvement. METHODS:  This is a prospective cross-sectional mixed method study. A survey was administered on students and faculty members to measure generational differences using Hofstede's dimensions of cultural orientation. The study took place at King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on February 2015. Quantitative methods, descriptive statistics, and correlations and regression analyses were used in data analysis. In addition, qualitative data from focus groups were used to explain findings obtained from the survey. RESULTS:  A total of 736 respondents were surveyed (129 faculty members and 607 medical students). Faculty members across all generations shared the same cultural values of low power distance and masculinity and high uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation and collectivism. Advanced medical students showed higher power distance, collectivism, masculinity and long-term orientation than faculty members; junior medical students have higher masculinity and lower uncertainty avoidance and collectivism. CONCLUSION:  This study explains both the cultural gap between Saudi and Western medical students as well as between Saudi generations, demonstrating the need for customized curricular revisions.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Docentes/psicología , Relaciones Intergeneracionales , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Prospectivos , Arabia Saudita , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(3): 129-135, mayo-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183067

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Analizar las características metodológicas de las investigaciones presentadas por los alumnos de pregrado en medicina, en los congresos de investigación médica de una universidad pública en México. Sujetos y métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, transversal y retrospectiva; la información se obtuvo de las listas de cotejo que se emplearon para determinar las mejores investigaciones que presentaron los alumnos, en los congresos de fin de clases. En las listas de cotejo, los indicadores tenían una elección dicotómica (sí/no), dependiendo de si estaba bien trabajado el aspecto de la investigación a evaluar. Para analizar los datos se calculó el porcentaje de respuestas afirmativas de cada indicador de las listas de cotejo y se promedió por cada congreso. Resultados: Se evaluaron 432 investigaciones estudiantiles provenientes de nueve congresos. Los datos muestran que el planteamiento lógico para hacer las investigaciones se trabajó adecuadamente en la mayoría de los congresos, mientras que en los aspectos metodológicos, los alumnos tuvieron dificultades para diseñar y ejecutar de forma adecuada sus investigaciones. La dificultad mayor para los alumnos estuvo en el análisis de los resultados y en la discusión del significado, la aplicabilidad y el alcance de su investigación. Conclusión: Es necesario evaluar constantemente el método de enseñanza de investigación en la carrera de medicina y trabajar más en la tutoría de las actividades de los alumnos


Aim: To analyze the methodological characteristics of the research works presented by the undergraduate medical students, at the medical research congresses of a public university in Mexico. Subjects and methods: An observational, transversal and retrospective research was carried out; the information was obtained from the checklists that were used to determine the best research works presented by the students at the end-ofcourse congresses. In the checklists the indicators had a dichotomous choice (yes/no), depending on whether the aspects to be evaluated in each research work was well worked out. To analyze the data, the percentage of affirmative responses of each item in the checklists was calculated, and averaged for each congress. Results: We evaluated the research presented by 432 students at nine congresses. The data show that the logical approach to the research was adequately worked in most of the congresses, while in methodological aspects the students had difficulties to design and adequately execute their research work. The greatest difficulty for the students was in the results' analysis, as well as in the discussion of the meaning, applicability and scope of their research. Conclusion: It is necessary to constantly evaluate the teaching method of the research skills in the medical career, and work more in the tutoring of the students' activities


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Investigación/organización & administración , Congresos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , México
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(3): 604-610, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-184558

RESUMEN

Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of INSIG, PCSK9 and FTO genes with anthropometric, biochemical characteristics and presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe obesity. Material and methods: the present study enrolled 150 patients with grade II or III obesity, who were submitted to nutritional assessment, blood pressure measurement and peripheral blood collection. INSIG2 (rs75666605), PCSK9 (rs505151), and FTO (rs9939609) polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan Pre-Designed SNP Genotyping Assays probes in real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The experimental data are processed in SPß Statistics 22.0 (p < 0.05). Results: in this study, 72.2% of obese subjects had metabolic syndrome (MS). There was a higher prevalence of AA (86.9%), CG (51.1%) and AT (46.2%) genotypes for the PCSK9, INSIG2 and FTO polymorphisms, respectively. There was no association of these polymorphisms with the prevalence of MS (p > 0.05). On the other hand, individuals with at least one variant allele (G) for the INSIG2 gene had higher triglycerides levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Conclusions: the polymorphism rs7566605 of the INSIG2 gene is associated with higher triglycerides levels and blood pressure values, which are also considered as risk factors for the development of MS


Objetivo: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la asociación entre polimorfismos de los genes INSIG, PCSK9 y FTO con las características antropométricas, bioquímicas y la presencia de síndrome metabólico (SM) en pacientes con obesidad grave. Material y métodos: el presente estudio incluyó 150 pacientes con obesidad de grado II o III, que fueron sometidos a evaluación nutricional, medición de la presión arterial y extracción de sangre periférica. Los polimorfismos INSIG2 (rs75666605), PCSK9 (rs505151) y FTO (rs9939609) fueron genotipados utilizando sondas TaqMan Pre-Designed SNP Genotyping Assays en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (PCR). Los datos experimentales se procesan en SPß Statistics 22.0 (p < 0,05). Resultados: en este estudio, el 72,2% de los sujetos obesos tenían síndrome metabólico (EM). Hubo una mayor prevalencia de genotipos AA (86,9%), CG (51,1%) y AT (46,2%) para los polimorfismos PCSK9, INSIG2 y FTO, respectivamente. No hubo asociación de estos polimorfismos con la prevalencia de SM (p > 0,05). Por otro lado, los individuos con al menos una variante de alelo (G) para el gen INSIG2 tenían niveles más altos de triglicéridos, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: el polimorfismo rs7566605 del gen INSIG2 se asocia con niveles más altos de triglicéridos y valores de presión arterial, que también se consideran factores de riesgo para el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo Genético , Presión Sanguínea/genética , Triglicéridos/genética , Obesidad/genética , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólico/genética , Evaluación Nutricional , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Brasil , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Antropometría
8.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 253-260, May-June 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002220

RESUMEN

Malnutrition is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Thus, it is essential to apply reliable indicators to assess the nutritional status of these individuals. Objective: To evaluate the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (APM) in patients with HF as an indicator of somatic protein status and correlate the obtained values with conventionally used parameters and electrical bioimpedance (EBI) markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients with HF undergoing regular outpatient treatment. APM thickness was measured in the dominant arm, and the values obtained were classified according to gender and age. The anthropometric parameters assessed included the body mass index (BMI) and specific parameters to assess the muscle (arm muscle circumference [AMC] and arm muscle area [AMA]). Values of phase angle (PA), standard PA (SPA), and lean mass were obtained by EBI. Statistical analyses were performed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, using unpaired Student's t, Mann-Whitney, or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for comparisons between groups, as appropriate. The correlation between variables of interest was performed using Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, as adequate. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: About 70% of the 74 patients evaluated were classified as malnourished according to the APM thickness. Values of AMC, AMA, and lean mass correlated positively with APM thickness (p < 0.005). The APM thickness also correlated positively with PA and SPA (r = 0.49, p < 0.001 and r = 0.31, p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with HF presented a high frequency of protein malnutrition when APM thickness was used as an indicator of nutritional status. APM thickness values correlated with conventional measures of somatic protein evaluation and may be related to the prognosis of these patients, since they correlated positively with PA and SPA


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Evaluación Nutricional , Desnutrición/mortalidad , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Pulgar , Índice de Masa Corporal , Factores Sexuales , Antropometría , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Análisis Estadístico , Análisis de Varianza , Factores de Edad , Inflamación
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, May-June 2019. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002222

RESUMEN

Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm(2) when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm(2) (p = 0.034). Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Plaguicidas/efectos adversos , Inhalación , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Remodelación Ventricular , Herbicidas/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Respiratorias , Brasil , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Análisis Estadístico , Análisis de Varianza , Agroquímicos/efectos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda , Modelos Animales , Ratones , Manifestaciones Neurológicas
10.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 47: 65-87, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136943

RESUMEN

Tensiomyography™ (TMG) is a non-invasive method to monitor skeletal muscle mechanical characteristics. This systematic review and meta-analysis reports on diagnostic accuracy, validity, and reliability of TMG (maximal radial displacement [Dm], contraction time [Tc], delay time [Td], and velocity of contraction [Vc]) to assess exercise-induced fatigue in healthy volunteers, with the specific aim to determine the current level of supporting evidence. Systematic literature searches within Medline, Embase and Sportdiscus databases were conducted from January 1990 through November 2018. Methodological quality was evaluated by the Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool or the Validity and Reliability Critical Appraisal Tool (CAT) or the Quality Appraisal of Diagnostic Reliability checklist (QAREL). Meta-analytical methods were utilised to summarize relative reliabilities of Dm, Tc, Td (95%, CI). The methodological quality of the 19 included studies (n = 373; female = 13.0%) ranged from low to high quality. The analysis revealed insufficient diagnostic accuracy and validity, mixed results regarding absolute reliability, and high to excellent relative reliability for the assessed measures. To conclude, robust evidence for diagnostic accuracy/validity of TMG has yet to be determined, whereas there is substantial evidence for its reliability. Higher methodological standards need to be established, including the avoidance of gender bias.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio/fisiología , Fatiga Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Miografía/normas , Adulto , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/normas , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Contracción Muscular/fisiología , Miografía/métodos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, may.-june. 2019. ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006018

RESUMEN

Background: Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm2 when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm2 (p = 0.034).Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Plaguicidas/efectos adversos , Inhalación , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Remodelación Ventricular , Herbicidas/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Respiratorias , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Análisis Estadístico , Análisis de Varianza , Agroquímicos/efectos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda , Modelos Animales , Ratones , Manifestaciones Neurológicas
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 253-260, may.-june. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006052

RESUMEN

Background: Malnutrition is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Thus, it is essential to apply reliable indicators to assess the nutritional status of these individuals. Objective: To evaluate the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (APM) in patients with HF as an indicator of somatic protein status and correlate the obtained values with conventionally used parameters and electrical bioimpedance (EBI) markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients with HF undergoing regular outpatient treatment. APM thickness was measured in the dominant arm, and the values obtained were classified according to gender and age. The anthropometric parameters assessed included the body mass index (BMI) and specific parameters to assess the muscle (arm muscle circumference [AMC] and arm muscle area [AMA]). Values of phase angle (PA), standard PA (SPA), and lean mass were obtained by EBI. Statistical analyses were performed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, using unpaired Student's t, Mann-Whitney, or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for comparisons between groups, as appropriate. The correlation between variables of interest was performed using Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, as adequate. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: About 70% of the 74 patients evaluated were classified as malnourished according to the APM thickness. Values of AMC, AMA, and lean mass correlated positively with APM thickness (p < 0.005). The APM thickness also correlated positively with PA and SPA (r = 0.49, p < 0.001 and r = 0.31, p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with HF presented a high frequency of protein malnutrition when APM thickness was used as an indicator of nutritional status. APM thickness values correlated with conventional measures of somatic protein evaluation and may be related to the prognosis of these patients, since they correlated positively with PA and SPA


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Evaluación Nutricional , Desnutrición/mortalidad , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Pulgar , Factores Sexuales , Antropometría , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Análisis Estadístico , Análisis de Varianza , Factores de Edad , Inflamación
13.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 15(2): 90-96, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184355

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Describir la metodología del estudio de prevalencia de las enfermedades reumáticas en la población adulta en España, EPISER 2016, así como sus fortalezas y limitaciones. El objetivo del proyecto es estimar la prevalencia de artritis reumatoide (AR), artropatía psoriásica (APs), espondilitis anquilosante (EA), lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), síndrome de Sjögren (SS), artrosis (de rodilla, cadera, manos, columna cervical y lumbar), fibromialgia, gota y fractura osteoporótica clínica. Material y método: Estudio transversal multicéntrico de base poblacional en el que participan 45 municipios de las 17 comunidades autónomas. La población de referencia está compuesta por adultos de 20 o más años residentes en España. La recogida de información se llevará a cabo mediante encuesta telefónica empleando el sistema Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI). Las sospechas diagnósticas y los diagnósticos autorreferidos serán estudiadas por reumatólogos del hospital de referencia de los municipios seleccionados. Análisis estadístico: se calcularán las prevalencias de enfermedades reumáticas mediante estimadores y sus IC del 95%. Se calcularán factores de ponderación en función de la probabilidad de selección en cada una de las etapas del muestreo. Se tendrá en cuenta la distribución de la población en España según datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Conclusiones: Los cambios sociodemográficos y en hábitos de vida durante los últimos 16 años justifican la realización de EPISER 2016. El estudio ofrecerá datos actualizados de prevalencia en AR, EA, APs, LES, SS, artrosis, fibromialgia, gota y fractura osteoporótica clínica. Los resultados permitirán comparar los datos con estudios de otros países y con el EPISER 2000


Aims: To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Material and method: Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. Statistical analysis: the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Conclusions: Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Enfermedades Reumáticas/epidemiología , Gota/epidemiología , Artropatías/epidemiología , Síndrome de Sjögren/epidemiología , Fibromialgia/epidemiología , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/epidemiología , Artritis Reumatoide/epidemiología , Espondilitis Anquilosante/epidemiología , Artritis Psoriásica/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales/métodos
14.
Sanid. mil ; 75(1): 7-13, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183699

RESUMEN

Introducción: La población infantil es más vulnerable a las enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria que otros grupos demográficos. En los últimos años se han notificado brotes de enfermedades de origen alimentario en guarderías causados por agentes patógenos como Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes o Cronobacter sakazakii. Objetivos: Determinar la calidad microbiológica de las comidas servidas en los comedores de las guarderías en relación con los criterios de seguridad alimentaria y de higiene de los procesos. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 241 muestras del menú de iniciación y del menú completo en 13 guarderías. Se investigó la presencia de Salmonella spp. y Cronobacter spp. y se realizó el recuento de L. moncytogenes y de los microorganismos indicadores de la higiene de los procesos (aerobios mesófilos, enterobacterias totales, coliformes totales, Escherichia coli ß-glucuronidasa positivos y Staphylococcus aureus). Resultados: Salmonella spp. y L. monocytogenes no se detectaron en ninguna de las muestras analizadas. Cronobacter spp. se aisló en la guarnición de ensalada de un segundo plato. E. coli no se detectó en ninguna muestra y para el resto de indicadores de higiene las prevalencias fueron las siguientes: aerobios mesófilos 36,10 %, enterobacterias 13,28 %, coliformes totales 7,47 % y S. aureus 4,14 %. El grupo de frutas fue siempre el que presentó mayor prevalencia en todos los parámetros, seguido por los segundos platos debido principalmente a la presencia de ensaladas en la guarnición. Conclusiones: Conforme a los resultados microbiológicos obtenidos, se considera que las comidas servidas tienen un alto grado de calidad microbiológica


Introduction: Infants and children are more vulnerable to foodborne illnesses than other demographic population. In recent years, foodborne outbreaks have been reported in kindergartens because of the presence of pathogenic agents like Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii. Objective: To determine the microbiological quality of foods ready for consumption in kindergarten foodservices regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria. Materials and Methods: 241 food samples from the initiation menu and full menu were analyzed in 13 kindergartens. Salmonella spp. and Cronobacter spp. were investigated and an enumeration of L. monocytogenes and of the hygiene indicator microorganisms (mesophilic aerobes, enterobacteriaceae, ß-glucuronidase positive Escherichia coli, total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus) was carried out. Results: No Salmonella spp. or L. monocytogenes were isolated from any of the samples. Cronobacter spp. was isolated in the fresh salad of a second plate. E. coli was not detected in any sample and the results shown in the rest of the hygiene indicators were the following: mesophilic aerobes 36,10 %, enterobacteriaceae 13,28 %, total coliforms 7,47 % and S. aureus 4,14 %. The fruits group was always the one that showed the highest prevalence in all the parameters, followed by the second courses mainly due to the presence of fresh salads. Conclusions: According to the microbiological results obtained, it is considered that the meals served have a high level of microbiological quality


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Jardines Infantiles/organización & administración , Jardines Infantiles/normas , Escuelas de Párvulos/normas , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/normas , Escuelas de Párvulos/organización & administración , Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Bacilos y Cocos Aerobios Gramnegativos/aislamiento & purificación , Higiene Alimentaria/normas
15.
Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol ; 94(3): 125-129, mar. 2019. ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-178313

RESUMEN

Introducción: El cáncer pulmonar (CP) es el tumor con mayor frecuencia y mortalidad a nivel mundial. Casos de metástasis coroideas y retinopatía asociada a cáncer han sido publicados en CP, sin embargo no existen estudios en población mexicana que describan las posibles alteraciones retinocoroideas y su relación con el estadio de CP. Objetivo: Evaluar a pacientes con CP para determinar la presencia de alteraciones en el segmento posterior y su relación con el estadio del mismo. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal y descriptivo de 50 pacientes (100 ojos) con CP. Datos demográficos: edad, sexo, tipo histológico, tiempo de evolución, estadio, tratamiento y comorbilidades. Variables de medición: agudeza visual (LogMAR), biomicroscopía del segmento anterior, registro fotográfico de retina, fluorangiografía retiniana, tomografía de coherencia óptica y electrorretinograma. Cada paciente fue evaluado por dos oftalmólogos. Resultados: Un total de 26 hombres y 24 mujeres fueron evaluados, el promedio de edad fue de 65 años, el tiempo medio del diagnóstico de CP fue de 6 meses siendo el adenocarcinoma el principal tipo histológico (70%), al momento de la evaluación 50% presentaban estadio II y 30% estadio IV. Las alteraciones del segmento posterior encontradas fueron: metástasis coroideas (16%), metástasis retinianas (10%), retinopatía asociada a cáncer (6%) y oclusiones vasculares (4%). La mayoría de los pacientes con alteraciones retinocoroideas se encontraban en estadio IV. Conclusiones: En el CP pueden encontrarse oclusiones vasculares, retinopatía asociada a cáncer y metástasis a coroides y retina con una incidencia mayor a la publicada en la literatura, siendo más frecuentes en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad aunque pueden encontrarse desde el estadio II en pacientes asintomáticos


Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is the most common tumour, and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although cases of choroidal metastasis and cancer-associated retinopathy have been reported in LC, no studies have been conducted on the Mexican population to describe retinochoroidal findings during the course of LC, and the relationship with its stage. Objective: To evaluate patients with a diagnosis of LC, and to describe the posterior segment findings in relationship to the stage of LC. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted on 50 patients with LC (100 eyes). The demographic data included age, gender, histological type, evolution time, stage, treatment, and comorbidities. The measurement variables included visual acuity (LogMAR), anterior segment biomicroscopy, retinal photography, fluorescein retinal angiography, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinogram. All patients were evaluated by two ophthalmologists. Results: The study included a total of 26 men and 24 women, with a mean age of 65 years, and a mean time from LC diagnosis of 6 months. The principal histological type was adenocarcinoma (70%), and most (50%) were in stage II at the time of evaluation, with 15 (30%) patients having a metastasis (stage IV). The changes in the posterior segment included choroidal metastasis (16%), retinal metastasis (10%), cancer-associated retinopathy (6%), and vascular occlusions (4%). The majority of patients who presented with posterior segment alterations were in stage IV. Conclusions: Vascular occlusions, cancer-associated retinopathy, choroidal and retinal metastases may be found in LC, with an incidence higher than that reported in the literature, especially in advanced stages of LC, although they can be found from stage II in asymptomatic patients


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Masculino , Femenino , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicaciones , Neoplasias de la Coroides/etiología , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Neoplasias de la Retina/complicaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Agudeza Visual , Microscopía , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica/métodos , México/epidemiología , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico
16.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212428, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779784

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although child physical abuse (CPA) is considered as a major global public health problem, it has not yet been recognized as such in Bangladesh. Very few studies have assessed the prevalence and victims' characteristics of multiple forms of CPA. OBJECTIVE: This population-based study assessed the prevalence of CPA committed by adults in a rural area of Bangladesh and examined its association with demographic and socio-contextual factors. METHODS: Data were obtained using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children (ICAST-C) in a random sample of 1416 children (49% girls, 51% boys) aged 11 to 17 years by face-to-face interviews during March-April 2017. The response rate was 91.5%. To estimate predictors of CPA, physical abuse was categorized into frequent and less frequent groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one form (≥ 1), two forms (≥2) and three or more forms (≥ 3) of CPA were estimated approximately to 99%, 95% and 83% in their lifetime and 93%, 79%, and 57% in the past year respectively. Hitting (except on buttocks), standing/kneeling and slapping were the most common physical abuse whereas given drugs or alcohol, pinched, burned or scalded, beaten-up and locked up were less reported. Female children were faced severe forms of CPA more than that of males. Male children, younger age groups, witnessing adults using weapons at home, bullied by siblings and low level of maternal education were found to be significant risk factors for both ≥ 1 form and ≥ 2 forms of frequent CPA whereas adding also adult shouting in a frightening way was found as a significant risk factor for ≥ 2 forms of frequent CPA. CONCLUSION: Self-reported prevalence of CPA is extremely common in the Bangladeshi rural society. The prevalence was associated with demographic and socio-contextual characteristics of the children such as being younger, witnessing domestic violence and maternal low education. The findings provide evidence to support parents and policy-makers to take effective measures to implement policy and programme on alternative up-bringing methods and creating awareness of negative effects of CM which in turn help Bangladesh to line up with UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which the country signed in 1990.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/tendencias , Abuso Físico/tendencias , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Violencia Doméstica , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso Físico/psicología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Autoinforme
17.
Animal ; 13(10): 2356-2364, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808429

RESUMEN

Keel bone damage (KBD) in laying hens is an important welfare problem in both conventional and organic egg production systems. We aimed to identify possible risk factors for KBD in organic hens by analysing cross-sectional data of 107 flocks assessed in eight European countries. Due to partly missing data, the final multiple regression model was based on data from 50 flocks. Keel bone damage included fractures and/or deviations, and was recorded, alongside with other animal based measures, by palpation and visual inspection of at least 50 randomly collected hens per flock between 52 and 73 weeks of age. Management and housing data were obtained by interviews, inspection and by feed analysis. Keel bone damage flock prevalences ranged from 3% to 88%. Compiled on the basis of literature and practical experience, 26 potential associative factors of KBD went into an univariable selection by Spearman correlation analysis or Mann-Whitney U test (with P<0.1 level). The resulting nine factors were presented to stepwise forward linear regression modelling. Aviary v. floor systems, absence of natural daylight in the hen house, a higher proportion of underweight birds, as well as a higher laying performance were found to be significantly associated with a higher percentage of hens with KBD. The final model explained 32% of the variation in KBD between farms. The moderate explanatory value of the model underlines the multifactorial nature of KBD. Based on the results increased attention should be paid to an adequate housing design and lighting that allows the birds easy orientation and safe manoeuvring in the system. Furthermore, feeding management should aim at sufficient bird live weights that fulfil breeder weight standards. In order to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between laying performance, feed management and KBD further investigations are needed.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Pollos/fisiología , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Fracturas Óseas/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Huesos , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Vivienda para Animales , Agricultura Orgánica , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Esternón
18.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4908, 01 Fevereiro 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-998262

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the relationship between age, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and alveolar bone resorption with menopause duration in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was developed involving 59 subjects, aged 45 to 80 years and categorized the duration of menopause as ≤5 years and >5 years. Body mass index measurement and menopause duration were collected. Bone loss seen on radiography was measured by drawing a vertical line from the cementoenamel in the distal part of the 36 teeth and the mesial portion of 46 teeth to the base of the bone marked by the lamina dura intact. Categorical determinations of age, BMI, BMD, and alveolar bone resorption were based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Were used Pearson correlation and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. Results: The majority of subjects (54.2%) with menopause duration >5 years were aged >54.5 years, most had BMI >24.2 kg/m2 (39%), had bone resorption >2.95 mm (52.5%), and had bone density ≤73.89 (49.2%). Pearson and Spearman correlation tests showed no significant correlation between age, BMI, bone density, and alveolar bone resorption (p>0.05). Conclusion: The longer the duration of menopause showed a tendency for lower bone density and higher age, BMI, and bone resorption.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Mujeres , Resorción Ósea , Menopausia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Densidad Ósea , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Posmenopausia , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Indonesia
19.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4533, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-998260

RESUMEN

Objective: To determine the extent of bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and the level of oral hygiene and caries prevalence among pregnant women. Material and Methods: Random samples of pregnant women attending eight public health centers were examined. Their periodontal and caries statuses were examined using the Community Periodontal Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and DMF-T. The good criteria of OHI-S ranged from 0 to 1.2, the fair from 1.3 to 3.0 and the poor from 3.1 to 6.0. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies. Results: 84.7% had caries and the DMF-T index score was 4.34 (fair). 73% suffered gingival bleeding, 34% with 4-5 mm pocket depth, 2% with 6 mm or deeper pocket depth, while the majority had good oral hygiene. The prevalence of 4-5 mm probing pocket depth increased between the first and second trimesters (12.1% to 48.5%), before undergoing a slight decrease in the third trimester (39.4%). Gingival bleeding was found to be most prevalent in the third trimester. Pocket depth of 4-5 mm was found to be highest in the second trimester. Pocket depth of 6 mm or more was restricted to the third trimester. Oral hygiene scores increased in tandem with gestational age. Conclusion: The majority had caries, which strongly suggests that the awareness of the pregnant women regarding their oral hygiene remains limited.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Enfermedades Periodontales/diagnóstico , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Interpretación Estadística de Datos
20.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4897, 01 Fevereiro 2019. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-998261

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers based on type of cigarette, duration and frequency of smoking. Material and Methods: 51 male smokers, aged 20-55 years were enrolled. Information regarding cigarette type and smoking duration and frequency was collected using a questionnaire. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected in the morning following fasting for 2 h, and TAoC was measured using a commercial kit. The data were evaluated through the independent t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Mean TAoC for the consumption of Kretek cigarettes was 0.29 (±0.15) and for that of non-Kretek cigarettes was 0.36 (±0.10). Mean TAoC based on smoking duration was 0.31 (±0.14) for 5-10 years and 0.27 (±0.15) for >10 years. Median TAoC based on smoking frequency was 0.23 (0.11-0.44), 0.31 (0.06-0.64), and 0.27 (0.06-0.68) for 1-5, 6-10, and 11-20 cigarettes/day. Mean TAoC of the saliva from participants who consumed Kretek cigarettes was lower than that of the saliva from those who consumed non-Kretek cigarettes (p=0.3). Mean TAoC for a duration >10 years was lower than that for a duration of 5-10 years, although the difference between these two groups was not significant (p=0.4). Conclusion: There were tendencies of lower total antioxidant capacity on smokers with kretek type cigarettes, smoking duration >10 years and frequency of 1-5 cigarettes/day. This study indicates that the type, duration, and frequency of smoking may affect the salivary total antioxidant capacity.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Saliva/microbiología , Tabaquismo , Fumadores/psicología , Radicales Libres , Antioxidantes/química , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Indonesia
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