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1.
Cir. pediátr ; 37(2): 61-66, Abr. 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-398

RESUMEN

Introducción: La enterocolitis necrotizante (ECN) es una enfermedad potencialmente mortal que afecta a los neonatos, y frente a laque la leche materna ha demostrado tener un papel protector. Administrando lipopolisacáridos (LPS) por vía oral en ratas recién nacidas(RRN), hemos desarrollado un modelo experimental para inducir undaño intestinal similar al que provoca la ECN con objeto de evaluarel aspecto macroscópico y microscópico del intestino, y de ese modo,analizar la presencia de ECN y estudiar el papel que desempeña laleche materna (LM). Material y métodos: Las RRN se dividieron en tres grupos: el grupoA (control, n= 10) permaneció con su madre; el grupo B (LPS, n=25)fue aislado tras el nacimiento, alimentado por sonda con una fórmulaespecial para ratas y LPS oral, y sometido a estrés (hipoxia tras sonda);y el grupo C (LM, n= 12) fue alimentado con leche materna tras elnacimiento y posteriormente aislado y sometido a estrés al igual que elgrupo B. El día 4 se sacrificó a las RRN y se recuperaron sus intestinospara su posterior evaluación. Resultados: En el grupo de control, no se observó ECN ni macroscópica ni histológicamente, mientras que los dos grupos sometidos aestrés (B y C) presentaron una incidencia global de la ECN del 73%.La mayoría de los sujetos del grupo B desarrollaron signos histológi-cos de ECN (85%), y los del grupo C registraron una incidencia de laECN estadísticamente menor (50%, p= 0,04), lo que significa que laLM desempeña una función protectora frente a la ECN (OR= 0,19; IC95%: 0,40-0,904). Conclusión: Nuestro modelo reveló una incidencia significativa dela ECN en RRN (73%), desempeñando la LM la misma función protectora que en el caso de los humanos recién nacidos, lo que significa que estemodelo experimental de ECN es fiable y reproducible. Gracias a dichologro, podremos investigar nuevos y potenciales objetivos terapéuticospara una peligrosa enfermedad que, a día de hoy, carece de tratamiento.(AU)


Introduction: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threateningcondition that afflicts neonates. Breastfeeding has demonstrated to playa protective role against it. By administering lipopolysaccharides (LPS)orally in newborn rats (NBR), we have developed an experimental modelto induce NEC-like gut damage. Our aim was to assess the macroscopicand microscopic appearance of the gut, to evaluate the presence of NECand study the role of breast milk (BM). Material and methods: NBR were divided into 3 groups: GroupA (control, n= 10) remained with the mother, group B (LPS, n= 25)was isolated after birth, gavage-fed with special rat formula and oralLPS, then submitted to stress (hypoxia after gavage) and group c (BM,n= 12) was breastfed once after birth, then isolated, and submitted tostress like group B. On day 4, NBR were sacrificed, and intestine washarvested and assessed. Results: In the control group NEC was not present either macroscopically or histologically. Both groups submitted to stress (B and C)presented a global incidence of NEC of 73%. Most of group B developedhistologic signs of NEC (85%) and group C showed a statistically lowerincidence of NEC (50%, p= 0.04), playing the BM a protective roleagainst NEC (OR= 0.19; 95% CI: 0.40- 0.904)Conclusion: Our model showed a significant incidence of NEC inNBR (73%) with the same protective role of BM as in newborn humans,achieving a reliable and reproducible experimental NEC model. This willallow us to investigate new potential therapeutic targets for a devastatingdisease that currently lacks treatment.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Ratas , Leche Humana , Enterocolitis Necrotizante/diagnóstico , Lipopolisacáridos , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Pediatría
2.
Actas urol. esp ; 48(3): 246-253, abr. 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-231930

RESUMEN

Introducción La infertilidad constituye un problema de salud que afecta gravemente la reproducción humana. En el caso de la infertilidad masculina, la mayoría de los casos se deben a factores genéticos. En este estudio nos propusimos realizar un análisis de correlación entre la infertilidad masculina idiopática y el polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP, por Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) de los genes LHCGR (rs2293275) y NR5A1 (rs1057517779) en la población azerí de Irán. Métodos En este estudio de casos y controles participaron 100 varones infértiles y 100 varones sanos procedentes de la población azerí iraní. La genotipificación se realizó mediante el aislamiento del ADN genómico a partir de muestras de sangre total con el sistema de amplificación por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa refractario a mutaciones Tetra-primer (Tetra-ARMS-PCR). El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante la prueba de Chi-cuadrado (χ2) y la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados Según el análisis de genotipificación del polimorfismo LHCGR (rs2293275), la frecuencia del alelo C en el grupo de casos era significativamente mayor que en el grupo de control (p<0,05). El análisis del polimorfismo NR5A1 (rs1057517779) indicó que la frecuencia del alelo A y del genotipo heterocigoto GA en el grupo de casos era significativamente superior a la del grupo de control (p<0,05). Conclusión Nuestro estudio demostró que los SNP de los genes LHCGR (rs2293275) y NR5A1 (rs1057517779) pueden desempeñar un papel crucial en la infertilidad masculina de la población azerí en Irán. Sin embargo, se requieren más estudios realizados en otros orígenes étnicos con muestras de mayor tamaño para obtener resultados más precisos. Además, podrían ser necesarios experimentos funcionales para comprender el papel de estos polimorfismos en las vías moleculares implicadas en la fertilidad masculina. (AU)


Introduction Infertility is one of the important phenomena in human reproduction. Genetic factors are the most important cause of male infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the correlation between idiopathic male infertility and SNPs of the LHCGR (rs2293275) and NR5A1 (rs1057517779) genes in the Iranian-Azeri population. Methods This case-control study consisted of 100 males with infertility and 100 healthy males from the Iranian Azeri population. Genomic DNA isolation from whole blood samples and Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (Tetra-ARMS-PCR) method was used for genotyping. The data analysis was performed by Chi-square (χ2) and Fisher's exact tests. Results Genotyping analysis for LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism indicated that the frequency of C in the case group was significantly higher than in the control group (P<.05). Moreover, genotyping analysis for NR5A1 (rs1057517779) polymorphism indicated that the frequencies of the A allele and heterozygote GA genotype in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<.05). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the SNPs of LHCGR (rs2293275) and NR5A1 (rs1057517779) genes may play a critical role in male infertility in the Iranian Azeri population. However, further studies on other ethnic origins with larger sample sizes are essential for accessing more accurate results. Moreover, functional experiments might be needed to understand the role of these polymorphisms in the molecular pathways involved in male fertility. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Infertilidad Masculina , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Correlación de Datos , Irán , Estudios de Casos y Controles
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 275: 116271, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564868

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As emerging environmental contaminants, antibiotics pose potential threats to human health, in particular to pregnant women and infants. However, the potential harm of inadvertent antibiotic exposure (IAE) is often disregarded in light of the focus on intentional antibiotic use during pregnancy. Currently, little is known about the effects of IAE during pregnancy on fetal neural tube development. METHODS: In this case-control study, we used questionnaire data from 855 subjects to investigate the effects of intentional antibiotic use in early pregnancy on neural tube defects (NTDs). Then we tested for placental antibiotics in mothers who had not intentionally used antibiotics, and the compounds were detected in 379 subjects; these were considered IAE cases. We assessed the association between IAE during pregnancy and fetal NTDs using both multivariable logistic and multi-pollutant exposure models. We also analyzed the correlation between maternal dietary habits and placental antibiotics to explore possible sources of IAE. RESULTS: Only 50 of 855 participants (5.8%) intentionally used antibiotics and such use showed no significant association with NTD risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92, confidence interval [95%CI] = [0.66, 5.59]). However, 14 of 15 placental antibiotics were detected in 378 of 379 subjects (99.7%) and multivariable logistic analysis indicated that high levels of placental macrolides were significantly associated with increased NTD risk (4.42 [2.01-10.45]). Multi-pollutant exposure analysis suggested an increase in NTD risk with an increase in exposure to a mixture of placental antibiotics, among which macrolides were the most important contributor. In addition, the level of placental macrolides was positively correlated with the intake frequency of milk. Finally, mothers who drank river, well, or pond water had higher levels of placental macrolides than those who drank only tap water. CONCLUSIONS: Intentional antibiotic use during early pregnancy may not be associated with NTDs, while IAE during pregnancy is associated with higher NTD risk in offspring. Macrolides are crucial risk factors. Milk, and river, well, or pond water may be important sources of IAE.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Defectos del Tubo Neural , Lactante , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Placenta , Defectos del Tubo Neural/inducido químicamente , Defectos del Tubo Neural/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Macrólidos/efectos adversos , Agua
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 26(3): 230-235, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557373

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the risk factors associated with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) in infants. METHODS: This study was a multicenter prospective nested case-control study conducted in seven medical centers in Beijing, China. Infants aged 0-12 months were included, with 200 cases of CMPA infants and 799 control infants without CMPA. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the risk factors for the occurrence of CMPA. RESULTS: Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that preterm birth, low birth weight, birth from the first pregnancy, firstborn, spring birth, summer birth, mixed/artificial feeding, and parental history of allergic diseases were associated with an increased risk of CMPA in infants (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that firstborn (OR=1.89, 95%CI: 1.14-3.13), spring birth (OR=3.42, 95%CI: 1.70-6.58), summer birth (OR=2.29, 95%CI: 1.22-4.27), mixed/artificial feeding (OR=1.57, 95%CI: 1.10-2.26), parental history of allergies (OR=2.13, 95%CI: 1.51-3.02), and both parents having allergies (OR=3.15, 95%CI: 1.78-5.56) were risk factors for CMPA in infants (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Firstborn, spring birth, summer birth, mixed/artificial feeding, and a family history of allergies are associated with an increased risk of CMPA in infants.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad a la Leche , Nacimiento Prematuro , Lactante , Embarazo , Femenino , Animales , Bovinos , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad a la Leche/etiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Prospectivos , Nacimiento Prematuro/inducido químicamente , Factores de Riesgo , Proteínas de la Leche
5.
PeerJ ; 12: e17187, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560458

RESUMEN

Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection in the periodontal support tissue. Visfatin, a hormone secreted mainly by adipocytes and macrophages, plays an important role in immune regulation and defense. Although studies have indicated that patients with periodontitis have significantly high serum and gingival crevicular fluid levels of visfatin, the relationship between this adipocytokine and periodontal disease remains unclear. Aim: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the association between visfatin levels and periodontitis. Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and Wiley Online Library databases were searched for potential studies, using "periodontitis" and "visfatin" as the keywords in the title and abstract search fields. Standardized mean difference (SMD) values with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined from the results of this meta-analysis. Results: In total, 22 articles involving 456 patients with periodontitis and 394 healthy individuals (controls) were included in the meta-analysis. Visfatin levels were significantly higher in the patients with periodontitis than in the healthy individuals (SMD: 3.82, 95% CI [3.01-4.63]). Moreover, the visfatin levels were significantly lowered after periodontitis treatment (SMD: -2.29, 95% CI [-3.33 to -1.26]). Conclusion: This first-ever meta-analysis comparing visfatin levels between patients with periodontitis and healthy individuals suggests that this adipocytokine can be a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for periodontal disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales , Periodontitis , Humanos , Adipoquinas , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferasa/análisis
6.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2333413, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561312

RESUMEN

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common late-onset infections in preterm infants, characterized by nonspecific symptoms and a pathogenic spectrum that diverges from that of term infants and older children, which present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Existing data on the role of gut microbiota in UTI pathogenesis in this demographic are limited. This study aims to investigate alterations in gut microbiota and fecal calprotectin levels and their association with the development of UTIs in hospitalized preterm infants. A longitudinal case-control study was conducted involving preterm infants admitted between January 2018 and October 2020. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed for microbial profiles and calprotectin levels. Propensity score matching, accounting for key perinatal factors including age and antibiotic use, was utilized to match samples from UTI-diagnosed infants to those from non-UTI counterparts. Among the 151 preterm infants studied, 53 were diagnosed with a UTI, predominantly caused by Enterobacteriaceae (79.3%) and Enterococcaceae (19.0%). Infants with UTIs showed a significantly higher abundance of these families compared to non-UTI infants, for both Gram-negative and positive pathogens, respectively. Notably, there was a significant pre-UTI increase in the abundance of pathogen-specific taxa in infants later diagnosed with UTIs, offering high predictive value for early detection. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing further confirmed the dominance of specific pathogenic species pre-UTI and revealed altered virulence factor profiles associated with Klebsiella aerogenes and Escherichia coli infections. Additionally, a decline in fecal calprotectin levels was observed preceding UTI onset, particularly in cases involving Enterobacteriaceae. The observed pathogen-specific alterations in the gut microbiota preceding UTI onset offer novel insight into the UTI pathogenesis and promising early biomarkers for UTIs in preterm infants, potentially enhancing the timely management of this common infection. However, further validation in larger cohorts is essential to confirm these findings.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecciones Urinarias , Lactante , Niño , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Escherichia coli , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Enterobacteriaceae , Complejo de Antígeno L1 de Leucocito
7.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 46, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To date, migraine is diagnosed exclusively based on clinical criteria, but fluid biomarkers are desirable to gain insight into pathophysiological processes and inform clinical management. We investigated the state-dependent profile of fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage and microglial activation as two potentially relevant aspects in human migraine pathophysiology. METHODS: This exploratory study included serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with migraine during the headache phase (ictally) (n = 23), between attacks (interictally) (n = 16), and age/sex-matched controls (n = 19). Total Tau (t-Tau) protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and neurofilament light chain (NfL) were measured with the Neurology 4-plex kit on a Single Molecule Array SR-X Analyzer (Simoa® SR-X, Quanterix Corp., Lexington, MA). Markers of microglial activation, C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2), were assessed using an immunoassay. RESULTS: Concentrations of CX3CL1 but not sTREM2 were significantly increased both ictally and interictally in CSF but not in serum in comparison to the control cohort (p = 0.039). ROC curve analysis provided an AUC of 0.699 (95% CI 0.563 to 0.813, p = 0.007). T-Tau in serum but not in CSF was significantly increased in samples from patients taken during the headache phase, but not interictally (effect size: η2 = 0.121, p = 0.038). ROC analysis of t-Tau protein in serum between ictal and interictal collected samples provided an AUC of 0.729 (95% CI 0.558 to 0.861, p = 0.006). The other determined biomarkers for axonal damage were not significantly different between the cohorts in either serum or CSF. DISCUSSION: CX3CL1 in CSF is a novel potential fluid biomarker of migraine that is unrelated to the headache status. Serum t-Tau is linked to the headache phase but not interictal migraine. These data need to be confirmed in a larger hypothesis-driven prospective study.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Migrañosos , Proteínas tau , Humanos , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Biomarcadores , Trastornos Migrañosos/diagnóstico , Cefalea , Quimiocina CX3CL1
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 220, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during childhood is common and includes a range of breathing abnormalities that range from primary snoring (PS) to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).Studies have shown that not only OSAS, but also PS, which is originally considered harmless, could cause cardiovascular, cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial problems. Many researches are focused on the relation of OSA and serum lipid levels. However, little studies are focused on PS and serum lipid levels in children.We evaluated whether serum lipid (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)) concentrations were associated with specific components of SDB, including indices of oxygen reduction index, lowest oxygen saturation, mean oxygen saturation. And we explored whether serum lipid levels were associated with different degree sleep disordered (PS and OSA group) and obese. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Children who were complained by their guardians with habitual snoring and(or) mouth breathing were collected in the SDB group. Normal children without sleep problem were matched in the control group. Subjects in the SDB group underwent polysomnography. The serum lipid profiles of all the children included TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations were measured by appropriate enzymatic assays. RESULTS: A total of 241 with Apnea/Hypopnea Index ≥ 5 (AHI) were assigned to the OSAS group and the remaining 155 with normal AHI were assigned to the PS group. The values of TC, TG, LDL-C and LDL/HDL were significantly higher in the OSAS group than in the PS group, and the values in the PS group were significantly higher than the control group. Multiple regression analysis revealed serum TG only correlated negatively with lowest oxygen saturation. Body mass index-z score has a positive effect on TG in all the 1310 children (P = 0.031) and in SDB 396 children(P = 0.012). The level of serum TG in obese group was significantly higher than that in non-obese group. CONCLUSIONS: SDB had a very obvious effect on blood lipids, whereas PS without apnea and hypoxia. Obese only affects the aggregation of TG. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900026807(2019.10.23).


Asunto(s)
Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Niño , Humanos , Ronquido , Estudios de Casos y Controles , LDL-Colesterol , Estudios Transversales , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/complicaciones , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/complicaciones , Triglicéridos , HDL-Colesterol , Lípidos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Hipoxia/etiología
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 229, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of diabetes, impacting the autonomic nerves that regulate the heart and blood vessels. Timely recognition and treatment of CAN are crucial in averting the onset of cardiovascular complications. Both clinically apparent autonomic neuropathy and subclinical autonomic neuropathy, particularly CAN pose a significant risk of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Notably, CAN can progress silently before manifesting clinically. In our study, we assessed patients with poor metabolic control, without symptoms, following the ISPAD 2022 guideline. The objective is is to determine which parameters we can use to diagnose CAN in the subclinical period. METHODS: Our study is a cross-sectional case-control study that includes 30 children diagnosed with T1DM exhibiting poor metabolic control (average HbA1c > 8.5% for at least 1 year) according to the ISPAD 2022 Consensus Guide. These patients, who are under the care of the pediatric diabetes clinic, underwent evaluation through four noninvasive autonomic tests: echocardiography, 24-h Holter ECG for heart rate variability (HRV), cardiopulmonary exercise test, and tilt table test. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 13.73 ± 1.96 years, the average diabetes duration was 8 ± 3.66 years, and the 1-year average HbA1c value was 11.34 ± 21%. In our asymptomatic and poorly metabolically controlled patient group, we found a decrease in HRV values, the presence of postural hypotension with the tilt table test, and a decrease in ventricular diastolic functions that are consistent with the presence of CAN. Despite CAN, the systolic functions of the ventricles were preserved, and the dimensions of the cardiac chambers and cardiopulmonary exercise test were normal. CONCLUSIONS: CAN is a common complication of T1DM, often associated with the patient's age and poor glycemic control. HRV, active orthostatic tests, and the evaluation of diastolic dysfunctions play significant roles in the comprehensive assessment of CAN. These diagnostic measures are valuable tools in identifying autonomic dysfunction at an early stage, allowing for timely intervention and management to mitigate the impact of cardiovascular complications associated with T1DM.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Neuropatías Diabéticas , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Hemoglobina Glucada , Neuropatías Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/etiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología
10.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 215, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561771

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between achilles tendon rupture (ATR) and hyperuricemia, also verify the known risk factors for ATR. METHODS: A retrospective review of 488 subjects was performed (182 with Achilles tendon rupture, 306 controls with ankle sprains). Demographic variables and risk factors for rupture were tabulated and compared. The baseline data and related indicators were compared, and the risk factors of ATR were analyzed by constructing a binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: Univariate logistic analysis showed that BMI, smoking, and hyperuricemia were risk factors for the development of ATR (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.13-2.42, P = 0.01; OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.00-2.24, P < 0.05; OR = 2.85, 95%CI 1.84-4.42, P < 0.01). Multifactorial analysis showed that BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, smoking, and hyperuricemia were independent risk factors for the development of ATR (OR = 1.66, 95%CI 1.11-2.49, P = 0.01; OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.28-3.60, P < 0.01; OR = 3.06, 95%CI 1.92-4.89, P < 0.01). Among the blood biochemical indicators, total cholesterol (TC) and uric acid (UA) were independent risk factors for the occurrence of ATR (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.12-2.12, P = 0.01; OR = 1.01, 95% CI 1.01-1.01, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that, as in previous results, higher BMI, smoking, and total cholesterol are risk factors for ATR, Hyperuricemia may contribute to the development of ATR, and adjunctive tests for TC and UA in the blood biochemistry may be helpful in predicting the risk of ATR.


Asunto(s)
Tendón Calcáneo , Traumatismos del Tobillo , Hiperuricemia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Hiperuricemia/complicaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Colesterol , Traumatismos del Tobillo/complicaciones , Rotura/etiología
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 58, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561824

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several studies have identified graded oxygen saturation targets to prevent retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a serious complication in preterm infants. We aimed to analyze the critical period of oxygen supplementation and/or invasive ventilation associated with severe ROP. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study included neonates with a gestational age (GA) < 29 weeks. Participants were divided into two groups: treated retinopathy and untreated/no retinopathy. Time-weighted average FiO2 (TWAFiO2) and weekly invasive ventilation were compared between groups by postnatal age (PNA) and postmenstrual age (PMA). The association of treated retinopathy with TWAFiO2 and invasive ventilation was analyzed. RESULTS: Data from 287 neonates were analyzed; 98 were treated for ROP and had lower GAs (25.5 vs. 27.4 weeks, p < 0.01) and lower birthweights (747.6 vs. 1014 g, p < 0.001) than those with untreated/no ROP. TWAFiO2 was higher from PMA 26-34 weeks, except for PMA 31 weeks in treated ROP, and higher in the first nine weeks of life in treated ROP. On multiple logistic regression, TWAFiO2 and invasive ventilation were associated with ROP treatment during the first seven weeks PNA. Invasive ventilation was associated with ROP treatment from PMA 26-31 weeks; no association was found for TWAFiO2 and PMA. CONCLUSIONS: Amount of oxygen supplementation and/or invasive ventilation during the first 7 weeks of life or up to 31 weeks PMA was associated with development of severe ROP. This period might be candidate timing for strict oxygen supplementation strategies in preterm infants, while concerns of mortality with low oxygen supplementation should be further explored.


Asunto(s)
Ventilación no Invasiva , Retinopatía de la Prematuridad , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Retinopatía de la Prematuridad/prevención & control , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Oxígeno/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Edad Gestacional , Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 33(4): 461-462, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566557

RESUMEN

Rates of waterpipe use increase with very little data reporting any potential health consequences. The current study, a large case-control study, of 4,194 patients from Iran denotes an elevated risk of bladder cancer in exclusive waterpipe smokers compared with non-users. Additional studies are needed to further understand the risk waterpipe smoking has on bladder cancer. See related article by Hadji et al., p. 509.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Humanos , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/efectos adversos , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Fumadores , Irán/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/etiología
13.
Tunis Med ; 102(2): 87-93, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567474

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Chronic blepharitis is a common cause of eye irritation and dryness. They are often treated without regard to causal factors such as parasites which are rarely mentioned. AIM: To describe the role of Demodex in the pathogenesis of chronic blepharitis, to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic particularities. METHODS: This is a prospective, case-control study conducted in the mycology parasitology department at the Habib Bourguiba university hospital in Sfax covering 100 cases with chronic blepharitis and 87 control cases. Clinical examination and eyelash removal were performed with direct examination for qualitative and quantitative analysis, before and after treatment. RESULTS: Demodex was significantly more found in patients than in controls (48% vs 13.8%). The quantitative analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups with 52.1% of Demodex (+++) for patients versus 8.3% for controls. Demodex blepharitis were treated with yellow oxid mercure ophthalmic ointment with a good outcome in 81,3%. CONCLUSION: Although it is admitted to be a saprophyte of the skin, a large number of arguments argues for the incrimination of Demodex in the etiopathogenesis of chronic blepharitis, hence the interest of eyelashes examination and a parasitic research in front of any chronic blepharitis resistant to usual treatments. In case of positive research, a specific treatment should be prescribed. Its effectiveness is another argument for the etiological diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Blefaritis , Infestaciones por Ácaros , Ácaros , Animales , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Infestaciones por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Infestaciones por Ácaros/epidemiología , Infestaciones por Ácaros/terapia , Túnez , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Blefaritis/diagnóstico , Blefaritis/epidemiología , Blefaritis/etiología , Enfermedad Crónica
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2168-2178, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567579

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D has been demonstrated to play a protective role in carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and 24-α-hydroxylase (encoded by CYP24A1) may affect the outcome of some cancers. This study examines the effects of the VDR gene and CYP24A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the outcome of supraglottic larynx cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with supraglottic larynx cancer between 2017 and 2022 were enrolled. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the VDR gene (rs2228570, rs731236, rs7975232, rs11574113, rs11168267 and rs11168266) and CYP24A1 gene (rs4809960, rs6022999, rs6068816, rs2259735 and rs2296241) were investigated. All patients were followed up for any evidence of local recurrence, regional recurrence, distant metastasis, and second primary tumor development. Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. RESULTS: 87 patients were included. The mean follow-up time was 45.02±24.47 months. Cox regression analysis for locoregional recurrence revealed that the hazard ratio of rs731236 GG was 2.098 (95% CI, range: 1.047-4.202, p=0.037). Locoregional recurrence for rs731236 AA, AG, and GG were 38.6%, 23.1%, and 53.3%, respectively. In the presence of rs731236 GG polymorphism, disease-specific survival was significantly shorter (47.63±7.48 months, p=0.015), and disease-free survival (45.71±6.3 months) was significantly shorter (p=0.040). Rates of metastases and second primary tumors were not significantly different between SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated the possible effects of VDR rs731236 SNP on the locoregional recurrence and prognosis of supraglottic larynx cancer.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Humanos , Genotipo , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilasa/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Frecuencia de los Genes , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Estudios de Casos y Controles
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2464-2482, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567607

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Vitiligo is a common systemic, idiopathic autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of variants of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene (50 bp Ins/Del, rs4817415, rs2070424, rs1041740, rs17880135) and circulating plasma protein levels through in-silico analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from adult patients of both sexes with a clinical diagnosis of vitiligo. ELISA tests for SOD and analysis of gene variants by qPCR were compared to a disease-free reference group. RESULTS: The population analyzed was young people between 29 and 37 years old, with a higher percentage of women. The population was found in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The 50 bp Ins/Del, rs4817415, and rs2070424 variants showed no significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). Although, in the dominant model, the CT and CTTT genotypes of the rs1041740 and rs17880135 variants showed an association with susceptibility to vitiligo compared to the control. Plasma SOD levels showed significant differences between the groups, and when stratified according to the genotypes of each variant, there was a significant difference, except with the rs17880135 variant. The haplotypes InsCGTC and InsAGCC are shown to be risk factors for susceptibility to vitiligo. The in-silico analysis demonstrated that the rs4817415, rs2070424, rs1041740, and rs17880135 variants of the SOD1 gene participate in the modification of selected regulatory elements for differentiating the protein, transcription factors, and long non-coding RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Information regarding the pathogenesis of vitiligo helps recognize risk factors and identify the relationship of diagnostic markers of cell damage inherent to the disease. This will help improve aspects of prevention and the choice of treatment alternatives appropriate to each case.


Asunto(s)
Vitíligo , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Superóxido Dismutasa-1/genética , Vitíligo/genética , Genotipo , Factores de Riesgo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2846, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565530

RESUMEN

Hybrid immunity, acquired through vaccination followed or preceded by a COVID-19 infection, elicits robust antibody augmentation. We hypothesize that maternal hybrid immunity will provide greater infant protection than other forms of COVID-19 immunity in the first 6 months of life. We conducted a case-control study in Israel, enrolling 661 infants up to 6 months of age, hospitalized with COVID-19 (cases) and 59,460 age-matched non-hospitalized infants (controls) between August 24, 2021, and March 15, 2022. Infants were grouped by maternal immunity status at delivery: Naïve (never vaccinated or tested positive, reference group), Hybrid-immunity (vaccinated and tested positive), Natural-immunity (tested positive before or during the study period), Full-vaccination (two-shot regimen plus 1 booster), and Partial-vaccination (less than full three shot regimen). Applying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios, which was then converted to percent vaccine effectiveness, and using the Naïve group as the reference, maternal hybrid-immunity provided the highest protection (84% [95% CI 75-90]), followed by full-vaccination (66% [95% CI 56-74]), natural-immunity (56% [95% CI 39-68]), and partial-vaccination (29% [95% CI 15-41]). Maternal hybrid-immunity was associated with a reduced risk of infant hospitalization for Covid-19, as compared to natural-immunity, regardless of exposure timing or sequence. These findings emphasize the benefits of vaccinating previously infected individuals during pregnancy to reduce COVID-19 hospitalizations in early infancy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Lactante , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Israel/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Hospitalización , Inmunidad Adaptativa
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7805, 2024 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565856

RESUMEN

Given the pleiotropic effects of statins beyond their lipid-lowering effects, there have been attempts to evaluate the role of statin therapy in IPF, but they have shown inconclusive results. Data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database of South Korea were used to investigate the effects of statin therapy on IPF. The IPF cohort consisted of a total of 10,568 patients who were newly diagnosed with IPF between 2010 and 2017. These patients were then matched in a 1:3 ratio to 31,704 subjects from a control cohort without IPF, with matching based on age and sex. A case-control study was performed to evaluate the association between statin use and the risk for IPF, and the multivariable analysis revealed that statin use was associated with a lower risk for IPF (adjusted OR 0.847, 95% CI 0.800-0.898). Using the IPF cohort, we also evaluated whether statin use at the time of diagnosis was associated with future clinical outcomes. The statin use at the time of IPF diagnosis was associated with improved overall survival (adjusted HR 0.779, 95% CI 0.709-0.856). Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of statin therapy in IPF.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas , Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/efectos adversos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamiento farmacológico , Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática/epidemiología , República de Corea/epidemiología
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 372, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565993

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-sputum-based tests are needed to predict or diagnose tuberculosis (TB) disease in people living with HIV (PWH). The enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) is expressed in tuberculoid granuloma and catabolizes tryptophan (Trp) to kynurenine (Kyn). IDO1 activity compromises innate and adaptive immune responses, promoting mycobacterial survival. The plasma Kyn-to-Trp (K/T) ratio is a potential TB diagnostic and/or predictive biomarker in PWH on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: We compared plasma K/T ratios in samples from PWH, who were followed up prospectively and developed TB disease after ART initiation. Controls were matched for age and duration of ART. Kyn and Trp were measured at 3 timepoints; at TB diagnosis, 6 months before TB diagnosis and 6 months after TB diagnosis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The K/T ratios were higher for patients with TB disease at time of diagnosis (median, 0.086; IQR, 0.069-0.123) compared to controls (0.055; IQR 0.045-0.064; p = 0.006), but not before or after TB diagnosis. K/T ratios significantly declined after successful TB treatment, but increased upon treatment failure. The K/T ratios showed a parabolic correlation with CD4 cell counts in participants with TB (p = 0.005), but there was no correlation in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma K/T ratio helped identify TB disease and may serve as an adjunctive biomarker for for monitoring TB treatment in PWH. Validation studies to ascertain these findings and evaluate the optimum cut-off for diagnosis of TB disease in PWH should be undertaken in well-designed prospective cohorts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00411983.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Tuberculosis , Humanos , Triptófano , Quinurenina , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Biomarcadores , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenasa
19.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 120, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570752

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown cause (CKDu) a disease of exclusion, and remains unexplained in various parts of the world, including India. Previous studies have reported mixed findings about the role of heavy metals or agrochemicals in CKDu. These studies compared CKDu with healthy controls but lacked subjects with CKD as controls. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis whether heavy metals, i.e. Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), and Chromium (Cr) are associated with CKDu, in central India. METHODS: The study was conducted in a case-control manner at a tertiary care hospital. CKDu cases (n = 60) were compared with CKD (n = 62) and healthy subjects (n = 54). Blood and urine levels of As, Cd, Pb, and Cr were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry. Pesticide use, painkillers, smoking, and alcohol addiction were also evaluated. The median blood and urine metal levels were compared among the groups by the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. RESULTS: CKDu had significantly higher pesticide and surface water usage as a source of drinking water. Blood As levels (median, IQR) were significantly higher in CKDu 91.97 (1.3-132.7) µg/L compared to CKD 4.5 (0.0-58.8) µg/L and healthy subjects 39.01 (4.8-67.4) µg/L (p < 0.001) On multinominal regression age and sex adjusted blood As was independently associated with CKDu[ OR 1.013 (95%CI 1.003-1.024) P < .05].Blood and urinary Cd, Pb, and Cr were higher in CKD compared to CKDu (p > .05). Urinary Cd, Pb and Cr were undetectable in healthy subjects and were significantly higher in CKDu and CKD compared to healthy subjects (P = < 0.001). There was a significant correlation of Cd, Pb and Cr in blood and urine with each other in CKDu and CKD subjects as compared to healthy subjects. Surface water use also associated with CKDu [OR 3.178 (95%CI 1.029-9.818) p < .05). CONCLUSION: The study showed an independent association of age and sex adjusted blood As with CKDu in this Indian cohort. Subjects with renal dysfunction (CKDu and CKD) were found to have significantly higher metal burden of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr as compared to healthy controls. CKDu subjects had significantly higher pesticide and surface water usage, which may be the source of differential As exposure in these subjects.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Agua Potable , Metales Pesados , Plaguicidas , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Cadmio/análisis , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Plomo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etiología , Arsénico/análisis , Cromo
20.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(4): e14678, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572788

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) containing aggregated α-synuclein (α-Syn). Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of MSA present significant challenges, which can lead to potential misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Biomarkers play a crucial role in improving the accuracy of MSA diagnosis, and phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn) has emerged as a promising biomarker for aiding in diagnosis and disease monitoring. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using specific keywords and MeSH terms without imposing a time limit. Inclusion criteria comprised various study designs including experimental studies, case-control studies, and cohort studies published only in English, while conference abstracts and unpublished sources were excluded. RESULTS: Increased levels of p-syn have been observed in various samples from MSA patients, such as red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid, oral mucosal cells, skin, and colon biopsies, highlighting their diagnostic potential. The α-Syn RT-QuIC assay has shown sensitivity in diagnosing MSA and tracking its progression. Meta-analyses and multicenter investigations have confirmed the diagnostic value of p-syn in cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity in distinguishing MSA from other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, combining p-syn with other biomarkers has further improved the diagnostic accuracy of MSA. CONCLUSION: The p-syn stands out as a promising biomarker for MSA. It is found in oligodendrocytes and shows a correlation with disease severity and progression. However, further research and validation studies are necessary to establish p-syn as a reliable biomarker for MSA. If proven, p-syn could significantly contribute to early diagnosis, disease monitoring, and assessing treatment response.


Asunto(s)
Atrofia de Múltiples Sistemas , alfa-Sinucleína , Humanos , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Atrofia de Múltiples Sistemas/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto
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