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1.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1120): 20201215, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710907

RESUMEN

MRI has been an essential diagnostic tool in healthcare for several decades. It offers unique insights into most tissues without the need for ionising radiation. Historically, MRI has been predominantly used qualitatively, images are formed to allow visual discrimination of tissues types and pathologies, rather than providing quantitative measurements. Increasingly, quantitative MRI (qMRI) is also finding clinical application, where images provide the basis for physical measurements of, e.g. tissue volume measures and represent aspects of tissue composition and microstructure. This article reviews some common current research and clinical applications of qMRI from the perspective of measurement science. qMRI not only offers additional information for radiologists, but also the opportunity for improved harmonisation and calibration between scanners and as such it is well-suited to large-scale investigations such as clinical trials and longitudinal studies. Realising these benefits, however, presents a new kind of technical challenge to MRI practioners. When measuring a parameter quantitatively, it is crucial that the reliability and reproducibility of the technique are well understood. Strictly speaking, a numerical result of a measurement is meaningless unless it is accompanied by a description of the associated measurement uncertainty. It is therefore necessary to produce not just estimates of physical properties in a quantitative image, but also their associated uncertainties. As the process of determining a physical property from the raw MR signal is complicated and multistep, estimation of uncertainty is challenging and there are many aspects of the MRI process that require validation. With the clinical implementation of qMRI techniques and its continued expansion, there is a clear and urgent need for metrology in this field.


Asunto(s)
Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/normas , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 72-91, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177102

RESUMEN

Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa sobre o discurso antivacina em 14 vídeos mais relevantes no YouTube exibidos em 2018 e 2019, considerando a quantidade de visualizações, likes, dislikes e comentários. O estudo identifica argumentos e sentidos construídos pelos mediadores, a partir da perspectiva natural, que associa a vacina à ideia de veneno, riscos e morte; e da perspectiva política, que aciona liberdades individuais e planos de poder para redução populacional e lucro da big pharma. Na interseção entre as duas perspectivas, aspectos religiosos compõem a moldura dos discursos. A análise qualitativa e quantitativa aponta a necessidade de investir em estratégias de comunicação que esclareçam e desconstruam as informações falsas ou distorcidas disseminadas. Também sinaliza a importância de diálogo com um público descrente com instituições políticas, científicas e midiáticas, em que a ameaça de punição pela lei não é obstáculo para recusa ou hesitação vacinal.


This article presents results from a research on anti-vaccine speech in 14 of the most relevant YouTube videos showed in 2018 and 2019, considering the amount of views, likes, dislikes, and comments. The study identifies arguments and meanings constructed by the mediators, from the natural perspective, which associates vaccine with the idea of poison, risks and death; and the political perspective, which triggers individual freedoms and power plans for big pharma's population reduction and profit. At the intersection between the two perspectives, religious aspects make up the frame of the discourses. The qualitative and quantitative analysis points to the need to invest in communication strategies that clarify and deconstruct the disseminated false or distorted information. It also signals the importance of dialogue with an unbelieving public with political, scientific and media institutions, where the threat of punishment by law is no obstacle to vaccine refusal or hesitation.


Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación sobre el discurso antivacunas en los 14 videos de YouTube más relevantes mostrados en 2018 y 2019, considerando la cantidad de visitas, me gusta, disgustos y comentarios. El estudio identifica argumentos y significados construidos por los mediadores, desde la perspectiva natural, que asocia la vacuna con la idea de veneno, riesgos y muerte; y la perspectiva política, que desencadena las libertades individuales y los planes de poder para la reducción de la población y las ganancias de las grandes farmacéuticas. En la intersección entre las dos perspectivas, los aspectos religiosos constituyen el marco de los discursos. El análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo apunta a la necesidad de invertir en estrategias de comunicación que aclaren y deconstruyan la información falsa o distorsionada difundida. También señala la importancia del diálogo con un público incrédulo con instituciones políticas, científicas y mediáticas, donde la amenaza de castigo por ley no es un obstáculo para el rechazo o la vacilación de la vacuna.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Comunicación , Discurso , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación , Recursos Audiovisuales , Narración , Difusión de la Información
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25356, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787637

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence reveals that inflammatory factors can predict coronary restenosis in patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Perhaps, inflammatory factors are promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of coronary restenosis after PCI. However, the accuracy of inflammatory factors has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a meta-analysis to certify the diagnostic values of inflammatory factors on coronary restenosis after PCI. METHODS: China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, VIP, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM), PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies to explore the potential diagnostic values of inflammatory factors on coronary restenosis after PCI from inception to January 2021. All data were extracted by 2 experienced researchers independently. The risk of bias about the meta-analysis was confirmed by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). The data extracted were synthesized and heterogeneity was investigated as well. All of the above statistical analyses were carried out with Stata 16.0. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSION: This study clarified confusions about the specificity and sensitivity of inflammatory factors on coronary restenosis after PCI, thus further guiding their promotion and application. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be necessary since this systematic review and meta-analysis will not contain any private information of participants or violate their human rights. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/N28JX.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria/cirugía , Reestenosis Coronaria/diagnóstico , Mediadores de Inflamación/sangre , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/efectos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangre , Reestenosis Coronaria/sangre , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25380, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taijiquan, as a supplementary and alternative method, has attracted more and more attention in the treatment of breast cancer. But up to now, no systematic review has been performed to evaluate the efficacy of Taijiquan in the treatment of breast cancer. In this study, Cochrane systematic review method will be used to evaluate the effect of Taijiquan in the rehabilitation process of breast cancer patients after treatment. METHODS: PubMed, Embase. com, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, and SinoMed will be searched to identify relevant studies up to May 31, 2021. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the application of Taijiquan in post-treatment breast cancer patients. We will use the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool to assess the quality of included RCTs. We will use Stata 13.0 to perform pairwise meta-analyses using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to investigate the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This study will comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of Taijiquan in the rehabilitation treatment of breast cancer. The results of this study will provide high-quality evidence to support clinical practice and guidelines development.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/rehabilitación , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Tai Ji , Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25387, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787646

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nerve root sciatica (NRS) is a common orthopedic disease, which usually occurs between 20 and 40 years of age, and the incidence rate is increasing year by year and is being younger. The disease has no special effect of treatment, clinically generally taking the symptomatic treatment, such as taking short-term glucocorticoids, sedatives, analgesics, and so on. Long-term use of drugs will adversely affect the patient's gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney function. The surgical treatment has a high risk of surgery, high cost, side effects, and other problems, so the choice of treatment method has always been a difficult problem in clinical and scientific research. The study shows that 90% of patients with sciatica can be cured by non-surgical treatment, so conservative therapy is often used in the treatment of sciatica, traditional Chinese medicine treatment methods in the treatment of NRS has been widely used, which has achieved good results, but there is no evidence of evidence-based medicine. Therefore, this study uses systematic evaluation to conduct the scientific evaluation of the clinical effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding guided by musculoskeletal ultrasound in the treatment of NRS, and provide evidence-based medical evidence support for the treatment of NRS. METHODS: Using the computer to retrieve the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, WANFANG Database, and CBM. Using the subject words and terminology words to retrieve the Chinese-English database and retrieve a randomized controlled study on the clinical effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding guided by musculoskeletal ultrasound in the treatment of NRS, and the range of search time is January 1990 to January 2021. The searched literature is screened and evaluated by two researchers respectively according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. If there is disagreement, discussing it with the third researcher to determine the final inclusion of the literature. Using the RevMan 5.3 software to conduct the meta-analysis. RESULTS: This study will compare the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding guided by musculoskeletal ultrasound in the treatment of NRS. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will be published in internationally influential academic journals to provide evidence-based medical evidence for the clinical effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine acupoint catgut embedding in the treatment of NRS. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not involve specific patients, and all research data comes from publicly available professional literature, so an ethics committee is not required to conduct an ethical review and approval of the study. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/Q492E.


Asunto(s)
Puntos de Acupuntura , Catgut/efectos adversos , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos , Ciática/terapia , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/instrumentación , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional/efectos adversos , Medicina China Tradicional/instrumentación , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagen , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ultrasonografía Intervencional
7.
J Virol Methods ; 291: 114100, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600849

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 30 million persons throughout the world. A subset of patients suffer serious consequences that require hospitalization and ventilator support. Current tests for SARS-CoV-2 generate qualitative results and are vital to make a diagnosis of the infection. However, they are not helpful to follow changes in viral loads after diagnosis. The ability to quantitatively assess viral levels is necessary to determine the effectiveness of therapy with anti-viral or immune agents. Viral load analysis is also necessary to determine the replicative potential of strains with different mutations, emergence of resistance to anti-viral agents and the stability of viral nucleic acid and degree of RT-PCR inhibition in different types of collection media. Quantitative viral load analysis in body fluids, plasma and tissue may be helpful to determine the effects of the infection in various organ systems. To address these needs, we developed two assays to quantitate SARS-CoV-2. The assays target either the S or E genes in the virus, produce comparable viral load results, are highly sensitive and specific and have a wide range of quantitation. We believe that these assays will be helpful to manage the clinical course of infected patients and may also help to better understand the biology of infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Carga Viral , /virología , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Pronóstico , ARN Viral/análisis , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética
9.
Future Oncol ; 17(13): 1593-1600, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631995

RESUMEN

Aims: This project aims to address the question of whether patients were satisfied with using a video visit for prechemotherapy evaluation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods & materials: This project used a survey tool with patients undergoing prechemotherapy evaluation that was administered at the time of chemotherapy; 70 surveys were collected. Descriptive statistics of survey questions are presented. Results: 73% of patients reported satisfaction with their video visit experience. 65% of patients reported that they prefer in-person visits as their preferred choice for prechemotherapy evaluation. Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was favorable, but not consistent with results from prior published studies. Patients also mostly preferred an in-person visit for prechemotherapy evaluation. Further research is needed to determine patient attitudes to telemedicine for different types of consultations.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Satisfacción del Paciente , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /virología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 196: 113924, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581588

RESUMEN

Owing to its simplicity and low cost, the lateral flow assay (LFA) is one of the most commonly used point-of-care diagnostic techniques, despite its low sensitivity and poor quantification. Here, we report a newly developed LFA-NanoSuit method (LNSM) combined with a desktop scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the direct observation of immunocomplexes labeled with a colloidal metal instead of signal enhancement strategies, such as using color, electrochemical signals, silver enhancement, magnetic properties, luminescent, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The proposed LNSM suppresses cellulose deformity, thereby allowing the acquisition of high-resolution images of gold/platinum-labeled immunocomplexed pathogens such as influenza A, without conductive treatment as in conventional SEM. Electron microscopy-based diagnosis of influenza A exhibited 94 % clinical sensitivity (29/31; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 79.3-98.2 %) and 100 % clinical specificity (95 % CI: 98.1-100 %), which was more sensitive (71.4 %) than visual detection (14.3 %), especially in the lower influenza A-RNA copy number group. The detection ability of our method was nearly comparable to that of real-time reverse transcription-PCR. This is the first report on the diagnosis of clinical diseases using LFA equipped with a desktop SEM. This simple and highly sensitive quantitative analysis method involving LFA can be used to diagnose various diseases in humans and livestock, including highly infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Bioensayo/métodos , Oro/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo/métodos , Platino (Metal)/química , Animales , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Ganado , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Espectrometría Raman/métodos
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210010, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605304

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological and operational aspects of an epidemiological and an evaluation of Rede Cegonha in Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: The research carried out in 2019 was composed of two sub-studies. Regarding the first, whose design was epidemiological and analyzed prenatal, delivery and immediate puerperium care addressed to pregnant women, puerperal women and children assisted at SUS, the instruments used for data collection and the organization of the field of the study are described. The other sub-study was a normative assessment of municipal management in prenatal and postpartum care within the scope of Rede Cegonha. It began with an evaluability assessment followed by the assessment itself. The different methodological strategies adopted are described, with the involvement of stakeholders and experts. RESULTS: The response rate of the epidemiological sub-study was 97.7%. Women residing in 82.7% of Santa Catarina's municipalities were interviewed. The sample was similar to that registered in SINASC for the same period, and the characteristics of the sub-sample interviewed after six months was similar to the global sample. The evaluation study improved and applied a model with 32 indicators that allowed to analyze the municipalities considering the political-organizational and tactical-operational aspects. Two hundred and four municipalities answered the questionnaire (69.1%); they were evaluated according to their respective population size. CONCLUSION: The availability of methodological procedures of studies that articulate epidemiological and evaluation methods allows generating more accurate and complete information and contribute with the design and evaluation of health policies, programs and actions.


Asunto(s)
Estudios Epidemiológicos , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Materno-Infantil , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 26, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472654

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The Autism Behavior Inventory (ABI) is an observer-reported outcome scale measuring core and associated features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Extensive scale development (reported elsewhere) took place, in alignment with the Food and Drug Administration's patient-reported outcome guidance, to address the need for instruments to measure change and severity of ASD symptoms. METHODS: Cognitive interviewing was used to confirm understanding and content validity of the scale prior to its use in clinical trials. Respondents were caregivers of individuals with ASD (N = 50). Interviews used a hybrid of the "think-aloud" and verbal probing approach to assess ABI's content validity and participant understanding of the instrument, including: item clarity and relevance; item interpretation; appropriateness of response scales; and clarity of instructions. Audio-recordings of the interviews were transcribed for qualitative data analysis. The scale was revised based on participant feedback and tested in a second round of interviews (round 1 N = 38, round 2 N = 12). RESULTS: In total, 67/70 items reached ≥ 90% understandability across participants. Caregivers were able to select an appropriate response from the options available and reported finding the examples helpful. Based on participant feedback, instructions were simplified, 8 items were removed, and 10 items were reworded. The final revised 62-item scale was presented in round 2, where caregivers reported readily understanding the instructions, response options, and 61/62 items reached ≥ 90% understandability. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive interviews with caregivers of a diverse sample of individuals with ASD confirm the content validity and relevance of the ABI to assess core and associated symptoms of ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Cuidadores/psicología , Comprensión , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(1): 100519, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454583

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many off-site COVID-19 testing centers (OSCTCs) are struggling with strategies to serve vulnerable populations who have some of the highest rates of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Inter-OSCTC sharing of successful protocols and systems has been hampered by evolving resource constraints, the changing science of testing, and ever increasing COVID-19 case counts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify promising approaches to testing vulnerable populations. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 26 leaders of OSCTCs and public health departments across the United States between June 8th and August 10th, 2020. All interviews were coded utilizing oral coding via rapid identification of themes from audio recordings, and analysis occurred concurrently with data collection to assess when saturation was achieved. RESULTS: Six main themes emerged highlighting approaches to testing within vulnerable populations including: 1. Expanding services to support health and health-related needs beyond COVID-19; 2. Gaining community trust; 3. Developing and leveraging community partnerships; 4. Promoting clear and creative messaging; 5. Prioritizing patient experience; and 6. Managing patient results. CONCLUSIONS: Testing among the vulnerable not only helps those at highest risk of severe disease or death from COVID-19, but also presents a critical opportunity to control viral spread within and from these communities. Reaching vulnerable populations is challenging and requires multi-sector collaboration, additional funding, and high levels of creativity and flexibility.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , /diagnóstico , /normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(6): 401-407, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394982

RESUMEN

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there are any differences in outcomes and costs for elective one- to three-level anterior cervical fusions (ACFs) performed at US News and World Report (USNWR) ranked and unranked hospitals. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although the USNWR rankings are advertised by media and are routinely used by patients as a guide in seeking care, evidence regarding whether these rankings are reflective of actual clinical outcome remains limited. METHODS: The 2010-2014 USNWR hospital rankings were used to identify ranked hospitals in "Neurosurgery" and "Orthopedics." The 2010-2014 100% Medicare Standard Analytical Files (SAF100) were used to identify patients undergoing elective ACFs at ranked and unranked hospitals. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear regression analyses were used to assess for differences in 90-day outcomes and costs between ranked and unranked hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 110,520 patients undergoing elective one- to three-level ACFs were included in the study, of which 10,289 (9.3%) underwent surgery in one of the 100 ranked hospitals. Following multivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between ranked versus unranked hospitals with regards to wound complications (1.2% vs. 1.1%; P = 0.907), cardiac complications (12.9% vs. 11.9%; P = 0.055), pulmonary complications (3.7% vs. 6.7%; P = 0.654), urinary tract infections (7.3% vs. 5.8%; P = 0.120), sepsis (9.3% vs. 7.9%; P = 0.847), deep venous thrombosis (1.9% vs. 1.3%; P = 0.077), revision surgery (0.3% vs. 0.3%; P = 0.617), and all-cause readmissions (4.7% vs. 4.4%; P = 0.266). Ranked hospitals, as compared to unranked hospitals, had a slightly lower odds of experiencing renal complications (7.0% vs. 4.9%; P = 0.047), but had significantly higher risk-adjusted 90-day charges (+$17,053; P < 0.001) and costs (+ $1695; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Despite the higher charges and costs of care at ranked hospitals, these facilities appear to have similar outcomes as compared to unranked hospitals following elective ACFs.Level of Evidence: 3.


Asunto(s)
Vértebras Cervicales/cirugía , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Hospitales/normas , Medicare , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/prevención & control , Fusión Vertebral/normas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Reoperación/normas , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113669, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401092

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze the possible impacts on the prison population's mental health in the context of the new COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative study was carried out following a lexical and content analysis using the software IRaMuTeQ, version 0.7 alpha 2, in the speech of the short communication and headlines from newspapers. Three groups emerged from the analysis: "spatial conditions for infection" (39.2% of the text segments); "disease outbreaks in prisons" (30,4%) and "public responsibility" (30,4%). Precarious conditions of prisons, high rate of infections and psychiatric illnesses, and lack of government assistance are issues that should be given special attention in order to formulate health promotion and prevention policies focusing on mental health in prison population.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , /prevención & control , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Asistencia Pública , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(1): 6-15, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349682

RESUMEN

Immunotherapy is known to be clinically beneficial for cancer patients and in many cases represents the new standard of care. Because of this success, the interest in integrating nanomedicine with cancer immunotherapy to further improve clinical response and toxicity profiles has grown. However, unlike conventional systemic therapies, which are directly cytotoxic to tumour cells, cancer immunotherapy relies on the host's immune system to generate tumouricidal effects. As such, proper design of cancer immune nanomedicine requires scrutiny of tumours' intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may impact host antitumour immunity. Here, we highlight key parameters that differentiate cancer immunotherapy from conventional cytotoxic agents, and we discuss their implications for designing preclinical cancer immune nanomedicine studies. We emphasize that these factors, including intratumoural genomic heterogeneity, commensal diversity, sexual dimorphism and biological ageing, which were largely ignored in traditional cancer nanomedicine experiments, should be carefully considered and incorporated into cancer immune nanomedicine investigations given their critical involvement in shaping the body's antitumour immune responses.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia/métodos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Animales , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Neoplasias/inmunología , Neoplasias/patología , Factores Sexuales , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e044755, 2020 12 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310815

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore current communication practices for positive newborn screening results from the newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) laboratory to clinicians to highlight differences, understand how the pathways are implemented in practice, identify barriers and facilitators and make recommendations for future practice and research. DESIGN: A qualitative exploratory design was employed using semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Thirteen NBS laboratories in England. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-one clinicians; 22 NBS laboratory staff across 13 laboratories and 49 members of relevant clinical teams were interviewed. RESULTS: Assurance of quality and consistency was a priority for all NBS laboratories. Findings indicated variation in approaches to communicating positive NBS results from laboratories to clinical teams. This was particularly evident for congenital hypothyroidism and was largely influenced by local arrangements, resources and the fact individual laboratories had detailed standard operating procedures for how they work. Obtaining feedback from clinical teams to the laboratory after the child had been seen could be challenging and time-consuming for those involved. Pathways for communicating carrier results for cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease could be ambiguous and inconsistent which in turn could hamper the laboratories efforts to obtain timely feedback regarding whether or not the result had been communicated to the family. Communication pathways for positive NBS results between laboratories and clinical teams could therefore be time-consuming and resource-intensive. CONCLUSION: The importance placed on ensuring positive NBS results were communicated effectively and in a timely fashion from the laboratory to the clinical team was evident from all participants. However, variation existed in terms of the processes used to report positive NBS results to clinical teams and the people involved. Variant practice identified may reflect local needs, but more often reflected local resources and a more consistent 'best practice' approach is required, not just in the UK but perhaps globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15330120.


Asunto(s)
Anemia de Células Falciformes , Fibrosis Quística , Tamizaje Neonatal , Anemia de Células Falciformes/diagnóstico , Comunicación , Fibrosis Quística/diagnóstico , Inglaterra , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Humanos , Recién Nacido
18.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371411

RESUMEN

FT-IR/ATR analytical technique is one of the most applicable techniques worldwide. It is closely associated with easy-to-use equipment, rapid analysis, and reliable results. This study reports the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), of a piperacillin and tazobactam formulation using a film formation method. This method requires film formation on the ATR crystal, resulting from solvent evaporation of a small amount of liquid sample. Good contact between the film and the crystal led to the identification of both APIs, although tazobactam was of low content in the formulation mixture. The quantification of the APIs in the commercial mixture was also achieved, using a single calibration line with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.999, not only after film formation but also in the initial dry formulation before reconstitution. The present spectroscopic technique combined with the proposed relatively simple sample treatment outweighs chromatographic protocols already applied, which require specialized staff and are costly, time-consuming, and not environmentally friendly. Taking all the above into consideration, it turns out that such an approach has the potential to be used for off-line quality control procedures in manufacture or, in terms of portable equipment and automated software, anywhere for on-site analysis, even in a hospital workflow.


Asunto(s)
Piperacilina/química , Tazobactam/química , Calibración , Química Farmacéutica/métodos , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier/métodos
19.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e984, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156583

RESUMEN

RESUMEN El glaucoma es una neuropatía óptica caracterizada por la pérdida de células ganglionares de la retina y sus axones. Se presentan dos casos clínicos, ambos miopes con sospecha de glaucoma, con el objetivo de valorar la importancia del análisis de las células ganglionares en el diagnóstico de estos pacientes. La evaluación de los cambios estructurales glaucomatosos en los ojos miopes es difícil, por las considerables variaciones morfológicas en la cabeza del nervio óptico y otras estructuras del segmento posterior del ojo. La tomografía de coherencia óptica permite el análisis cuantitativo in vivo del disco óptico, la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina y el área macular; pero interpretar los hallazgos en ojos miopes, y especialmente en altos miopes, puede ser un verdadero desafío. Estudios recientes han demostrado que las mediciones maculares tienen ventajas sobre el análisis de la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina para determinar si los defectos del grosor de la retina se relacionan con el glaucoma o con la miopía. Sin embargo, se deben considerar varios estudios en el intento de emitir un diagnóstico de certeza(AU)


ABSTRACT Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Two cases are presented, both myopic and with suspected glaucoma, with the purpose of assessing the role of ganglion cell analysis in their diagnosis. Evaluation of structural glaucomatous changes in myopic eyes is a difficult task, due to the considerable morphological variations occurring in the optic nerve head and other structures from the posterior segment of the eye. Optical coherence tomography allows in vivo quantitative analysis of the optic disc, the retinal nerve fiber layer, and the macular area, but interpreting the findings in myopic eyes, particularly in highly myopic eyes, may be a real challenge. Recent studies have shown that macular measurements have advantages over retinal nerve fiber layer analysis to determine whether the retinal thickness defects are related to glaucoma or to myopia. However, several studies should be considered in the attempt to reach an accurate diagnosis(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/patología , Glaucoma de Ángulo Abierto/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica/métodos , Miopía/etiología , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto
20.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e1002, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156580

RESUMEN

Se realizó una búsqueda sobre la evaluación cualitativa de la ampolla de filtración. La ampolla conjuntival es la parte visible de la cirugía filtrante, y su morfología es un indicador de factores que pueden determinar el resultado hipotensor de la cirugía y las posibles complicaciones posoperatorias. Se han desarrollado diversos estudios que relacionan la evaluación clínica de su morfología y el control de la presión intraocular, y se han establecido varios sistemas de puntuación, entre ellas: Wuerzburg Bleb Classification Score, Moorfields Bleb Grading System, Indiana Bleb Appearance Grading Scale y métodos de imagen para evaluar el segmento anterior (biomicroscopia ultrasónica, Tomografía retinal de Heidenberg y tomografía de coherencia óptica). Estos métodos proporcionan una herramienta útil para el seguimiento de la cirugía filtrante y su documentación(AU)


A review was conducted on the qualitative evaluation of the filtering bleb. The conjunctival bleb is the visible part of filtration surgery, and its morphology is an indicator of factors which may determine the hypotensive result of surgery and the possible postoperative complications. Various studies have been conducted which relate the clinical evaluation of its morphology and intraocular pressure control. Several grading systems have thus been established: Wuerzburg Bleb Classification Score, Moorfields Bleb Grading System, Indiana Bleb Appearance Grading Scale and imaging methods to evaluate the anterior segment (ultrasound biomicroscopy, Heidenberg retinal tomography and optical coherence tomography). These methods are a useful tool for the follow-up of filtration surgery and its documentation(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Glaucoma/cirugía , Cirugía Filtrante/efectos adversos , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica/métodos , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto
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