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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18920, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000402

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield of conventional cytology (CC) with ethanol-based fixation, a cytological analysis using an ethanol based fixative system including a cell block procedure (EBF) to evaluate indeterminate biliary strictures (IBStr). We also compared additionally taken fluorescence-guided forceps biopsies (FB) with EBF concerning a potential additive diagnostic benefit.Early detection and accurate diagnosis are crucial for patients with suspected carcinoma within the biliary tree to preserve curative treatment options but diagnostics and patient care in the evaluation of IBStr are still challenging. ERC-guided brush cytology is the gold standard of nonsurgical evaluation of IBStr. However, accuracy is generally low. New specimen processing's are needed to higher the diagnostic yield in the evaluation of IBStr.We performed a retrospective evaluation in 404 patients referred for further diagnosis of IBStr. Gold standard was defined as surgically obtained histology or patient follow-up of at least 1 year to diagnose or exclude malignancy.Three hundred thirty-four patients were included into the final analysis. One hundred seventy-two strictures were malignant, 162 strictures benign. One hundred seventeen specimens were evaluated by CC, 217 processed by EBF. EBF performed significantly better in terms of sensitivity (24.6% vs 60%, P < .001) and accuracy (59.0% vs 75.1%, P = .006). Fifty-eight FB were additionally taken and showed a numerically improved sensitivity compared to EBF alone (80% vs 62.9%, P = .19).EBF is a simple and inexpensive technique that substantially improved sensitivity and accuracy in the evaluation of IBStr. FB specimen did not significantly improve diagnostic yield.


Asunto(s)
Conductos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagen , Conductos Biliares/patología , Colangiografía , Endoscopía del Sistema Digestivo , Etanol , Fijadores , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/patología , Biopsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Imagen Óptica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Fijación del Tejido
2.
Orv Hetil ; 161(6): 224-231, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008349

RESUMEN

Introduction and aim: Although percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules (PEI) has been used for more than 30 years, there are only two studies in thyroid cysts (THCY) and 2 in autonomously functioning nodule (AFN) in which the mean follow-up reaches at least five years, while in the event of non-autonomously functioning solid nodules (NAS), there is not any study with at least 5-year mean follow-up. Our study focuses on the long-term efficacy of PEI in benign thyroid nodules. Method: We analyzed the long-term success of PEI in 254 patients treated for more than 10 years. The success was defined as 50% or greater reduction in nodule volume. In addition, the patient had to remain euthyroid without thyrostatic therapy in AFN. Results: The 10-year success rate was 79.4%, 37.1% and 69.4% in THCY, AFN and NAS, respectively. In 23.3% of unsuccessful PEIs, the failure could be revealed only after 5 years of follow-up. The mean nodule volume at 10-year follow-up related to the initial size was 29.8%, 39.6% and 48.9% in THCY, NAS and AFN, respectively. In THCY, PEI proved to be significantly more effective in older patients while other parameters (size of the nodule, amount of the injected alcohol and the ratio of these) did not correlate significantly with the success rate. Conclusions: Our study which presents the longest follow-up in all 3 types of benign thyroid nodules confirms that PEI has a minimal role in AFN, is recommendable in THCY and might have a role in NAS. The success rate decreases over time which emphasizes the importance of the long-term follow-up in the judgement of PEI. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(6): 224-231.


Asunto(s)
Quistes/tratamiento farmacológico , Etanol/administración & dosificación , Nódulo Tiroideo/tratamiento farmacológico , Administración Cutánea , Anciano , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122652, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918299

RESUMEN

Recycled wood of two grades (A and B) and spruce were converted on bench (100 o.d. g) and pilot (100 o.d. kg) scales to monosugars, lignin and lignosulfonates using SO2-Ethanol-Water (AVAP®) technology. After digestion, C6 and C5 sugars were recovered at 98-100% and 87-99% for Wood A and Spruce, respectively, while the values for Wood B were 92% and 74-87%. Cellulose was hydrolysed to glucose at 90% or higher using enzyme charge of 7.1 FPU/g glucan. Hemicellulosic sugars were autohydrolyzed to 95-100% monosugars. At bench scale, monosaccharide yield was 609, 561 and 688 kg (hydrous) per BDT biomass for Wood A, Wood B and Spruce, respectively. Corresponding water insoluble lignin yield was 157, 148 and 189 kg per BDT biomass. The preliminary techno-economic evaluation revealed that conversion of recycled wood to sugars using AVAP® fractionation platform results in higher profitability in comparison to virgin wood.


Asunto(s)
Lignina , Madera , Biomasa , Etanol , Hidrólisis , Lignina/análogos & derivados , Azúcares , Dióxido de Azufre , Agua
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122661, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918302

RESUMEN

Effectiveness of hydrotropic delignification using sodium cumene sulfonate for pretreatment of rye, wheat and maize stillage for further use in the production of bioethanol was evaluated. The highest stillage biomass extractives was obtained for a biomass particle size <1.0 mm, when exposed to 131 °C for 1 h at 20% v/v hydrotrope concentration. It has been shown that hydrotropic treatment causes changes in the stillage biomass structure (increase in porosity) and reduces the lignin content in biomass by 7-17%. Delignification with a hydrotrope also increased the concentration of fermentable sugars in the media prepared with stillage biomass, which led to a higher final ethanol concentration (up to ca. 3.5 g/L). Hydrotropic treatment is an effective way of pretreatment of stillage biomass. It provides a high degree of biomass bioconversion and creates the prospect of integrating the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol production process to more fully utilize the raw material.


Asunto(s)
Etanol , Lignina , Biomasa , Fermentación , Hidrólisis , Zea mays
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122740, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952895

RESUMEN

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials into simple sugar plays an important role in biorefinery. Hemicellulosic sugars from the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials could be used in xylitol production. However, xylanase activity during hydrolysis process is affected by activators and inhibitors that may present in the reaction system. The pretreatment process was reported to produce compounds that may affect the enzymatic hydrolysis process, such as furans, aliphatic acid, and aromatics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibition effect of these potential inhibitors on xylanase activity. Three groups of potential inhibitors were evaluated including, furan, aliphatic acid, and hydrolysis-fermentation products. The result showed that ethanol, vanillin, and formic acid gave the highest inhibition effect from each group. Ethanol competed with xylanase competitively. Vanillin showed non-competitive inhibition. Formic acid performed mixed-inhibition by reducing maximum hydrolysis rate and giving varied Michaelis constant values at different concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Etanol , Lignina , Fermentación , Hidrólisis
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122781, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954963

RESUMEN

To establish the models of microbial lipid production from cellulosic ethanol wastewater by R. glutinis, the biomass, lipid yield, and COD removal rate were investigated under different conditions. Subsequently, the genetic algorithm based on SVM was adopted to optimize parameters for obtaining the maximum biomass. The results demonstrated that the initial COD and glucose content had a significant effect on lipids synthesis. Most of the organic matter in the wastewater was consumed with the production of lipid. Compared with BP-ANN, SVM had better fitting and generalization ability for small amount of experimental data. By genetic algorithm optimization based on SVM, the maximum biomass and lipid yield could reach 11.87 g/L and 2.18 g/L, respectively. The results suggest that the SVM model could be used as an effective tool to optimize fermentation conditions.


Asunto(s)
Rhodotorula , Aguas Residuales , Biomasa , Etanol , Fermentación , Lípidos , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122698, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954965

RESUMEN

The aim was to produce bioethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass and corn starch, increasing the process scale and obtaining biopeptides from bioethanol residue. Different temperatures of SSF and biomass/starch concentrations were tested, and the best conditions were chosen to scale-up the bioethanol production. The biopeptides were obtained enzymatically with a protease. The antioxidant capacity, molecular structure, thermal stability and mass loss of the biopeptides were evaluated. A total of 73 g L-1 bioethanol was obtained during scale-up, and the residue presented a high protein content with a degree of hydrolysis of 86%. The biopeptides showed 32% ABTS radical inhibition with high thermal stability. This study showed the possibility of the biorefinery concept being able to produce bioethanol by Spirulina, and the biopeptides from the bioethanol residue presented high antioxidant capacity and can be used in many areas of the food industry.


Asunto(s)
Spirulina , Antioxidantes , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Etanol , Fermentación , Hidrólisis , Almidón , Zea mays
10.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(1): 30-38, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931538

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In order to reduce alcohol relapse after liver transplantation (LT), the German national guidelines for waiting-list maintenance and organ allocation demand a minimum 6-month period of alcohol abstinence pre-LT, confirmed by measuring urinary ethyl glucuronide (uEtG). METHODS: Between January 2015 and June 2016, uEtG was measured at least once in 339 cirrhotic patients with an indication for LT at the University Medical Center Mainz. uEtG was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening test (cutoff value: 500 µg/L). For uEtG values ≥ 500 µg/L, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed as a confirmatory assay. Data were collected prospectively in a transplant database. RESULTS: Of the 339 potential liver transplant candidates, uEtG was negative in 86.4 %. Most patients were male (64.3 %), with an average age of 56.42 ±â€Š10.1 years. In the multivariate analysis, mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.001), urinary creatinine (p = 0.001), gamma-glutamyl transferase (p = 0.001), and hemoglobin (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with a positive uEtG test result. The sensitivity of the ELISA screening test was 100 % for uEtG values > 2000 µg/L, as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. CONCLUSION: uEtG is an effective parameter to reveal alcohol consumption by patients on the waiting list for LT. The sensitivity of the ELISA is excellent for uEtG values > 2000 µg/L, for which LC-MS/MS confirmation could be omitted.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Glucuronatos/orina , Cirrosis Hepática Alcohólica/cirugía , Cirrosis Hepática Alcohólica/orina , Trasplante de Hígado , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Anciano , Biomarcadores/orina , Cromatografía Liquida , Estudios de Cohortes , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Etanol/sangre , Etanol/orina , Femenino , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática Alcohólica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Listas de Espera
11.
Life Sci ; 242: 117239, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901444

RESUMEN

AIMS: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in organ damage induced by ethanol consumption. Interleukin (IL)-10 maintain tissue homeostasis through restriction of excessive inflammatory responses and inhibition of ROS generation. These responses limit unnecessary tissue damage in the cardiorenal system. We hypothesized that IL-10 would limit the deleterious effects induced by ethanol consumption in the cardiorenal system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) or IL10-deficient mice (IL-10-/-) were treated with ethanol (20% v/v) for 6 weeks. KEY FINDINGS: IL-10 deficiency was associated with an increased mortality rate. Ethanol consumption decreased plasma levels of IL-10 in WT mice. Increased levels of IL-6 were detected in the aorta from IL-10-deficient mice, but not WT mice. No alterations in the levels of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium or creatine kinase (CK)-MB were found after treatment with ethanol. Augmented concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was found in the left ventricle (LV) of IL-10-deficient mice, but not WT mice. Increased levels of superoxide anion (O2-) were found in the renal cortex of both WT and IL-10-deficient mice. Renal cortex from WT mice chronically treated with ethanol showed decreased levels of H2O2. No changes in the expression of Nox1, Nox4 or catalase were found in the renal cortex from ethanol-treated mice. SIGNIFICANCE: IL-10 limited the production of ROS and the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ethanol in the cardiorenal system. These findings provided novel evidence that IL-10 counteracted the initial mechanisms whereby ethanol induces its cardiorenal damages.


Asunto(s)
Etanol/efectos adversos , Corazón/efectos de los fármacos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Lesión Renal Aguda/inducido químicamente , Animales , Western Blotting , Forma MB de la Creatina-Quinasa/sangre , Creatinina/sangre , Interleucina-10/sangre , Interleucina-10/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Potasio/sangre , Sodio/sangre , Urea/sangre
12.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 110008, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929052

RESUMEN

Microbial chain elongation (MCE) is a bioprocess that could utilise a mixed-culture fermentation to valorise organic waste. MCE converting ethanol and short chain fatty acids (SCFA; derived from organic waste) to caproate has been studied extensively and implemented. Recent studies demonstrated the conversion of SCFAs and methanol or ethanol into isomerised fatty acids as novel products, which may expand the MCE application and market. Integrating caproate and isomerised fatty acid production in one reactor system is theoretically feasible given the employment of a mixed culture and may increase the economic competence of MCE; however, the feasibility of such has never been demonstrated. This study investigated the feasibility of using two electron donors, i.e. methanol and ethanol, for upgrading SCFAs into isobutyrate and caproate concurrently in MCE Results show that supplying methanol and ethanol in MCE simultaneously converted acetate and/or butyrate into caproate and isobutyrate, by a mixed-culture microbiome. The butyrate supplement stimulated the caproate production rate from 1.5 to 2.6 g/L.day and induced isobutyrate production (1.5 g/L.day). Further increasing ethanol feeding rate from 140 to 280 mmol carbon per litre per day enhanced the direct use of butyrate for caproate production, which improved the caproate production rate to 5.9 g/L.day. Overall, the integration of two electron donors, i.e. ethanol and methanol, in one chain-elongation reactor system for upgrading SCFAs was demonstrated. As such, MCE could be applied to valorise organic waste (water) streams into a wider variety of value-added biochemical.


Asunto(s)
Caproatos , Etanol , Ácidos Grasos , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Fermentación , Isobutiratos , Metanol
13.
Environ Technol ; 41(3): 389-399, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995596

RESUMEN

The effect of different co-metabolic substrates (glucose, acetic acid and ethanol) on aerobic granular sludge treating cellulose ethanol wastewater was investigated using sequencing batch reactors. The efficiencies of the three substrates in removing chemical oxygen demand were respectively 18.87%, 28.88% and 27.99%, all of which were remarkably higher than without co-metabolic substrates, indicating that co-metabolic substrates can promote the degradation of the refractory substances. With acetic acid as the co-metabolic substrate, the removal amount of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen was greater than glucose and ethanol used. The nitrogen removals by the three co-metabolic substrates were 53.18%, 72.15%, 69.36%, respectively, which were 1.4, 1.8, and 1.6 times the removal without co-metabolic substrates. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that the proportion of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge was greater than that of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria after adding co-metabolic substrates, and the order was acetic acid > ethanol > glucose.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Aguas Residuales , Aerobiosis , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Reactores Biológicos , Desnitrificación , Etanol , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ , Nitrógeno , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 44-53, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811911

RESUMEN

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) on the susceptibility of offspring rats to glomerulosclerosis and to explore the mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered ethanol (4g/kg·d) from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD 20, and the control group was given equal volume of normal saline. The offspring rats were all fed with high-fat diet after weaning, and were sacrificed at postnatal week 24 (PW24). The results revealed that the adult offspring kidneys in the male and female PEE groups exhibited higher glomerulosclerosis index and interstitial fibrosis index compared with the high-fat diet control groups, accompanied by elevated serum creatinine level. The protein expression of Nephrin and WT1, which were the marker genes of podocytes, was significantly decreased, whereas the protein expression of desmin and α-SMA, the marker genes of mesenchymal cells, was remarked enhanced in the male and female PEE groups. Compared with the high-fat diet control groups, the mRNA and protein expressions of renal angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2R) were decreased in the male PEE group, but increased in the female PEE group. PEE increased the mRNA and protein expressions of glucocorticoid (GC) activation system and inhibited the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling pathway in male offspring kidney; on the contrary, in female offspring kidney, PEE inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid activation system and increased the expression of IGF1 signaling pathway. Taken together, PEE increased the susceptibility of the adult offspring to glomerulosclerosis, and the programming of renal AT2R or GC-IGF1 is respectively involved in the toxicity of PEE to the male or female offspring.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Alta en Grasa , Etanol/toxicidad , Glomerulonefritis/etiología , Glomérulos Renales/efectos de los fármacos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Femenino , Fibrosis , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Edad Gestacional , Glomerulonefritis/genética , Glomerulonefritis/metabolismo , Glomerulonefritis/patología , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/genética , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renales/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renales/patología , Masculino , Embarazo , Ratas Wistar , Receptor de Angiotensina Tipo 2/genética , Receptor de Angiotensina Tipo 2/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/genética
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122494, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813817

RESUMEN

The present work aims to determine a suitable yield-productivity balance in bioethanol production from hydrothermally pretreated sugarcane straw via pre-saccharification (PS) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). PS experiments were carried out evaluating effects of enzymatic dosage, biomass loading, and PS time. The performance of the whole process (PSSSF) was evaluated based on overall ethanol yield and productivity considering a simultaneous optimization (desirability function) of both variables. The multi-criteria optimization enabled to reach 5.7% w/w ethanol concentration yielding 290 L of ethanol per ton of pretreated sugarcane straw within 45 h of total processing time. Furthermore, a techno-economic analysis was performed under optimized conditions (14.5 FPU/gcellulose, 19.3% w/v biomass loading and 33 h PS time). This process was integrated into a first-generation plant. Although the economic evaluation exhibited a negative performance, a sensitivity analysis indicated that a decrease of 23.3% in operational expenditure would be enough to achieve feasibility.


Asunto(s)
Saccharum , Biomasa , Celulosa , Etanol , Fermentación
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122484, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810734

RESUMEN

This study explored the potential of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plant residue (SPR) for bioethanol production. Three particle sizes, including 400, 850 and 1300 µm of SPR, were subjected to microbial degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium followed by 1% H2SO4 pretreatments. FTIR and HPLC analyses showed that the combined pretreatment which begins with microbial followed up by acid degraded SPR in the finest particle size (400 µm) resulted in the maximum contents of reducing sugars (370.23 mg·g-1). Kinetics studies of the pretreatment process also confirmed the maximized rate of hemicellulose and lignin reduction with reducing sugars production. The logistic model had better fitness as compared to the modified Gompertz model to predict bioethanol production. SPR gave a maximum of 1.90 g·L-1 bioethanol yield after 60 h of fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study is the first report on bioethanol production from SPR, which proposed its suitability for sustainable energy production.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Sesamum , Etanol , Fermentación , Hidrólisis , Lignina
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1012-1021, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646636

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Wines are produced via the alcoholic fermentation of suitable substrates, usually sugar (sugar cane, grapes) and carbohydrates (wheat, grain). However, conventional alcoholic fermentation is limited by the inhibition of yeast by ethanol produced, usually at approximately 13-14%. Aside from that, soursop fruit is a very nutritious fruit, although it is highly perishable, and thus produces a lot of wastage. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce fermented soursop juice (soursop wine), using combination of two starter cultures, namely mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as well as to determine the effects of fermentation on the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of fermented soursop juice. Optimisation of four factors (pH, temperature, time and culture ratio) using response surface methodology were performed to maximise ethanol production. RESULTS: The optimised values for alcoholic fermentation were pH 4.99, 28.29 °C, 131 h and a 0.42 culture ratio (42:58, P. pulmonarius mycelia:S. cerevisiae) with a predicted ethanol concentration of 22.25%. Through a verification test, soursop wine with 22.29 ± 0.52% ethanol was produced. The antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase from the soursop juice to soursop wine. CONCLUSION: The alternative fermentation technique using yeast and mushroom has successfully been optimised, with an increased ethanol production in soursop wine and higher antioxidant activities. Ultimately, this finding has high potential for application in the brewing industry to enhance the fermentation process, as well as in the development of an innovative niche product, reducing wastage by converting the highly-perishable fruit into wine with a more stable and longer shelf-life. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Annona/microbiología , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Annona/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análisis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Etanol/análisis , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentación , Vino/análisis
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 11-21, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711802

RESUMEN

Alcoholic liver injury (ALI) is a part of alcohol-related liver diseases. These diseases include steatohepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulating data indicates that alcohol metabolism and circulating endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contribute to macrophage activation, which leads to the development of ALI. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been shown to be involved in many tissue inflammations as well as liver fibrosis; however, the role of PTP1B in ALI is still unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was elevated in liver tissues and primary macrophages isolated from EtOH-fed mice. Moreover, PTP1B expression was elevated in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with alcohol and LPS. Additional studies showed that silencing of PTP1B reduced the inflammatory response and expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, while overexpression of PTP1B induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, we found that NF-κB pathway was activated in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with alcohol and LPS, and PTP1B silencing or overexpression could regulate NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, this study revealed the function of PTP1B in ALI via its regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and may provide theoretical support for further research on ALI.


Asunto(s)
Hepatopatías Alcohólicas/genética , Activación de Macrófagos , FN-kappa B/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatasa no Receptora Tipo 1/genética , Transducción de Señal/genética , Animales , Depresores del Sistema Nervioso Central/farmacología , Citocinas/biosíntesis , Etanol/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatasa no Receptora Tipo 1/biosíntesis , Células RAW 264.7 , Regulación hacia Arriba
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122475, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787512

RESUMEN

The study aims to examine whether ethanol fermentation pretreatment (EP) of food waste can contribute to high load operation on methane fermentation using an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The hydraulic retention time was reduced stepwise from 20 to 5 days to increase the load by increasing the feeding volume. The corresponding organic loading rate (OLR) ranged from 6.6 to 26.5 g-COD/L/day. The control series (without pretreatment) was operable to an OLR of 8.8 g-COD/L/day versus 26.5 g-COD/L/day for the EP series. In the control series, the major volatile fatty acid (VFA) produced by acidogenesis in the reactor was propionic acid because based on Gibbs free energy variations for the methane conversion, acetic acid conversion was not as easy as from propionic acid as from ethanol in the EP series. EP proved effective in avoiding VFA accumulation and subsequent decreased pH. Therefore, EP significantly improves AnMBR performance.


Asunto(s)
Metano , Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Etanol , Fermentación , Alimentos
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